A language of India


10,000 (2004 NLCI).


Kerala, Wayanad, Kozhikode, and Malappuram districts; Palakkad, Trissur, Ernakkulam, and Kannur; all states in peninsular India.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


None known. Reportedly cannot understand Telugu [tel] on Wayanad District radio. Lexical similarity: 48% with Telugu [tel].

Language Use

Fairly vigorous in Wayanad District although Malayalam [mal] is used some in home and village. Positive attitudes in Wayanad District.

Language Development
Literacy rate in L2: below 50% in older adult age group in Kerala.
Other Comments

Kumbaran are a subcaste of Chettiars (or Adi Andhra) whose caste occupation is pottery or any work with mud or clay. Ethnonym: Adi Andhra (a Scheduled Caste). Ethnic autonym: Kusavan. Kusavan caste also speaks Kumbaran. Hindu, traditional religion.