Belgium

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Dutch
[nld] Antwerp, East Flanders, Limburg, Flemish Brabant provinces, and bilingual part (10%–20%) of Brussels. 5,660,000 in Belgium (European Commission 2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Articles 2,4,30). Alternate Names: Flemish, Nederlands, Vlaams. Dialects: Brabants, Oost-Vlaams, Antwerps. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian. Comments: Called Vlaams in Belgium, even though different from (West) Vlaams [vls] spoken there. In the Dutch linguistic area there are minority rights for French-speaking persons in Drogenbos, Kraainem, Linkebeek, Sint-Genesius-Rode, Wemmel, Wezembeek-Oppem, Mesen, Spiere-Helkijn, Ronse, Bever, Herstappe, Voeren.

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Flemish Sign Language
[vgt] Scattered in northern Belgium. 5,000 (2014 EUD). 6,000 (2005 M. Vermeerbergen). 5,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2006, Parliamentary decree, 15 February). Alternate Names: VGT, Vlaamse Gebarentaal. Dialects: West-Vlaanderen (West Flanders), Oost-Vlaanderen (East Flanders), Antwerpen (Antwerp), Vlaams-Brabant (Flemish Brabant). These regional dialects developed in different deaf schools. Also intra-regional variation, some related to gender and age. Most similar to French Belgian Sign Language [sfb]. Influence from spoken Dutch [nld], particularly in mouthing. Limited influence from Signed Dutch (used for some communication with hearing people). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Some courses and training programs for L2 users and interpreters. 160 sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Legal provision of free sign language interpreting since 1993. Christian.

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French
[fra] Hainaut, Liège, Namur, and Walloon Brabant provinces; Luxembourg province: Lorraine; southern hills, and bilingual part of Brussels. 3,900,000 in Belgium (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 4,630,000 in Belgium (European Commission 2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1994, Constitution, Articles 2,4,30). Alternate Names: Français. Dialects: Lorraine. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: The following municipalities have minority rights for Dutch-speaking persons: Comines-Warneton, Mouscron, Enghien, Floubecques; and for German-speaking persons: Malmèdy, Weismes, Welkenraedt.

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French Belgian Sign Language
[sfb] Scattered in southern Belgium (Wallonia). 4,000 (2014 EUD). 4,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). 26,500 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Decree No. 4501 of 22 October, Article 1). Alternate Names: Langue des signes belge francophone, Langue des signes de Belgique Francophone, LSBF. Dialects: Regional dialects developed in different deaf schools. Most similar to Flemish Sign Language [vgt]. Major difference is in the mouthings which, for LSFB, are drawn from spoken French [fra]; sometimes people can understand the other language moderately well, but others have difficulty, especially (as in television) where there is no adjustment to the language of the addressee. Limited influence from Belgium Signed French (used for some communication with hearing people). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 12 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Instruction offered for parents of deaf children. Christian.

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German, Standard
[deu] Liège province: Verviers arrondissement, Eupen, Kelmis, Lontzen, Raeren, Amel, Bnlingen, Bntchenbach, Sankt-Vith, and Burg-Reuland. 41,200 in Belgium (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 2,260,000 in Belgium (European Commission 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in German-speaking areas (1994, Constitution, Articles 2,4,30). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Limburgish
[lim] Limburg province: Hasselt, Genk, Maaseik, Voeren; Liège province: Eupen. 600,000 in Belgium (2001). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Limberger, Limbourgeois, Limburgan, Limburgian, Limburgic, Limburgs, Limburgs Plat. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Rhenisch Franconian. Comments: Christian.

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Luxembourgish
[ltz] Luxembourg province: Arlon and Bastogne area. 30,000 in Belgium (1998). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Statutory language of provincial identity in southeastern Wallonia (1990, Valmy Feaux Decree of 14 December). Alternate Names: Letzburgisch, Luxembourgeois. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, West Middle German, Moselle Franconian.

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Picard
[pcd] Hainaut province: Tournai, Mons, Ath, and Soignies arrondissements. 200,000 in Belgium (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in western Hinaut Province (1990, Valmy Feaux Decree of 14 Dec). Alternate Names: Chtimi, Rouchi. Dialects: Belgian Picard. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Vlaams
[vls] West Flanders province. 1,070,000 in Belgium (1998 University of Ghent). Total users in all countries: 1,204,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Vlaams. Dialects: None known. Considered a variant of Dutch [nld]. Reportedly similar to German [deu], English [eng], Frisian [fry]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian. Comments: Christian.

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Walloon
[wln] Brussels-Capital Region, Hainaut, Liège, Namur, Walloon Brabant provinces; Luxembourg Province: Bastogne, Marche-en-Famenne, and Neufchâteau arrondissements. 600,000 (Salminen 2007), decreasing. Active speakers may only be 300,000 (Salminen 2007). Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Wallonia (1990, Valmy Feaux Decree of 14 Dec). Alternate Names: Wallon. Dialects: Central Walloon, Eastern Walloon, Western Walloon, Southern Walloon. Developed between the 8th and 12th centuries from remnants of Latin brought to the region by Roman soldiers, merchants, and settlers. Eastern subdialect considered the most difficult to understand. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Also spoken in Luxembourg until recently. It is or was spoken in parts of northern France, and in Green Bay, Wisconsin, United States.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Antwerp. 20,000 in Belgium. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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