Bulgaria

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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] 1,000 in Bulgaria (Newmark, Hubbard, and Prifti 1982). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Shqip Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg

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Aromanian
[rup] Associations in Peshtera, Velingrad, Dupnitsa, Rakitovo, and Blagoevgrad. 10,600 in Bulgaria (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Armina, Arumanian, Macedo, Macedo-Rumanian, Romanian Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern Comments: Ethnonym: Armini, refers to those whose relatives emigrated from Macedonia and northern Greece between 1850 and 1914. Romanian Cultural Institute was closed in 1948.

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Balkan Gagauz Turkish
[bgx] Gajal dialect: Deli Orman Region. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Gajal. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish

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Bulgarian
[bul] Also in Canada, Croatia, Czech Republic, Greece, Hungary, Israel, Libya, Moldova, Romania, Russian Federation, Serbia, Slovakia, Turkey, Ukraine, United States. 5,660,000 in Bulgaria (2011 census). Population total all countries: 6,795,150. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 3). Alternate Names: Balgarski Dialects: Palityan (Bogomil, Palitiani). Palityan dialect is functionally intelligible with standard Bulgarian. The Pomak dialect spoken in Greece is similar to Serbian [srp] and Bulgarian; geographical dialect variation toward each. Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Christian.

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Bulgarian Sign Language
[bqn] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Different sign languages are used in school and by adults outside. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: There is a manual alphabet for spelling.

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Crimean Tatar
[crh] Northeast. 1,370 in Bulgaria (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean, Crimean Turkish Dialects: Central Crimean, Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Southern Crimean. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Gagauz
[gag] Varna Coastal region. 5,000 in Bulgaria (Salminen 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gagauzi Dialects: Bulgar Gagauz, Maritime Gagauz. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Christian.

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Macedonian
[mkd] Pirin Region, former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia border. 1,400 in Bulgaria (2011 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Slavic, South, Eastern Comments: Some in Pirin Region claim Macedonian as L1 (1998 W. Brown).

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Sofia to the Black Sea (Central dialect). Tinsmiths dialect is in central and northwest Bulgaria; Arlija in Sofia Region. 281,000 in Bulgaria (Gunnemark and Kenrick 1985). 100,000 Arlija, 20,000 Dzambazi, 10,000 Tinsmiths, 10,000 East Bulgarian. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Gypsy Dialects: Arlija, Dzambazi, East Bulgarian Romani, Greek Romani, Ironworker Romani, Paspatian, Tinners Romani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Balkan Comments: Ethnic groups: Jerlídes (western Bulgaria), Drindári (central Bulgaria). Muslim.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 1,830 in Bulgaria (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

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Russian Sign Language
[rsl] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Originated 1806.

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Turkish
[tur] South, Kurdzhali province and neighboring areas, along the Danube; various regions east. 606,000 in Bulgaria (2011 census). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Osmanli, Turki Dialects: Danubian, Dinler, Macedonian Turkish, Razgrad. Classification: Altaic, Turkic, Southern, Turkish Comments: Gradually being replaced by Bulgarian [bul], although Islam and ethnic identity remain strong. Natural growth balanced by emigration to Turkey. Muslim.

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