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Acroá
[acs] Bahia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coroá. Classification: Jean, Central.

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Agavotaguerra
[avo] Mato Grosso state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Agavotokueng, Agavotoqueng. Dialects: None known. Related to Waurá [wau] and Yawalapiti [yaw]. Classification: Unclassified.

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Aikanã
[tba] Rondônia, west of Vilhena, near Cuiabá-Porto Velho highway. 180 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 260 (Moore 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Corumbiara, Huari, Kasupá, Kolumbiara, Mondé, Tubarão, Uari, Wari. Dialects: Masaká (Massaca), Tubanao. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Corumbiara may also refer to the Kanoê [kxo] and the Mekens [skf]. Mondé also refers to the Salamãi [mnd].

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Akuntsu
[aqz] Rondônia State, Columbiara municipality. 6 (2009 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Akunsu, Akuntsun. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tupari [tpr]. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Amahuaca
[amc] Acre state: Peru border area. 220 in Brazil (1995). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amawaca, Amawáka, Amenguaca, Sayacu. Dialects: Inuvaken, Viwivakeu. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State, Amawaka.

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Amanayé
[ama] Pará state: Domingos do Capim municipality; Capim river. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 190 (2001 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Amanage, Amanajé, Amanajó, Amanyé, Manajó, Mananyé, Manaxó, Manayé, Manaze, Manazewá, Manazo, Turiwa. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Amundava
[adw] Rondônia, Acre, near Jiparaná river. 83 (2003 ISA). Crevels 2007 groups the Amundava together with the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau [urz] for a total population of 170 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amondawa, Amundawa. Dialects: None known. The Amundava, Kayabi [kyz], Tenharim [pah], Júma [jua], and Karipuna [kuq] all call themselves Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] are all reportedly linguistically very similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Anambé
[aan] Pará state; Cairari river (Moju river tributary). 6 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 130 (2000 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Apalaí
[apy] Pará state: Paru Leste river; some on Jarí and Citare rivers, 20 villages; a few in Amapá state. 450 (1993 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Apalay, Aparaí, Arakwayu. Classification: Cariban, Central.

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Apiaká
[api] Mato Grosso state: upper Rio Tapajos, Slo Manoel confluence; a few in Pará state. 1 (Tempesta 2009). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Tempesta 2009). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Apiacá, Apiake. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib.

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Apinayé
[apn] Tocantins and Maranhão states, near Tocantinopolis; 6 villages. 1,260 (2003 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 1,530 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afotigé, Aogé, Apinagé, Apinajé, Otogé, Oupinagee, Pinagé, Pinaré, Uhitische, Utinsche, Western Timbira. Classification: Jean, Northern.

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Apurinã
[apu] Amazonas state: Purus river, from Rio Branco to Manaus; Mato Grosso state. 2,780 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 6,990 (2010 FUNASA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ipurinã, Ipurinãn, Kangite, Popengare. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Arapaso
[arj] Amazonas state: São Gabriel, Iauarete. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 320 (Moore 2006). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arapaço, Araspaso, Koneá. Dialects: Reportedly a dialect of Tucano [tuo]. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Arára, Mato Grosso
[axg] Mato Grosso State. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 150 (1994 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arara do Beiradão, Arara do Rio Branco. Classification: Unclassified.

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Arára, Pará
[aap] Pará: Laranjal and Cachoeira Seca. 340 (2010 I. Souza). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arára Bravos. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar extant languages are Ikpeng [txi] and Bakairí [bkq]. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Arara. Comments: Some groups uncontacted. Subgroups of the Arara are Apiaká or Miranya (Apingui), Arára-Pariri or Arára Mansos, Arára Bravos, Yarumá. Except for the Arára Bravos, from whom the present Arára of Pará people come, all the other subgroups are extinct.

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Ararandewára
[xaj] Pará state. No known L1 speakers (Campbell and Grondona 2012). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ararandeuras. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Araweté
[awt] Pará state: near Altamira; near Xingu river. 280 (Moore 2006). Nearly all are monolingual (1986). Ethnic population: 300 (2003 ISA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arawine, Bïde. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu], Parakanã [pak], and Tapirapé [taf]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní.

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Arikapú
[ark] Rondônia state; Rio Branco headwaters, Guaporé tributary. 2 (2009 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 32 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aricapú, Maxubí. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Jabuti [jbt]. Classification: Jabutian. Comments: Located among many other groups, primarily the Tupari [tpr].

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Arikem
[ait] Rondônia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ahopovo, Ariken. Classification: Tupian, Arikem.

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Aruá
[arx] Rondônia state: Rio Branco post; Branco and Guaporé rivers. 12 (1990 YWAM). Ethnic population: 58 (Moore 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arouá, Arouén. Dialects: Aruashí (Aruachi). Classification: Tupian, Mondé, Aruá. Comments: Many reportedly in Mato Grosso.

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Arutani
[atx] Roraima. 17 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Total users in all countries: 42. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Anake, Aoaqui, Auakê, Auaqué, Awaikê, Awake, Oewaku, Orotani, Uruak, Urutaní. Classification: Language isolate.

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Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa
[cpb] Acre state: border area with Peru, Juruá river between Amônia, Arara, and Breu tributaries; Tarauacá river, Envira tributary. 870 in Brazil (2004 CPIAC). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Campa, Kampa. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga. Comments: Live in 5 reserves.

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Asurini of Xingú
[asn] Pará state: Rio Picava; Xingu river near Altamira. 120 (2006 ISA). Ethnic population: 120 (2006 ISA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Assuriní, Assurinikin, Asuriní de Koatinema, Asurini do Xingú, Awaeté, Awaté, Kuben-Kamrektí. Dialects: None known. Different from Tocantins Asurini (Akwaya) [asu], and Arawete [awt]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kayabí.

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Asurini, Tocantins
[asu] Pará state: Trocará near Tucurui; Tocantins river. 300 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 300 (Moore 2006). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Akwawa-Asuriní, Akwaya, Assuriní, Asuriní, Asuriní do Tocantins, Asuriní do Trocará. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Akwawa. Comments: Different from Asuriní do Xingú [asn].

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Atorada
[aox] Roraima. Few in Brazil (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Atorad, Atorai, Ator’ti, Dauri. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana. Comments: Different from Waimiri-Atroarí [atr].

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Aurá
[aux] Pará state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Auré. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí.

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Avá-Canoeiro
[avv] Goiás state: Terra Indigena Ava-Canoeiro; Tocantins state: Bananal island, upper Tocantins river valley. 14 (Moore 2006). No monolinguals. All speakers are monolingual. Ethnic population: 46 (2009 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Abá, Avá, Awana, Canoa, Canoe, Canoeiros. Dialects: The groups in Tocantins and Goias speak different dialects, and have lived apart for over 100 years. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara. Comments: Seminomadic. The group in Tocantins, contacted in 1974, has 12 people. An estimated 15 remain uncontacted. The other group in Goias, contacted in 1983 has 9 people, with an estimated 10 remaining uncontacted. Traditional religion.

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Awetí
[awe] Mato Grosso state: Xingú park, Rio Culiseu, Aweti, and Sauva villages; upper Xingú river. 170 (2011 S. Drude). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arauine, Arauite, Auetí, Auetó, Auití, Autl, Awetö. Classification: Tupian.

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Bakairí
[bkq] Mato Grosso state: about 9 villages. 950 (1999 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bacairí, Kurâ. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Bakairí.

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Baniwa
[bwi] Amazonas state: Middle Içana river. Ethnic population: 5,150 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baniba, Baniua do Içana, Baniva, Dakenei, Issana, Kohoroxitari, Maniba. Dialects: Carutana. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu. Comments: Non-indigenous. Go to Colombia or Venezuela to work or trade. Some isolated and uncontacted groups of Baniwa may exist in Brazil.

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Baré
[bae] Amazonas state: Xié river area. Spoken by a few elders (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,220 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Central Upper Amazon, Baré. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Borôro
[bor] Mato Grosso state: Meruri, Sangradouro, Perigera. 1,390 in Brazil (2007 ISA). Total users in all countries: 1,392. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boe. Classification: Bororoan.

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Brazilian Sign Language
[bzs] Scattered. 3,000,000 use Brazilian Sign Language as their first language of communication. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of national identity (2005, Parliamentary decree No. 5626). Alternate Names: LIBRAS, Língua de Sinais Brasileira, LSB, São Paulo Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Legally recognized by Brazilian Government in 2002. São Paulo deaf generally receive oralist education.

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Cafundo Creole
[ccd] Rio de Janeiro state: Cafundo, 240 km from São Paulo. 40 (1978 M. Gnerre). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Creole, Portuguese based. Comments: Bantu lexicon in Portuguese [por] morphological and syntactic framework. The creole is considered a secret language.

