Switzerland

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Arpitan
[frp] Bern canton: Bernese Jura; Fribourg canton: de la Broye, de la Glane, de la Sarine, de la Veveyse, and la Gruyere; Geneva, Neuchâtel, and Vaud cantons; Valais canton: d’Entremont, d’Herens, de Sierre de Monthey, Saint-Maurice, districts. 7,000 (1998). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Patois. Dialects: Savoyard, Neuchâtelois, Valaisan, Vaudois. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern.

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French
[fra] Fribourg, Geneva, Jura, Neuchâtel, and Vaud cantons. 5,440,000 in Switzerland, all users. L1 users: 1,820,000 (2012 census). L2 users: 3,620,000 (2015). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with Italian [ita] and Standard German [deu] on the federal level. Alternate Names: Francese, Französisch, Français. Dialects: Franc-Comtois (Fribourgois, Jurassien). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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German, Standard
[deu] 292,000 (2013 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with Italian [ita] and French [fra] on the federal level. Alternate Names: Allemand, Deutsch, Tedesco, Tudestg. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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German, Swiss
[gsw] Widespread. 4,490,000 (2012 census). Total users in all countries: 5,724,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alemanic, Alemannisch. Autonym: Schwyzerdütsch. Dialects: Bern (Bärndütsch), Zurich, Lucerne, Basel, Obwald, Appenzell, Saint Gallen, Graubuenden-Grisons (Valserisch), Wallis. Most Swiss varieties are High Alemannisch and Highest Alemannisch (several in central Switzerland). Each canton has a separate variety. Only a few of 20–70 varieties are listed as dialects. Reportedly most similar to Swabian [swg] in south central Germany. Not inherently intelligible with Standard German [deu]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic.

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Italian
[ita] Graubünden and Ticino cantons. 666,000 (2012 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Constitution, Article 70(1)), co-equal with French [fra] and Standard German [deu] on the federal level. Alternate Names: Italiano, Italienisch. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian.

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Lombard
[lmo] Graubünden canton: Bernina, Maloggia, and Moesa districts, south of Saint Moritz; Ticino canton. 303,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ticinese (Tessinian, Ticinees, Ticines, Ticino). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Scattered. 21,000 (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes, Sinte, Sinti. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Romansh
[roh] Graubünden canton: Hinterrhein, Inn, Maloja, and Surselva districts. 40,000 (2012 census). 1 canton. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Grisons Canton (2004, Grisons Cantonal Constitution, Article 3(1)). Alternate Names: Rhaeto-Romance, Rheto-Romance, Romanche, Romansch. Autonym: Rumantsch. Dialects: Vallader (Lower Engadine), Puter (Upper Engadine), Sursilvan (Surselva, Vorderrhein), Sutsilvan (Hinterrhein), Surmiran (Albula). Friulian [fur], Ladin [lld], and Romansh [roh] are separate languages (1978 R. Hall). Lexical similarity: 78% with Italian [ita] and French [fra]; 76% with Catalan [cat]; 74% with Spanish [spa], Sardinian [sdc], and Portuguese [por]; 72% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian. Comments: Official written language in common use now, called Rumantsch Grischun.

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Swiss-French Sign Language
[ssr] Scattered. Fribourg canton: Delémont, Morges, Oron, and Zion; Geneva and Vaud cantons; Neuchâtel canton: La Chaux-de-Fonds. 1,700 (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Federal Parliament, Law on Equality for Disabled People). Alternate Names: LSF, LSF-SR, Langage Gestuelle, Langue des signes française, Langue des signes suisse romande. Dialects: Regional lexical variation tied to specific schools: Geneva, Lausanne, Neuchâtel, Fribourg and Sion (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Similar to French Sign Language [fsl] (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Local Swiss signs and imported French signs. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: French Sign Language [fsl] is used some in the French areas. Taught as L2. 13,000 hearing signers (all three sign languages) in Switzerland, estimate based on participants in sign language classes (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 30 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Christian.

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Swiss-German Sign Language
[sgg] Scattered. 5,500 (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 10,000 deaf signers in all of Switzerland (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Federal Parliament, Law on Equality for Disabled People). Alternate Names: DGS, DSGS, Deutschschweizer Gebärdensprache, Deutschschweizerische Gebärdensprache, Natürliche Gebärde. Dialects: Regional variation tied to specific schools: Basel, Bern, Lucerne, St. Gallen, Zurich (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Similar to sign language used in the southern parts of Germany. Borrowing from Swiss-French Sign Language [ssr]. (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Deaf children from the German cantons and the Romansh areas are taught to read standard German [deu]; not the unwritten Swiss-German [gsw] or Romansh [roh] that their parents speak. Some regional lexical variations in German areas tied to specific schools. Status of signing is improving. Strong oralist tradition in schools in German area. Taught as L2. 13,000 hearing signers (all three sign languages) in Switzerland, estimate based on participants in sign language classes. (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Christian.

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Swiss-Italian Sign Language
[slf] Scattered. Graubünden and Ticino cantons. 300 (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2014 EUD). 10,000 deaf in all of Switzerland. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2002, Federal Parliament, Law on Equality for Disabled People). Alternate Names: LIS, LIS-SI, Lingua dei Segni Italiana, Lingua dei segni della Svizzera italiana. Dialects: None known. Two main varieties: Lugano, Bellinzona (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Similar to Italian Sign Language [ise], especially to variants from Lombardy (2016 G. Harms). Variety used around Bellinzona influenced by sign languages of immigrants from the former Yugoslavia, Lithuania and Poland. (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Taught as L2. 13,000 hearing signers (all three sign languages) in Switzerland, estimate based on participants in sign language classes (Boyes Braem and Rathmann 2010). 7 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Christian.

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Walser
[wae] Graubünden canton: Albula, Hinterrhein, Plessur, Prattigau-Davos, and Surselva districts; Ticino canton: Bosco-Gurin; Valais canton: Simplon; 26 communities. 10,000 (2004). Ethnic population: 21,900 (1980 C. Buchli). Total users in all countries: 22,780. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walscher. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to but different from Swiss German [gsw] spoken in Wallis Canton in Switzerland. Different from Cimbrian [cim], Mocheno [mhn], or Bavarian [bar]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic.

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