Côte d’Ivoire

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Abé
[aba] Lacs district: Bongouanou subprefecture; Lagunes district: Agboville subprefecture (except Krobou canton), Tiassale subprefecture, Abbe canton, 70 villages. Population: 268,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Abbey, Abbé, Abi. Dialects: Tioffo, Morie, Abbey-Ve, Kos (Khos). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby.

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Abidji
[abi] Lagunes district: Dabou and Sikensi subprefectures, Agboville area. 12 villages. Population: 85,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Abiji. Dialects: Enyembe, Ogbru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby.

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Abron
[abr] Zanzan distict: Bondoukou and Tanda subprefectures. Population: 223,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan.

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Abure
[abu] Comoé district: Bonoua subprefecture; Lagunes district: Grand Bassam subprefecture; Abidjan. Population: 93,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abonwa, Abouré, Abule, Akaplass, Ehie, Eyive, Ossouon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any] and Baoule [bci]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western.

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Adioukrou
[adj] Lagunes district: Dabou subprefecture. 49 villages. Population: 140,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Adjukru, Adyoukrou, Adyukru, Ajukru, Mojukru. Autonym: Mɔjukru. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Agneby.

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Aizi, Aproumu
[ahp] Lagunes district: Dabou subprefecture, Allaba village; Jacqueville subprefecture, Attoutou A, Attoutou B, Bapo (Allaba B, Taboth), Koko, and Tefredji villages on Ebrié lagoon banks. Population: 6,500 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Apro, Aproin, Aprou, Aproumu, Aprwe, Oprou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi.

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Aizi, Mobumrin
[ahm] Lagunes district: Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon north bank, Abraco and Abraniamiambo villages. Population: 2,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Ed-eyng, Ezibo, Frukpu, Mouin. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi.

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Aizi, Tiagbamrin
[ahi] Lagunes district: Jacqueville subprefecture, Ebrié lagoon banks, Attoutou B, Nigui-Assoko, Nigui-Saff, Tiagba, and Tiémié villages. Population: 9,000 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahizi, Ed-eyng, Ezibo, Kropko, Lélémrin, Prokpo, Tiagba, Tiagbamrin. Dialects: None known. No intelligibility of Mobumrin Aizi [ahm], even though both are Kru languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Aizi.

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Alladian
[ald] Lagunes district: Jacqueville subprefecture, plain between the coast and Ebrie lagoon. 21 villages. Population: 23,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Aladian, Alladyan, Allagia, Allagian. Autonym: Alladian. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Population: Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: LSAF, LSAF Ivoirienne, LSCI, Langue des signes d’Afrique francophone, Langue des signes de Côte d’Ivoire, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone. Classification: Sign language.

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Anyin
[any] Comoé and Lagunes districts; Lacs district: Bongouanou, Daoukro, and M’bahiakro subprefectures; Zanzan district: Bondoukou and Tanda subprefectures. Population: 1,450,000 in Côte d’Ivoire, all users. L1 users: 1,440,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). L2 users: 10,000. Total users in all countries: 1,516,400 (as L1: 1,506,400; as L2: 10,000). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Agni, Agni Sanvi, Agny, Anyi. Autonym: Anyin. Dialects: Anyin Sannvin (Sannvin, Sanvi), Abé, Ano, Bona, Bini, Barabo, Ndenye (Anyin Ndenye, Indenie), Juablin (Anyin Juablin, Djuablin). The Northern Anyin dialect area includes the Abé, Ano, Bona, Bini and Barabo dialects. The Central Anyin dialect are includes Ndenye and Juablin. Reportedly most similar to Baoulé [bci]. Also similar to Nzema [nzi] and Sehwi [sfw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern.

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Anyin Morofo
[mtb] Lacs district: Moronou area; Lagunes district: central, southern, and eastern departments. Population: 300,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Morofo. Dialects: Anyin Alangua (Alangua). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern.

