Bangladesh

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Atong
[aot] Dhaka division: north Netrokona district. Population: 5,400 in Bangladesh. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: A’tong, Attong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Koch.

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Bangla Sign Language
[ins] Scattered. Population: 2,600,000 in Bangladesh (2014 Disabled Peoples’ International Pacific-Asia Region). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangla Ishara Vasha, Bangladesh Sign Language, Bangladeshi Sign Language, Bengali Sign Language, Indian Sign Language. Dialects: None known. Related to other sign languages in south Asia, esp. West Bengal Sign Language [wbs], which it resembles more closely than the Delhi variety of Indian Sign Language (Johnson and Johnson 2016); see further comments on Indian Sign Language [ins] in India. Classification: Sign language.

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Bengali
[ben] Widespread. Population: 159,000,000 in Bangladesh, all users. L1 users: 130,000,000 in Bangladesh (2017). L2 users: 29,000,000 (2017). Total users in all countries: 265,042,480 (as L1: 228,289,600; as L2: 36,752,880). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1972, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Bangala, Bangla-Bhasa. Autonym: বাংলা‎ (Bangla). Dialects: Barisal, Noakhali, Khulna, Mymensingh. Reportedly similar to Assamese [asm]. Lexical similarity: 40% with Nepali [npi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Bihari
[urd] Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, and Rangpur divisions; mainly refugee camps in 13 districts. Population: 250,000 in Bangladesh (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Urdu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani.

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Bishnupuriya
[bpy] Sylhet division: south Habiganj district, Sylhet city, 1 village; Moulvibazar district; Sunamganj district, 2 villages. Population: 40,000 in Bangladesh (2003). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bishnupria, Bishnupriya, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Bisna Puriya. Dialects: Rajar Gang, Madai Gang. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Chak
[ckh] Chittagong division: Baishari, Bandarban, Bishar Chokpra; south Naikhongchari area in Arakan Blue mountains. 14 villages. Population: 3,000 in Bangladesh (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 4,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sak, Tsak, atsaʔ. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingppaw-Asakia, Asakian.

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Chakma
[ccp] Chittagong division: Chittagong city, Chittagong Hills area; Khagrachari and Rangamati districts. Population: 150,000 in Bangladesh (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 378,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Changma Kodha, Sakma, Sangma, Takam. Autonym: Changma Vaj. Dialects: Chakma of India [ccp] understand Bangladesh Chakma with difficulty. Some dialect variation within Myanmar. Lexical similarity: 58%–67% with Tanchangya [tnv]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Chin, Asho
[csh] Chittagong division: Bandarban, Chittagong, and Rangamati districts. plains area (Laitu); hill area (Kongtu). Population: 4,000 in Bangladesh (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khyang, Khyeng, Qin, Sho, Shoa. Dialects: Laitu, Kongtu, Khyang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern, Cho-Asho, Asho.

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Chin, Bawm
[bgr] Chittagong division: Bandarbar and south Rangamati districts, near Myanmar border. Population: 10,000 in Bangladesh (2011). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Bom. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Lai.

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Chin, Khumi
[cnk] Chittagong division: Bandarban district, Rowanchari, Ruma, and Thanchi subdistricts. Population: 4,000 in Bangladesh (2018). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khami, Khuni, “Khweymi” (pej.). Dialects: Khimi, Yindi (Yindu), Khami. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern.

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Chittagonian
[ctg] Chittagong division: widespread. Population: 13,000,000 (2006 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as an L2 in Rangamati, Bandarban, Cox’ s Bazar, and Chittagong districts primarily for business and market. Alternate Names: Chatgaiyan Buli, Chatgaya, Chittagonian Bengali. Autonym: চাঁটগাঁইয়া বুলি‎ (Caṭgãia Buli). Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Bengali [ben], although considered a nonstandard Bengali dialect. Dialects form a continuum from north to south, with a larger religious distinction between Muslim and others. Rohingya [rhg] in Myanmar is reportedly similar to the southern dialect of Chittagonian. Lexical similarity: 43%–64% with Bangla [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Garo
[grt] Dhaka division: Dhaka, Jamalpur, Madhupur, Netrokona, Sherpur districts; enclaves north, southwest and northwest of Mymensingh city; Sylhet division: Sylhet and Sunamganj districts. Population: 120,000 in Bangladesh (2005). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Used as LWC among all Mandi. Alternate Names: Garrow, Mande, Mandi. Dialects: Abeng, Achik, Brak, Chibok, Dual. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo.

