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Achang
[acn] Yunnan province: Baoshan prefecture, Longling and Tengchong counties; Dali Bai autonomous prefecture, Yunlong county; Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture and Baoshan district, Liangge, Longchuan, Luxi, and Yingjiang counties, Myanmar border area. 27,700 in China (1990 census). Ethnic population: 34,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 62,700. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Achang. Alternate Names: Acang, Ach’ang, Achung, Ahchan, Atsang, Maingtha, Mönghsa, Ngacang, Ngac’ang, Ngachang, Ngatsang, Ngo Chang, Ngochang, Xiandao. Dialects: Longchuan, Lianghe, Luxi, Husa (Chintaw, Xiandao). Each of the 3 main counties has a distinctive dialect (Statistical Bureau of Yunnan Province 2004). No reported intelligibility between dialects. Longchuan differs more from the others, with more Dai loanwords. Lianghe and Luxi use many Chinese loanwords. There are also Burmese [mya] loanwords. Related to Hpon [hpo], Maru [mhx], Lashi [lsi], Zaiwa [atb]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Mingled with Lashi [lsi]. Buddhist.

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Ache
[yif] Yunnan province: Eshan, Lufeng, Shuangbai, and Yimen counties. 35,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Azhe. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ai-Cham
[aih] Guizhou province: Qiannan Buyi-Miao autonomous prefecture, Libo county, Boyao and Di’e townships. 13 villages. 2,700 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Bouyei. Alternate Names: Atsam, Jiamuhua, Jin, Jinhua. Dialects: Di’e, Boyao. Dialects have phonological differences, but are largely intelligible. Reportedly similar to Mak [mkg]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ainu
[aib] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Hetian, Luopu, Moyu, Shache, Shulekuche, and Yingjisha counties; Yengixar (Shule) town, Hanalik and Paynap villages in Kashgar area, and Gewoz village near Hoban. 6,570 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Uygur. Alternate Names: Abdal, Aini, Aynu, Eynu. Dialects: Has the same grammar as Uyghur [uig] but much Persian [pes] vocabulary. Some consider it a dialect of Uyghur, others an Iranian language heavily influenced by Uyghur. Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Do not intermarry with ethnic Uyghur. Muslim.

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Akeu
[aeu] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna prefecture, most villages in Jinhong county, some in Mengla county. 10,000 in China (2004 E. Johnson). Total users in all countries: 12,400. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Aki, Akui. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Akha [ahk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Akha
[ahk] Yunnan province: Simao and Xishuangbanna prefectures. 240,000 in China (Bradley 2007b), increasing. Ethnic population: 240,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Kha Ko, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Alugu
[aub] Yunnan province: Gejiu county, Manhao township; Yuanyang county, Fengchunling township across Honghe river. 3,500 (Pelkey 2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Muji, Phula, Phupha. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to, but not intelligible with, Phupha [yph]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Aluo
[yna] Sichuan province: Huili and Miyi counties; Yunnan province: Luquan, north Wuding, and Yuanmou counties. 25,000 (2007 J. Pelkey). Ethnic population: 40,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Gan Yi, Laka, Lila, Niluo, Yala. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern.

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Anong
[nun] Yunnan province: Nujian Lisu autonomous prefecture, central Fugong county, Shangpa town, Mugujia village cluster; Thanlwin (Salween) (Nu) river area. 50 in China (Bradley 2007a). One-third of ethnic group are speakers and another one-third have passive knowledge (Bradley 2007a). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,300 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Nu. Alternate Names: Anoong, Anu, Anung, Fuch’ye, Khanung, Khupang, Kwingsang, Kwinp’ang, Lu, Lutze, Lutzu, Nu, Nung. Dialects: Cholo, Gwaza, Miko. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Nung [nut] (Tai family) of Viet Nam, Laos, and China, Nong Zhuang (Tai family) of China, and from Chinese Nung (Yue [yue]) of Viet Nam. Due to intense linguistic contact with the Lisu, Anong is being radically restructured (Sun and Liu 2009). Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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A’ou
[aou] Guizhou province: Dafang county, Jindi village; Qianxi county, Lannigou, Shawo, and Xintian villages; Zhijin county, Longjia village. 50 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: |Auo, Ayo. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra.