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Caló
[rmq] Widespread, primarily northeast and north central Brazil. 400,000 in Brazil (2014 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 800,000 (2011 R7 Noticias). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chibi, Gitano, Iberian Romani. Dialects: Brazilian Calão. Classification: Mixed language, Iberian-Romani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Canela
[ram] Maranhão state. 2,500 (2008 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanela. Dialects: Apâniekra (Apânhecra, Apânjekra, Apânyekra), Ramkokamekra. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Cashinahua
[cbs] Acre and Amazonas states. 400 in Brazil (2003). Ethnic population: 1,400 (2000 ISA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cashinahuá, Caxinawá, Huni Kui , Juni Kuin, Kaxinauá, Kaxinawá, Kaxynawa. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State.

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Chiquitano
[cax] Mato Grosso, border area with Bolivia, municipalities of Vila Bela, Cáceres and Porto Espiridião. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Language isolate.

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Chiripá
[nhd] Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, and São Paulo states; scattered. 4,900 in Brazil (1995 AMTB). Ethnic population: 8,000 (2003 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Apytare, Ava Guaraní, Guaraní, Nandeva, Ñandeva, Nhandeva, Tsiripá, Txiripá. Dialects: Apapocuva. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní. Comments: Influenced by Paraguayan Guaraní [gug], Mbyá Guaraní [gun], and Kaiwá [kgk]. Most are from Apapocuva group. Ñandeva is used in Paraguayan Chaco for Tapiete [tpj], a different but related language.

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Cinta Larga
[cin] Mato Grosso state: Terra Indigena Aripuanã; Rondônia state: Terra Indigena Roosevelt, Parque Indigena Aripuanã. 1,300 (Moore 2006). Nearly all are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,440 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tupian, Mondé, Aruá.

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Cocama-Cocamilla
[cod] Amazonas state: Rio Solimões region, Terra Indígena Acapuri de Cima, Terra Indígena Espírito Santo, Terra Indígena Evaré I, Terra Indígena Kokama. Ethnic population: 620 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cocama, Kokama. Dialects: Cocama, Cocamilla (Kokamilla, Pambadeque), Xibitaona. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Cubeo
[cub] Amazonas state: near São Gabriel. 150 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 290 (2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cubeu, Cuveo, Hehenawa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kobéwa, Kubeo, Kubewa, Kubwa, Pamié, Pamiwa. Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan.

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Curripaco
[kpc] Amazonas state: Içana. 1,250 in Brazil (2001 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cumata, Curipaco, Ipeca, Ipeka-Tapuia, Koripako, Korispaso, Kuripako, Pacu, Paku-Tapuya, Palioariene, Pato Tapuia, Pato-Tapuya, Payualiene, Payuliene. Dialects: Ipeka-Tapuia, Korripako (Karupaka), Unhun (Cadauapuritana, Enhen), Waliperi (Veliperi). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu.

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Dâw
[kwa] Amazonas state: across the river from São Gabriel de Cochoeira, below confluence of Vaupés and Negro rivers. 85 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 85 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dow, “Kamã” (pej.), “Kamã Makú” (pej.), “Kamán” (pej.), “Kamu Maku” (pej.). Classification: Puinavean.

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Dení
[dny] Amazonas state: Terra Indigena Camadeni and Terra Indigena Deni, between Purus and Juruá rivers, Upper Cunhua and Xiruã rivers. 740 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 880 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dani, Madiha. Dialects: Inauini. Reportedly similar to Kulina [cul]. Classification: Arauan.

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Desano
[des] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro, sixty communities on Tiquié river and tributaries; border with Colombia. 960 in Brazil (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,530 (Moore 2006). Total users in all countries: 3,420. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boleka, Desâna, Desana-Siriana, Dessano, Kusibi, Oregu, Uina, Wina, Wirã. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Siriano [sri]. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano.

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Enawené-Nawé
[unk] Mato Grosso state. 320 (Moore 2006). Most are still monolingual (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 540 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eneuene-Mare, Salumã. Dialects: None known. Related to Parecís [pab]. Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified. Comments: Distinct from Salumá [slj] in Pará.

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Galibi
[car] Amapá state: Terra Indigena Galibi, São José dos Galibi village on Oiapoque river right bank, south of Saint Georges, between Morcego and Taparabu streams. 28 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,800 (2000 ISA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Carib, Caribe, Cariña, Kalihna, Kalinya, Kari’ña, Kari’na auran, Maraworno, Marworno. Dialects: Tyrewuju (Eastern Carib). Classification: Cariban. Comments: Non-indigenous. Portuguese-Carib creole people (Galibí do Uaça) also speak Karipuna Creole French [kmv].

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Gavião do Jiparaná
[gvo] Rondônia state: Terra Indigena Igarape Lourdes. 340 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 520 (2004 Associação de Defensa Etnoambiental). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Digüt, Gavião do Rondônia, Ikolen, Ikõro. Dialects: Gavião, Zoró (Cabeça Seca, Panginey). Partially intelligible with Suruí [sru]. Classification: Tupian, Mondé, Aruá. Comments: Different from Gavião of Pará [gvp]; Zoro had a population of 414 in 2000 (ISA).

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Gavião, Pará
[gvp] Pará state: Kaikoture near Maraba; possibly in original locations in Maranhão state. Ethnic population: 810 (2005 ISA). 340 Parakatêjê, 470 Pukobjê. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gavião do Mãe Maria, Parakatêjê, Perkatêjê, Pukobjê. Dialects: None known. Related to Krinkati-Timbira [xri], Canela [ram], and Krahô [xra]. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira. Comments: Not to be confused with the Gavião of Jiparana [gvo].

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German, Standard
[deu] 1,500,000 in Brazil. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Guajá
[gvj] Maranhão state: Terra Indígena Alto Turiaçu and Terra Indígena Caru, four settlements; Pará state. 280 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 370 (1995 AMTB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awá, Awá Guajá, Ayaya, Guaxare, Wazaizara. Dialects: None known. Related to Guajajára [gub]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Guajajára
[gub] Maranhão state: Pindaré, Grajaú, Mearim, and Zutiua rivers. 81 villages. 13,100 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 19,500 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Guazazzara, Tenetehar, Tenetehára. Dialects: Pindare, Zutiua, Mearim. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Tenetehara.

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Guana
[gqn] Mato Grosso do Sul state: near the Terêna. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 250 (2005 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chana, Chuala, East Paraná, Equinao, Kinihinao, Kinikinao. Dialects: None known. Related to Terêna [ter] and Irantxe [irn]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Terena.

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Guanano
[gvc] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro; on Colombia border. 450 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Total users in all countries: 750. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anana, Kótedia, Kótirya, Uanana, Wanâna, Wanana-Pirá, Wanano. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Piratapuyo [pir], but the two groups do not intermarry. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan. Comments: The Guanano move back and forth across the border with Colombia.

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Guaraní, Mbyá
[gun] Paraná, São Paulo, Espírito Santo, Pará, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina states; possibly also Minas Gerais state. 35 villages. 6,000 in Brazil (2008 CTI). Most children, women and elders are monolingual (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 15,050. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bugre, Mbiá, Mbua, Mbya, Mbyá. Dialects: Tambéopé, Baticola. Lexical similarity: 75% with Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. A member of macrolanguage Guarani [grn]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Guarequena
[gae] Amazonas state: Rio Chié (Xié) and Içana; near Venezuelan border. 490 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arequena, Uerequema, Urequema, Warekéna, Werekena, Werikena. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Warekena.

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Guató
[gta] Mato Grosso do Sul state: Paraguai river banks and up São Lourenço river, along Bolivian border. 4 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 370 (2008 FUNASA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Language isolate.

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Himarimã
[hir] Amazonas state: Tapauá valley, near the Jamamadi and Jarawara. 40 Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Essentially uncontacted.

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Hixkaryána
[hix] Pará and Amazonas states: upper Nhamunda river to Mapuera and Jatapu rivers. 600 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 680 (Moore 2006). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chawiyana, Faruaru, Hichkaryana, Hishkariana, Hishkaryana, Hixkariana, Hyxkaryana, Kumiyana, Parucutu, Parukoto-Charuma, Sherewyana, Sokaka, Wabui, Xereu, Xerewyana. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Waiwai [waw]. No dialectal variation. Some Hixkaryana who live among the Waiwai are called Sherewyana. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai. Comments: In 1959 the population was about 100, with few children, high infant mortality, low will to live. By 1977 it was 237. Through modern medicine, intermarrying with the Waiwai [waw], self-confidence through literature in Hixkaryana, Hixkaryana teachers running a school for children ages 5 to 14, and government help in setting up a Brazil nut industry, they continue to grow.

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Hunsrik
[hrx] Widespread. Many in Paraná, Rio Grande do Sul, and Santa Catarina states. 3,000,000 in Brazil. Ethnic population: 5,000,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hunsriker, Rio Grand Hunsriker. Dialects: Originally derived from Hunsrücker (Westpfälzisch) German speech variety; influenced by Portuguese [por]. Several dialects, probably due to being language of intercommunication for many other Germanic language speakers such as Swabian [swg], Bavarian [bar] and others as well as immigrants from Switzerland and Austria. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German. Comments: Emigrated from Germany from 1824 more or less continuously until World War II.

