Benin

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Aguna
[aug] Collines department: southern border areas; Coufou department: Aplahoue commune; Zou department: Djidja commune, Agouna village area. 14,000 (2014 SIL). Total users in all countries: 28,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aguna-gbe, Agunaco, Awuna. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Aja
[ajg] Coufou department: Aplahoué, Djakotomè, Dogbo, Klouékanmè, Lalo, and Tovinklin communes on Mono river; Mono department: Athiémè, Houéyogbé communes; Zou department: Agbangnizoun and Djidja communes; Cotonou and many southern mixed-language towns. 591,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 781,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adja, Hwè. Autonym: Ajagbe. Dialects: Dogbo, Hwe (Ehoue), Tado (Tadou), Sikpi (Shikpi), Tala. The Hwe, Sikpi, and Tado dialects are linguistically very similar; Dogbo and Tala distinct from the other 3. Lexical similarity: 92% with Hwe-Sikpi dialect, 89% with Hwe-Dogbo dialect, Hwe-Tado dialect, and Hwe-Tala dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Tado and Tala speakers are mainly in Togo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. 12,500 (2008 WFD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ASL, Benin Sign Language, LSAF, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Although many people say they use ASL in Benin, they generally do not understand nor sign standard ASL from the United States. However, the sign language in Benin has not been separately recognized by ISO 639-3.

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Anii
[blo] Donga department: Bassila commune northwest, on Togo border, and 18 area villages. 33,600 (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 48,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baseca, Basila, Bassila, Gisida, “Ouinji-Ouinji” (pej.), “Winji-Winji” (pej.). Autonym: Anii. Dialects: Giseda (Bassila), Gifolanga (Guiguisso), Frinyio ka gija (Frignion), Gikodowarja (Kodowari), Gipenesulja (Pénéssoulou), Gipenelanja (Pénélan), Naagayili ka gija (Nagayilé), Gibodija (Bodi), Gibayaakuja (Bayaku), Gideenguja (Dengou), Ngmeelang ka gija (Melan), Gisaramangaja (Saramanga), Agerendebu ka gija (Agéréndébou), Giborokoja (Mboroko), Yaari ka gija (Yarí). Giseda is the main dialect that adults understand. Higher intelligibility among the dialects in the north. Lexical similarity: 89% with the Bodi dialect and 74% with the Balanka dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele. Comments: Muslim.

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Anufo
[cko] Atacora department: Boukoumbée and Cobly communes, a few villages. 13,800 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Chokossi, Tchokossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Baatonum
[bba] Alibori department: central and southeast; Atacora department: east; Borgou department: Bembereke, Kalale, N’Dali, Nikki, Parakou, Sinende, Perere, and east Tchaourou communes; Donga department: Djougou commune. 564,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 664,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Baatombu, Baatonu, Barba, Barganchi, Bargawa, Bargu, Bariba, Baruba, Berba, Bogung, Burgu. Autonym: Baatonum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Bariba. Comments: Distinct from Biali (Berba) [beh]. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Biali
[beh] Atacora department: Cobly, Materi, and Tanguieta communes; Collines department: Ouessi commune; Donga department: small border area west of Oueme river. 97,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 101,080. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Berba, Bialaba, Bieri, Bjerb, Bjeri, Byali. Autonym: Biali. Dialects: Dassari, Gouande, Materi, Pingou, Tihoun, Tangeta, Porga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Historical accounts claim they originated in the F’ada N’Gourma area of Burkina Faso. Different from Baatonum (Bariba) [bba]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Boko
[bqc] Alibori and Borgou departments: Kalale and Segbana communes. 100,000 (2013 R. Jones). 28,800 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 150,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bokonya. Autonym: Bo’o. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 87% with Busa [bqp], 89% with Bokobaru [bus], 62% with Shanga [sho], 59% with Kyanga [tye], 62% with Bisa [bib] in Burkina Faso and Ghana. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Busa. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Dendi
[ddn] Alibori and Atacora departments: Djougou, Parakou, and other towns north along Medru and Niger rivers down to Kandi. 160,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 162,050. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dandawa. Autonym: Songhay. Dialects: Closely related to Zarma [dje] and Songhay [hmb]. They form a dialect subgroup. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Djougou and Parakou speech varieties reportedly different from that in the northeast. Different from Dendi [deq] in Central African Republic. Muslim.

