Angola

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Bolo
[blv] Southeast of Luanda, Kwanza Sul. 2,630 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Haka, Libolo, Lubolo Dialects: None known. Related to Kimbundu [kmb], Songo [nsx], and Sama [smd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kimbundu (H.23) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Cokwe
[cjk] Widespread: Northeast Lunda district; east Bie, west Moxico, and central Cuando Cubango, Kunene, Malanje, Lunda Sul, Lunda Norte. 456,000 in Angola (1991). Population total all countries: 983,280. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Chokwe, Ciokwe, Djok, Kioko, Quioco, Shioko, Tschiokloe, Tshokwe Dialects: Minungo, Ukhongo, Ulanda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.11) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dhimba
[dhm] Southwest corner, Kunene and Namibe provinces. 18,000 in Angola (2011). Population total all countries: 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimba, Dimba, Oluthimba, Otjidhimba, Simba, Tjimba, Zemba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Herero (R.311) Comments: Dhimba is part of the southern Helelo (Herero) cluster. Related languages or dialects are Cavikwa, Himba ([dhm] in Namibia), Muakaona, and Mundokena.

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Diriku
[diu] Southeast border with Namibia, Kwandu Kubango Province. 24,000 in Angola. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dciriku, Diriko, Gciriku, Manyo, Mbogedo, Rugciriku, Rumanyo, Shimbogedu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.332)

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Holu
[hol] Kwango river area. 23,100 in Angola (2000). Population total all countries: 28,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Holo, Hongu, Kiholo, Kiholu Dialects: Holu, Yeci. Reportedly similar to Samba [smx]. Yeci may be a separate language. Reportedly related to Kimbundu [kmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Pende (L.12) Comments: Different from Holoholo [hoo] of Democratic Republic of the Congo.

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Khwe
[xuu] Southeast corner, Huthembo (Wuthembo), northeast of Likuwa; Lukamba (Lukanga) west of Rivungu. 790 in Angola (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: !Hukwe, Black Bushman, Cazama, Glanda-Khwe, Hukwe, Kxoe, Kxoedam, “Mbarakwena” (pej.), “Mbarakwengo” (pej.), Schekere, Vazama, Water Bushmen, Xu, Xuhwe, Xun, Zama Dialects: Buma-Kxoe. Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Tshu-Khwe, Northwest Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kikongo
[kng] North, along Congo river below Kinshasa. Kiyombe in Cabinda; Kisikongo and San Salvador in Zaire and Uige provinces. 2,000,000 in Angola (2012 World Factbook). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Congo, Kikoongo, Kongo, Koongo Dialects: Kimanyanga, Kindibu, Kisikongo, Kiwoyo (Cabinda, San Salvador Kongo), Kizombo, Mboka, Ndingi (Ndinzi), South East Kongo (Nkanu, Pende, Zoombo), South Kongo, West Kongo (Fiote, Fioti). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16) Comments: Kisikongo is the principal dialect. Kiyombe is the main dialect of eastern Cabinda. Together with Kiwoyo, Kiyombe is referred to as Ibinda (the language of Cabinda). Christian.

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Kilari
[ldi] Northwest corner. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laadi, Laari, Ladi, Lari Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16) Comments: Part of Kongo subgroup. Christian, Muslim.

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Kimbundu
[kmb] Northwest, Luanda Province. 4,000,000 (2012 World Factbook). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dongo, Kimbundo, Kindongo, Loanda Mbundu, Loande, Luanda, Lunda, Mbundu, N’bundo, Nbundu, Ndongo, North Mbundu Dialects: Mbaka (Ambaquista), Mbamba (Bambeiro, Kimbamba), Ngola, Njinga (Ginga, Jinga). Mbamba dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kimbundu (H.21)

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Kung-Ekoka
[knw] Huíla, Kunene, Kuando Kubango. Primarily Namibia, Okavango, and Ovamboland territory. 1,640 in Angola (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: !Hu, !Ku, !Kung, !Xu, Ekoko-!Xû, Qxû Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwadi
[kwz] Southwest corner, south of Namibe. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bakoroka, Cuanhoca, Cuepe, Curoca, Koroka, Makoroko, Mucoroca Dialects: Zorotua (Vasorontu). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Central, Kwadi