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Awa
[vwa] Yunnan province: Simao prefecture: Lahu and Va, Lancang Lahu, Menglian Dai, and Ximeng Va autonomous counties. 98,000 (Zhou Zhizhi et al 2004). Masan Dialect: 33,000 in Ximeng County; Xiyun Dialect: 2,200 in Lancang and Menglian counties; Dawangnuo Dialect: 30,000 in Menglian and Ximeng counties; Awalei Dialect: 2,200 in Ximeng County; Awa proper: 30,600 In Lancan County. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Wa. Alternate Names: Ava, Awa Wa, Va. Dialects: Masan (’A Vo’, La via’, Ro via’, Vo’), Xiyun (Shixi, Va’), Dawangnuo (Damangnuo, Mangnuo, Vo’, Wangnuo), Awalei (’A vo’ loi, Awalai). Closely related languages: Vo Wa [wbm], Parauk Wa [prk], and Blang [blr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa. Comments: Possibly also spoken in Myanmar.

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Awu
[yiu] Yunnan province: north Honghe prefecture, Luxi and Mile counties; south Qujing prefecture, Luoping and Shizong counties. 20,000 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Luowu, Luwu. Dialects: Northern Awu, Southern Awu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Axi
[yix] Yunnan province: Luxi and Mile counties; Shilin county, 1 village. 100,000 (Bradley 2007b), decreasing. Elderly and women over 35 are monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Ahi, Axibo, Axipo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ayizi
[yyz] Yunnan province: Shilin county, Beidacun district, Aimalong village; some Banqiao and Beidacun districts’ villages. 50 (2007 J. Pelkey), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern.

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Azha
[aza] Yunnan province: Wenshan and Yanshan counties’ border. 53,000 (2007 J. Pelkey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Aji, Ajiwa, A’ndze, A’ntsaozo, Azan, Black Phula, Cowtail Phula, Golden Phula, Han Phula, Hei Phula, Hua Phula, Hua Yi, Jin Phula, Nimitso, Niuweiba Phula, Phula, Phuphje, Shaoji Phula, Sifter Basket Phula. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Azhe
[yiz] Yunnan province: Huaning county, Panxi district; northeast Jianshui county, 1 village; north Kaiyuan county, Lebaidao district, Jiedian community; Mazheshao district, Chongzi community; Xiaolongtan district, Xiaolongtan community; Mile county: Jiangbian, Wushan, and Xun Jian districts. 54,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 60,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bai, Central
[bca] Guizhou province: small enclave; Yunnan province: Eryuan, Heqing, Jianchuan, Lanping, and Yunlong. 800,000 (2003 census). Ethnic population: 800,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bai. Alternate Names: Labbu, Minchia, Minjia, Minkia, Nama, Pai. Dialects: Jianchuan, Heqing, Lanping, Eryuan, Yunlong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Bai. Comments: Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese. Considered genetically related to Chinese, or a mixed language with Chinese, or an independent branch of Tibeto-Burman. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Bai, Lama
[lay] Yunnan province: Diqing Tibetan autonomous prefecture; Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture, Lanping Bai Pumi autonomous county, Hexi district, Lajing township; mountain area of Lancang river. 60,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bai. Alternate Names: Lama, Lan-Bi Bai, Nama, Northern Bai. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Bai. Comments: Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese. Northern Bai comprises two separate languages, Panyi [bfc] and Lama. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Bai, Panyi
[bfc] Yunnan province: Nujiang prefecture, Lushui county, Luobenzhuo Bai autonomous district, Chenggan, Gudeng, and Shangjiang districts, Liuku and Pianma townships; Baoshan municipality, Mangkuan township; Pu’er municipality. 12,000 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bai. Alternate Names: Bijiang Bai, Lan-Bi Bai, Leme, Lemei, Lemo, Northern Bai, Panyi. Dialects: Da-E, Yu-Teu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Bai. Comments: Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese and influence from Lisu [lis]. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Daoist.

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Bai, Southern
[bfs] Yunnan province: Dali Bai autonomous prefecture, Xiangyun. 400,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bai. Dialects: Xiangyun, Dali. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Bai. Comments: Classification difficult due to heavy borrowing (60%–70%) from Chinese. Considered genetically related to Chinese, or a mixed language with Chinese, or related to Yi, or an independent branch of Tibeto-Burman. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Baima
[bqh] Gansu province: Wenxian county; Sichuan province: Jiuzhaigou, Pingwu, and Songpan counties. 10,000 (Bradley 2007a). Older adults and a few middle aged are monolingual. Ethnic population: 14,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bai Ma, Pe. Dialects: Southern Baima (Pingwu Baima), Northern Baima (Wenxian Baima), Western Baima (Jiuzhaigou Baima, Songpan Baima). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Baima. Comments: The Baima clan has a distinct ethnic identity from other Tibetans. Classified Tibetan, though some scholars consider it in the Tibeto-Burman language family, Qiangic subgroup. Traditional religion.

