Belgium

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Dutch
[nld] Antwerp, East Flanders, Flemish Brabant, and Limburg provinces; one area in Brussels. Population: 6,160,000 in Belgium (European Commission 2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Articles 2,4,30). Alternate Names: Flemish, Nederlands, Vlaams. Dialects: Brabants, Oost-Vlaams, Antwerps. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian.

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English
[eng] Population: 4,284,500 in Belgium, all users. L1 users: 24,500 in Belgium (2013 census). L2 users: 4,260,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Anglais, Engels, Englisch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Flemish Sign Language
[vgt] Scattered in the north. Population: 6,500 (2019 EUD). 6,000 (2005 M. Vermeerbergen). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2006, Parliamentary decree, 15 February). Alternate Names: VGT, Vlaamse Gebarentaal. Dialects: West-Vlaanderen (West Flanders), Oost-Vlaanderen (East Flanders), Antwerpen (Antwerp), Vlaams-Brabant (Flemish Brabant), Limburg. These regional dialects developed in different deaf schools. Also intra-regional variation, some related to gender and age. Most similar to French Belgian Sign Language [sfb]. Influence from spoken Dutch [nld], particularly in mouthing. Limited influence from Signed Dutch (used for some communication with hearing people). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language.

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French
[fra] Hainaut, Liège, Namur, and Walloon Brabant provinces; Luxembourg province: Lorraine; southern hills, and one area in Brussels. Population: 9,300,000 in Belgium, all users. L1 users: 4,260,000 in Belgium (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 5,040,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Articles 2,4,30). Alternate Names: Frans, Französisch, Français. Dialects: Lorraine. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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French Belgian Sign Language
[sfb] Scattered in the south. Population: 4,000 (2014 EUD). 4,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). 26,500 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Decree No. 4501 of 22 October, Article 1). Alternate Names: LSBF, LSFB, Langue des signes belge francophone, Langue des signes de Belgique Francophone. Dialects: Regional dialects developed in different deaf schools. Most similar to Flemish Sign Language [vgt]. Major difference is in the mouthings which, for LSFB, are drawn from spoken French [fra]; sometimes people can understand the other language moderately well, but others have difficulty, especially (as in television) where there is no adjustment to the language of the addressee. Limited influence from Belgium Signed French (used for some communication with hearing people). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language.

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German, Standard
[deu] Liège province: Verviers municipality, Amel, Bnlingen, Bntchenbach, Burg-Reuland, Eupen, Kelmis, Lontzen, Raeren, and Sankt-Vith. Population: 2,499,300 in Belgium, all users. L1 users: 39,300 in Belgium (2017 Eurostat). L2 users: 2,460,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in German-speaking areas (1994, Constitution, Articles 2,4,30). Alternate Names: Allemand, Deutsch, Duits. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Limburgish
[lim] Liège province: Eupen; Limburg province: Hasselt, Genk, Maaseik, Voeren. Population: 600,000 in Belgium (2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Limberger, Limbourgeois, Limburgan, Limburgian, Limburgic, Limburgs, Limburgs Plat, Lèmburgs, Plat. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian.

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Luxembourgish
[ltz] Luxembourg province: Arlon and Bastogne area. Population: 30,000 in Belgium (1998). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Statutory language of provincial identity in southeastern Wallonia (1990, Valmy Feaux Decree of 14 December). Alternate Names: Letzburgisch, Luxembourgeois. Dialects: Areler. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian.

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Picard
[pcd] Hainaut province: Ath, Mons, Soignies, and Tournai municipalities. Population: 200,000 in Belgium (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in western Hinaut Province (1990, Valmy Feaux Decree of 14 Dec). Alternate Names: Chtimi, Rouchi. Dialects: Belgian Picard. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Vlaams
[vls] West Flanders province. Population: 1,070,000 in Belgium (1998 University of Ghent). Total users in all countries: 1,234,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Flemish, West Vlaams. Dialects: None known. Considered a variant of Dutch [nld]. Reportedly similar to German [deu], English [eng], Frisian [fry]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian.

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Walloon
[wln] Hainaut, Liège, Namur, Walloon Brabant provinces; Luxembourg province: Bastogne, Marche-en-Famenne, and Neufchâteau municipalities. Population: 600,000 (Salminen 2007), decreasing. Active speakers may only be 300,000 (Salminen 2007). Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Wallonia (1990, Valmy Feaux Decree of 14 Dec). Alternate Names: Wallon. Autonym: Walon. Dialects: Central Walloon, Eastern Walloon, Western Walloon, Southern Walloon. Developed between the 8th and 12th centuries from remnants of Latin brought to the region by Roman soldiers, merchants, and settlers. Eastern subdialect considered the most difficult to understand. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Antwerp. Population: Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish.

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