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Attié
[ati] Lacs district: southeast; Lagunes district: Adzopé, Affery, Agou, Akoupé, Alépé, Anyama, and Yakassé-Attobrou subprefectures. Population: 642,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: -Atye” (pej.), Akie, Akye, Atche, Atie, Atshe. Autonym: -Atshe. Dialects: Naindin, Ketin, Bodin. Bodin dialect is the most prestigious and numerous. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Attie.

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Avikam
[avi] Gôh-Djiboua district: coast west of Tagbo Lagoon; Lagunes district: Grand Lahou coastal plain area, Avikam canton. Population: 21,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Avekom, Brignan, Brinya, Gbanda, Kwakwa, Lahu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Avikam-Alladian.

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Bakwé
[bjw] Bas-Sassandra district: San Pedro, Sassandra, and Soubre prefectures. Population: 10,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Defa, Deple, Dafa, Nigagba, Nyinagbi. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe.

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Bambara
[bam] Denguélé district: center and northeast; Savanes district: Tingréla department, Ségélon subprefecture; Malian diaspora in all major cities. Population: 5,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bamako, Bamana, Bamanakan, Bamanankan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana.

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Baoulé
[bci] Lacs, Lagunes, Gôh-Djiboua, Sassandra-Marahoué, Vallée du Bandama, Woroba, and Yamoussoukro regions. Widespread in the south. Population: 4,650,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). Total users in all countries: 4,654,060. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Baoule, Baule, Baule-Ando, Bawule. Dialects: Ando. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any]. Many subgroups, but all claim to understand the standard variety. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern.

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Beng
[nhb] Lacs district: M’bahiakro subprefecture, northeast corner; Prikro subprefecture. 22 villages. Population: 17,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban.

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Bété, Daloa
[bev] Sassandra-Marahoué district: Daloa subprefecture. Population: 130,000 (1993 SIL). All Bété varieties: 730,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Daloua Bété, Northern Bété. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western.

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Bété, Gagnoa
[btg] Bas-Sassandra district: some in north; Gôh-Djiboua district: Gagnoa subprefecture; Sassandra-Marahoué district: Sinfra subprefecture. Population: 150,000 (1989 SIL). All Bété varieties: 730,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Bété, Gagnoua-Bété, Shyen. Dialects: Nekedi, Zadie, Niabre, Kpakolo, Zebie, Gbadi (Badie, Gbadie). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern.

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Bété, Guiberoua
[bet] Bas-Sassandra district: Soubre, Buyo, Gregbeu, and Ouaragahio subprefectures; Sassandra-Marahoué district: Daloua, Guiberoua, and Issia subprefectures; Gôh-Djiboua district. Population: 130,000 (1993 SIL). All Bété varieties: 730,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Bété, Western Bété, ʼbhɛtegbooʼmë. Autonym: ʼbhɛtɩgbʋʋ ʼmö. Dialects: Soubré, Guiberoua. Reportedly most similar to Godié [god]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western.

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Beti
[eot] Comoé district: Grand Bassam subprefecture, Vitre I and Vitre II villages. Population: 200 (Blench 1999b). Ethnic population: 3,180 (1988 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Eotile. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Western.

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Birifor, Southern
[biv] Zanzan district: northeast corner. Population: 4,310 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor.

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Cerma
[cme] Savanes district: Ouangolodougou area, north of Ferkessedougou. 5 villages along main road to Banfora. Population: 1,700 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gouin, Guin, Gwe, Gwen, Kirma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Kirma-Tyurama.

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Daho-Doo
[das] Montagnes district: Tai area and south; Bas-Sassandra district: northwest. Doo are in 5 villages south of Guiglo. Population: 4,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Dialects: Although the Daho and Doo are considered Wè, their speech is not understood by other Wè. Greatest lexical similarity: at least 30%–80% with any Wè variety, 92% with Daho and Doo dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn.