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Kwangali
[kwn] South central, Kuando Kubango (município de Kwangar). 10,900 in Angola (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cuangar, Kwangare, Kwangari, Rukwangali, Rukwangari, Sikwangali Dialects: Sambyu (Sambio, Sambiu, Shisambyu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.33) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lucazi
[lch] Widespread: Southeast, adjacent areas, southwest Moxico Province, Lucazi municipality. Kuando-Kubango: from Mavinga to Kuito Kuanavale. 400,000 in Angola. Population total all countries: 430,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiluchazi, Luchazi, Lujash, Lujazi, Lutchaz, Lutshase, Luxage, Ponda Dialects: None known. Part of Ngangela subgroup. Readily intelligible with all variants of the Ngangela macrolanguage. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.13) Comments: Lucazi is a prestige form of the Ngangela language cluster. Christian, traditional religion.

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Luimbi
[lum] Northern Bié Province, Cuanza river area. 43,900 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiluimbi, Luimbe, Lwimbe, Lwimbi Dialects: None known. Related to Nkangala [nkn] and Mbwela [mfu]; in Ngangela subgroup. Similar to Songo [nsx], less similar to Lucazi [lch] and Ngonzela of Ngangela cluster. Doubtful if intelligible with Mbwela [mfu], as they are not contact languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.12)

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Lunda
[lun] Northeast, Lunda, Moxico provinces (Lunda-Ndembu). 178,000 in Angola (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chilunda, Ruund Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.52)

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Luvale
[lue] Moxico, southeast provinces. 464,000 in Angola (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiluvale, Lovale, Lubale, Luena, Lwena Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.14) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Maligo
[mwj] 2,230 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern

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Mashi
[mho] Kuando Kubango. 2,630 in Angola (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamaxi, Masi Dialects: Mashi, North Kwandu, South Kwandu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.34) Comments: Nomadic. Different from Mashi [shr] which is related to Havu [hav] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Mashi dialect sometimes called Ndonga, which is not Oshiwambo Ndonga [kua]. Traditional religion.

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Mbangala
[mxg] North central, east of Luanda. Malanje: Marimba Province, Kela e Kambundi Katembu, Kahombo. 400,000 (2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangala, Cimbangala Dialects: Mbangala, Yongo. Reportedly similar to Kimbundu [kmb], but so distinct that different literature is needed. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.34)

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Mbukushu
[mhw] Southeast corner, Okavango river north bank, Kuando Kubango. 4,000 in Angola (Andersson and Janson 1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cusso, Gova, Kuso, Mambukush, Mampukush, Mbukuhu, Mbukushi, Thimbukushu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Luyana (K.333) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mbunda
[mck] Southeast, Moxico Province. 135,000 in Angola (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 218,000. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Chimbunda, Mbuunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.15) Comments: Different from Mbuun which is a dialect of Mpuono [zmp] in Democratic Republic of the Congo and Zambia and is in Tende-Yanzi group.

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Mbwela
[mfu] East of Benguela, Kwando Kubango. 222,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ambuela, Ambuella, Mbuela, Mbwera, Shimbwera Dialects: None known. Part of Ngangela subgroup. Intelligible with Lucazi [lch], Ngonzela, and Nyemba [nba], and will be able to use the new Lucazi Bible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.17) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ndombe
[ndq] South and southeast of Benguela, Benguela Province, Ndombe area. 22,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dombe Dialects: Not a Uvimbundu [umb] dialect; survey needed. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.12)

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Ngandyera
[nne] Southeast corner. 13,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngandjera Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.24)

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Nkangala
[nkn] Central: Kwando, Kubango and Moxico provinces; southwest of Lucazi [lch], north of Mbwela [mfu]. 22,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cangala, Ngangala Dialects: None known. Member of Ngangela cluster. Intelligible with Nyemba [nba], Mbwela [mfu], Ngonzela, and Lucazi [lch]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.18)

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Nkumbi
[khu] Southwest, between Dhimba [dhm], Oshiwambo [kua], Nyemba [nba], and Nyaneka [nyk] language areas. 150,000 in Angola (1996 UBS). Population total all countries: 150,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khumbi, Ngumbi, Nkhumbi, Ocinkumbi, Otjingumbi Dialects: Nkumbi-mulondo. Part of Nyaneka [nyk] cluster, but low intelligibility with the central variants of Nyaneka. Bordering on and reportedly similar to the Nyaneka-Gambwe variant. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.14)