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Hupdë
[jup] Amazonas state: Rio Auari. 1,000 in Brazil (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 1,240. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hup, Hupda, “Hupdá Makú” (pej.), Hupdah, “Jupdá Macú” (pej.), Jupde, “Macú de Tucano” (pej.), “Makú-Hupdá” (pej.), Ubdé. Dialects: Hupdë, Tuhup, Nëhup. Ruhlen and others classify it as Puinave, Macro-Tucanoan. Intelligible with Yahup [yab]. Classification: Puinavean, Hupda. Comments: Subservient to the Tucano and other Tucanoan Indians. Some nomadic between Brazil and Colombia.

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Iapama
[iap] Pará and Amapá states border region. Status: Unattested. Classification: Unclassified.

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Iatê
[fun] Alagoas state; Pernambuco State: Sertão, Águas Belas municipality, 2 villages. 2,930 (1999 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Carnijó, Fornió, Fulniô, Furniô, Yatê. Dialects: Fulniô, Yatê. Lexical similarity: 98% between Fulniô and Yatê dialects. Classification: Language isolate.

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Ikpeng
[txi] Mato Grosso state: Xingú park. 310 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 340 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chicao, Tonore, Tunuli, Txikân, Txikão. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Pará Arara [aap]. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Arara. Comments: First contact in 1964.

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Ingarikó
[ake] Roraima state: Terra Indígena Raposa or Serra do Sol, near Cotingo river. 670 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Acahuayo, Acewaio, Akawai, Akawaio, Akwaio, Kapon, Kapóng, Patamona. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong.

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Irántxe
[irn] Mato Grosso state: Rio Cravari headwaters, Rio Sangue tributary, a tributary of Rio Juruena. 40 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 360 (2006 ISA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Iranche, Iranshe, Iranxe, Münkü. Dialects: Münkü (Kenkü, Menku, Mynky, Myy), Irántxe. Classification: Language isolate.

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Italian
[ita] 50,000 in Brazil. Ethnic population: 20,000,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Itene
[ite] Rondônia state: Guajará-Mirim, Poro Velho. 12 in Brazil (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 30 (2002). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: More. Classification: Chapacuran, Itene. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Jabutí
[jbt] Rondônia state: Rio Branco Post. 1 (Van der Voort 2008). Ethnic population: 190 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Djeoromitxi, Jabotí, Jeoromitxi, Yabutí. Classification: Jabutian.

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Jamamadí
[jaa] Amazonas state: Jaruara; Lábrea municipality, 7 villages; Banawá river area; others scattered. 800 (Moore 2006). 220 Banawa Yafi (Kitiya) mostly monolingual; 160 ethnic Jarawara, also mostly monolingual (Crevels 2007). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Canamanti, Kanamanti, Madi, Yamamadí. Dialects: Bom Futuro, Jurua, Pauini, Mamoria (Mamori), Cuchudua (Maima), Tukurina, Jaruára (Jarawara, Yarawara), Kitiya (Banauá, Banavá, Banawá, Banawa Yafi, Jafí). Other groups called, Jamamadí, are reportedly more similar to Kulina [cul] or Dení [dny]. Tukurina dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Arauan, Jamamadi. Comments: People want a school. Christian, traditional religion.

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Júma
[jua] Amazonas state: Upper Jamary village; Mucuim river, Rio Açuã tributary. 7 (Moore 2006). 5 speakers belong to one family, all married to Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau [urz] (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arara, Kagwahibm, Kagwahiph, Kagwahiv, Kagwahiva, Kavahiva, Kawahip, Kawaib, Yumá. Dialects: None known. The Júma, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Tenharim [pah], and Karipuna [kuq] all call themselves Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are all reportedly linguistically similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Jurúna
[jur] Mato Grosso state: Xingu park, 2 villages; Maritsauu-Mitau river mouth; possibly also Pará state. 280 (Moore 2006). 1 speaker left in the Terra Indígena Paquiçamba in 1989. Ethnic population: 360 (2006 FUNASA). 35 ethnic group members in the Tierra Indígena Paquiçamba (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iuruna, Jaruna, Yudjá, Yudya, Yurúna. Classification: Tupian, Juruna.

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Kaapor
[urb] Maranhão and Pará states: 8–10 villages scattered over 7,250 square km; Gurupi river. 800 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 990 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caapor, Ka’apor, Kaaporté, “Urubú” (pej.), Urubú-Kaapor. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Kaapor Sign Language
[uks] Maranhão and Pará states. 7 (Kakumasu 1968). L2 users: 500. Deaf users are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Urubú Sign Language” (pej.). Classification: Sign language.

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Kadiwéu
[kbc] Mato Grosso do Sul state: Serra da Bodoquena area; 3 villages. 1,590 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,630 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caduvéo, Ediu-Adig, Mbaya-Guaikuru. Classification: Guaykuruan, Guaykurú. Comments: “Payagua”, enemy, may be an exonym applied to this group.

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Kaimbé
[xai] Bahia state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,100 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified.

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Kaingang
[kgp] Paraná State: 9 reservations between Paranapena and Iguaçu rivers; Rio Grande do Sul state: 5 reservations of southeast dialect south of Uruguay river east of Passo Fundo river; southwest dialect on 7 reservations; east of Passo Fundo river; outskirts of cities in Rio Grande do Sul; Santa Catarina state: 8 reservations between Iguaçu and Uruguay rivers; São Paulo state: 3 reservations north of Paranapena river; Scattered. 18,000 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bugre, Caingang, Coroado, Coroados. Dialects: Paraná Kaingang, Central Kaingang, Southwest Kaingang, Southeast Kaingang. Classification: Jean, Southern, Kaingang. Comments: Alternate names now only used in old documents.

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Kaingáng, São Paulo
[zkp] São Paulo. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Jean, Southern, Kaingang.

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Kaiwá
[kgk] Mato Grosso do Sul state: Apa, Dourados, and Ivinhema rivers north to Mbarakaju mountains and Jejui river tributaries south. 18,000 (2003 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caingua, Caiua, Caiwa, Cayua, Kaingwá, Kaiova, Kaiowá, Kayova. Dialects: Teüi, Tembekuá, Kaiwá. Some comprehension of Paraguayan Guaraní [gug]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Pai Tavytera [pta] of Paraguay. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Kamakan
[vkm] Bahia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ezeshio. Classification: Kamakanan, Kamakán.

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Kamayurá
[kay] Mato Grosso state: Xingú park. 400 (2011 S. Drude). Ethnic population: 520 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camaiura, Kamaiurá, Kamayirá. Classification: Tupian. Comments: One of the larger groups in the Xingú park.

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Kambiwá
[xbw] Pernambuco state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,580 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified.

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Kanamarí
[knm] Amazonas state: Itaquai, Jurua, Jutai rivers’ upper regions. 1,330 (Moore 2006). 100 Tsohom-Djapa speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,750 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Canamarí, Djapá, Kanamaré. Dialects: Tshom-Djapa (Txunhuã Dyapá, Txunhuã-Djapá), Tsohon-Djapa. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro.

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Kanoé
[kxo] Rondônia state: Guaporé river. 5 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 95 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amniapé, Canoé, Canoê, Guarategaja, Guaratégaya, Guaratira, Kapishanã, Kapixana, Kapixaná, Koaratira. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Distinct from Ava (Canoeiros) [avv].

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Kapinawá
[xpn] Pernambuco state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 420 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified.

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Karajá
[kpj] Mato Grosso, Pará, and Tocantins states: Bananal island, Araguaia river; possibly also Goias state. 2,670 (Moore 2006). Karajá 1,860, Javaé 800, Xambioá 10 (D. Moore). Ethnic population: 3,610 (Crevels 2007). Karajá 2,500, Javaé 920, Xambioá 190 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caraiauna, Chambioa, Iraru Mahadu, Ixbyowa, Karaja do Norte, Ynã. Dialects: Javaé (Javahe), Karajá, Xambioá. Men and women speak different dialects. Classification: Karajá.

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Karapanã
[cbc] Amazonas state: Pari-Cachoeira and São Gabriel. 42 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Carapana, Carapanã, Mextã. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano.

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Karipuna
[kuq] Rondônia state: Jaru, Jamery, Urupa, Cabecciras, Candeias, and Jaciparana rivers’ banks. 10 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 21 (2001). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ah’e, Caripuna, Jau-Navo, Juanauo, Kagwahiva, Karipuna de Rondônia, Karipuna do Guaporé. Dialects: Jacaria, Pama (Pamana). The Karipuna, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], and Tenharim [pah] all call themselves, Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). These varieties along with Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz] and Morerebi [xmo] are reportedly all linguistically very similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin. Comments: Loukotka identified this as Panoan [knt].

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Karipúna
[kgm] Amapá state: on French Guiana border. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Karipuna do Amapá, Karipuna do Uaçá. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib.