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Dan
[dnj] Montagnes district: Biankouma, Danané, and Man prefectures, Liberian border area west of Touba. 19 villages. Population: 1,300,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). 650,000 in Eastern Dan, 650,000 in western Dan. Total users in all countries: 1,534,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da, Gio, Gio-Dan, Ya, Yacouba, Yakuba. Autonym: Dan. Dialects: Gweetaawu (Dan-Gwɛɛtaa, Eastern Dan), Blowo (Western Dan). At least 38 subdialects. In Liberia speakers in Garplay understood Côte d’Ivoire Yacouba dialect recordings as follows: Danane, Koulinle, Kale: very well; Blosse: quite well; Bloundo: reasonably well; dialects east of Blouno: considerable difficulty (Bolli and Frick 1971). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan.

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Deg
[mzw] Zanzan district. Population: 1,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Aculo, Buro, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western.

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Dida, Lakota
[dic] Gôh-Djiboua district: Lakota town area and several small areas; Lagunes district: south of Lake Taabo. Population: 93,800 (1993 SIL). All Dida: 336,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brabori, Dieko, Gabo, Satro, Ziki. Dialects: Vata. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida.

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Dida, Yocoboué
[gud] Gôh-Djiboua district: Guitry subprefecture, Guitry town area; Lagunes district: Tagbo Lagoon. Population: 102,000 (1993 SIL). 7,100 Guitry, 94,500 Divo. All Dida: 336,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Dida de Yocoboué. Autonym: Dída. Dialects: Lozoua (Gakpa, Goudou, Guitry, Kagoué, Yocoboue, Yokouboué), Divo. Lakota Dida [dic] marginally intelligible with Yocoboué Dida. Guitry is prestigious. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida.

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Ebrié
[ebr] Urban Abidjan and Lagunes districts: Bingerville and Dabou subprefectures. 57 villages, with 27 in Abidjan. Population: 152,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Cama, Caman, Kyama, Tchaman, Tsama, Tyama. Dialects: None known. Not related to surrounding languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou.

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Ega
[ega] Gôh-Djiboua district: Diés canton, Borondoukou village near Gly. Population: 2,500 (2001 B. Connell). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diés, Egwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Ega.

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French
[fra] Population: 8,145,000 in Côte d’Ivoire, all users. L1 users: 45,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2017). L2 users: 8,100,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2000, Constitution, Article 29). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] Savanes district: scattered. Population: 479,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Fulfulde, Maasinankoore. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central.

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Gban
[ggu] Gôh-Djiboua district: Oume subprefecture, also area south of Laouda. Population: 60,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gagou, Gagu, Kago, Sodua. Dialects: Boka, N’da, Bokabo, Touka. N’da dialect is central. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban.

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Glio-Oubi
[oub] Bas-Sassandra district: east bank of Cavally north of Tabou. Population: 2,500 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Glio, Oubi, Ubi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Glio-Oubi.

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Godié
[god] Bas-Sassandra district: Fresco and Sassandra subprefectures, Kotrohou canton; some in Gôh-Djiboua district. Population: 26,400 (1993 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Dadjriwalé, Godye. Dialects: Tiglu, Glibe, Kagbo, Dagli, Nugbo, Dlogo, Jluko, Nyago (Cinyaugogo), Koyo. The Koyo dialect may be more similar to a Dida language than to Godié [god]. Kagbo is the most widely understood dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Western.

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Grebo, Southern
[grj] Bas-Sassandra district: near Liberia border. Population: 71,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Seaside Grebo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian.

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Guébie
[gie] Gôh-Djiboua district: Gnagbodougnoa subprefecture, Dodougnoa, Gnagbodougnoa, Gnamagnoa, and Gragbalilie villages. Population: 7,000 (2015 H. Sande). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Lakota Dida [dic]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida.

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Guro
[goa] Mainly Sassandra-Marahoué and Gôh-Djiboua districts: Bouaflé, Gouitafla, Oumé, Sinfra, Vavoua, and Zuénoula subprefectures; smaller areas in Lacs, Vallée du Bandama, and Woroba districts. Population: 500,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Baba, Dalo, Dipa, Gouro, Ku, Kweni, Kwéndré, Lo. Autonym: Golo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure.