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Nyaneka
[nyk] Southwest. 300,000 (1996 UBS). All Nyaneka variants together amount to 1,200,000 speakers (Nyaneka Language Association). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lunyaneka, Nhaneca, Nhaneka, Olunyaneka Dialects: Cilenge, Cilenge-Musa, Cipungu, Handa, Humbe, Humbi, Mwila (Huila, Muila, Olumuila), Ngambwe (Olungambwe). Nyaneka seems to be a cluster of related but relatively unintelligible varieties. Nkumbi [khu] is probably part of this cluster too. The cluster is sometimes called Nyaneka-Humbi. Neighboring variants like Humbi and Cilenge have difficulty understanding one another. Lexical similarity: Humbi 59% with Handa, 49% with Ngambwe, 56% with Mwila; Handa 45% with Ngambwe, 58% with Mwila; Ngambwe 65% with Mwila. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.13) Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nyemba
[nba] South central, Cuchi river area, southeast. South, west Kwando Kubango, north Kunene, east Huila provinces. 222,000 in Angola (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Population total all countries: 231,540. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gangela, Ganguela, Ganguella, Ngangela, Nhemba Dialects: None known. Part of Ngangela subgroup. Fully intelligible with Lucazi [lch], Nkangala [nkn], Mbwela [mfu], and Ngonzela. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.12)

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Nyengo
[nye] Southeast corner. 9,380 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nhengo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.16)

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Oshiwambo
[kua] South central. 421,000 in Angola (Johnstone 1993). Population total all countries: 668,000. L2 users: 40,000 in Angola (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity.Its use as an LWC has its origin in its status as the language of the powerful Kwanyama kingdom, influential in what is now southern Angola and northern Namibia throughout the colonial period up to the year 1917. Used in the eastern half of Cunene Province in church, market, business, and media domains. Alternate Names: Cuanhama, Humba, Kuanjama, Kwancama, Kwanjama, Kwanyama, Ochikwanyama, Oshikuanjama, Oshikwanyama, Oshiwambo Ndonga, Ovambo, Oxikuanyama, Wambo Dialects: None known. Intelligible with Ndonga [ndo] and Kwambi [kwm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Wambo (R.21)

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!O!ung
[oun] South border with Namibia, Kwandu Kubango Province, more than 8 communities, surrounded by Mbwela [mfu] language area. 5,630 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: !O!kung, Vasekele, Xun Classification: Khoisan, Southern Africa, Northern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Portuguese
[por] 87,000 in Angola. Includes 30,000 Brazilian L1 users. In cities, Portuguese increasingly L1 of younger generation. 60% of Angolans use Portuguese, 40% as L1. High level of urbanization due to civil war led to increased use. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 19(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician

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Ruund
[rnd] Northeast. 98,500 in Angola (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chilu Wunda, Luunda, Muatiamvua, Northern Lunda, Ruwund, Uruund Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, L, Lunda (L.53)

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Sama
[smd] Coastal, south of Luanda, Bengo Kisama. South Bengo Province, north Kwanza Sul. 24,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kissama, Quissama Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kimbundu (H.22)

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Songo
[nsx] North central, Cuanza river area south of Malanje. 50,000 (1978 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nsongo, Sungu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kimbundu (H.24)

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Umbundu
[umb] West, most in Benguela, Huambo, and Bié provinces. 6,000,000 (2012 World Factbook). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kimbari, Mbali, Mbari, M’bundo, Mbundu, Mbundu Benguella, Nano, Olumbali, Ovimbundu, South Mbundu, Umbundo Dialects: Mbalundu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, R, Umbundu (R.11) Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yaka
[yaf] North central corner, east of the Kongo. Uíge: município de kimbele. 200,000 in Angola (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iaca, Iaka, Iyaka, Kiyaka Dialects: Ngoongo, Yaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Yaka (H.31)

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Yauma
[yax] Southeast, Kwando (Cuando) river area, Kwando Kubango Province. 17,100 in Angola (2000). Population total all countries: 22,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Part of the Ngangela Subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, K, Ciokwe-Luchazi (K.16)

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Yombe
[yom] Cabinda. 39,400 in Angola (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bayombe, Ibinda, Iombe, Kiombi, Kiyombe Dialects: Mbala (Mumbala), Vungunya (Kivungunya, Yombe Classique). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, H, Kikongo (H.16) Comments: Kiyombe (alternate name for Yombe) is different from Kiyombe, the main Kikongo [kng] dialect of eastern Cabinda. Christian, traditional religion.

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