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Karipuna Creole French
[kmv] Amapá state: on French Guiana border. 2,400 (2008 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Crioulo. Dialects: None known. Conflicting reports about difference from Guianese Creole French [gcr]. Different from Haitian Creole [hat]. Classification: Creole, French based. Comments: Formerly spoke Karipuna [kgm], possibly from Marajó Island at the mouth of the Amazon. Also spoken by Galibi do Wasa ethnic group (2006 FUNASA), where language use is much stronger. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Karirí-Xocó
[kzw] Alagoas state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,570 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cariri, Karirí, Kariri Xucó, Kipeá, Xocó, Xokó, Xokó-Karirí, Xukurú, Xukuru Kariri. Dialects: Kipeá (Quipea), Kamurú (Camuru), Sabujá (Pedra Branca). Other dialects or languages are even less well attested. Classified as Equatorial, Macro-Carib (Swadesh), Macro-Ge (1975 A. Rodrigues), Isolate (Larsen 1984). Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Xokó, Karirí-Xokó, Xukuru-Kariri are all descendants of indigenous groups that used to inhabit northeast Brazil. It is not clear whether they spoke 3 different languages or just one (Crevels 2007).

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Karitiâna
[ktn] Rondônia state: Candeias river, a tributary of upper Madeira river. 210 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 320 (2005 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caritiana. Classification: Tupian, Arikem.

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Karo
[arr] Mato Grosso and Rondônia states: south Terra Indígena Igarapé de Lourdes; Iterap and Paygap villages. 210 (2006 Associação de Defensa Etnoambiental). Spoken by almost everyone in the two villages (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Arára, Arára de Rondonia, Arára do Jiparaná, Arara-Karo, Itanga, Itogapuc, Itogapúk, Ntogapid, Ntogapig, Ramarama, Uruku, Urukú. Dialects: Arara, Uruku. Classification: Tupian, Ramarama. Comments: Different from Arára do Pará [aap] in Carib family.

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Katawixi
[xat] Amazonas state: Canutama municipality; Jacareúba river. 10 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 250 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Catauichi, Catauixi, Catawishi, Catawixi, Jacareúba. Classification: Katukinan. Comments: Isolated group. Last report of contact was in 1997. Continuing existence in doubt.

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Katukína
[kav] Acre. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 590 (2008 FUNASA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Catuquina, Katukina do Jutaí, Katukina do Rio Biá, Pidá-Djapá. Dialects: Cutiadapa (Kutia-Dyapa). Classification: Katukinan. Comments: Different from Panoan Katukína [knt] in Amazonas and Acre.

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Katukína, Panoan
[knt] Amazonas state: Acre. 700 (2010 S. Kennell). Ethnic population: 700 (S. Kennell). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Catuquina, Kamanawa, Kamannaua, Katukina do Juruá, Waninnawa. Dialects: Arara-Shawanawa (Shawanawa-Arara), Ararapina, Ararawa, Sanainawa (Saninawacana). Possibly intelligible with Marúbo [mzr]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo. Comments: Different from other Katukína [kav] (Katukinan family) in Acre.

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Kaxararí
[ktx] Acre, Amazonas, and Rondônia states: Alto Rio Marmelo, tributary of Rio Abuna. 270 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 320 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kaxariri. Classification: Panoan.

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Kaxuiâna
[kbb] Pará state: Imabu river near perimetral norte; Trombetes river near junction with Mapuwera. Most among the Trió [tri]; a few among Hixkaryána [hix]. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 69 (1998 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kachuana, Kashujana, Kashuyana, Kaxúyana, Warikiana, Warikyana. Dialects: Pawiyana (Pawixi). Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana.

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Kayabí
[kyz] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park, south Pará; Teles Pires river and Tatui. 1,000 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,620 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caiabi, Kajabí, Maquiri, Parua. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kayabí.

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Kayapó
[txu] Mato Grosso and Pará states: Xingú Park, both sides of Xingú river, west up to the Iriri and tributaries; west bank to Fresco and Zinho rivers; 14 villages. 7,100 (Moore 2006). 19 communities in regular contact with outsiders; also 3–4 isolated Kayapó groups of 30–100 people (Crevels 2007). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cayapo, Kokraimoro. Dialects: Xikrin (Diore, Xukru), Kararaó, Kayapó-Kradaú. Dialects only slightly different from village names. Classification: Jean, Northern. Comments: Village names sometimes listed as dialects are: Txukuhamai (Txucarramãe), Gorotire, Kube-Kran-Kenh (Cabeca Pelada), Kokraimoro, Menkragnotire (Mentuktire, Kuben-Kragnotire, Gente Preta, Kubenkrangnoti, Kubenkrankegn, Menkrangnoti), Pacajá, and others. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kepkiriwát
[kpn] Rondônia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Koropó
[xxr] Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais states. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Closely related to Puri [prr]. Classification: Purian.

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Korubo
[xor] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Vale do Javari; Javari river basin near Itaquai, Ituí, and Quixiti rivers. 26 (2007 FPEVJ). Ethnic population: 250 (2000 ISA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Caceteiros. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: FUNAI expedition first contacted part of the Korubo group in 1996. This group of 22 split off from the original group, which resists any further contact and continues to hide itself (Crevels 2007).

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Krahô
[xra] Maranhão and Tocantins states; 5 villages. 1,900 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 2,180 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Craho, Craô, Kraô. Dialects: None known. Different from Canela [ram], but may be able to use literature adapted from Canela. Lexical similarity: high with Apinaye [apn]. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira. Comments: Do not accept the name Canela.

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Krenak
[kqq] Minas Gerais state: between Conselheiro Pena and Resplendor towns; São Paulo state: small enclave; Doce river east bank. 10 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 150 (Moore 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Botocudo. Classification: Botocudoan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kreye
[xre] Maranhão and Pará states. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Crange, Crenge, Crenye, Creye, Krem-Ye, Tage, Taze. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira.

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Krikati-Timbira
[xri] Maranhão state: Amarante municipality, Governador village. 680 (2005 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 680 (2005 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krikati-Gaviao, Krinkati-Gaviao, Krinkati-Timbira. Dialects: Krinkati (Karakati), Timbira. Krikati and Timbira are separate ethnic groups speaking related dialects. Classification: Jean, Northern, Timbira.

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Kuikúro-Kalapálo
[kui] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park; 3 villages along Culuene river. 1,010 (2006 FUNASA). 510 Kuikúro and 500 Kalapálo. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apalakiri, Apalaquiri, Cuicutl, Guicurú, Kalapalo, Kuikuru, Kurkuro. Dialects: Mogareb, Matipú, Nahukwá, Kuikúro. Kuikúro and Kalapálo speak the same language, but are separate ethnically. Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Bakairí, Amonap.

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Kulina
[cul] Acre and Amazonas states: Juruá and Purus rivers. 3,500 in Brazil (2006 ISA). Total users in all countries: 3,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Corina, Culina, Kulína, Kulyna, Madiha, Madihá, Madija. Dialects: Minor changes from Peruvian dialect. Classification: Arauan. Comments: May still be some uncontacted groups in the Brazil-Peru border area.

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Kulina Pano
[xpk] Amazonas state: Vale do Javari Indigenous Territory; Aldeia Pedro Lopes village, Curuca river. Migrating to Tabatinga town near the confluence of the Amazon and Javari Amazon rivers. 32 (2007 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Culina Pano, Kulina do Acre. Dialects: None known. Reportedly different from Kulina [cul] in the Arauan family. Similar to Matis [mpq] and Matses [mcf]. Classification: Panoan.

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Kuruáya
[kyr] Pará state: Altamira municipality; Terra Indígena Curuá, Cajueiro village, Curuá river right bank; Terra Indígena Xipaia, Altamira town. 3 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 130 (2006 FUNASA). 115 (2002) in Cajueiro village (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Caravare, Curuaia, Kuruaia. Classification: Tupian, Mundurukú. Comments: In Altamira, Kuruaya and Xipaya [xiy] are sometimes considered a single ethnic group due to intermarriage. This complicates a precise demographic (2007 census).

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Kwaza
[xwa] Rondônia state: west of Vilhena, near Cuiabá-Porto Velho highway. Same reserve as Aikanãs [tba] and Latundês [ltn]. 7 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 40. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Coaia, Koaiá, Koaya, Quaiá. Classification: Language isolate.

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Lakondê
[lkd] Rondônia state: Vilhena village. 1 (2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Latundê [ltn] and Tawandê [xtw]. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex, Northern, Roosevelt Cluster.

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Latundê
[ltn] Rondônia state: Aikaná-Latundê Indigenous Reserve. 10 (2010 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 20 (2010 S. Anonby). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Leitodu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lakondé [lkd] and Tawandê [xtw]. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex, Northern, Roosevelt Cluster.

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Machinere
[mpd] Acre state: Assis and Sena Madureira municipalities, Terra Indígena Mamoadate. 940 in Brazil (2004 CPIAC). Total users in all countries: 1,080. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Machineri, Manchinere, Manchineri, Manitenére, Manitenerí, Maxinéri. Dialects: Distinct from Yine [pib] (Piro) in Peru. The Manitenére dialect may be different from Machinere. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro, Piro.

