[rup] Pazardzhit province: Peshtera, Velingrad, and Rakitovo municipalities; Kyustendil and Blagoevgrad provinces. L1 users: 16,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Blagoevgrad, Kyustendil, Pazardzhik, Plovdiv, Sofia, Sofia Capital, Stanamaka, Stara Zagora, Veliko Tarnovo and Vidin provinces. Alternate Names: Armani, Armina, Armini, Arumanian, Macedo, Macedo-Rumanian, Romanian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Refers to those whose relatives emigrated from Macedonia and northern Greece between 1850 and 1914. Romanian Cultural Institute was closed in 1948.
Balkan Gagauz Turkish
[bul] L1 users: 7,020,000 (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 8,068,620. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 3). Autonym: български език (bălgarski ezik). Dialects: Palityan (Bogomil, Palitiani). Palityan dialect is functionally intelligible with standard Bulgarian. The Pomak dialect spoken in Greece is reportedly similar to Serbian [srp] and Bulgarian; geographical dialect variation toward each. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern. Comments: Christian.
Bulgarian Sign Language
[bqn] Scattered. L1 users: 37,000 (2014 IMB). 50,000 sign language users (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balgarski žestomimičen ezik, BŽE. Dialects: None known. Different sign languages are used in school and by adults outside. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 200 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Instruction for parents of deaf children available. Christian.
[crh] Dobrich province: Krushari municipality. L1 users: 1,370 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean, Crimean Turkish, Qirim, Qirimtatar. Dialects: Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Central Crimean, Southern Crimean. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.
[gag] Dobrich province: Krusheri and Dobrich municipalities; Silistra province: Kaybardzha and Atafar municipalities; Varna province: Aksakovo municipality. L1 users: 5,000 (Salminen 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gagauzi. Dialects: Bulgar Gagauz, Maritime Gagauz. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.
[rmn] Scattered near urban areas; Burgas, Gabrovo, Sliven, Sofiya, and Grad Sofiya provinces; Stara Zagora province: Kazanlak municipality; Central dialect is from Sofia to the Black Sea; Tinsmiths’ dialect is in central and northwest Bulgaria; Arlija in Sofia region; Drindari in Sliven and Varna provinces. 481,000 in Bulgaria, all users. L1 users: 281,000 (2011 census). 100,000 Arlija, 20,000 Dzambazi, 10,000 Tinsmiths, 10,000 East Bulgarian. L2 users: 200,000 (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gypsy. Dialects: Arli (Erli, Sofia Erli), Tinners Romani, Greek Romani, Dzambazi, East Bulgarian Romani, Paspatian, Ironworker Romani, Drindari (Chalgijis, Kitajis), Pazardžik Kalajdži, Khorakhani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic groups: Jerlídes (western Bulgaria), Drindári (central Bulgaria). Muslim.
[tur] Burgas province: Kameno, east Sredets, Sozopol, Malko Tarnovo, and Tsarevo municipalities; Khaskovo and Kurdzhali provinces; Smolyan province: Madan, Banite, and Nedelino municipalities; also in Stara Zagora and Yambol provinces, small border areas. L1 users: 606,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (1991, National Education Act , No. 86/18.10.1991), Allows mother-tongue education in primary grades 1–8 for Turkish speakers. Alternate Names: Osmanli, Turki, Türkçe. Dialects: Danubian, Razgrad, Dinler, Macedonian Turkish. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Gradually being replaced by Bulgarian [bul], although Islam and ethnic identity remain strong. Natural growth balanced by emigration to Turkey. Muslim.