Côte d’Ivoire

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Abé
[aba] Lagunes Distric, Agboville subprefecture, except Krobou canton, Tiassale subprefecture, Abbe canton, 70 villages; Lacs District, Bongouanou subprefecture. 170,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abbé, Abbey, Abi Dialects: Abbey-Ve, Kos (Khos), Morie, Tioffo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Abidji
[abi] Lagunes District, Sikensi and; Dabou subprefectures; Agboville area. 12 villages. 50,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abiji Dialects: Enyembe, Ogbru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby Comments: Christian.

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Abron
[abr] Zanzan Distict, Tanda and Bondoukou subprefectures. 133,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Comments: Glossonym: Abron in Côte d’Ivoire, Brong in Ghana. Christian (Protestant), Muslim, traditional religion.

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Abure
[abu] Comoé District, Bonoua subprefecture; Lagunes District, Grand Bassam subprefecture; Abidjan. 55,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abonwa, Abouré, Abule, Akaplass Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any] and Baoule [bci]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western Comments: Ethnic subgroups: Eyive (majority), Ehie, Ossouon. Christian.

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Adioukrou
[adj] Lagunes District, Dabou subprefecture. 49 villages. 100,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adjukru, Adyoukrou, Adyukru, Ajukru Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aizi, Aproumu
[ahp] Lagunes District, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Attoutou A (new quarter), Attoutou B, Tefredji, Koko, Bapo (Allaba B, Taboth) villages; Dabou subprefecture, Allaba village. 6,500 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Aprou, Aproumu, Aprwe, Oprou Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi Comments: Ethnonym: Chicalé for Lélémrin (Tiagbamrin); Amaboué for Mobumrin; Akabu, Opro, Saptomrin, and Tchavamrin used in different Mobu and Lélé villages to refer to Apro; Ed-eyng by Adioukrou, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all the Aizi groups. Christian.

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Aizi, Mobumrin
[ahm] Lagunes District, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon north bank. 2 villages (Abraco and Abraniamiambo). 2,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi Comments: Ethnic autonym: Frukpu. Ethnonym: Mouin; Ed-eyng by Adioukrou, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all Aizi groups. Christian.

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Aizi, Tiagbamrin
[ahi] Lagunes District, Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Tiagba, Nigui-Assoko, Nigui-Saff, Tiémié, and Attoutou B (old quarter) villages. 9,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Lélémrin, Tiagba Dialects: None known. No intelligibility of Mobumrin Aizi [ahm], even though both are Kru languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi Comments: ‘Tiagbamrin’, language of Tiagba. Others speak Lélémrin. Ethnonym: Prokpo, Krokpo in Tiagba town; Ed-eyng by Adioukro, Ezibo by Alladian to refer to all Aizi groups. Christian.

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Alladian
[ald] Lagunes District, Jacqueville subprefecture, plain between the coast and Ebrie lagoon. 21 villages. 23,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alladyan, Allagia, Allagian Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian Comments: Christian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Langue de signes d’Afrique francophone, Langue des signes de Côte d’Ivoire, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone, LSAF, LSAF Ivoirienne, LSCI Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: As of 2015, LSAF is not officially recognized as a distinct language and would be considered a dialect of ASL, with influence from spoken and written French [fra] and local signs. The relationship of signing in Côte d’Ivoire to standard ASL in the United States and to LSAF in other francophone African countries has not been assessed. Further, there is significant variation within the country, again not systematically-assessed, and a variety of names used. Some people regard these names as referring to distinct languages, others as dialects of the same language. Some Deaf know more than one variety. There is also a local variety in the village of Bouakako, Hiré in southwestern Côte d’Ivoire. (2013 A. Tano).

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Anyin
[any] Mainly Lacs District, M’bahiakro, Bongouanou and Daoukro subprefectures; Zanzan District, Bondoukou and Tanda subprefectures; Comoé and Lagunes districts. 610,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 860,000. L2 users: 10,000 in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agni, Anyi Dialects: Abé, Ano, Anyin Alangua (Alangua), Anyin Sannvin (Sannvin, Sanvi), Barabo, Bini, Bona, Juablin (Anyin Juablin, Djuablin), Ndenye (Anyin Ndenye, Indenie). The Northern Anyin dialect area includes the Abé, Ano, Bona, Bini and Barabo dialects. The Central Anyin dialect are includes Ndenye and Juablin. Reportedly most similar to Baoulé [bci]. Also similar to Nzema [nzi] and Sehwi [sfw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Anyin Morofo
[mtb] Lagunes District, Southern, Eastern, and Central departments; Lacs District, Moronou area. 300,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Morofo Dialects: Anyin Alangua (Alangua). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: ‘Morofue’ refers to a Morofo speaker.