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Macuna
[myy] Amazonas state: Rio Chié. 170 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Baigana, Buhagana, Jepa-Matsi, Makuna, Paneroa, Wuhána, Yebamasã, Yehpá Majsá, Yepá Maxsã, Yepá-Mahsá. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Macushi
[mbc] Roraima state; Contingo, Mau, Pium, Quino rivers;. 16,500 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 23,400 (2001 FUNASA). Total users in all countries: 18,030. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Macusi, Macuxi, Makuchi, Makushi, Makusi, Makuxi, Teueia, Teweya. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Pemon [aoc] or Patamona [pbc]. Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Máku
[xak] Roraima territory, Uraricuera river. No known L1 speakers in Brazil (2015). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Macu, Máko, Maku, Makú. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Makuráp
[mpu] Rondônia state: Branco, Guaporé, Mequéns and Pororoca post rivers. 45 (De Olivera Braga 1992). Ethnic population: 130 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kurateg, Macuráp, Macurapi, Makurápi, Massaka. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí. Comments: Intermarriage on same post with speakers of other languages.

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Mamaindé
[wmd] Mato Grosso state: between Cabixi and Pardo rivers. 330 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mamainsahai’gidu. Dialects: Negaroté, Tawende. Reportedly similar to Lakondê [lkd], Latundê [ltn], and Tawandê [xtw]. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex, Northern.

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Mapidian
[mpw] Roraima state: with the Waiwai [waw]. 10 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mahuayana, Maiopitian, Maopityan, Mawayana. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 10% with Wapishana [wap] and 20% with Atorada [aox]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana.

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Maquiritari
[mch] Roraima state: near Venezuela border, Terra Indígena Yanomami. 430 in Brazil (2000 ISA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Makiritare, Maquiritai, Maquiritare, Mayongong, Pawana, Soto, Ye’kuana, Yekuána. Dialects: Cunuana, De’cuana (Wainungomo), Ihuruana, Maitsi, Mayongong (Ye’cuana, Yekuana). Classification: Cariban, Central, Makiritare.

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Maritsauá
[msp] Mato Grosso state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Manitsawá, Mantizula. Dialects: Arupai (Arupati, Urupaya). Classification: Tupian, Juruna.

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Marúbo
[mzr] Amazonas state: headwaters of Curuçá, Ipixuna, and Javarí tributaries, near the Peru border; large groups in Atalaia do Norte city; smaller groups in Cruzeiro do Sul city. 1,250 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaniuá, Marova, Maruba. Dialects: None known. No comprehension of Matsés (Mayoruna) [mcf] reported. Possibly intelligible of Panoan Katukína [knt]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo.

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Matipuhy
[mzo] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 220 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Mariape-Nahuqua, Matipu. Dialects: Matipuhy, Nahukuá (Nafukwá, Nahukwa, Nahuqua, Nakukwa). Classification: Cariban, South Amazonian, Bakairí, Amonap. Comments: Shifted to Kuikúro-Kalapálo [kui].

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Matís
[mpq] Amazonas state: Atalaia do Norte municipality; on Peru border; Javari valley. 320 (2008 ISA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Different from Matsés [mcf]. Classification: Panoan, Mayoruna-Matsés. Comments: Almost died out from disease in the 1980s.

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Matsés
[mcf] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Lameiãro, Terra Indígena Vale do Javari, Javari river basin; Terra Indígena Mayoruna, Solimões river area. 830 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 1,590 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Matse, Mayoruna. Classification: Panoan, Mayoruna-Matsés.

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Maxakalí
[mbl] Minas Gerais and Bahia states: 160 km inland from coast. 14 villages. 1,270 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caposho, Cumanasho, Macuni, Mashakalí, Monaxo, Monocho. Classification: Maxakalian.

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Mehináku
[mmh] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park. 230 (2006 FUNASA). All Mehinaku still speak their mother tongue (Crevels 2007). Combined Waura [wau] and Mehinaku speakers: 600 (2011). Ethnic population: 230 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahinaku, Mehinaco, Mehinako, Minaco. Dialects: Waurá-kumá. Somewhat intelligible of Waurá [wau]. There is a dialect of Mehinaku called Waurá-kumá which is influenced by Waurá [wau]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Waurá.

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Miranha
[boa] Amazonas state: Solimões, between Tefé and Caiçara river areas; along Brazilian Rio Iça. No known L1 speakers in Brazil. Ethnic population: 610 (1997 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bora, Boro, Miraña, Mirãnia. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Miriti
[mmv] Amazonas state: Pari-Cachoeira, Taracua. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 95 (1998). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Miriti Tapuyo, Miriti-Tapuia, Mirity-Tapuya, Neenoá. Classification: Tucanoan. Comments: “Tapuya” comes from the Tupí word for enemy.

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Mondé
[mnd] Rondônia state: Apidia river, tributary of Igarape Tanaru, near Pimenta Bueno. 2 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 10. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Salamãi, Salamaikã, Sanamaica, Sanamaiká, Sanamaykã. Dialects: None known. Related to Arua [arx] and Gavião do Jiparaná [gvo]. Classification: Tupian, Mondé.

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Morerebi
[xmo] Amazonas state: Marmelos and Rio Preto; Mato Grosso state. 100 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly very similar linguistically to Amundava [adw], Tenharim [pah], and Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz]. A family group that has not lived with the Tenharim for many years, and does not want contact with outside culture. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Mundurukú
[myu] Amazonas, Mato Grosso, and Pará states; middle Madeira, and middle and upper Tapajós rivers; 22 villages. 7,500 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 10,100 (2002 FUNASA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caras-Pretas, Monjoroku, Mundurucu, Paiquize, Pari, Weidyenye. Classification: Tupian, Mundurukú. Comments: Population formerly decimated by outsiders’ diseases and malaria, is presently growing. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nadëb
[mbj] Amazonas state: 3 locations on Uneiuxi river: a tributary of Negro river, Japurá and Negro rivers. 400 (Moore 2006). Deb, a separate ethnic group from the Nadëb, now reclaiming their identity by using Nadëb. 280 Deb (2008 M. Rodriquez), 580 Nadëb (2009 FUNASA). Ethnic population: 850 (2010 S. Anonby). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anodöub, Kabari, Kabori, Makú Nadëb, Makunadöbö, Nadeb Macu, Nadöb, Nadöbö, Xiriwai, Xuriwai. Classification: Puinavean, Kaburi. Comments: Ruhlen (1987) and others classify it as Puinave in Macro-Tucanoan. Seminomadic.

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Nambikuára, Southern
[nab] Mato Grosso state: along Porto Velho-Cuiabá highway. 10 villages. 720 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 720 (Moore 2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alaketesu, Anunsu, Nambikwara, Nambiquara. Dialects: Manduka, Khithaulhu, Halotesu, Saxwentesu, Wakalitesu, Serra Azul, Hahaintesu, Wasusu, Alatesu, Waikisu, Galera, Sarare, Alaketesu, Anunsu. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex. Comments: Manduca are semi-integrated. Population reduced from 10,000 to 600 in 1920s, 1930s, and 1950s by measles and other epidemics. Settlers from outside bring in agriculture, lumber, and mining which threaten the Nambikuára way of life. Manairisu is a subgroup. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nhengatu
[yrl] Amazonas state: Içana, Lower Vaupés, and Negro river areas. 10,300 in Brazil (2005 FOIRN). Total users in all countries: 19,060. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coastal Tupian, Geral, Língua Geral, Modern Tupí, Ñeegatú, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Nyengatú, Waengatu, Yeral. Dialects: None known. Based on Tupinambá, developed by Portuguese during 17th and 18th centuries as lingua franca. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí. Comments: Language of the Bare tribe, with several ethnic groups identifying as Bare and speaking Nhengatu.

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Ninam
[shb] Roraima state: Mucajaí, Paragua, Roraima, and upper Uraricaá rivers. 800 in Brazil (2010 C. Luz). About evenly divided between northern and southern dialects. 15,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2006 FUNASA). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,200 (C. Luz). Total users in all countries: 900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Xirixana, Yanam. Dialects: Southern Ninam (Mukajai, Shirishana), Northern Ninam (Shiriana, Uraricaa-Paragua). Classification: Yanomaman. Comments: Distinct from the Arawakan Xiriâna [xir].

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Nukuini
[nuc] Acre state: Juruá, from upper Mõa to Rio Sungarú. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 460 (2001). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nukini, Nuquini. Dialects: Cuyanawa. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Unclassified.

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Ofayé
[opy] Mato Grosso do Sul state: Ivinhema, Vacaris, and Verde rivers; Brasilándia area. 2 (2005 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 60 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ofaié-Xavante, Ofayé-Xavante, Opaié-Shavante, Opayé. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian.

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Omagua
[omg] Amazonas state: Alvaráes municipality, Terra Indígena Igarapé Grande; Maraã municipality, Terra Indígena Jaquiri; Tefé municipality, Santa Cruz on right bank of Solimões river, and Terra Indígena Kokama. No known L1 speakers in Brazil. Ethnic population: 160 (2000 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Agua, Anapia, Ariana, Cambeba, Cambela, Campeba, Canga-Peba, Compeva, Janbeba, Macanipa, Omagua-Yete, Pariana, Umaua, Yhuata. Dialects: Aizuare (Aissuari), Curacirari (Curazicari), Curucicuri (Curuzicari), Paguana (Paguara). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Oro Win
[orw] Rondônia state: Pacaás-Novos river headwaters, a tributary of Mamoré river. 2 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 55 (1998). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of Tora [trz], Itene (More) [ite], and Pakaasnovos (Wari) [pav]. Classification: Chapacuran, Wari. Comments: Live among the Pakaasnovos [pav].