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Hausa
[hau] Abidjan. Population: 395,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). Ethnic population: 1,000,000. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1.

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Jeri Kuo
[jek] Savanes district: Korhogo area, 3 enclaves. Population: 1,500 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Ethnic population: 20,000 (1990 R. Kastenholz). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Celle, Jeli Kuo. Dialects: None known. Related to Ligbi [lig] of Ghana and Tongon, an extinct blacksmith argot of the Djimini Senoufo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri.

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Jula
[dyu] Savanes and Zanzan districts; widespread in all major cities. Population: 8,500,000 in Côte d’Ivoire, all users. L1 users: 1,500,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2012 V. Vydrin). L2 users: 7,000,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Total users in all countries: 12,486,000 (as L1: 2,208,000; as L2: 10,278,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widespread in all major cities. Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Jula Kong, Kong Jula, Tagboussikan. Autonym: Julakan. Dialects: None known. Spoken as L1 or L2 by millions of people of diverse ethnic backgrounds in West Africa. Mutually intelligible with Bambara [bam], Kita Maninkakan [mwk], and Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana.

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Khisa
[kqm] Zanzan district: north. Population: 5,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Total users in all countries: 8,000. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khi Khipa, Komono, Kumwenu. Dialects: Speakers say they can understand Kaansa [gna] and Senoufo, given time. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dogosé [dos], 72% with Kpatogo dialect of Kaansa, 71% with Kaansa [gna], 16% with Dogoso [dgs], 13% with Khe [kqg]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Gan-Dogose.

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Kla-Dan
[lda] Montagnes district: Biankouma department, Zouzoupleu village; Woroba district: Touba department, 25 villages. Population: 25,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kla. Dialects: Santa, Zouzoupleu. Reportedly similar to Dan [dnj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan.

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Kodia
[kwp] Bas-Sassandra district. Population: 840 (1993 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kwadia, Kwadya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Kwadia.

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Koro
[kfo] Woroba district: Mankono department, Tiéningboué subprefecture. Population: 58,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koro Jula. Dialects: None known. High comprehension of Koyaga [kga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori.

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Kouya
[kyf] Sassandra-Marahoué district: Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton; small area west of Bonefla. 12 villages. Population: 10,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kowya, Kuya, Sokuya, Sokya. Autonym: Sɔkɔwɛlɩ. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Gbadi Bété [btg] and Dida. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bete, Eastern.

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Koyaga
[kga] Woroba district: Mankono department, 4 subprefectures west. Population: 84,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koya, Koyaa, Koyaga Jula, Koyagakan, Koyaka, Koyara. Dialects: Koyaga, Siaka, Sagaka, Nigbi. High comprehension of Koro [kfo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori.

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Krahn, Eastern
[kqo] Lacs, Sassandra-Marahoué, and Vallée du Bandama districts: Lake Kossou area; Montagnes district. Population: 10,600 in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Konobo.

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Krahn, Western
[krw] Montagnes district: Toulépleu subprefecture. Population: 12,200 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Krahn, Northern Krahn. Dialects: Pewa (Peewa), Biai. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn.

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Krobu
[kxb] Lagunes district: Agboville subprefecture. 4 villages. Population: 9,920 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krobou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Krobu.

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Krumen, Plapo
[ktj] Bas-Sassandra district: between Bapo and Honpo dialects of Tepo Krumen [ted]. Population: 100 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Plapo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian.

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Krumen, Pye
[pye] Bas-Sassandra district: Bereby, San Pedro, and Tai subprefectures. Population: 20,000 (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Northeastern Krumen, Southeastern Krumen. Dialects: Trepo, Wluwe-Hawlo (Haoulo), Gbowe-Hran, Wlepo, Dugbo, Yrewe (Giriwe), Yapo, Pie (Pie-Pli-Mahon-Kuse-Gblapo-Henekwe, Pye). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian.