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Biao
[byk] Guangdong province: Fengkai county, Chang’an, Jinzhuang, and Qixing districts, several villages; southwest Huaiji county, Dagang, Liangcun, Qiaotou, Shidong, and Yonggu districts. 80,000 (Liang and Zhang 2002). 10,000 monolinguals. Women and small children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 120,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Gang Bau, Kang Bau, Kang Beu, Kang Pau. Dialects: Minor dialect differences, but all mutually intelligible. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Consider themselves a distinct ethnic group from Chinese-speaking Han people around them. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Biao Mon
[bmt] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Gongcheng, Lipu, Mengshan, Pingle, and Zhaoping counties. 20,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Biao Mien, Biaoman, Biao-Mian, Changping, Min Yao, Sida Min Yao. Dialects: Biao Mon (Min Yao), Shi Mun (Sida Min Yao). May be intelligible with some dialects of Iu Mien [ium]. Quite different from and unintelligible with Biao Jiao Mien [bje] or its dialect Biaomin, also called Biao Mien. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Comments: Daoist.

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Biao-Jiao Mien
[bje] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Gongcheng Yao, Guanyang, and Quanzhou autonomous counties; Hunan province: Daoxian and Shuangpai counties. 43,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Biaomin (Dongshan) has a much larger speaker population (approximately 35,700) than Jiaogong (Shikou; approximately 10,900). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Biao Chao, Byau Min, Dongshan Biao Min. Dialects: Biao Min (Ao Yao, Biao Mien, Biaomin, Byaumin, Dongshan Yao), Jiaogong Mian (Chao Kong Meng, Shikou, Tsaukongmeng). Dialects Biaomin (Dongshan) and Jiaogong (Shikou) reportedly mutually unintelligible. Quite different from and unintelligible with Biao Mon [bmt] (Biaoman). Lexical similarity: 70% with Iu Mien [ium], 67% with Kim Mun [mji], 58% with Dzao Min [bpn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Biao-Jiao. Comments: Daoist.

