19th Edition



A language of Nepal

Alternate Names
Eastern Pahadi, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Nepalese, Parbate

12,300,000 in Nepal (2011 census), increasing. 143,000 Achhami, 273,000 Baitadeli, 67,600 Bajhangi, 10,700 Bajureli, 490 Dadeldhuri, 3,100 Dailekhi, 5,930 Darchuleli, and 11,800,000 Nepali (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 15,371,410.


East and adjacent south central regions.

Language Status

1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Interim Constitution, 2063, Article 5(2)).


Bajurali (Bajura, Bajureli), Soradi, Acchami, Darchulali (Darchuleli, Darjula), Humli, Bheri, Dailekhi, Gandakeli, Purbeli, Dadeldhuri. Reportedly similar to Dotyali [dty]. Dialects listed may be quite distinct from standard Nepali. Intelligibility is also low among Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Humli, and Acchami. A member of macrolanguage Nepali [nep].


SOV; postpositions; noun head final; 11 noun classes or genders; no articles; content q-word in situ; 1 prefix, up to 5 suffixes; clause constituents indicated by case-marking (4 cases); verbal affixation marks person, number and gender of subject; split ergativity; both tense and aspect; passives and voice; causatives; non-tonal; 29 consonant and 11 vowel phonemes.

Language Use

All domains. All ages. Positive attitudes. Many also use Thulung [tdh], especially lower caste speakers in Mukli VDC. A few also use Kulung [kle], especially families from the tailor caste (Damai) and blacksmith caste (Kami) in Chheskam. Also use Bahing [bhj].

Language Development
Taught at all levels of education. Fully developed. Bible: 1914–2004.

Braille script [Brai]. Devanagari script [Deva], primary usage.

Other Comments

Hindu, Buddhist.

Also spoken in:

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