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Krumen, Tepo
[ted] Bas-Sassandra district: Grabo and Tabou subprefectures. Population: 28,300 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). All Krumen: 48,300 (1993 SIL). Total users in all countries: 31,450. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Krou tepo, Kroumen, Kroumen tépo, Kru, Krumen, Southern Krumen, Southwestern Kroumen, Tepo Krou. Autonym: -tepowin. Dialects: Tepo, Bapo, Wlopo (Ropo), Dapo, Honpo, Yrepo (Kapo), Glawlo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian.

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Kulango, Bondoukou
[kzc] Zanzan district: Bondoukou subprefecture. Population: 77,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1993 SIL). All Kulango: 372,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Total users in all countries: 104,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bondoukou, Bonduku, Kolango, Koulango, Kulange, Kulango, Nkuraeng, Nkurange. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango.

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Kulango, Bouna
[nku] Zanzan district: Nassian subprefecture. Population: 14,400 in Côte d’Ivoire (1998). All Kulango: 372,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Total users in all countries: 29,900. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koulango, Kulange, Nkuraeng, Nkurange. Dialects: Nabanj. Bouna dialect speakers understand Bondoukou [kzc], but not the reverse. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango.

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Ligbi
[lig] Zanzan district: Bouna department, Bineto village; Woroba district: Slil town near Boundoukou. Population: 4,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo.

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Lobi
[lob] Zanzan district: north strip. Population: 270,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Lobiri, Miwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Lobi.

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Loma
[loi] Zanzan district: Kulango and Téén areas. Population: 8,010 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lomakka, Lomapo, Lomasse, Malinke. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Téén [lor] and Kulango [kzc] but not inherently intelligible. More similar to Kulango than Téén is to Kulango. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen.

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Mahou
[mxx] Denguélé district: south of Bako; Montagnes district: northeast; Woroba district: Touba department. Population: 300,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahu, Maou, Mau, Mauka, Mauke, Mawu, Mawukakan. Dialects: Mahouka, Koroka, Tenenga, Finanga, Baralaka (Barala). Some listed dialect speakers may not be able to use Mahou literature. Barala may be dialect of Wojenaka [jod]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori.

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Mbato
[gwa] Comoé district: Comoé river east bank; Lagunes district: Petit Alépé subprefecture. Population: 25,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Goaa, Gwa, M’bato, Mbatto, Mgbato, N-Batto, Nglwa, Ogwia, Potu. Dialects: None known. Related to Ebrii [ebr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Potou.

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Mbre
[mka] Vallée du Bandama district: Marabadiassa area, Bondosso village. Population: 50 (Tiote 2017). Ethnic population: 700. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bɛrɛ, Bere, Bre, Pɛrɛ, Pɛrɛpisjà, Pre, Pre Pisia. Dialects: None known. Considerably different from surrounding Mande and nearby Kwa languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Unclassified.

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Mwan
[moa] Woroba district: Kongasso and south Mankono subprefectures. Population: 20,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Mona, Mouna, Muan, Muana, Mwa. Autonym: Mwan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan.

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Nafaanra
[nfr] Zanzan district: Transua department. Population: Few in Côte d’Ivoire. Status: 5* (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Nafaanra.

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Neyo
[ney] Bas-Sassandra district: Sassandra subprefecture, Kébé and Neyo cantons, from Niégba west to Dagbégo east and Niabayo north. Population: 9,200 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gwibwen, Towi. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to the Kagbo dialect of Godié [god], but they consider themselves a separate ethnic group. May be more similar to a Dida language than to a Bété language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Dida.

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Ngen
[gnj] Lacs district: M’bahiakro subprefecture, Djonkro village. Population: 770 (2016 V. Vydrine). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gan, Ngɛn, Ngain, Ngan, Ngin, Nguin. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Beng [nhb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Ben-Gban.