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Biyo
[byo] Yunnan province: southeast Simao prefecture, Jiangcheng, Jingdong, Mojiang, and Zhenyuan counties. 120,000 (Bradley 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Bio, Biyue, Piyo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: A distinct language from Akha [ahk] and Kaduo [ktp]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Blang
[blr] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong county, Damengnong district; Menghai county, Bada, Bulangshan, Daluo, and Xiding districts. 42,000 in China (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 55,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Alternate Names: Bulang, K’ala, Kawa, Kontoi, Plang, Pula, Pulang. Dialects: Phang, Kem Degne. In Thailand, the group from Mae Sai came from Sipsongpanna, Yunnan, China, stayed in Myanmar for a while, and have been in Thailand since 1974. 6 to 10 dialects represented in one refugee village in Thailand. Samtao [stu] of Myanmar and China is not intelligible with Plang, but is closely related to Plang and Wa [wbm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Bokha
[ybk] Yunnan province: Hekou county, Lianhuatan township; Jinping county, Mengqiao and Ma’andi townships; Pingbian county, Dishuiceng township. 10,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 12,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Akapa, Aphu, Black Muji, Bokho, Flowery Phula, Hei Muji, Hua Phula, Lao Phula, Pao Tle. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Phuma [ypm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Bolyu
[ply] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: borders of Guizhou and Yunnan provinces, Longlin and Xilin counties, in 2 groups; possibly in Yunnan. 500 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 1,770 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Baliu, Lai, Lailai, Paliu, Palju, Palyu, Polyu. Dialects: None known. May be similar to Bugan [bbh], which is the nearest Mon-Khmer language geographically. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Palyu. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bonan
[peh] Gansu province: Linxia Hui autonomous prefecture, Jishishan Bao’an-Dongxiang-Sala autonomous county; Qinghai province: Tongren county. 6,000. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 24,500. Includes 16,500 Jishishan and 8000 Tongren. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Bonan. Speakers of the Jishishan dialect moved from Qinghai Province to Gansu, 1858–1863. Alternate Names: Bao’an, Baonan, Boan, Manikacha, Paoan, Paongan. Dialects: Jishishan (Dahejia, Dajiahe, Dakheczjha), Tongren (Tungyen). Jishishan subdialects are Ganhetan and Dadun; Tongren subdialects are Nianduhu, Guomari, Gajiuri, and Lower Bao’an. Jishishan dialect has been influenced by Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Tongren by Tibetan [bod]. There are phonological and grammatical differences between them, and inherent intelligibility may be low. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour. Comments: Muslim, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Bouyei
[pcc] Guizhou province: Buyi-Miao and Miao-Dong autonomous prefectures, Guanling and Zhenning counties on Guizhou-Yunnan plateau; Sichuan province: Huidong and Ningnan counties; Yunnan province: Luoping county. 2,600,000 in China (2000 census). Ethnic population: 2,950,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 2,649,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Bouyei. Alternate Names: Bo-I, Bui, Buyei, Buyi, Buyui, Chung-Chia, Dioi, Giay, Pui, Pu-I, Pujai, Pu-Jui, Puyi, Puyoi, Shuihu, Tujia, Zhongjia. Dialects: Qiannan (Bouyei 1, Southern Guizhou), Qianzhong (Bouyei 2, Central Guizhou), Qianxi (Bouyei 3, Western Guizhou). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern. Comments: Quinnan hua (Quinnan speech) also refers to a dialect of southwestern Mandarin spoken in Guizhou, and should not be confused with the Qiannan Bouyei dialect. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Bugan
[bbh] Yunnan province: Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefecture, Guangnan and Xichou counties, Guangnan Nasa township, Laowalong, Nala, Xinwalong, and Xinpingzhai villages; Guangnan county, Zhuanjiao district, Jiuping and Shibeipo villages; Yanshan county, Jijie district, Manlong and 6 other villages. 2,700 (Yunbin 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bengan, Bogan, Bugeng, Hualo, Hualuo, Huazu, Pukan, Puqeng. Dialects: None known. Very minor accent differences between villages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Palyu. Comments: Language and culture are very different from the surrounding Yi nationality groups. They maintain their own festivals and are endogamous. Traditional religion.

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Bumang
[bvp] Yunnan province: Honghe and Yi autonomous prefectures, Jinping Miao-Yao-Dai autonomous county, Mengla district, Manzhang-Shangzhai and Mangzhang-Xiazhai villages. 200 (Jie 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Manzhang Dai. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Bulang. Comments: Language is unlike the other 3 Dai language groups in their home county. Traditional religion.

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Bunu, Bu-Nao
[bwx] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: 22 counties, Bama, Bose, Dahua, Debao, Donglan, Du’an, Fengshan, Hechi, Laibin, Leye, Lingyun, Long’an, Luocheng, Mashan, Nandan, Pingguo, Shanglin, Tiandeng, Tiandong, Tianlin, Tianyang, and Xincheng; Guizhou province: Libo county; Hunan province: near Guangxi border; Yunnan province: Funing county. 258,000 (McConnell 1995). 97,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 439,000 (1982 census). 100,000 ethnic Bunu speak Central Hongshuihe Zhuang [zch] as L1. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Bunao, Po-Nau, Punu. Dialects: Dongnu (Bunu, Punu, Tung Nu), Nunu, Bunuo (Pu No), Naogelao (Baonuo, Nao Khalo, Nao Klao, Nau Klau, Pounou), Numao (Hong Yao, Nu Mhou), Cingsui Longlin, Hontou Longlin. The dialects listed may be at least 5 languages (Strecker 1987), communication is difficult (McConnell 1995). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. Comments: Daoist, traditional religion.

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Bunu, Jiongnai
[pnu] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Jinxiu Yao autonomous county. 1,080 (1999 Mao Zongwu). 270 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Bunu, Hualan Yao, Jiongnai, Jiongnaihua, Kiong Nai, Kjong Nai, Punu, Qiungnai. Dialects: None known. Very different from and unintelligible to surrounding Yao and other Bunu speakers. Lexical similarity: 52% with Bu-Nao Bunu [bwx]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. Comments: Daoist, traditional religion.

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Bunu, Wunai
[bwn] Guangxi province: small area; Hunan province: Chengbu, Chenxi, Dongkou, Longhui, Tongdao, Xinning, and Xupu counties. 5,800 (Shearer and Sun 2002), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Hm Nai, Ngnai, Punu, Wunai. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. Comments: Bunu is a cover term for separate languages. Daoist.