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Ditammari
[tbz] Atacora department: Boukoumbé and Natitingou communes; Borgou and Donga departments: along Djougou-Parakou road. 88,300 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 122,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ditamari, Tamari, “Somba” (pej.). Autonym: Ditammari. Dialects: Eastern Ditammari, Western Ditammari (Tamberma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ede Cabe
[cbj] Borgou department: Tchaourou commune; Collines department: Ouèssè and Savè communes along Okrara river west bank; north Plateau department: Ketou commune. 2,240 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Caabe, Cabe, Tchabè. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo [yor]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ede Ica
[ica] Collines department: northwest Bante commune; Donga department; south border areas scattered. 63,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ica. Dialects: Ica, Ilodji (Ife). Lexical similarity: 83% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo [yor]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Ede Idaca
[idd] Collines department: Dassa-Zoume and Glazoué communes, west Ouémé river. 100,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idaaca, Idaasa, Idaasha, Idaatcha, Idaca, Idáìtsà. Autonym: Ìdàáshà. Dialects: Idàáshà, Idàátchà. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Ede Ije
[ijj] Plateau department: Kétou and Pobè communes and rural districts; Zou department: Ouihni and Zogbodomey communes. 92,400 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Holi, Ije. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Yoruba of Porto-Novo [yor], 91% with Ede Nago [nqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ede Nago, Kura
[nqk] Donga department: Bassila commune, Aledjo Koura village area on Togo border. 25,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kura, Nago. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Ife [ife] of Tchetti, 76% with Northern Nago [xkb], 68% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 65% with Southern Nago [nqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Muslim.

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Fon
[fon] Widespread. Atlantique, Littoral and Zou departments. 1,190,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,225,500. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dahomeen. Autonym: Fongbe. Dialects: Agbome, Arohun, Gbekon, Kpase. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Foodo
[fod] Donga department: Ouaké commune, Semere town area. 24,500 (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 25,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Originally from Ghana; probably from the village of Salaga. Muslim.

