Central African Republic

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Ali
[aiy] Lobaye prefecture: Boda subprefecture; Ombella-M’poko prefecture: Bimbo, Boali, and Yaloke-Bossembele subprefectures; Bangui. Population: 35,000 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ASL. Classification: Sign language.

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Banda, Mid-Southern
[bjo] Basse-Kotto prefecture: Alindao, Mingala, and Mobaye subprefectures; Mbomou prefecture: Gambo-Ouango subprefecture; Ouaka prefecture: Kouango subprefecture. Population: 100,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 102,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda Central Sud. Dialects: Bongo, Dukpu, Yakpa (Bayaka, Yacoua, Yakpwa, Yakwa), Wasa (Ouassa). Reportedly most similar to Gubu [gox], but speakers have better relations with Mbandja [zmz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Banda, South Central
[lnl] Basse-Kotto prefecture: Alindao, Kembé, Mingala, and Mobaye subprefectures; Mbomou prefecture: Gambo-Ouango subprefecture. Population: 150,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 55,000 Langba, 95,000 Ngbugu. Total users in all countries: 153,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Langba (Lagba), Ngbugu (Ngbougou). May be intelligible with Langbashe [lna]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central.

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Banda, Togbo-Vara
[tor] Haute-Kotto prefecture: Bria subprefecture; Ouaka prefecture: Bambari subprefecture. Population: 12,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Togbo (Tagbo, Tagbwali, Tohgboh), Vara (Vera, Vora). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Togbo-Vara.

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Banda, West Central
[bbp] Kémo prefecture: Sibut (northeast of Dekol town) and southeast Dekoa subprefectures; Ouaka prefecture: Grimari, Bakala, and Bambari subprefectures. Population: 4,500 in Central African Republic (1996). 1,000 Wojo. Total users in all countries: 7,500. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Dakpa, Gbaga-Nord (Gbaga-2), Gbi, Vita, Wojo (Hodjo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, West Central.

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Banda-Bambari
[liy] Basse-Kotto prefecture: Alindao and Mingala subprefectures; Haute-Kotto prefecture: Bria subprefecture; Ouaka prefecture: Bakala, Bambari, Grimari, and Ippy subprefectures. Population: 183,000 (1996). 4,000 Gbende, 2,000 Joto, mainly Linda. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda of Bambari, Banda-Linda. Autonym: Linda. Dialects: Linda, Joto (Jeto), Ndokpa, Ngapo (Ngapu), Gbende. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Bambari.

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Banda-Banda
[bpd] Widespread. Population: 102,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Banda-Banda, Bereya (Banda de Bria, Banda of Bria, Bria), Buru, Gbaga-South (Gbaga 1), Gbambiya, Hai, Ka, Mbi (Mbiyi), Ndi (Ndri), Ngalabo, Ngola, Vidiri (Mvedere, Vadara, Vidri, Vodere). May be intelligible with Banda-Bambari [liy]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Banda.

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Banda-Mbrès
[bqk] Bamingui-Bangoran prefecture: Bamingui subprefecture border small area; Nana-Grébizi prefecture: Kaga Bandoro and Mbrès subprefectures; Ouaka prefecture: Bakala subprefecture, Sabanga and Moruba towns; Ouham prefecture: Bouca subprefecture. Population: 42,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda of Mbrès, Banda-Mbre. Dialects: Buka (Bouka), Mbre (Mbele, Mbere), Moruba (Maraba, Morouba), Sabanga (Sangbanga), Wada (Ouadda). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Mbres.

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Banda-Ndélé
[bfl] Bamingui-Bangoran prefecture: Ndélé and Bamingui subprefectures; Haute-Kotto prefecture: Ouadda subprefecture; Nana-Grébizi prefecture: Kaga Bandoro subprefecture; Ouaka prefecture: Bakala and Ippy subprefectures; Vakaga prefecture: Ouanda-Djalle subprefecture. Population: 35,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda of Ndélé, Nyele. Dialects: Banda-Ndélé, Junguru (Djingburu, Nguru), Tangbago (Tambaggo, Tambolo, Tangago, Tombaggo), Ngao (Bandangao, Ngau), Ngbala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Banda-Ndele.