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Bunu, Younuo
[buh] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Longsheng and Xing’an counties. 9,720 (McConnell 1995). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Pu No, Punu, Younuo, Yuno, Yunuo. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Bunu. Comments: Bunu is a cover term for several separate languages (Strecker 1989). Daoist.

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Buriat, China
[bxu] Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: Hulun-Buyr district, near Mongolia and Russia (Siberia) borders. 65,000 (1982 census). 47,000 New Bargu, 14,000 Old Bargu, 4,500 Buriat. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Ba’erhu-Buliyate, Bargu Buriat, Buriat-Mongolian, Buryat, Northeastern Mongolian, Northern Mongolian. Dialects: New Bargu (Xin Ba’erhu), Old Bargu (Chen Ba’erhu), Buriat (Buliyate, Buryat), Khori, Aga. Differs from Buriat of Mongolia [bxm] and the Russian Federation [bxr] due to influences of other languages. A member of macrolanguage Buriat [bua]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Buxinhua
[bgk] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Mengla county. 200 in China (1994). Ethnic population: 500 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boxing, Buxing, Buxing Khmu, Khabit, Pasing, Phsin, Phsing. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Bit-Khang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Buyang, Baha
[yha] Yunnan province: Wenshan Zhuang-Miao autonomous prefecture, northern Guangnan county, Bada district, Anshe village; Dixu district, Yanglian village. 600 (Li 1997), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Buyang, Buyang Zhuang, Guangnan Buyang, Western Buyang. Dialects: Yalang, Ecun, Langjia. Lexical similarity: 50% with Langnian Buyang [yln], 48% with E’ma Buyang [yzg], 46% with Yerong (Yalang Buyang) [yrn], 45% with Pubiao [laq], 41% with Laji (Lachi) [lbt], 40% with Lao [lao], 35% with Mulao [mlm], 32% with Lingao [onb], 28% with Northern Zhuang, 27% with Dong, 22% with Cun [cuq]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Central Kra. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Buyang, E’ma
[yzg] Yunnan province: Wenshan Zhuang-Miao autonomous prefecture, Funing county, Gula township, 6 villages: Dugan, E’cun, Longna, Maguan, Nada, and Zhelong. 600 (Li 1997). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Buozaang, Buyang Zhuang, Eastern Buyang, Funing Buyang, Langjia Buyang. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Langnian Buyang [yln], yet not intelligible despite frequent contact, 63% with Yerong (Yalang Buyang) [yrn], 48% with Baha Buyang [yha]. Also reportedly quite similar to En [enc] (200 speakers) of Northern Viet Nam. (Li 2006). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Buyang, Langnian
[yln] Yunnan province: Wenshan Zhuang-Miao autonomous prefecture, Funing county, Gula district, Gutao community, Nianlang village; Longse community, Langjia village. 300 (Li 1997), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Buozaang, Buyang Zhuang, Eastern Buyang, E’cun Buyang. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with E’ma Buyang [yzg], yet not intelligible despite frequent contact, 67% with Yerong (Yalang Buyang) [yrn], 50% with Baha Buyang [yha], 45% with Pubiao [laq], 42% with Laji (Lachi) [lbt]. Also reportedly quite similar to En [enc] (200 speakers) of Northern Viet Nam. (Li 2006). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Cao Miao
[cov] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Sanjiang Dong autonomous county, South Dong area small villages; Guizhou province: Liping county; Hunan province: Tongdao Dong autonomous county. 63,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Grass Miao, Mjiuniang, Sanjiang Miao. Dialects: Lexical similarity: with Northern Dong [doc] and sometimes referred to as a special dialect of Dong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chadong
[cdy] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Lingui county, Guilin muncipality; Chadong district (most villages), Liangjiang township; Yongfu county, Longjiang district. 20,000 (Li 2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Cha Dong, Chadonghua, Chadongyu. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Traditional religion, Daoist.

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Chesu
[ych] Yunnan province: areas in Eshan, Shuangbai, and Xinping counties. 3,300 (2007 J. Pelkey), decreasing. Ethnic population: 6,600 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Dialects: None known. Related to Samtao [stu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern.