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Attié
[ati] Lagunes District, Anyama, Alepe, Adzope, Affery, Agou, Akoupe, and Yakasse-Attobrou subprefectures; southeast Lacs District. 381,000 (1993 SIL). 34,000 live in Abidjan. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akie, Akye, Atche, Atie, Atshe Dialects: Bodin, Ketin, Naindin. Bodin dialect is the most prestigious and numerous. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Attie Comments: Christian.

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Avikam
[avi] Lagunes District, Grand Lahou coastal plain area, Avikam Canton; Gôh-Djiboua District, along coast west of Tagbo Lagoon. 21,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Avekom, Brignan, Brinya, Gbanda, Kwakwa, Lahu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian Comments: Christian.

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Bakwé
[bjw] Bas-Sassandra District, Sassandra, Soubre, and San Pedro prefectures. 10,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dafa, Defa, Deple, Nigagba, Nyinagbi. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe Comments: Christian.

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Bambara
[bam] Denguélé District, center and northeast; Savanes District, Tingréla department, Ségélon subprefecture; Malian diaspora in all major cities. 5,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bamako, Bamana, Bamanakan Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Muslim.

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Baoulé
[bci] Lacs, Vallée du Bandama, Lagunes, Sassandra-Marahoué, Gôh-Djiboua and Woroba regions, widespread in the south. 2,130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baule, Baule-Ando, Bawule Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any]. Many subgroups, but all claim to understand the standard variety. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Largest ethnic group in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Beng
[nhb] Lacs District, M’bahiakro subprefecture, northeast corner, and Prikro subprefecture. 22 villages. 17,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben, Gan, Ngain, Ngan, Ngen, Ngin, Nguin Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bété, Daloa
[bev] Sassandra-Marahoué District, Daloa subprefecture. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Daloua Bété, Northern Bété Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bété, Gagnoa
[btg] Gôh-Djiboua District, Gagnoa subprefecture; Sassandra-Marahoué District, Sinfra subprefecture; some in northern Sud-Bandama District. 150,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Bété, Gagnoua-Bété, Shyen Dialects: Gbadi (Badie, Gbadie), Guebie, Kpakolo, Nekedi, Niabre, Zadie, Zebie. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bété, Guiberoua
[bet] Sassandra-Marahoué District, Daloua, Issia, and Guiberoua subprefectures; Bas-Sassandra District, Soubre, Buyo, Gregbeu, and Ouaragahio subprefectures; also in Gôh-Djiboua District. 130,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Bété, Western Bété Dialects: Guiberoua, Soubré. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western Comments: Different from Bete [byf] of Nigeria. Christian, traditional religion.

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Beti
[eot] Comoé District, Grand Bassam subprefecture, Vitre I and Vitre II villages. 200 (Blench, Spriggs, and Connell 1999). Ethnic population: 3,180 (1988 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Eotile Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western Comments: Christian.

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Birifor, Southern
[biv] Zanzan District, northeast corner. 4,310 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cerma
[cme] Savanes District, Ouangolodougou area, north of Ferkessedougou. 5 villages along main road to Banfora. 1,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gouin, Guin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama Comments: Traditional religion.

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Daho-Doo
[das] Montagnes District, Tai area and south; northwestern Bas-Sassandra region. Doo are in 5 villages south of Guiglo. 4,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Although the Daho and Doo are considered Wè, their speech is not understood by other Wè. Greatest lexical similarity: at least 30%–80% with any Wè variety, 92% with Daho and Doo dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn

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Dan
[dnj] Montagnes District, Man, Danané, and Biankouma prefectures; Liberian border area west of Touba.19 villages. 1,300,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). 650,000 in Eastern Dan, 650,000 in western Dan. Population total all countries: 1,610,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da, Gio, Gio-Dan, Ya, Yacouba, Yakuba Dialects: Blowo (Western Dan), Gweetaawu (Eastern Dan). At least 38 subdialects. In Liberia speakers in Garplay understood Côte d’Ivoire Yacouba dialect recordings as follows: Danane, Koulinle, Kale: very well; Blosse: quite well; Bloundo: reasonably well; dialects east of Blouno: considerable difficulty (Bolli and Frick 1971). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Deg
[mzw] Probably in Zanzan District. 1,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aculo, Buro, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western

