The compilation of a body of information as large as the Ethnologue over the last six and a half decades is the result of the cooperation and participation of a multitude of contributors. Lamentably, space does not permit a comprehensive listing of every contributor since Ethnologue came into existence. This edition has benefited particularly from the contributions of researchers, language fieldworkers, and users of the languages who have freely given their time and expertise to improve the accuracy and quality of the data. We are especially grateful to those who have joined our ranks as Field Contributors, as well as to a growing number of online registered users who contribute valuable feedback.
Gary F. Simons, as Executive Editor, provides vision, guidance, and most importantly, coordination and technical assistance for the task of bringing each new edition into existence. M. Paul Lewis, as General Editor, has provided overall direction for the research and data gathering activities of the Ethnologue. Charles D. Fennig, Managing Editor, has supervised the data entry process, tracked changes, dealt with thousands of electronic and hard copy communications, and has done a great deal of in-depth research in response to communications from users. In addition, he has been a thoughtful and patient collaborator in the production process. The editorial team is augmented by the work of Colleen Ahland and Michael Ahland as Language Classification editors, Albert Bickford, as Sign Languages editor, and Lorna Priest Evans, our Script and Writing Systems editor. Linda Simons has assisted us as the Ethnologue Bibliographer making innumerable improvements in our ability to track and report published sources, We have also benefited from the geopolitical research assistance provided by Robert Johnson. Beth Brye, Denise Hovland, Ana Hall and Rachel Simons have patiently and diligently entered volumes of data.
Technical support for the Ethnologue database and the systems that allow us to edit the information and produce publications from it has been provided by Chad White, webmaster, systems analyst, and programmer. Gabriel Barr, Roger Hanggi, and Joe McCarthy have provided additional database support.
The language maps have been produced under the direction of SIL’s Lead Cartographer, Irene Tucker, by Matt Benjamin, Joe Bryant, Eva Horton and Marcus Love with quality assurance and technical assistance from Stephen Tucker and additional research by Colin Davis and Paul Thomas. Significant help in updating the maps has been received from Bernard Asewie, Randy Borman, Matt Connor, Jim Ellis, Rebecca Grolemund, Dwain Holmes, Keir Hansford, Linda Jordan, Patricia Kelley, Y. B. Koryakov, Klaus-Christian Küspert, Soraya Mokrani, Edmond-Gervais Peindi, De Medjo Mve Pither, Paul Schaefer, P. R. Shinu, Nathan Statezni, Arns Udovīčė, Lolke J. Van der Veen, Neil Wiebe, Mary Ruth Wise.
The Ethnologue benefits greatly from the close cooperation of Melinda Lyons, ISO 639-3 Registrar, who working with colleagues at LinguistList, has assisted us in keeping our database aligned with the ISO 639-3 inventory of identified languages.
A major data review was carried out in August, 2015 in Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia in a collaborative effort with the Universiti Malaysia Sabah. We are very grateful to Prof. Vincent Pang, Dean of the Centre for the Promotion of Knowledge and Language Learning and Prof. Jacqueline Pugh-Kitingan, Professor of Ethnomusicology, and Holder of the Kadazandusun Chair, Universiti Malaysia Sabah for their championing of this project. Along with the staff and many faculty at the university, this effort has greatly improved the quality and timeliness of the data we have on the languages of Sabah. We are grateful for the enthusiastic participation of many local and expatriate scholars in organizing and carrying out the review, examining and updating the data, and particpating in the public event.
- The Working Committee: many of whom also served as Language Cluster Editors and Data Reviewers: Veronica P. Atin, John Eppele, Angela Kluge, Anne Lasimbang, Jane Wong Kon Ling, Silipah Majius, Mark Miller, Patricia Antoinette P-Lajumin, Paul Porodong, Jacqueline Pugh-Kitingan, Jeannet Stephen;