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Banda-Yangere
[yaj] Mambéré-Kadéï and Sangha-Mbaéré prefectures: Bambio, Berbérati and Carnot subprefectures; some in Nola subprefecture. Population: 26,500 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yangere, Yanguere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Western.

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Bhogoto
[bdt] Lobaye prefecture: Boda subprefecture; Mambéré-Kadéï prefecture: Carnot subprefecture; Nana-Mambéré prefecture: Baoro subprefecture; Ombella-M’poko prefecture: Yaloke-Bossembele subprefecture; Ouham-Pendé prefecture: Bozoum subprefecture, small border areas. Population: 130,000 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhokoto, Bogodo, Bogoto, Bokodo, Bokoto, Bokpoto. Dialects: Gbaya of Boda (Gbaya de Boda), Bokpan, Bokoto (Ngata). May be intelligible with Northwest Gbaya [gya]. A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central.

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Birri
[bvq] Haut-Mbomou prefecture: scattered. Population: 200 (1996). Ethnic population: 5,000. No longer spoken in Sudan (1993). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Biri, Bviri, Viri. Dialects: Mboto, Munga. Only one dialect spoken in Central African Republic. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi.

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Bodo
[boy] Haut-Mbomou prefecture: scattered. Population: 15 (1996). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, D, Bira-Nyali (D.308).

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Bofi
[bff] Lobaye prefecture: Boda subprefecture; Sangha-Mbaéré prefecture: Bambio subprefecture. Population: 23,500 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boffi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East.

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Buraka
[bkg] Basse-Kotto prefecture: Mobaye subprefecture, along Ubangi river. Population: 2,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 3,800. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bolaka, Boraka, Bouraka. Dialects: None known. May not be inherently intelligible with Gbanziri [gbg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili.

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Dagba
[dgk] Ouham prefecture: Batangafo, Bossangoa, and Kabo subprefectures. Population: 34,000 in Central African Republic (2007 K. Wolff). Total users in all countries: 44,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of Kabba [ksp]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

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Dendi
[deq] Mbomou prefecture: Gambo-Ouango subprefecture. Population: 10,000 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Yakoma [yky]. Ngbandi [ngb] and Mbangi [mgn] may be inherently intelligible of Dendi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi.

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French
[fra] Widespread. Population: 1,349,000 in Central African Republic, all users. L1 users: 9,000 in Central African Republic (1996). L2 users: 1,340,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 18). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Fulfulde, Bagirmi
[fui] Widespread. Population: 156,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baghirmi Peul, Bagirmi Fula. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Eastern.

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Furu
[fuu] Basse-Kotto prefecture: Mobaye subprefecture, 11 villages. Population: 4,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bagero, Bagiro, Baguero, Baguiro. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

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Ganzi
[gnz] Nana-Grébizi and Kémo prefectures: border region, scattered. Population: 1,400 (1996). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Dialects: Ganzi, Yaka. May be intelligible with Baka [bkc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi.

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Gbanu
[gbv] Lobaye prefecture: small Ombella-M’poko border areas north of Bodo town; Mambéré-Kadéï prefecture: Carnot subprefecture; Ombella-M’poko prefecture: Yaloke-Bossembélé subprefecture, north of Bogangolo; Ouham prefecture: Bossangoa subprefecture. Population: 95,000 (1996). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Banu, Gbanou. Autonym: Gbanu. Dialects: Gbanu, Gbagiri (Bagili, Baguili, Gbagili), Budigri (Bidikili). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central.

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Gbanziri
[gbg] Ouaka prefecture: Kouango subprefecture, along Ubangi river. Population: 14,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 17,500. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banziri, Gbandere, Gbanzili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Gbanzili.

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Gbaya
[gba] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 857,500. Includes: Bhogoto [bdt], Gbaya-Bossangoa [gbp], Gbaya-Bozoum [gbq], Gbaya-Mbodomo [gmm] (Cameroon), Northwest Gbaya [gya], Southwest Gbaya [gso].