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Hajong
[haj] Mymensingh division: Rangpur district east to Sunamganj district; Sylhet division. Population: 8,000 in Bangladesh. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hajang. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Khasi
[kha] Sylhet division: Brahman Bazar enclave south of Sylhet town, Jaintiapur north border enclave; Barlekha area southwest to Kamalpur. Population: Very few speakers. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cossyah, Kahasi, Khasie, Khasiyas, Khassee, Khuchia, Kyi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian.

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Koch
[kdq] Dhaka division: north Sherpur district. Population: 6,000 in Bangladesh (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koc, Kocch, Koce, Kochboli, Konch. Dialects: Tintekiya, Chapra, Margan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Koch.

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Koda
[cdz] Rajshahi division: Puthia, Mohonpur and Mundumala districts. Population: 1,300 in Bangladesh (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari.

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Kok Borok
[trp] Chittagong division: Chandpur and Comilla areas east of Ganges delta; Sylhet divsion: 2 border areas southeast of Habiganj. Population: 5,000 in Bangladesh. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Debbarma, Tipura, Tripura, Tripuri. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Dimasa-Kokborok, Kok Borok.

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Kol
[ekl] Rajshahi district: Godagari subdistrict. Population: 1,660 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hor. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 62%–64% with Santhali [sat], 58% with Mundari [unr], 57%–60% with Koda [cdz], 37% with Ho (Lanka Kol) [hoc]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari.

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Kurux
[kru] Rangpur division: Dinajpur, Panchagarn, Rangpur, Saidpur and Thakurgaon districts’ areas. Population: 50,000 in Bangladesh (2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50,000 (2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kurukh, Oraoan, Uraon. Classification: Dravidian, Northern.

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Lyngngam
[lyg] Dhaka division: Netrokona district. Population: 1,000 in Bangladesh. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Megam. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian.

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Mahali
[mjx] Rajshahi division: Abirpara, Matindor, and Mundumala-Pachondor villages; scattered. Population: 3,000 in Bangladesh (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahle. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali.

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Marma
[rmz] Chittagong division: Bandarban, Khagrachari, and Rangamati districts. Population: 150,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Total users in all countries: 186,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Largest and earliest language group to settle in the area. Used in Cox’s Bazar and Bandarban districts in religious ceremonies, market, stores, and churches. Alternate Names: Mraima, “Mogh” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern.

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Megam
[mef] Dhaka division: Netrokona district, Kalmakanda subdistrict. Population: 6,870 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Migam, Negam. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 7%–9% with the Abeng dialect of Garo [grt], 60% with Lyngngam [lyg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo.

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Meitei
[mni] Sylhet division: Moulvi Bazar district, Kamalganj subdistrict; Sylhet city. Population: 15,000 in Bangladesh (2003). 300 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Manipuri, Meetei, Meitei Manipuri, Meithei. Dialects: Hindu Meitei, Pangan (Pangal). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga.

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Mizo
[lus] Chittagong division: Rangamati, Sajek. Population: 250 in Bangladesh (2007 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hualngo, Lei, Lusai, Lushai, Lushei, Sailau, Whelngo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Mizo.

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Mru
[mro] Chittagong division: Bandarban district. Population: 30,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Total users in all countries: 50,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maru, Mrung, Murung. Dialects: Anok, Dowpreng, Sungma. Lexical similarity: 13% with Mro-Khimi Chin [cmr], 72%–76% with Anu-Hkongso Chin [anl]; lexical similarity with Anok, Dowpreng, and Sungma dialects in Bangladesh is high: 91%–98%. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru.

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Mundari
[unr] Rajshahi division: Naogaon district; Rangpur division: Dinajpur district; Sylhet division: possibly some tea estates. Population: 2,500 in Bangladesh (2005 Caritas Bangladesh). Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Colh, Horo, Mandari, Mondari, Munari, Munda. Dialects: Hasada’, Latar, Naguri, Kera’. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari.

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Pangkhua
[pkh] Chittagong division: Rangamati district. Population: 2,400 in Bangladesh (2015 Z. Akter). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pangkhu, Pankho, Pankhu, Panko. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central.

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Pnar
[pbv] Sylhet division: Sylhet district, Jaflong area, Jaintiapur, north of Raipur, and Tamabil; Moulvi Bazar district, Alinagar, Barlekha, Fenchuganj area, Fultala, Goalbari, Islampur, Kamalganj, Khajori, Madhabkunda, Rashidpur, and Satgoan. Population: 4,000 in Bangladesh (2002). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian.

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Rakhine
[rki] Barisal division: Patuakhali district; Chittagong division: Cox’s Bazar, Maheshkhali island and south. Population: 200,000 in Bangladesh (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Mogh, Rakhain, Rakkhaine. Dialects: Rakhine, Sitwe. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern.