- Language Data Reviewers: Abdul Rahman Bin Mad Ali alias Abang, Felix Akiam, Asmiaty Amat, Jasper Anik, Matius Angot, Sebastian Dirih Anjim, Colonius Atang, Anton Bajah, Bilcher Bala, Judeth John Baptist, Nasir Batin, Baszley Bee Bin Basrah Bee, Michael Boutin, Gillian Buck, Nulai Anak Bungau, Rozita Buyoh, Jae-Young Choe, Jeong-Ho Choi, Sean Conklin, Steven Daang, Saat Awang Damit, Rosmah Bte Derak, Nelson Dino, Ramli Dollah, Cosmas Julius Abah alias Eddol (Datuk), Monih Epin, Ricky Yakub Ganang, Awang Ganduk, Mohd. Azree Bin Abd Ghani, Abar Gumpai, Mohd. Said Hinayat, Bonaventure Boniface Hunggim, Haji Awang Ismail, Hamdan Jakaria, Ailina Jampadin, Junaidah Januin, James Johansson, Nelleke Johansson, Yormiah Jusmin, Mahil Bin Kamarudin, Kamsilawati Kamlun, Laurentius Kitingan, Balwant Singh Kler, Paul Kroeger, Jong-Dae Lee, Ahloi Lian, Pauline Yong Pau Lin, Banggali Bin Lingki, Jason Lobel, Siti Aidah Hj. Lukin alias Lokin, Sulaiman Bin Maduli, Saidatul Nornis Mahali, Amrullah Maraining, Maria, Cheong Shaw Mei, Dayan Suria Hj. Mulia, Lasong Murang, Jupili Panchai, Pamandai Salvia Poit, Jack Rushing, George Saidi, Awang Rablah Bin Salil, Nadin alias Maidin Hj. Salleh, Dayu Sansalu, Justin Sansalu, Mohamad Bin Sarangith, Fauzi Sarjono, Hatta Yunus alias Sawabi, Mabulmaddin Bin Shaiddin, Ismail Bin Sidik, Pius Simon, Maine Suadik, Gazali Suhaili, Hamimah Talib, Mursalim Bin Tanjul, Benedict Topin, Amego Serasa Tosel, Tingkahan Bin Imam Tuah, Halina Sandera Mohd. Yaki;
- Secretariat: Anna Lynn Abu Bakar, Faizal Mohamad Dun, Victoria Edward, Kavitha Ganesan, Ak. Ab Hashim Pg. Ab Ghani, Noor Fazlilawaty Ghulamdin, Rosnin Jamnun, Eveny Joseph, Nelson Justin, Dakir Manap, Patesia Philip, Rudie Adie Razak, Erwin Rusfian, Diana Salakup, Rose Patsy Tibok;
- Media Staff: Anthony Agustine, Larissa Lumandan, Gauthaman A/L Raichandran, Sharon Raymond, Chok Sim Yee, Adrian Yee;
- Observers: Mohd. Azan Abdullah, Hamdan Haji Adnan (Dato’), Anantha Raman Govindasamy, Natalie Ann Gregory, Md. Azri Ibrahim, David Kellaway, Yusten Karulus, Sanen Marshall, Sainah Mustakim, Lai Yew Meng, Vincent Pang, Chesta J. Pudin, Brenda Wright;
- Ethnologue Staff: M. Paul Lewis, Irene Tucker.
In addition, the updated data reported in this edition reflect the cooperation and communications over the last year from many researchers in the field and especially from a growing group of Ethnologue Field Contributors: Erik Anonby, Karen Ashley, Ted Bergman, Stuart Cameron, Phil Carr, John Carter, Nate Cheeseman, Ken Decker, Robert Early, Pamela Echerd, Steve Echerd, John Eppele, Ian Flaws, Katie Freedman, Charles F. Grimes, Andy Grosh, April Hope, Paulus Kievet, Lindy Pate, Ken Prettol, Louis Rose, Mary Salisbury, and Mary Ruth Wise.
In our ongoing review and update of language classifications we have benefited greatly from the advice and consultation provided by Charles F. Grimes, Harald Hammarström, Angela Kluge, and Paul Sidwell.
We continue to be aided by many individuals who correspond with us regarding particular countries, language families, or individual languages and we are also grateful to those who have taken the time to provide feedback using the web edition’s feedback pages or the online contact form. In particular, we acknowledge significant input from: Anthony Aristar, Graham Baxter, Leoni Bouwer, Cathy Bow, Claire Bowern, Przemysław Buczkowski, Harald Hammarström, Kirk Miller, Derek Nurse, Aliana Parker, Neil Rees, and Nathan Statezni.
And numerous other helpful contributions from: Robert Adam, Dany Adone, Rob Amery, Gerry Andersen, Stan Anonby, Shalom Bagabe, Denise Bailey, Emy Ballenas, Carol Barrera, Graham Baxter, John Berthelette, Nancy Bishop, Leoni Bouwer, Peter Brassington, Bob Busenitz, Matt Connor, Josh Dyer, David Eberhard, Dwayne Emberson, Michael Franjieh, Manilal Gala, Beñat Garaio, Richard Grounds, Cameron Hamm, Rúnur Hansen, Geri Harm, Rob Hess, Terresa Hiebert, Susan Hilario, Lee Hochstetler, Richard Hoyle, Ken Hubel, Lluís Ibáñez, Adam Johnson, Seth Johnston, Ross Jones, Linda Jordan, Luc Jouve, Foreting and Nathalie Simonsson Juhonewe, Hannes Kalisch, Jung Mi Kang, Dayal Kaur, Pat Kelley, Piers Kelly, Mari-Sisko Khadgi, Amy Kim, Marian Klamer, Christophe Landry, Kay Langenberg, Iver Larsen, Katja Lenz, Salai Biak Za Lian Ching, Marcus Love, John Lubeck, Andrea Lunardon, Ed McGuckin, Rachel McKee, Wilhelm K Meya, Alexis Michaud, David Miller, Bill Morrison, Kelvin Nicolle, Eric Pawley, Mark Penny, Sarala Phuthuval, Nadège Piller, Manuel and Yorleny Rodriguez Porras, Ramakant Pradhan, Parvez Qadir, Ruth Rebbavarapu, Arend Remmers, Vahid Rezaei, Dave Riggs, Jim Roberts, Ali Robinson, Iännis Roland, Jennifer Runner, Joy Sanders, Paul Julian Santiago, Christine Schreyer, Herschel Schwartz, Glenna Sollenberger, Bonnie Glover Stalls, Jesse Stewart, Tim Stirtz, John Stuart, Ryan Sullivant, Janel Swenson, Cosette Terry-itewaste, Keno Tesoro, David Wodi Tukura, Arns Udovīčė, Ljuba Veselinova, Mario Vivancos, Barb Waugh, and Neil Wiebe.
Though there are many names listed above, we have almost certainly omitted others who have made significant contributions. To them we offer both apologies and gratitude.