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Gbaya, Northwest
[gya] Mambéré-Kadéï prefecture: north of Amada Gaza; Nana-Mambéré prefecture: Baboua and Bouar subprefectures; Ouham-Pendé prefecture: Bocaranga and Bozoum subprefectures. Population: 200,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 267,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Gbaya, Gbaya Nord-Ouest. Dialects: Gbaya Kara (Boar, Gbaya de Bouar), Bodoe, Lai (Lay), Yaáyuwee (Kalla, Yaiwe). A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Northwest.

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Gbaya, Southwest
[gso] Mambéré-Kadéï prefecture: Berbérati, Carnot, and Gamboula subprefectures; Nana-Mambéré prefecture: Baboua and Baoro subprefectures; Sangha-Mbaéré prefecture: Nola subprefecture. Population: 220,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Gbaya Sud-Ouest. Autonym: Gbaya. Dialects: Biyanda (Bianda), Buli (Boli), Mbondomo (Mbodomo), Bokare (Bokari), Mboundja (Mbunza), Bosoko (Bossouka, Mbusuku), Toongo, Yangele, Mbakolo (Yasua), Budamono, Mbombeleng. A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest.

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Gbaya-Bossangoa
[gbp] Ouham prefecture: Bossangoa and Batangafo (Gbabana) subprefectures; Ouham-Pendé prefecture: south of Ouham river. Population: 200,000 (2005). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Gbɛ́yá, Gbɛa, Gbaya, Gbaya de Bosangoa, Gbaya of Borro, Gbaya of Bossangoa, Gbaya-Borro, Gbea, Gbeya, Gbäyä Bossangoa. Autonym: Gbɛya. Dialects: Gbabana, Bossangoa. May be inherently intelligible with Gbaya-Bozoum [gbq] or Suma [sqm]. A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central.

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Gbaya-Bozoum
[gbq] Nana-Mambéré prefecture: Baoro and Bouar subprefectures; Ombella-M’poko prefecture: Yaloke-Bossembele subprefecture; Ouham prefecture: Bossangoa subprefecture; Ouham-Pendé prefecture: broad area south of Ouham river. Population: 32,500 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bozom, Gbaya de Bozoum. Dialects: Diabe, Boyali, Bozom. May be inherently intelligible with Gbaya-Bossangoa [gbp]. A member of macrolanguage Gbaya [gba]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Central.

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Gbayi
[gyg] Basse-Kotto prefecture: north Mingala subprefecture; Haute-Kotto prefecture: Bria subprefecture; Mbomou prefecture: east bank, Kotto river, between Mbeti and Tchola Banar. Population: 5,000 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpasiya. Dialects: None known. Related to Ngbandi [ngb]. Ethnically Kpatili, but not intelligible with Kpatili [kym]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi.

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Geme
[geq] Bamingui-Bangoran prefecture: Ndélé subprefecture, 2 villages north of Ndélé. Population: 550 (1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gueme, Jeme, Ngba Geme. Dialects: Geme Tulu, Geme Kulagbolu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara.

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Gubu
[gox] Ouaka prefecture: Kouango subprefecture, Oubangui river north bank. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gabou, Gabu, Gobu, Ngobo, Ngobu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Gula
[kcm] Vakaga prefecture: Birao subprefecture, Kafia Kingi near Sudan border. Population: 13,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 13,200. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goula, Gula du Mamoun, Kara, Kara de Soudan, Kara of Sudan, Tar Gula, Yamegi. Dialects: Molo, Mele, Mot-Mar (Moto-Mara), Sar (Sara), Mere, Zura (Koto). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

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Gundi
[gdi] Mambéré-Kadéï prefecture: Gamboula subprefecture; Sangha-Mbaéré prefecture: Nola subprefecture, south and east of Nola. Population: 9,000 (1988 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngondi, Ngundi. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Baka [bkc], Pande [bkj], and Lingala [lin]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi.

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Kaba Démé, Sara
[kwg] Bamingui-Bangoran and Nana-Grébizi prefectures. Population: Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba ’Dem, Kaba Demi, Kaba Démé, Sara Kaba Dem, Sara Kaba Ɗem, Tà Sàra, Ɗem. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba.