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N’ko
[nqo] Scattered. Population: No known L1 speakers in Côte d’Ivoire. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Mixed language.

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Nyabwa
[nwb] Bas-Sassandra district: northwest; Sassandra-Marahoué district: Vavoua subprefecture, Kouya canton; Buyo, Daloua, Issia, Vavoua (Nyedebwa), and Zoukougbeu (Nyabwa) subprefectures, 12 southwest villages; all in Lake Buyo area. Population: 72,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Niaboua, Nyaboa, Nyabobɔgo, Nyabwa-Nyédébwa, “Bété” (pej.). Autonym: Nyabobɔgʋ. Dialects: Nyabwa, Nyedebwa (Niédéboua), Kouzii (Kouzié). Lexical similarity: 90% with Nyabwa and Nyedebwa dialects, 74%–80% between them and Wè Southern [gxx] and Wè Northern [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Nyabwa.

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Nzema
[nzi] Comoé district: Aboisso department, Tiapoum subprefecture, southeast coast; Abidjan. Population: 113,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Appolo, Nzima. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern.

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Sénoufo, Cebaara
[sef] Denguélé and Woroba districts; Savanes district: Korhogo city area and west; Vallée du Bandama district: west of Bandama Blanc river. Population: 862,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Senadi, Senari, Syenere, Sénoufo-Sénanri, Tiebaara, Tyebala. Dialects: Kafire, Kasara, Kufuru, Tagbari (Mbengui-Niellé), Patara, Pogara, Tyebara, Tagara, Tenere, Takpasyeeri (Messeni), Southwest Senari, Kandere (Tengrela), Papara, Fodara, Kulere, Nafara. Korhogo dialect is central. The Kulele speak Kulere dialect scattered throughout the Senoufo area. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari.

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Sénoufo, Djimini
[dyi] Lacs district: northwest of Kouandkro; Savanes district: Ferkessedougou department; Vallée du Bandama district: Dabakala department, northeast corner. Population: 95,500 (1993 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Djimini, Dyimini, Jinmini. Autonym: Jinmiire. Dialects: Diamala (Djamala, Dyamala), Djafolo, Dofana, Foolo, Singala. Prestige dialect in Dabakala is Singala. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Tagwana Senoufo [tgw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini.

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Sénoufo, Nyarafolo
[sev] Savanes district: northeast Ferkessédougou area; Vallée du Bandama district: some border areas north. Population: 60,000 (2009 L. Boese). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Niarafolo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini.

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Sénoufo, Palaka
[plr] Savanes district: east of Bandama Blanc river; Vallée du Bandama district: Sikolo area. Population: 8,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kpalagha, Palaka, Palara, Pallakha, Pilara. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 65%–70% with other Senufo languages and dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Kpalaga.

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Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Savanes district: north of Tingréla. Population: 100,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (1996). Total users in all countries: 114,800. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shenpire, Syempire. Dialects: 3 or 4 dialects. Relationship to Supyire Senoufo [spp] in Mali is undetermined. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara.

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Sénoufo, Tagwana
[tgw] Savanes district: east of Korhogo city; Vallée du Bandama district: north central area; Woroba district: north of Lake Kossou. Population: 138,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tagbana, Tagouna, Tagwana. Dialects: Gbo (Zoro), Tafire, Niediekaha, Niangbo, Niakaramadougou, Fondebougou, Djidanan, Fourgoula, Katiara, Katiola. Lexical similarity: 76%–81% with Djimini [dyi] dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Tagwana-Djimini.

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Téén
[lor] Zanzan district. Population: 6,100 in Côte d’Ivoire (1991). Total users in all countries: 8,100. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Loghon, Lorhon, Loron, Nabe, Tegesie, Touni, Tuni, Ténhé. Autonym: Téén. Dialects: None known. Different from Kulango. Reportedly most similar to Loma [loi] and Bouna Kulango [nku]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Teen.