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Dida, Lakota
[dic] Gôh-Djiboua District, Lakota town area and several small areas; Lagunes District, south of Lake Taabo. 93,800 (1993 SIL). All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brabori, Dieko, Gabo, Guébie, Satro, Ziki Dialects: Vata. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida Comments: Distinct from Yocoboué Dida [gud]. Traditional religion.

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Dida, Yocoboué
[gud] Gôh-Djiboua District, Guitry subprefecture, Guitry town area; Lagunes Didtrict, Tagbo Lagoon. 102,000 (1993 SIL). 7,100 Guitry, 94,500 Divo. All Dida: 195,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Divo, Lozoua (Gakpa, Goudou, Guitry, Kagoué, Yocoboue, Yokouboué). Lakota Dida [dic] marginally intelligible with Yocoboué Dida. Guitry is prestigious. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida Comments: More survey needed in Dida area. Christian, Muslim.

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Ebrié
[ebr] Lagunes and urban Abidjan districts, Dabou subprefecture, Bingerville subprefecture. 57 villages, including 27 in Abidjan. 75,900 (1988 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cama, Caman, Kyama, Tchaman, Tsama, Tyama Dialects: None known. Not related to surrounding languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou Comments: Christian, Christian.

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Ega
[ega] Gôh-Djiboua District, Diés canton, Borondoukou village near Gly. 2,500 (2001 B. Connell). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diés, Egwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Ega Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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French
[fra] 17,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1988 census). L2 users: 12,700,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Francophonie 2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 29). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French

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Gban
[ggu] Gôh-Djiboua District, Oume subprefecture, also region south of Laouda. 60,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gagou, Gagu, Kago, Sodua Dialects: Boka, Bokabo, N’da, Touka. N’da dialect is central. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Glio-Oubi
[oub] Southwest corner; Bas-Sassandra District, north of Tabou, east bank of Cavally. 2,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Glio, Oubi, Ubi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Glio-Oubi Comments: Glossonym: Glio in Liberia. Traditional religion.

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Godié
[god] Bas-Sassandra District, Sassandra and Fresco subprefectures, Kotrohou canton; some in Gôh-Djiboua region. 26,400 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dadjriwalé, Godye Dialects: Dagli, Dlogo, Glibe, Jluko, Kagbo, Koyo, Nugbo, Nyago (Cinyaugogo), Tiglu. The Koyo dialect may be more similar to a Dida language than to Godié [god]. Kagbo is the most widely understood dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Grebo, Southern
[grj] Possibly in Bas-Sassandra District near Liberia border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Seaside Grebo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian Comments: Mainly refugees in Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion.

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Guro
[goa] Mainly Sassandra-Marahoué and Gôh-Djiboua districts, Zuénoula, Vavoua, Gouitafla, Bouaflé, Sinfra, and Oumé subprefectures; smaller areas in Vallée du Bandama, Woroba and Lacs districts. 500,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baba, Dalo, Dipa, Gouro, Ku, Kwéndré, Kweni, Lo Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Hausa
[hau] Abidjan. 121,000 in Côte d’Ivoire. Ethnic population: 1,000,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1

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Jeri Kuo
[jek] Savanes District, Korhogo area, 3 enclaves. 1,500 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Celle, Jeli Kuo Dialects: None known. Related to Ligbi [lig] of Ghana and Tongon, an extinct blacksmith argot of the Djimini Senoufo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri

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Jula
[dyu] Savanes and Zanzan districts; widespread in all major cities. 1,500,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). Population total all countries: 2,550,000. L2 users: 7,000,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Widespread in all major cities. Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan Dialects: None known. Spoken as L1 or L2 by millions of people of diverse ethnic backgrounds in West Africa. Mutually intelligible with Bambara [bam], Kita Maninkakan [mwk], and Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Majority ethnic Jula. Government designated as 1 of 5 languages to be developed for literature. Muslim.