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Oti
[oti] São Paulo. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Chavante, Euchavante. Classification: Language isolate.

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Otuke
[otu] Mato Grosso state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Louxiru, Otuque, Otuqui. Dialects: Related dialects or languages: Covareca, Curuminaca, Coraveca (Curave), Curucaneca, and Tapii; all extinct. Classification: Bororoan.

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Pakaásnovos
[pav] Rondônia state: 7 villages. 1,930 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 2,720 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jaru, Oro Wari, Pacaas-Novos, Pacahanovo, Pakaanova, Pakaanovas, Uomo, Wari. Classification: Chapacuran, Wari.

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Palikúr
[plu] Amapá state: Oiapoque municipality, Terra Indígena Uaçá I and II, in 10 villages; Urucauá river banks, right-bank tributary of the Uaçá between Uaçá and Curipi rivers. 1,290 in Brazil (2010 IEPE). Total users in all countries: 1,540. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pa’ikwaki, Paikwene, Palicur, Palijur, Palikour, Palincur, Paricores, Paricuria, Parikurene, Parinkur-lene. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Eastern, Palikur.

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Panará
[kre] Mato Grosso state: Parque Indígena do Xingú; Pará state: Terra Indígena Panará, on Iriri river. 375 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 380. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Indios Gigantes, Kreen Akarore, Kren Akarore. Dialects: Not a dialect of Kayapó [txu]; possibly more similar to Canela [ram]. Classification: Jean, Northern.

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Pankararé
[pax] Bahia state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pankaré. Classification: Unclassified.

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Pankararú
[paz] Pernambuco and Alagoas states. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,880. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pancaré, Pancaru, Pankarará, Pankaravu, Pankaroru, Pankarú. Dialects: None known. Possibly related to Xukuru [xoo]. Classification: Language isolate.

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Parakanã
[pak] Pará state: lower Xingú river, near São Felix and Altamira towns. 900 (Fausto 1995). Ethnic population: 900 (2004 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Awaeté, Parakanân, Parocana. Dialects: None known. Part of Akwáwa subgroup. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Akwawa.

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Paranawát
[paf] Rondônia state: Jiparaná (Machado) and Sono rivers’ tributaries. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Majubim, Paranauat, Pawaté. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Parecís
[pab] Mato Grosso state: Jubá, Guaporé, Verde, Papagaio, Burití, and Juruena rivers. 15–20 villages. 2,000 (2008 Administração Executiva Regional Tangara da Serra). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arití, Haliti, Pareás, Paresí, Paressí. Dialects: None known. Very similar to Saraveca [sar] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Paresí. Comments: 7 villages have public schools.

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Patamona
[pbc] Roraima state: Terra Indígena Raposa or Serra do Sol. Ethnic population: 50 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper, Kapong. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Pataxó Hã-Ha-Hãe
[pth] Minas Gerais and Bahia states; Pôsto Paraguassu in Itabuna municipality. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 4,660 (1998). 2,790 Pataxó and 1,870 Pataxó Hã Hã Hãe (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Patashó, Pataxi, Pataxó, Pataxó-Hãhaãi, Patoxó. Classification: Maxakalian.

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Paumarí
[pad] Amazonas state: Purus river. 3 villages. 290 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 870 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Purupurú. Dialects: Paumarm (Pammari), Kurukuru (Curucuru), Uaiai. 3 inherently intelligible dialects. Classification: Arauan. Comments: In 1964 there were 96 Paumarí in 1 village. By 1994 they had increased to 700 in several villages.

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Pemon
[aoc] Roraima state: Rio Branco, near Guyana border. 530 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kamarakotos, Pemong, Taulipáng, Taurepáng. Dialects: Taulipang (Taurepa, Taurepan, Taurepang), Camaracota (Ipuricoto), Arecuna (Arekuna, Aricuna, Jaricuna), Ingarikó (Ingaricó). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Pemón, Pemón proper.

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Pirahã
[myp] Amazonas state: Maici and Autaces rivers. 360 (2000 ISA). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,500 (1995 SIL). Pirahã is a small group, Múra much larger. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Múra-Pirahã. Dialects: Múra. Classification: Muran. Comments: In 1960s the population dwindled to 80 due to high infant mortality, death of mothers giving birth, and disease. Modern medicine helped population growth.

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Piratapuyo
[pir] Amazonas state: Terra Indígena Médio Rio Negro I, Terra Indígena Médio Rio Negro II, Terra Indígena Rio Negro, Terra Indígena Rio Téa. 1,430 in Brazil (2005 FOIRN). Total users in all countries: 1,880. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pira-Tapuya, Uaiana, Uaicana, Uaikena, Uainana, Waikhara, Waikino, Waina. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Guanano [gvc] but ethnically distinct. The two groups do not intermarry. 75% intelligibility of Guanano (1992 N. Waltz). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Paraná state: Curitiaba, other scattered communities. 8,000 in Brazil (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Pokangá
[pok] Amazonas state: Upper Tiquie, tributary of Vaupés. 100 (1983 SIL). Ethnic population: 300 (1988 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bará, Bara Sona, Barasano, Bará-Tukano, Pakang, Pokangá-Tapuya, Waipínõmakã. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka. Comments: May be the same as Barasana [bsn] or Waimaha [bao] (Northern Barasano, Bará).

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Portuguese
[por] Widespread. 187,000,000 in Brazil (1998). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1988, Constitution, Article 13). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian, traditional religion.

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Potiguára
[pog] Paraíba state: Mamanguape municipality, Pôsto Nísia Brasileira on Baía da Traição. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 8,450 (2002). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pitonara. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí. Comments: Descended from the Tupinambá.

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Poyanáwa
[pyn] Acre state: upper Rio Môa, Jumá tributary. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 400 (1999 ISA). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Poianáua, Puinahua. Classification: Panoan, Mainline.

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Puri
[prr] Espírito Santo and Minas Gerais states. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Coroado. Classification: Purian.

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Puruborá
[pur] Rondônia state: headwaters of the Rio São Miguel, tributary of Guaporé right bank. 2 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 50 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aurã, Burubora, Cujubi, Kuyubi, Miguelenho, Migueleno, Pumbora, Puroborá, Puruba. Classification: Tupian. Comments: Live among other groups.

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Rikbaktsa
[rkb] Mato Grosso and Amazonas states: confluence of Sangue and Juruena rivers, Japuira on the east bank of the Juruena between Arinos and Sangue rivers; Posto Escondido on Juruena west bank 700 km north. 9 villages, 14 settlements. 40 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,140 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aripaktsá, Canoeiro, Erigbaagtsá, Erigpactsá, Erigpatsá, Erikbatsá, Erikpatsá, Rikpakcá, Rikpaktsá. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Distinct from Avá-Canoeiro [avv] and Kanoé [kxo].

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Sabanê
[sae] Mato Grosso state. 7 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 40 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Sabanês Sabones, Sowainte. Classification: Nambikwara. Comments: Integrated into Brazilian culture.

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Sakirabiá
[skf] Rondônia state: Cerejeira and Colorado do Oeste municipalities, Mequens river. 25 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 66 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mekém, Mekens, Sakirabiák, Sakirabiáp, Sakirabiát, Sakirap, Sakiriabar, Sakurabiat. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Salumá
[slj] Pará state: upper Anamu, Trombetas river source, along Suriname border. 240 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó. Comments: Different from Enawené-Nawé [unk] in Mato Grosso. Live among the Trio [tri], losing their ethnic identity.

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Sanumá
[xsu] Roraima state: Auaris river. 460 in Brazil (Moore 2006). All Yanomam groups in Brazil: 11,700 (2000 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sanema, Tsanuma. Dialects: Caura, Ervato-Ventuari, Auaris, Yanoma (Samatali, Samatari). Classification: Yanomaman.

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Sateré-Mawé
[mav] Pará and Amazonas states: Andirá, and Maués rivers, between lower Tapajós and lower Madeira rivers. More than 14 villages. 9,160 (2008 FUNASA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Andira, Arapium, Mabue, Maragua, Maué, Mawé, Sataré. Dialects: None known. Recent data show that Aweti [awe] and Sateré-Mawé probably form a separate sub-branch within the Tupian linguistic family (Crevels 2007). Classification: Tupian.

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Shanenawa
[swo] Amazonas state: near Feijó city. 9 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 360 (2002 FUNAI). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yawanawa [ywn] and Sharanawa [mcd]. Classification: Unclassified.

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Sharanahua
[mcd] Acre state: Cruzeiro do Sul municipality, on Rio Humaitá off Juará river; Marináwa, along the upper Envira, tributary of the Tarauacá. 3 in Brazil (2007 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 200. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Acre Arara, Arara do Acre, Shawanauá. Dialects: Marinahua (Marináwa), Chandinahua. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sikiana
[sik] Pará state: between Rio Cafuini and headwaters of the Turuna and Itapi, near the Suriname border. 33 in Brazil (1986 SIL). Total users in all countries: 48. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chikena, Chiquena, Chiquiana, Shikiana, Sikiâna, Sikïiyana, Xikiyana, Xikujana. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Salumá [slj]. Classification: Cariban, Kashuyana.