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French
[fra] 3,296,700 in Benin, all users. L1 users: 16,700 (Johnstone 1993). L2 users: 3,280,000 (2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Constitution, Article 1). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Fulfulde, Borgu
[fue] Alibori department: Segbama commune; Borgou department: Nikki commune; scattered communities in Atacora, Collines, Donga, and Zou departments. Borgou, north of N’Dali (Bakuure dialect); central and south Borgou, Parakou area (Korakuure dialect); Donga-Atacora area from Djougou north to Burkina border (Djougoure dialect); Zou department (Tchabankeere dialect). 280,000 (2002 SIL). Most monolinguals are in Borgou Department, Nikki Commune. Total users in all countries: 328,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benin-Togo Fulfulde, Fulbe-Borgu, Peul, Peulh. Dialects: Bakuure, Korakuure, Djougoure (Juguure), Tchabankeere (Caabankeere). A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Fulfulde, Gorgal
[fuh] Alibori department: north. 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulfulde, Peul, Peulh, Western Niger Fulfulde. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, East Central. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Gbe, Ayizo
[ayb] Atlantique department: largest areas; Coufou and Zou departments: Lalo and Zogbodomey communes. 472,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). 20,300 Seto, 162,000 Tori (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayizo, Ayizo-Gbe, Ayzo. Autonym: Ayizo Gbe. Dialects: Kadagbe (Kada-Gbe), Ayizo-Seto (Sèto), Ayizo-Tori, Ayizo-Kobe. Reportedly similar to Fon [fon]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Ci
[cib] Coufou department: Lalo commune. 25,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayizo-Ci, Ci, Cigbe, Tchi. Dialects: None known. Considered the same as Fon [fon] by many Ci Gbe speakers. Lexical similarity: 80% with Fon [fon], 77% with Ayizo Gbe [ayb], 59% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Defi
[gbh] Ouémé department: Seme-Kpodji commune between Ouémé river north, Cotonou-Porto-Novo railroad west, Gulf of Guinea south. 13,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Defi is reportedly similar linguistically to Gun [guw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gbe, Eastern Xwla
[gbx] Atlantique department: Lake Nokwe south shore; Littoral department: east Cotonou; Ouémé department: Seme-Kpodji commune east of Cotonou. 80,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Houla, Kpla, Offra, Ophra, Phla, Pla, Popo, Xwla. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Gun [guw], 82% with Fon [fon], 68% with Gen [gej], 68% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gbe, Gbesi
[gbs] Atlantique department: Allada, Kpomassè, and Tori-Bossito communes, individual and mixed villages. 65,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Gbokpa. Lexical similarity: 91% with Kotafon [kqk], 85% with Fon [fon], 73% with Aja [ajg], 70% with Gen [gej]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Kotafon
[kqk] Kouffo department: Djakotomey and Lalo communes; Mono department: Athiémé, Houeyogbe, and eastern Bopa communes, Lake Aheme area. 100,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ko, Kogbe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Gbe Ayizo [ayb], 81% with Fon [fon], 69% with Gen [gej], 65% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Gbe, Maxi
[mxl] Collines department: Bantè, Dassa-Zoume, Glazoué Ouèssèi, and Savalou communes; Donga department: Bassila commune. 215,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 240,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahi, Maxi, Maxi-Gbe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Fon [fon], 68% with Ayizo Gbe [ayb], 51% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Fon. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gbe, Saxwe
[sxw] Atlantique department: Kpomasse commune; Coufou department: Lalo commune; Mono department: Bopa and Houéyogbé communes. 175,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sahouè, Sahouègbe, Saxwe, Saxwe-Gbe, Saxwegbe, Tsaphe, Tsaphe -Gbe. Dialects: Saxwe, Daxe, Se. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Tofin
[tfi] Atlantique department: Sô-Ava commune southeast; Ouémé department: Aguegue commune. 85,100 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tofi, Tofin, Tofingbe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 88% with Gun [guw], 87% with Fon [fon], 82% with Eastern Xwla Gbe [xwe], 75% with Ayizo Gbe [ayb], 66% with Gen [gej]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Gbe, Waci
[wci] Mono department: Comè commune; some in Athiémè and Grand-Popo communes. 36,600 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ouatchi, Waci, Waci-Gbe, Watyu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gbe, Weme
[wem] Atlantique department: Abomey-Calavi and Zè communes; Ouémé department: Adjohoun, Bonou, Dangbo communes along lower Ouémé river, some in Aguégué, Akpro-Missérété communes; Plateau department: Adja-Ouere commune. 169,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Weme, Weme-Gbe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gbe, Western Xwla
[xwl] Atlantique department: Ouidah commune; Littoral department: Cotonou; Mono department: Grand-Popo commune. 50,000 (2002 SIL). Total users in all countries: 71,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phla, Xwla, Xwla-Gbe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Gun [guw], 84% with Fon [fon], 73% with Gen [gej], 68% with Aja [ajg], 90% with Eastern Xwela Gbe [gbx], 88% with Saxwe Gbe [sxw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gbe, Xwela
[xwe] Atlantique department: Kpomassè and Ouidah communes; Mono department: Comé commune near Lake Aheme, southernmost Bopa commune. 50,500 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Houeda, Peda, Phera, Xwela, Xwela-Gbe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Western Xwla [xwl], 85% with Fon [fon], 71% with Gen [gej], 82% with Saxwe [sxw], 68% with Aja [ajg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gen
[gej] Atlantique and Mono departments. 77,900 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Ge, Gegbe, Gen-Gbe, Guin, Mina, Mina-Gen, Popo. Dialects: Anexo, Agoi, Gen, Gliji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Mina. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gourmanchéma
[gux] Alibori department: Banikouara and Karimama communes; Atacora department: Cobly, Kérou, Materi, and Tanguieta communes. 36,500 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goulmancema, Gourma, Gourmantche, Gulimancema, Gurma, Migulimancema. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gun
[guw] Ouémé department: Adjarra, Akpro-Missérété, Avrankou, Porto-Novo communes; Plateau department: Sakete commune. 423,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 682,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alada, Alada-Gbe, Egun, Goun, Gu, Gugbe, Gun-Alada, Gun-Gbe, Gungbe, Seto-Gbe, Toli-Gbe. Dialects: Ajra, Alada, Seto, Toli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe, Aja. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hausa
[hau] Widespread north: Alibori, Atacora, Borgou, and Donga departments, mainly in larger towns, market villages. Ethnic population: 800,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Ifè
[ife] Collines department: western Savalou commune, Tchetti town area. 27,300 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ana, Ana-Ife, Anago, Baate, Ede Ife. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kabiyè
[kbp] Donga department: Bassila, Djougou, and Ouaké communes, scattered villages. 9,300 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabre, Kabure, Kabye. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kyanga
[tye] Alibori department: Segbana commune, Kasati, Tungan Bage, and Tungan Noma towns. 1,000 (1995 R. Jones). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cenka, Kyenga, Tyenga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Kyanga.