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Kaba Naa, Sara
[kwv] Bamingui-Bangoran prefecture: Ndélé subprefecture, near Chad border; Nana-Mambéré prefecture: Baoro subprefecture, Mbanga village; far west Vakaga prefecture: small area on Bahr Kameur river, 9 villages. Population: 4,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Dana, Kaba Na, Kaba Naa, Kaba Nar, Na, Naa, Sara Kaba. Dialects: Dunje (Dendje, Denje, Dindje, Dinje, Dounje, Kaba Dunjo, Sara Dinjo, Sara Dunjo), Na, Mbanga (Banga), Tie (Tiye). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba.

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Kabba
[ksp] Ouham prefecture: Markounda subprefecture; Ouham-Pendé prefecture: Paoua subprefecture. Population: 72,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 142,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaba, Sara. Autonym: Kabba. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

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Kako
[kkj] Mambéré-Kadéï prefecture: Gamboula town, on Cameroon border. Population: 10,400 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaka, Nkoxo, Yaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Kaka (A.93).

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Kara
[kah] Vakaga prefecture: Birao subprefecture. Population: 4,800 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dam Fer, Fer, Fertit. Classification: Unclassified.

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Kare
[kbn] Ouham-Pendé prefecture: Bocaranga and Bozoum subprefectures. Population: 93,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 57,500 Kare, 35,500 Tale. Total users in all countries: 97,460. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kali, Kareng, Kari, Karré, Kãrɛ̃. Autonym: Kare. Dialects: Tale (Tali), Kari. Intelligible of Mbum [mdd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang.

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Kpagua
[kuw] Ouaka prefecture: between Ouake and Oubangui rivers. Population: 3,830 (2000). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kpagwa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ngundu [nue]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, Central, Central Core, Mid-Southern.

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Kpatili
[kym] Basse-Kotto prefecture: south Mingala subprefecture; Mbomou prefecture: Bakouma subprefecture. Population: 4,500 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpatere, Kpatiri, Ngindere. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Gbayi [gyg], who are ethnically Kpatili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara.

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Laka
[lap] Ouham-Pendé prefecture: Bocaranga subprefecture, 9 villages on Chad border. Population: 2,050 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kabba Laka. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

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Langbashe
[lna] Kémo prefecture: Sibut subprefecture; Ouaka prefecture: Kouango subprefecture. Population: 40,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 43,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Langbase, Langbashi, Langbasi, Langbwasse, Langwasi. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with South Central Banda [lnl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Banda, South Central.

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Limassa
[bme] Sangha-Mbaéré prefecture; possibly far southwestern corner, along Republic of the Congo border. Population: Few in Ngundi [ndn] villages. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamassa, Bomasa, Bomassa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Baka-Gundi.

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Lutos
[ndy] Bamingui-Bangoran prefecture: Ndélé subprefecture; Nana-Grébizi prefecture: Kaga Bandoro subprefecture; Ouham prefecture: Kabo subprefecture. Population: 17,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 18,980. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rito, Ruto. Dialects: Nduka (Ndouka, Ndoukwa), Lutos (Louto, Luto, Rito, Routo, Ruto), Wada (Wad), Nduga (Ngougua), Konga. Lutos dialect in Chad; Ruto and Nduka dialects in Central African Republic. Not intelligible of Sar [mwm] or Ngambay [sba]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale.

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Mandja
[mzv] Kémo prefecture: Dekoa and Sibut subprefectures; Nana-Grébizi prefecture: Kaga Bandoro and Mbrès subprefectures; Ombella-M’poko prefecture: Damara subprefecture; Ouaka prefecture: Grimari subprefecture; Ouham prefecture: Bouca subprefecture. Population: 220,000 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manja, Manza. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngbaka-Minangende [nga] of Democratic Republic of the Congo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East.

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Mbangi
[mgn] Basse-Kotto prefecture: Alindao subprefecture; Mbomou prefecture: Bangassou and Gambo-Ouango subprefectures. Population: 2,750 (1996). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mbangui. Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Yakoma [yky]. May be intelligible of Ngbandi [ngb] or Dendi [deq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi.