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Siriano
[sri] Amazonas state: São Gabriel. 17 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 52 (2009 FUNASA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sarirá, Siriana, Siriane, Surianá, Surirá, Suryana. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano. Comments: People are increasingly self-identifying as Tucano [tuo].

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Suruahá
[swx] Amazonas state: Juruá, Jutaí and Purus rivers area. 140 (Moore 2006). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Indios do Coxodoá, Suruwahá, Zuruahá. Classification: Arauan. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Suruí
[sru] Rondônia and Mato Grosso states: border area, 10 villages and scattered. 1,010 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Paiter, Suruí de Rondônia, Suruí do Jiparaná. Classification: Tupian, Mondé.

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Suruí do Pará
[mdz] Pará state: São João municipality, Araguaia. 260 (2006 FUNASA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aikewara, Akewara, Akewere, “Mudjétira” (pej.), “Mudjetíre” (pej.), “Mudjetíre-Suruí” (pej.), Sororos, Suruí. Dialects: None known. Different from Suruí do Jiparaná [sru]. Member of Akwáwa subgroup. Probably similar linguistic relationship to Asuriní do Tocantins [asu] and Parakanã [pak]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Akwawa. Comments: May be same language as Asurini [asu].

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Suyá
[suy] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park, headwaters of Rio Culuene; Pará state: Terra Indígena Capoto or Jarina reservation, Kayapó villages (2002 ISA). 350 (2006 FUNASA). 330 Suya (main dialect); 58 Tapayúna (1995 ISA). Ethnic population: 350 (2006 FUNASA). All Tapayuna speak their native language (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kisêdjê. Dialects: Beiço de Pau (Tapayúna), Yaruma (Jarumá, Waiku). Classification: Jean, Northern. Comments: Yaruma dialect became extinct around 2007. Ethnic autonym for Beiço de Pau: Tapayúna, who no longer live with Suyás; they moved out of Xingú Park to live in Kayapó villages in Terra Indígena Capoto or Jarina reservation in Pará state (2002 ISA).

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Talian
[vec] Northern Rio Grando do Sul: Caxias do Sul area. 4,000,000 in Brazil (2006 L. Palmerini). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Taliano, Venetian, Veneto, Vèneto. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tapeba
[tbb] Ceara state: Caucaia municipality, Ceará river. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,490. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tabeba. Classification: Unclassified.

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Tapirapé
[taf] Tocantins and Mato Grosso states: mouth of Tapirapé and Araguaia rivers. 560 (2006 Projeto Aranowayao). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara.

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Tariana
[tae] Amazonas state: Santa Rosa (Juquira), Iauarete, Periquitos, and Ji-Ponta on Middle Vaupés river. 100 in Brazil (Aikhenvald 1996). Ethnic population: 1,910 (2002 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Taliáseri, Tariano, Tariáno, Tarîna. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki.

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Tawandê
[xtw] Rondônia state: Pyrineus de Souza village, near Vilhena town. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Da’wan’du, Tawaindê. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lakondê [lkd] and Latundê [ltn]. Classification: Nambikwara, Nambikwara Complex, Northern, Roosevelt Cluster. Comments: Tawande live with the Sabane [sae], but have a closer affinity to Latunde [ltn] and Lakonde [lkd].

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Tembé
[tqb] Pará state: Terra Indígena Alto Turiaçu, banks of Gurupi river. 150 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 880 (Crevels 2007). Tembé: 820 (1999), Turiwara: 60 (1998). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tenetehara. Dialects: None known. Intelligible with Guajajára [gub]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tenetehara, Tenetehara. Comments: Assimilated the closely related Turiwara [twt] (Crevels 2007).

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Tenharim
[pah] Amazonas and Mato Grosso states. 2 villages. 580 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 790 (2000 ISA). 590 Tenharim, 160 Parintintin, 50 Diahhoi (2000 ISA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kagwahiv, Kagwahiva, Kawaib, Tenharem, Tenharin. Dialects: Tenharim (Tenharem, Tenharin), Parintintín, Kagwahiv (Kawaib), Karipuna Jaci Paraná, Mialát, Diahói (Giahoi, Jahui, Jiahui). Tenharim, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], and Karipuna [kuq], Uru-eu-wau-wau [urz], and Morerebi [xmo] are all reportedly linguistically very similar. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin. Comments: The Tenharim, Amundava [adw], Kayabi [kyz], Júma [jua], and Karipuná [kuq] all use the ethnic autonym Kagwahiva (Kagwahibm, Kagwahiv, Kawahip, Kavahiva, Kawaib, Kagwahiph). Diahói are on Rio Marmelos; Karipuna in Rondônia on Jaci Paraná River Post; Morerebi on Rio Preto and Marmelos.

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Terêna
[ter] Mato Grosso do Sul state: east of Paraguay river in Miranda and Aguidauana rivers area, 20 villages and 2 cities; some in São Paulo state. 15,800 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 16,000 (2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Etelena, Tereno. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Terena.

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Ticuna
[tca] Amazonas state: upper Solimões river area, more than 20 indigenous islands, more than 90 villages. 32,600 in Brazil (1998 ISA). Total users in all countries: 47,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Magüta, Tikuna, Tukuna. Classification: Language isolate.

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Tingui-Boto
[tgv] Alagoas state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 350 (2002). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Carapató, Dzboku’a, Dzubukuá, Karapató, Tingui. Classification: Unclassified.

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Torá
[trz] Amazonas state: lower Rio Marmelos tributary of Rio Madeira. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 51 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Toraz. Classification: Chapacuran, Itene.

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Tremembé
[tme] Ceará state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,510 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified.

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Trió
[tri] Pará state: mostly on west Paru river; also Terra Indígena Parque Tumucumaque, on Marapi and East Paru rivers. 730 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 900 (2003 ISA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tirió, Tiriyó. Dialects: Pianokotó. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Tiriyó. Comments: Pianokotó dialect probably extinct; no reports since 1957.

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Truká
[tka] Bahía and Penambuco states. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,330 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified.

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Trumai
[tpy] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park, source of Xingú river, villages along banks. 51 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 120 (Moore 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Ruhlen (1987) and others classify it as Equatorial. Classification: Language isolate.

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Tucano
[tuo] Amazonas state. Wasona users primarily in Yacayacá village. 4,600 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Total users in all countries: 6,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daxsea, Takuna, Tukána, Tukano. Dialects: Yohoraa (Curaua), Wasona (Uasona), Pisamira, Papiwa, Papihua, Pisatapuyo, Pisa-tapuyo. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano.

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Tukumanféd
[tkf] Rondônia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin.

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Tuparí
[tpr] Rondônia state: Pororoca Post, Branco river, tributary of the Guaporé. 340 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 380. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Tupian, Tuparí. Comments: May be others upstream on the Rio Branco.

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Tupinikin
[tpk] Espírito Santo state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,390. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tupinaki, Tupinikim, Tupiniquim. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí.

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Turiwára
[twt] Pará state: with the Tembé [tqb] language group on Acará-miri river. No known L1 speakers. The Tembé [tqb] seem to have assimilated the closely related Turiwara group (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 30 (1995 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Turiuara. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Amanayé.

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Tuxá
[tud] Bahia and Pernambuco states. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,630 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Todela, Tusha. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Ruhlen (1987) and others classify it as Equatorial.

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Tuxináwa
[tux] Acre state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tuchinaua. Classification: Panoan, Mainline.

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Tuyuca
[tue] Amazonas state: Vaupés region, Terra Indígena Alto Rio Negro and Terra Indígena Apaporis. 590 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dochkafuara, Doka-Poara, Doxká-Poárá, Tuiuca, Tuyuka. Dialects: Tsola. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka.

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Uamué
[uam] Pernambuco state: Floresta area. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,740 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aticum, Atikum, Huamuê. Classification: Language isolate.

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Umotína
[umo] Mato Grosso state: along the Paraguay River. 1 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 120 (1999). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Barbados, Umutina. Classification: Bororoan.

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Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau
[urz] Rondônia state: upper Cautário, Jaciparaná, and Jamari rivers. 87 (Moore 2006). Crevels (2007) groups the Uru-Eu-Wau-Wau together with Amundava [adw] for a total population of 170 (2003). Ethnic population: 87 (Moore 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eru-Eu-Wau-Wau, Jupaú, Kagwahiva, Uru-Eu-Uau-Uau, Uruewawau. Dialects: Mutually intelligible dialect of Amundava [adw]. Reportedly similar to Tenharim [pah]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib.

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Uru-Pa-In
[urp] Rondônia state: Ariquemes municipality. 200 (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib. Comments: No permanent contact.

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Urumi
[uru] Rondônia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Tupian, Ramarama.