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Khisa
[kqm] Northern Zanzan District. 5,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Population total all countries: 8,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu Dialects: Speakers say they can understand Kaansa [gna] and Senoufo, given time. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dogosé [dos], 72% with Kpatogo dialect of Kaansa, 71% with Kaansa [gna], 16% with Dogoso [dgs], 13% with Khe [kqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose Comments: Muslim.

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Kla-Dan
[lda] Worodougou District, Touba department, 25 villages; Montagnes District, Biankouma department, Zouzoupleu village. 25,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Santa, Zouzoupleu. Reportedly similar to Dan [dnj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kodia
[kwp] Bas-Sassandra District. 840 (1993 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kwadia, Kwadya Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Kwadia Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koro
[kfo] Woroba District, Mankono department, Tiéningboué subprefecture. 40,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koro Jula Dialects: None known. High comprehension of Koyaga [kga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koyaga. Muslim.

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Kouya
[kyf] Sassandra-Marahoué District, Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton; small area west of Bonefla. 12 villages. 10,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kowya, Kuya, Sokya Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Gbadi Bété [btg] and Dida. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Koyaga
[kga] Worodba District, Mankono department, western 4 subprefectures. 60,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koya, Koyaa, Koyaga Jula, Koyagakan, Koyaka, Koyara Dialects: Koyaga, Nigbi, Sagaka, Siaka. High comprehension of Koro [kfo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Strong ethnic identity, although they live near the Koro. Muslim.

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Krahn, Eastern
[kqo] Vallée du Bandama, Lacs, and Sassandra-Marahoué districts, Lake Kossou area; possibly in Montagnes District. 10,600 in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Konobo Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Krahn, Western
[krw] Montagnes District,Toulépleu subprefecture. 12,200 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Krahn, Northern Krahn Dialects: Biai, Pewa (Peewa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn Comments: Local French influences, but in Liberia from Liberian English, from which there are Orthographic differences. Traditional religion.

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Krobu
[kxb] Lagunes District, Agboville subprefecture. 4 villages. 9,920 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krobou Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Krobu Comments: Christian.

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Krumen, Plapo
[ktj] Southwest corner, Bas-Sassandra District, between Bapo and Honpo dialects of Tepo Krumen [ted]. 100 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Plapo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian

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Krumen, Pye
[pye] Bas-Sassandra District, Tai, Bereby, and in San Pedro subprefectures. 20,000 (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Northeastern Krumen, Southeastern Krumen Dialects: Dugbo, Gbowe-Hran, Pie (Pie-Pli-Mahon-Kuse-Gblapo-Henekwe, Pye), Trepo, Wlepo, Wluwe-Hawlo (Haoulo), Yapo, Yrewe (Giriwe). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian Comments: Christian.

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Krumen, Tepo
[ted] Bas-Sassandra District, Tabou and Grabo subprefectures. 28,300 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 31,210. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Kru, Krumen, Southern Krumen, Southwestern Kroumen Dialects: Bapo, Dapo, Glawlo, Honpo, Tepo, Wlopo (Ropo), Yrepo (Kapo). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian Comments: Christian.

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Kulango, Bondoukou
[kzc] Zanzan District, Bondoukou subprefecture. 77,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Population total all countries: 104,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bouna
[nku] Zanzan District, Nassian subprefecture. 14,400 in Côte d’Ivoire (1998). Population total all countries: 29,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koulango, Kulange, Nkuraeng, Nkurange Dialects: Nabanj. Bouna dialect speakers understand Bondoukou [kzc], but not the reverse. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lobi
[lob] Zanzan District, north strip. 156,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lobiri, Miwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Loma
[loi] Zanzan District, Téén and Kulango areas. 8,010 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lomakka, Lomapo, Lomasse, Malinke Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Téén [lor] and Kulango [kzc] but not inherently intelligible. More similar to Kulango than Téén is to Kulango. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen Comments: Different from Loma [lom] of Liberia.

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Mahou
[mxx] Woroba District, Touba department; northeast Montagnes District; Denguélé District south of Bako. 300,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahu, Maou, Mau, Mauka, Mauke Dialects: Baralaka (Barala), Finanga, Koroka, Mahouka, Tenenga. Some listed dialect speakers may not be able to use Mahou literature. Barala may be dialect of Wojenaka [jod]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Mauka is the indigenous ethnonym; Mawu is the indigenous toponym and should not be confused with Mawu, the autoglottonym for Siwu [akp]. Muslim.