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Mbati
[mdn] Lobaye prefecture: Mbaiki subprefecture. Population: 60,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Isongo, Issongo, Lisongo, Lissongo, Songo. Dialects: Bolemba, Mbati of Mbaïki, Bwaka, Bonzio. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.13).

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Mbay
[myb] Ouham prefecture: Batangafo and Markounda subprefectures. Population: 8,300 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Mbai, Mbaï. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

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Mbum
[mdd] Ouham-Pendé prefecture: Bocaranga subprefecture, along Cameroon border. Population: 12,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Mboum. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Southern.

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Monzombo
[moj] Lobaye prefecture: Mongoumba subprefecture. Population: 1,600 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mondjembo, Monjombo, Monzumbo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Monzombo.

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Mpiemo
[mcx] Mambéré-Kadéï prefecture: Gamboula subprefecture; Sangha-Mbaéré prefecture: Nola subprefecture. Population: 24,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 29,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bimu, Mbimou, Mbimu, Mbyemo, Mpo, Mpyemo. Dialects: Jasoa (Jasua), Bidjuki (Bidjouki), Mpyemo. The Jasua dialect spoken by most people and well understood by others. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.86).

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Ngam
[nmc] Ouham prefecture: Kabo subprefecture. Population: 17,700 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ngama. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper.

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Ngando
[ngd] Lobaye prefecture: Mbaiki subprefecture. Population: 5,000 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagandou, Bangandou, Bodzanga, Dingando, Ngando-Kota. Dialects: Dikuta, Dikota (Kota). Reportedly similar to Yaka [axk]. Kota dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.102).

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Ngbaka Ma’bo
[nbm] Lobaye prefecture: Mbaiki and Mongoumba subprefectures; Ombella-M’poko prefecture: Bimbo subprefecture. Population: 88,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 234,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bouaka, Bwaka, Gbaka, Ma’bo, Mbacca, Mbaka, Nbwaka, Ngbaka Limba. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Gilima [gix]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Sere-Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka-Mba, Ngbaka, Western, Bwaka.

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Ngbaka Manza
[ngg] Kémo prefecture: Sibut subprefecture; Ombella-M’poko prefecture, Boali and Damara subprefectures; Ouham prefecture: Bossangoa and Bouca subprefectures. Population: 29,000 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Mandja [mzv]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, East.

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Ngombe
[nmj] Mambéré-Kadéï prefecture: Gamboula subprefecture, Cameroon border. Population: 11,600 (2010 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagando-Ngombe, Bangando-Ngombe, Ngombe-Kaka. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of Southwest Gbaya [gso], Bofi [bff], Bokoto [bdt], and Bangandu [ngd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka, Southwest.

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Nzakara
[nzk] Mbomou prefecture: Bakouma, Bangassou, and Gambo-Ouango subprefectures. Population: 50,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ansakara, N’sakara, Sakara, Zakara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara.

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Pana
[pnz] Ouham-Pendé prefecture: Bocaranga subprefecture. Diahoke and Giriwon villages (Gonge dialect); Makele village (Pana dialect). Population: 82,000 in Central African Republic (1996). 63,000 Pana, 10,000 Pondo, 9,000 Gonge. Total users in all countries: 85,980. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Pani. Dialects: Pana, Pondo, Gonge. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Eastern Mbum, Karang.

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Pande
[bkj] Mambéré-Kadéï prefecture: Berbérati subprefecture; Sangha-Mbaéré prefecture: Nola subprefecture, small area near Banga town. Population: 8,870 (2010 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ipande. Dialects: Pande (Linyeli, Linzeli, Ndjeli, Ngili, Njeli), Bogongo (Bugongo, Bukongo, Gongo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.12).

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Runga
[rou] Bamingui-Bangoran prefecture; Vakaga prefecture: Birao subprefecture. Population: 21,500 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ayki, Aykindang, Rounga, Runga de Ndele. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Maban, Runga-Kibet.