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Rangpuri
[rkt] Rajshahi division: Joypurhat area; Rangpur division: Dinajpur, Gaibanda, Lalmonihat, Nilphamari, Panchagar, Rangpur, and Thakurgaon districts. Population: 10,325,000 in Bangladesh, all users. L1 users: 10,000,000 in Bangladesh (2007 SIL). L2 users: 325,000 (2015 SIL). Total users in all countries: 10,801,000 (as L1: 10,476,000; as L2: 325,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Used in the market and for commerce, media, and travel by nearly all minority language speakers in the greater Rangpur-Dinajpur area. Rangpuri has reportedly been spoken in the area for centuries. Alternate Names: Anchalit Bangla, Bahe Bangla, Kamta, Polia. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Riang
[ria] Chittagong division: Rangamati district. Population: 500 in Bangladesh (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kau Bru, Reang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Dimasa-Kokborok, Kok Borok.

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Rohingya
[rhg] Chittagong division: Cox’s Bazaar district. Population: 947,000 in Bangladesh (2017 The Arakan Project). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rohinga, Ruwainggya. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Sadri, Oraon
[sdr] Khulna division: Jhenaidah, Kushtia, and Magura districts; Rajshahi division: widespread; Rangpur division: Hilli area; Sylhet division: possibly Habiganj and Moulvibazar districts. Population: 166,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pahan. Dialects: Borail Sadri, Nurpur Sadri, Uchai Sadri, Mokkan Tila Sadri. Dialects may need separate literature. Inherent intelligibility of 7 Sadri varieties on Borail ranges from 70%–93%; of 8 varieties on Nurpur from 78%–94%. Lexical similarity: 88%–97% with 14 Sadri varieties with the Borail Sadri dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari.

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Santhali
[sat] Rajshahi and Rangpur divisions: widespread. Population: 225,000 in Bangladesh (2011). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Har, Har Rar, Hor, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santali, Satar, Sonthal. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali.

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Sauria Paharia
[mjt] Rajshahi division: northwest of city, also near Singra; Rangpur division: south of Rangpur city. Population: 7,000 in Bangladesh (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Malto, Paharia. Classification: Dravidian, Northern.

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Sylheti
[syl] Sylhet division: Habiganj, Moulvibazar, Sunamganj, and Sylhet districts. Population: 8,500,000 in Bangladesh, all users. L1 users: 7,000,000 in Bangladesh. L2 users: 1,500,000. Total users in all countries: 11,800,000 (as L1: 10,300,000; as L2: 1,500,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Siloti, Srihattia, Sylhetti, Sylhetti Bangla, Syloti, Syloty. Autonym: Sileti, ছিলটী‎ (Silôṭi). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Assamese [asm]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bengali [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Tangchangya
[tnv] Chittagong hills. Population: 21,600 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tanchangya. Dialects: None known. 90% intelligibility of Chakma [ccp]. Lexical similarity: 58%–67% with Chakma [ccp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Tippera
[tpe] Chittagong division: Chittagong district, Fatikchari subdistrict; Khagrachari district. Population: 85000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kok Borok, Tipperah, Tippurah, Tipra, Tipura, Triperah, Tripura. Dialects: Naitong, Dendak, Gabing, Khali, Phatung, Tongpai, Anok, Kewa, Kema, Aslong. Lexical similarity: 56%–85% among dialects, 61%–74% with Kok Borok [trp], 53%–65% with Riang [ria], 37%–59% with Usoi Tripura [usi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo.

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Usoi
[usi] Chittagong division: Bandarban district. Population: 22400 Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kau Brung, Unshoi, Unsuiy, Ushoi, Usui. Autonym: Kaobrung. Dialects: Panji, Joloi. Lexical similarity: 88% with Panji and Joloi dialects, 59%–67% with Riang [ria], 47%–58% with Kok Borok [trp], 37%–59% with Tippera [tpe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Dimasa-Kokborok, Kok Borok.

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War-Jaintia
[aml] Sylhet division: Moulvi Bazar district, Alinagar, Barlekha, Fenchuganj area, Fultala, Goalbari, Islampur, Kamalganj, Khajori, Madhabkunda, Rashidpur, and Satgoan; Sylhet district, Jaflong area, Jaintiapur, north of Raipur, and Tamabil. Population: 16,000 in Bangladesh (2003 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 67,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: War-Khasi. Dialects: War-Jaintia, War-Khasi. Lexical similarity: 86%–92% with dialects in Bangladesh; 83%–89% with War-Jaintia in India and Bangladesh; India variety 41%–45% with Pnar [pbv] (from scant data); 27%–35% with standard Khasi [kha]; 24%–28% with War dialect of Khasi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian.

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