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Mbato
[gwa] Lagunes District, Petit Alépé subprefecture; Comoé District, east bank, Comoé river. 25,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goaa, Gwa, M’bato, Mbatto, Mgbato, N-Batto, Nglwa, Ogwia, Potu Dialects: None known. Related to Ebrii [ebr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou Comments: Christian.

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Mbre
[mka] Woroba and Vallée du Bandama districts, Marabadiassa area, Bondosso and Niantibo villages. 200 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bere, Bre, Pre, Pre Pisia Dialects: None known. Considerably different from surrounding Mande and nearby Kwa languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Unclassified

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Mwan
[moa] Woroba District, Kongasso subprefecture and south Mankono subprefecture. 20,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mona, Mouan, Muan, Muana, Mwa Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nafaanra
[nfr] Few in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Nafaanra

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Neyo
[ney] Bas-Sassandra District, Sassandra subprefecture, Neyo, and Kébé cantons, from Niégba west to Dagbégo east and Niabayo north. 9,200 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gwibwen, Towi Dialects: Reportedly most similar to the Kagbo dialect of Godié [god], but they consider themselves a separate ethnic group. May be more similar to a Dida language than to a Bété language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida Comments: Ethnic autonym: Neyo. Christian, traditional religion.

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N’ko
[nqo] Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Mixed language

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Nyabwa
[nwb] Lake Buyo area, Sassandra-Marahoué District, Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton; small area west of Bonefla. 12 villages, southwest corner, Vavoua (Nyedebwa), Issia, Buyo, Zoukougbeu (Nyabwa), and Daloua subprefectures; Bas-Sassandra District, northwest. 42,700 (1993 SIL). 32,500 Nyabwa, 7,700 Nyedebwa, 2,500 Kouzié. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Niaboua, Nyaboa, Nyabwa-Nyédébwa Dialects: Kouzié, Nyabwa, Nyedebwa (Niédéboua). Lexical similarity: 90% with Nyabwa and Nyedebwa dialects, 74%–80% between them and Wè Southern [gxx] and Wè Northern [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Nyabwa Comments: Ethnonym: Bété not wanted. Kouzii is an ethnic subgroup of Nyabwa, not a dialect. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nzema
[nzi] Comoé District, Aboisso department, Tiapoum subprefecture, southeast coast; Abidjan. 66,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Appolo, Nzima Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Comments: Christian.

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Sénoufo, Cebaara
[sef] Savanes District, around Korhogo city and west; many in Denguélé and Woroba districts; some in Vallée du Bandama District, west of Bandama Blanc river. 862,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Senadi, Senari, Syenere, Tiebaara, Tyebala Dialects: Fodara, Kafire, Kandere (Tengrela), Kasara, Kufuru, Kulere, Nafara, Papara, Patara, Pogara, Southwest Senari, Tagara, Tagbari (Mbengui-Niellé), Takpasyeeri (Messeni), Tenere, Tyebara. Korhogo dialect is central. The Kulele speak Kulere dialect scattered throughout the Senoufo area. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Djimini
[dyi] Vallée du Bandama District, Dabakala department, northeast corner; Lacs District, northwest of Kouandkro; Savanes District, Ferkessedougou department. 95,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimini, Dyimini, Jinmini Dialects: Diamala (Djamala, Dyamala), Djafolo, Dofana, Foolo, Singala. Dabakala prestige dialect is Singala. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Tagwana Senoufo [tgw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Sénoufo, Nyarafolo
[sev] Savanes District, northeast Ferkessédougou area; some border areas in northern Vallée du Bandama District. 60,000 (2009 L. Boese). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Niarafolo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Palaka
[plr] Savanes District, east of Bandama Blanc river; Vallée du Bandama District, Sikolo area, north of Djimini. 8,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpalagha, Palaka, Palara, Pallakha, Pilara Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with other Senufo languages and dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Kpalaga Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Savanes District, north of Tingréla. 100,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1996). Population total all countries: 114,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shenpire, Syempire Dialects: 3 or 4 dialects. Relationship to Supyire Senoufo [spp] in Mali is undetermined. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara

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Sénoufo, Tagwana
[tgw] Vallée du Bandama District, north central area, west of Djimini area; Savanes District, east of Korhogo city; Woroba District north of Lake Kossou. 138,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tagbana, Tagouna, Tagwana Dialects: Djidanan, Fondebougou, Fourgoula, Gbo (Zoro), Katiara, Katiola, Niakaramadougou, Niangbo, Niediekaha, Tafire. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Djimini [dyi] dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Téén
[lor] Zanzan District. 6,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Population total all countries: 8,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Ténhé Dialects: None known. Different from Kulango. Reportedly most similar to Loma [loi] and Bouna Kulango [nku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tonjon
[tjn] Vallée du Bandama District. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo Comments: Formerly spoken by blacksmiths.