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Sango
[sag] Widespread. Population: 5,100,000 in Central African Republic, all users. L1 users: 500,000 in Central African Republic (2017 SIL). L2 users: 4,600,000. Total users in all countries: 5,199,000 (as L1: 599,000; as L2: 4,600,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 18). Alternate Names: Sangho. Autonym: Sango. Dialects: None known. A rapidly spreading creole derived from Ngbandi [ngb]. Lexical similarity: 51% with French [fra], 49% with African languages. Many French loanwords used in everyday speech (2017 C. Mueller). Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based.

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Sango, Riverain
[snj] Basse-Kotto prefecture: Mobaye subprefecture, along Ubangi river. Population: 34,500 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Sango [sag]. Classification: Creole, Ngbandi based.

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Sara Kaba
[sbz] Bamingui-Bangoran prefecture: Ndélé subprefecture; Vakaga prefecture: Birao subprefecture. Population: 13,600 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ta Sara. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of Sara Kaba Náà [kwv]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Sara Proper, Sara Kaba.

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Suma
[sqm] Ouham prefecture: Bossangoa and Markounda subprefectures; Ouham-Pendé prefecture: Paoua subprefecture. Population: 50,000 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Souma. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Gbaya-Bossangoa [gbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Gbaya-Manza-Ngbaka.

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To
[toz] Scattered. Population: No known L1 speakers in Central African Republic. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Adamawa, Mbum-Day, Mbum, Unclassified.

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Ukhwejo
[ukh] Sangha-Mbaéré prefecture: south of Nola. Ngulo (Ukhwejo dialect); Nalimo, Salo, Bayanga, and Gbaso (Bikaka dialect); Koola, Ambasila (Piiga dialect); Bomanzoku, Linjombo, both sides of Sanga river (Kamsili dialect). 7 villages. Population: 2,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Benkonjo, Ukwedjo. Dialects: Ukhwejo, Bikaka, Piiga, Kamsili (Ngamsile). Reportedly similar to Koonzime [ozm], Mpiemo [mcx], Bomwali [bmw], and Makaa [mcp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.802).

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Vale
[vae] Nana-Grébizi prefecture: Kaga Bandoro subprefecture; Ouham prefecture: Batangafo and Kabo subprefectures. Population: 5,400 (1996). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Vale, Tana (Tane, Tele). Not intelligible of Sara Kaba Náà [kwv] or Ngambay [sba]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Sara-Bagirmi, Sara, Vale.

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Yaka
[axk] Lobaye prefecture: Mbaïki and Mongoumba subprefectures, forest along Congo border; Sangha-Mbaéré prefecture: Bambio and Nola subprefectures. Population: 15,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 30,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Beká, Nyoyaka, Pygmée de Mongoumba, Pygmée de la Lobaye, Pygmées de la Sanghas, “Babinga” (pej.), “Bambenga” (pej.). Autonym: Aka. Dialects: Beka (Bayaka, Gbayaka, Moyaka), Nzari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, C, Ngondi (C.104).

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Yakoma
[yky] Basse-Kotto prefecture: Kembé subprefecture; Mbomou prefecture: Gambo-Ouango subprefecture; Ombella-M’poko prefecture: Bimbo subprefecture; Bangui. Oubangui river area and administrative centers. Population: 100,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 110,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Ngbandi [ngb] and Sango [sag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Ngbandi.

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Yulu
[yul] Haute-Kotto prefecture: Ouadda subprefecture; Vakaga prefecture: Ouanda-Djallé subprefecture. Population: 4,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Total users in all countries: 13,000. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Youlou. Dialects: Binga, Yulu. Aja is not a dialect of Yulu, but of Kresh [krs] (1987 R. Brown). Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Satellite-Core, Satellites, Central Sudanic, West, Bongo-Bagirmi, Kara.

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Zande
[zne] Haut-Mbomou prefecture: Obo, Rafaï, and Zémio subprefectures. Population: 62,000 in Central African Republic (1996). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Azande, Badjande, Pazande, Sande, Zandi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Adamawa-Ubangi, Ubangi, Zande, Zande-Nzakara.

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