19th Edition

Murut, Timugon


A language of Malaysia

Alternate Names
Temogun, “Tenom Murut” (pej.), Timigan, Timigun, Timogon, Timogun, Timugon, Tumugun

Ethnic population: 9,000 (2004 S. Majius).


Sabah: Tenom district, Padas river from Melalap to Batu-Batu; Beaufort district, Bukau and lower Padas rivers.

Language Maps
Language Status

6b (Threatened).


Kapagalan, Poros, Beaufort Murut (Binta’), Timugon, Sandiwar (Sandewar), Dabugus, Lower Murut, Murut Padas, Bukau (Bukow). Beaufort Murut is a distinct language even though there is high intelligibility with Timugon (Spitzack 1984). However, the claim that these are distinct languages is uncertain.

Language Use

Some children and adults; all elderly. Neutral attitudes. Many also use Sabah Malay [msi]. Some also use English [eng], Hakka Chinese [hak], Standard Malay [zsm]. A few also use Tahol [mvv]. Used as L2 by Keningau Murut [kxi], Tahol [mvv].

Language Development
Literacy rate in L1: Less than 40%. Literacy rate in L2: More than 50% in Standard Malay [zsm]. New media. Radio programs. Dictionary. Bible: 2014. Agency: Kadazandusun Language Foundation (KLF), Murut Language Centre.

Latin script [Latn], developed in about 1984.

Other Comments

Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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