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Toura
[neb] Montagnes District, east Biankouma department, mountainous region east of Man to Touba main road, north of Man to Séguéla main road, north of Bafing river; Bafing and Sassandra rivers from north and east borders. 50,000 (2005 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tura, Ween Dialects: Boo, Guse, Gwéò, Naò, Wáádú, Yiligele. Probably most similar to Dan [dnj]. Reportedly also similar to Guro [goa], Gban [ggu], and Mano [mev] (in Liberia). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wan
[wan] Southeast Worodougou District, Kounahiri and west Beoumi subprefectures; Vallée du Bandama and Marahoué districts, north shore, Lake Bossou. 22,000 (1993 UBS). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nwa Dialects: Kemu, Miamu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wané
[hwa] Southwest coast, Bas-Sassandra District, Kounoukou area. 2,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hwane, Ngwané Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe Comments: Intermarry frequently with the Bakwe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Northern
[wob] Montagnes District, Kouibly and Fakobly subprefectures. 156,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ouobe, Wèè, Wobé Dialects: Péomé, Sémien (Gbéan), Tao. Kouibly dialect intelligible to about half of Wè Southern [gxx] speakers. Lexical similarity: 90%–94% among dialects, Kouibly dialect (Tao and Gbean) has 84%–89% lexical similarity with Wè Southern dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Wobe Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Southern
[gxx] Central, Montagnes District, Guiglo, Duékoué, Bangolo, and Tai subprefectures; Bas-Sassandra District, Lake Buyo area. 293,000 (1999 SIL). 20,000 Niao (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Guéré, Gere, Guéré Dialects: Beu (Zarabaon), Fleo, Gboo (Gbobo), Niao (Neabo, Neao, Niabo), Nyeo, Zaa (Zaha), Zagna, Zagne, Zibiao. Southern Wè has 7 more consonants than Northern Wè [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wèè. Consider Wè one language with many dialects. They are one ethnic group, together with Krahn in Liberia. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wè Western
[wec] Montagnes District, Toulépleu subprefecture. 25,200 (1998 SIL). 20,000 Kaoro (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gere, Guéré, Neyo Dialects: Kaoro (Kaawlu, Kaowlu), Nidrou (Nidru). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wèè. Neyo [wec] is distinct from Neyo [ney], another Kru language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Wojenaka
[jod] Denguélé District, Odienné department; Worob District; Boundiali department possiblly; Juraba and Samofo dialects. 120,000 (1999 SIL). 15,000 Wasulu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malinké, Odienné Jula, Odiennekakan Dialects: Bodougouka, Juraba, Nafana, Odienneka, Samogo, Sienkoka, Toudougouka, Vandougouka, Wasulu (Wassoulounka, Wassulunka, Wassulunke). Some dialects listed may be separate languages. The Barala dialect of Mahou [mxx] may be a dialect of Wojenaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Wasulu are ethnic Fulani who adopted a Manding language. Muslim.

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Worodougou
[jud] Mainly, Woroba District, Séguéla and Mankono departments, Tiéningboué subprefecture; Montagnes, Sassandra-Marahoué, and Denguélé districts. 80,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakokan, Ouorodougou, Worodougou Jula, Worodougoukakan, Worodugu Dialects: Kanika, Karanjan, Worodougouka. Karanjan dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori Comments: Glossonym: Bakokan by people in Mankono department. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Yaouré
[yre] Sassandra-Marahoué District, Bouaflé department, Bouaflé subprefecture, Yaouré canton, bounded south by Red Bandama, east by White Bandama river, north by Lake Kossou, west by Bouaflé. 40,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Yaure, Yohowré, Youré Dialects: Bhoo, Klan, Taan, Yaan, Yoo. Reportedly most similar to Guro [goa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure Comments: Traditional religion.

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