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Lama
[las] Atacora department: Boukoumbé commune, northwest of Boukoumbé town, scattered villages; Donga department: Bassila and Djougou communes. 60,000 (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso. Dialects: Kande (Kante), Kadjala (Kadjalla). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Lama is name for the people and language. Losso refers to people on the Losso Plain who can either be Lama or Nawdm. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lukpa
[dop] Borgou department: Tchaouroue commune; Donga department: Bassila, Ouake communes, Kémérida area, border areas west of Djougou town. 83,400 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 101,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dompago, Legba, Logba, Lokpa, Lugba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Different from Logba [lgq] of Ghana. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mbelime
[mql] Atacora department: Boukoumbé commune, Dipoli and Korontière subdivisions, 5 villages; Cobly commune, Cobly, Datori, Kountori, and Tapoga subdivisions, 26 villages. 37,600 (Tchegnon and Guidibi 2006), increasing. Total users in all countries: 39,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bebelibe, Bèbèdibè, Mbilme, Mbèlimè, Oubièlo, Ubielo, “M’Bermè” (pej.), “Niende” (pej.), “Niendi” (pej.), “Niendé” (pej.), “Nyende” (pej.). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miyobe
[soy] Atacora department: Boukombe, Kounde communes; Donga department: Copargo commune. 1,350 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 16,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bijobe, Biyobe, Kayobe, Kuyobe, Meyobe, Sola, Solamba, Solla, Sorouba, Soruba, Uyobe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 27% with Moba [mfq], 25% with Ditammari [tbz], 47% with Ngangam [gng]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mokole
[mkl] Alibori department: Kandi commune, Kandi town, villages north and east. 21,400 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Féri, Mokollé, Mokwale, Monkole. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Nago, Northern
[xkb] Borgou department: Tchaourou commune; Donga department: Bantè commune south of Bassila town, Bassila commune south and west of Bassila town. 30,000 (2002 SIL). All Nago: 459,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 70,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ana, Manigri, Manigri-Kambolé Ede Nago. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 87%–91% with Ede Nago [nqk], 77% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo, 78% with Ife [ife] of Tchetti. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Nago, Southern
[nqg] Ouémé department: Akpro-Misserete and Avrankou communes; Plateau department: widespread, Adja-Ouèrè, Ifangni, Kétou, Pobè, and Sakété communes; Zou department: Ouinhi commune. 200,000 (2002 SIL). All Nago: 459,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ede Nago, Nago, Nagot, Nagots. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 87%–91% with Yoruba [yor] of Porto-Novo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Nateni
[ntm] Atacora department: Cobly, Kouandé, Matéri, Tanguiéta, and Toucountouna communes. Cobly, Matéri, and Tanguiéta communes (Kuntemba dialect); Toucountouna commune (Natemba dialect); Tanguiéta and Kouandé communes (Okoma dialect); Matéri, and Tanguiéta communes (Tayaba dialect). 61,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Nateni (Natemba, Natimba), Tayari (Tayaba), Kunteni (Kuntemba), Okoni (Okoma). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Tayakou is center of traditional beliefs and practices. Traditional religion.

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Ngangam
[gng] Atacora department: Cobly commune. 20,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dye, Gamgan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Notre
[bly] Atacora department: Tanguiéta commune, north, northwest, northeast of Tanguiéta town. 1,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boulba, Bulba, Burusa, Nootre. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Nootre. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tchumbuli
[bqa] Collines department: Ouèssè and Savè communes, Edaningbe, Gbede, and Okounfo villages. 2,500 (2000 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Basa, Chombulon, Tchombolo, Tshummbuli. Dialects: Cobecha, Tchumbuli. Lexical similarity: 80% with Chumburung [ncu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang. Comments: Tchumbuli and Cobecha are peoples of differing origins but share a common language. Christian.

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Tem
[kdh] Widespread, especially north. 13,300 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Tembe, Tim, Timu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Waama
[wwa] Atacora department: Mouande, Natitingou, and Toucountouna communes; Pehonko commune, at least 20 villages; Cotonou, Parakou area. 68,600 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yoabou, Yoabu. Dialects: Waama, Tangamma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Eastern. Comments: Natitingou is cultural center. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yom
[pil] Atacora department: Kouande, Natingou, and Pehonko communes; Borgou department: N’Dali commune; Donga department: Copargo and Djougou communes, south into Bassila commune. 450,000, all users. L1 users: 300,000 (2006 SIL). L2 users: 150,000. Almost no monolinguals. Ethnic population: 300,000. 230,000 Yowa; 70,000 Tangma. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kpilakpila, Pila, Pilapila. Dialects: Tangerem (Taneka), Yom. Yom and Tangerem dialects are very similar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm. Comments: Yom dialect users are called Yowa; Tangerem users are Tangma. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Yoruba
[yor] Widespread. Porto-Novo city, towns, and major villages. 125,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Yariba, Yooba, Yorùbá, Èdè Yorùbá. Dialects: Egba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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