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Tonjon
[tjn] Vallée du Bandama district. Population: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo.

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Toura
[neb] Montagnes district: east Biankouma department, mountainous region east of Man to Touba main road, north of Man to Séguéla main road, north of Bafing river; Bafing and Sassandra rivers from north and east borders. Population: 67,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Tura, Ween. Autonym: Wɛɛn. Dialects: Naò, Boo, Yiligele, Gwéò, Wáádú, Guse. Probably most similar to Dan [dnj]. Reportedly also similar to Guro [goa], Gban [ggu], and Maan [mev] (in Liberia). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan.

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Wan
[wan] Sassandra-Marahoué and Vallée du Bandama districts: Lake Bossou north shore; Woroba district: west Beoumi and Kounahiri subprefectures. Population: 22,000 (1993 UBS). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nwa. Dialects: Miamu, Kemu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Nwa-Ben, Wan-Mwan.

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Wané
[hwa] Bas-Sassandra district: Kounoukou area on southwest coast. Population: 2,100 (1993 SIL). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hwane, Ngwané. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Eastern, Bakwe.

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Wè Northern
[wob] Montagnes district: Fakobly and Kouibly subprefectures. Population: 265,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ouobe, Wobé, Wèè. Autonym: Wɛɛ. Dialects: Tao, Péomé, Sémien (Gbéan). Kouibly dialect intelligible to about half of Wè Southern [gxx] speakers. Lexical similarity: 90%–94% among dialects, Kouibly dialect (Tao and Gbean) has 84%–89% lexical similarity with Wè Southern dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Wobe.

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Wè Southern
[gxx] Bas-Sassandra district: Lake Buyo area; Montagnes district: Bangolo, Duékoué, Guiglo, and Tai subprefectures. Population: 422,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Guéré, Gere, Guéré. Autonym: Wèè. Dialects: Zibiao, Zagne, Zagna, Beu (Zarabaon), Zaa (Zaha), Niao (Neabo, Neao, Niabo), Gboo (Gbobo), Fleo, Nyeo. Southern Wè has 7 more consonants than Northern Wè [wob]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn.

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Wè Western
[wec] Montagnes district: Toulépleu subprefecture. Population: 25,200 (1998 SIL). 20,000 Kaoro (1995 SIL). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Gere, Guéré, Neyo. Autonym: Wèè. Dialects: Nidrou (Nidru), Kaoro (Kaawlu, Kaowlu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn.

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Wojenaka
[jod] Denguélé district: Odienné department; Woroba district: Boundiali department. Population: 147,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malinké, Odiennekakan, Odienné Jula. Dialects: Odienneka, Sienkoka, Nafana, Bodougouka, Toudougouka, Vandougouka, Wasulu (Wassoulounka, Wassulunka, Wassulunke), Samogo, Juraba. Some dialects listed may be separate languages. The Barala dialect of Mahou [mxx] may be a dialect of Wojenaka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori.

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Worodougou
[jud] Denguélé, Montagnes, and Sassandra-Marahoué districts; Woroba district: Mankono and Séguéla departments, Tiéningboué subprefecture. Population: 115,000 (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakokan, Ouorodougou, Worodougou Jula, Worodougoukakan, Worodugu. Dialects: Worodougouka, Karanjan, Kanika. Karanjan dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding, Maninka-Mori.

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Yaouré
[yre] Sassandra-Marahoué district: Bouaflé department, Bouaflé subprefecture, Yaouré canton, bounded south by Red Bandama, east by White Bandama river, north by Lake Kossou, west by Bouaflé. Population: 40,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Yaure, Yohowré, Youré. Autonym: Yɔwlɛ. Dialects: Klan, Yaan, Taan, Yoo, Bhoo. Reportedly most similar to Guro [goa]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Guro-Yaoure.

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Yoruba
[yor] Population: 115,000 in Côte d’Ivoire (Leclerc 2017c). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Defoid, Yoruboid, Edekiri.

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