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Waimaha
[bao] Amazonas state: Terra Indigena Pari Cachoeira, Bittencourt and Iauareté municipalities; Terra Indigena Pari Cachoeira II, Iauareté municipality; Terra Indigena Pari Cachoeira III, Bittencourt municipality, all on upper Tiquié river. 39 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: “Bará” (pej.), Barazana, Northern Barasano, Waimaja. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka.

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Waimiri-Atroarí
[atr] Amazonas state: border area with Roraima state on Alalau and Camanau, Jatapu, and Jauaperi rivers. 24 villages. 930 (2001 ISA). Ethnic population: 930 (Moore 2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Atroahí, Atroahy, Atroaí, Atroarí, Atrowari, Atruahí, Ki’nya. Dialects: Atruahi, Waimirí (Uaimirí, Wahmirí), Jawaperi (Yauaperi). Classification: Cariban, North Amazonian, Yawaperí. Comments: Contacted by Waiwai [waw] people in 1968. Different from Atorai, dialect of Wapishana [wap]. Traditional religion.

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Waiwai
[waw] Pará and Roraima states. 2,020 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 2,900 (2005 ISA). Total users in all countries: 2,230. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ouayeone, Uaieue, Uaiuai. Dialects: Katawian (Cachuena, Catauian, Catawian, Karahawyana, Katawina, Katuena, Katwena, Parucutu, Parukutu, Tonayana, Tunayana). Voegelin and Voegelin (1977) treat Katawian as a separate language. Classification: Cariban, Waiwai.

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Wajiara
[yui] Amazonas state: Iauarete. 50 in Brazil (1991 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Juruti, Juruti-Tapuia, Luruty-Tapuya, Wajiaraye, Yuriti-Tapuia. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano.

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Wakoná
[waf] Alagoas state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 500 (1995 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Unclassified. Comments: May not live together as a group.

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Wapishana
[wap] Roraima state: 23 indigenous lands. 6,500 in Brazil (2000 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aruma, Uapixana, Vapidiana, Wapishiana, Wapisiana, Wapixána, Wapixiana, Wapixiána. Dialects: Amariba, Atorai. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Wapixana. Comments: Atorai dialect is not the same as the language Waimiri-Atroarí [atr].

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Wasu
[wsu] Alagoas state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,450. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Waçu. Classification: Unclassified.

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Waurá
[wau] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park. 320 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 320 (Moore 2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aura, Uaura, Wauja. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible of Mehináku [mmh]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Waurá, Waurá-Meinaku.

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Wayampi
[oym] Amapá and Pará states: tributaries of upper Amapari river. 8 villages. 530 in Brazil (2000 SIL). Includes 520 speakers of Amapari, 10 of Oiapoque. Total users in all countries: 1,180. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Guaiapi, Guayapi, Oiampí, “Oiampipucu” (pej.), Oyampí, Oyampík, “Oyampipuku” (pej.), Oyanpík, Waiampi, Waiãpi, Wajapae, Wajapuku, Wayapae, Wayãpi. Dialects: Oiyapoque Wayampi, Amapari Wayampi, Jari. Monolinguals include children under 6, more than half the women, most men over 45, and all of those recently from Brazil. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Wayampí, Wayampí.

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Wayana
[way] Pará state: Parque Indígena do Tumucumaque, and Terra Indígena Rio Paru D’Este, mainly on Paru de Leste river. 150 in Brazil. Ethnic population: 450 (Moore 2006). Wayana and Aparai are registered as a single group of 420 members (1998). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Alukuyana, Oayana, Oiana, Oyana, Uaiana, Upurui, Wayâna. Dialects: Rucuyen (Roucouyenne), Urucuiana (Urucena). Classification: Cariban, Central, Wayana.

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Wayoró
[wyr] Rondônia state: Pororoca post, Guapore river. 8 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 77 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ajurú, Ayurú, Uaiora, Wajaru, Wayurú. Classification: Tupian, Tuparí.

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Wiraféd
[wir] Rondônia state. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Uirafed, Wiroféd. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Kawahib, Parintintin. Comments: Permanent contact reported late 1950s.

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Xakriabá
[xkr] Minas Gerais state. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 6,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chakriaba, Chikriaba, Shacriaba. Classification: Jean, Central.

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Xavánte
[xav] Mato Grosso state: 6 noncontiguous reservations. 80 villages. 9,600 (Moore 2006). No monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Akuên, Akwen, A’uwe Uptabi, A’we, Chavante, Crisca, Pusciti, Shavante, Tapacua. Classification: Jean, Central. Comments: In 1950s contact with outsiders began and diseases killed hundreds. Forced to abandon seminomadic means of survival when placed on reservations. Learned swidden agriculture. During the transition many died. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Xerénte
[xer] Tocantins state: between Rio do Sono and Rio Tocantins. 1,810 (2000 ISA). Ethnic population: 1,810 (Moore 2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sherenté. Classification: Jean, Central.

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Xetá
[xet] Paraná state: among Kaingang [kgp]. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 8 (1998). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aré, Cheta, Curutón, Seta, Sheta. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Guaraní.

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Xipaya
[xiy] Pará state: lower Xingú river. 1 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 600 (2002 ISA). The ethnic population probably includes Kuruaya [kyr] as they are sometimes considered a single ethnic group. There were 8 elders of Kuruaya and Xipaya descendance in Altamira reported to speak the native language in 2007 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Shipaja, Xipaia. Classification: Tupian, Juruna.

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Xiriâna
[xir] Amazonas state: Demeni and Rio Negro tributaries, near Venezuela border. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 900 (2000). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Unclassified. Comments: Distinct from Ninam (Xirianá) [shb].

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Xokleng
[xok] Santa Catarina state: Itajaí river tributary. 760 (1998 ISA). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aweikoma, Botocudos, Bugré, Kaingang, Shokléng, Xakléng, Xogléng, Xokré, Xokréng. Classification: Jean, Southern.

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Xukurú
[xoo] Bahía state; Pernambuco state: Serra de Urubá (Arobá) near Cimbres city. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 6,360 (1999). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kirirí, Kirirí-Xokó. Classification: Language isolate.

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Yabaâna
[ybn] Amazonas state: Marauia and Cauaboris rivers’ headwaters, tributaries of the left bank of Rio Negro. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 90 (1986 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Jabaana, Yabarana. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Unclassified. Comments: Distinct from Yabarana [yar] of Venezuela.

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Yaminahua
[yaa] Acre state. 620 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jaminawá, Yamanawa, Yamináwa. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State.

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Yanomámi
[wca] Amazonas state: Toototobi post; Roraima state: Waicá post, Catrimani and Uraricuera rivers. 6,000 (Moore 2006). 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2000 ISA). Most are monolingual. Ethnic population: 9,000 (1994 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Parahuri, Surara, Waicá, Waiká, Xurima, Yanoam, Yanomam, Yanomamé. Dialects: Yanamam (Patimitheri, Waika), Yanomam (Guadema, Naomam, Wadema, Warema), Yanomay (Toototobi), Nanomam (Karime), Jauari (Aica, Joari, Yoari), Xamatari, Kohoroxitari. Classification: Yanomaman. Comments: Seminomadic.

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Yanomamö
[guu] Amazonas and Roraima states: upper tributaries of Rio Negro, along Venezuela border. 4,000 in Brazil (Moore 2006). 11,700 for all Yanomam groups in Brazil (2000 ISA). Most are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Guaharibo, Guaica, Shaathari, Shamatri, Yanomae, Yanomami. Dialects: Eastern Yanomami (Parima), Western Yanomami (Padamo-Orinoco). Classification: Yanomaman.

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Yaroamë
[yro] Roraima. 430 (Ferreira 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jawari, Yawari. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Ninam [shb]. Classification: Yanomaman.

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Yawalapití
[yaw] Mato Grosso state: Xingú Park. 8 (Moore 2006). Ethnic population: 220 (Moore 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Jaulapiti, Yaulapiti. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Central, Waurá, Waurá-Meinaku.

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Yawanawa
[ywn] Acre state: Gregório river. 520 (2006 FUNASA). Includes 360 Shanenawa (2002 FUNAI). Scattered; only 1 village of 100 people. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iauanauá, Jawanaua, Yahuanahua. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State. Comments: Some consider Yawanawá, Arara do Acre, Shanenawá [swo], and Yaminawa [yaa] to be dialects of one language (Arara).

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Yuhup
[yab] Amazonas state: on the Apapóris, Castanha, Cunuri, Igarapé Samaúma, Ira, and Tiquié rivers. 11 villages. 400 in Brazil (Moore 2006). Total users in all countries: 500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Maku” (pej.), Makú-Yahup, Yahup, Yahup Makú, Yëhup, Yuhupdeh. Dialects: None known. Limited intelligibility of Hupdë [jup]. Ruhlen and others classify it as related to Puinave [pui]. Classification: Puinavean, Hupda. Comments: South of the Hupdë [jup].

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Zo’é
[pto] Pará state: Obidos municipality on Cuminapanema river. 150 (1998 ISA). Ethnic population: 150 (Moore 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buré, Poturu, Poturujara, Puturú, Tupí of Cuminapanema. Classification: Tupian. Comments: Similar to Wayampi [oym].

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