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Chinese
[zho] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,299,877,520 Status: Comments: Includes: Gan Chinese [gan], Hakka Chinese [hak], Huizhou Chinese [czh], Jinyu Chinese [cjy], Mandarin Chinese [cmn], Min Bei Chinese [mnp], Min Dong Chinese [cdo], Min Nan Chinese [nan], Min Zhong Chinese [czo], Pu-Xian Chinese [cpx], Wu Chinese [wuu], Xiang Chinese [hsn], Yue Chinese [yue].

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Chinese Sign Language
[csl] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Zhongguo Shouyu. Dialects: Southern Chinese Sign Language (Shanghai Sign Language). Survey needed. Few signs of foreign origin. Negative clauses reportedly share similarity with British Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Developed late 1980s. There are also Chinese character signs. Others use home sign languages. 550 schools for the deaf, 77 schools for the deaf and the blind. In addition to signs, Chinese Sign Language also uses an alphabetic spelling system (analogous to pinyin in Mandarin [cmn]) and can signify tones with facial gestures. Shanghai Sign Language is the prestige dialect.

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Chinese, Gan
[gan] Hubei and Jiangxi provinces: including parts of Anhui, Chongyang, Dachi, Jiahu, and Xianning; Fujian and Hunan provinces. Jing’an, Nanchang city, and Xiuhui (Chang-Jing); Hunan (Liuyang); Yichun (Ichun), Jiangxi (Yi-Liu). 21,700,000 (2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Gan, Jiangxi hua, Jiangxinese, Kan. Dialects: Chang-Jing, Yilu (Yi-Liu), Ji-Cha, Fu-Guang, Ying-Yi, Nanchang, Datong, Leizi, Dongsui, Hauiyue. Marginally intelligible with Mandarin [cmn] and Wu [wuu] Chinese. Lexical similarity: with Hakka Chinese [hak]. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Nanchang is representative dialect.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Guangdong province: greatest concentrations east and northeast; Fujian, Guangxi, Hainan, Hunan, south Jiangxi, and Sichuan provinces: west and southwest. Widespread with other dialects. 27,100,000 in China (2013). Total users in all countries: 31,425,260 (as L1: 31,424,260; as L2: 1,000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Hakka, Hokka, Ke, Kechia, Kejia, Majiahua, Tu Guangdonghua, Xinminhua. Dialects: Yue-Tai (Meixian, Raoping, Taiwan Kejia), Yuezhong, Huizhou, Yuebei, Tingzhou (Min-Ke), Ning-Long (Longnan), Yugui, Tonggu, Huayang, Hailu, Changting, Pingdong. Yue-Tai (Meixian) is standard dialect. Lexical similarity: with Gan Chinese [gan]. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Huizhou
[czh] Anhui province: Dongzhi, Jingde, Jixi, Ningguo, Qimen, She (Xi), Tunxi, Xiuning, and Yi, counties, Huizhou region; Jiangxi province: Dexing, Fuliang, and Wuyuan counties; Zhejiang province: Chun’an county, Jiande municipality. 50,200,000 (2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Hui, Huizhou. Dialects: Jixi, Xiuyi, Qide, Yanzhou, Jingzhan, Tunxi. Formerly considered part of Jianghuai dialect of Mandarin Chinese [cmn], but now considered by many a major dialect of Chinese. Dialects reportedly differ greatly from each other. Different from Huizhou dialect of Hakka Chinese [hak]. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Jinyu
[cjy] Nei Mongol Autonomous Region, Shaanxi, and Shanxi provinces; some in Beijing, Gansu, west Hebei, and Henan provinces. 46,100,000 (2013). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Jin, Jinyu. Dialects: Pingyao, Changzhi. Formerly considered part of Xibei Guanhua dialect of Mandarin Chinese [cmn], but now considered by many a separate major dialect of Chinese. Unlike Mandarin, it has contrastive glottal-checked syllables and other distinctive features. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: northwest; Guizhou province; Hubei province: except southeast corner; Hunan province: northwest; Sichuan and Yunnan provinces. Widespread north of Changjiang river, from Qiujiang (Jiangxi) to Zhenjiang (Jiangsu). 889,000,000 in China (2013), increasing. 70% of Chinese language users speak a Mandarin dialect as L1. L2 users: 178,000,000 in China. Total users in all countries: 1,090,951,810 (as L1: 897,071,810; as L2: 193,880,000). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Beifang Fangyan, Guanhua, Guoyu, Hanyu, Huayu, Mandarin, Northern Chinese, Putonghua, Standard Chinese, Zhongguohua, Zhongwen. Dialects: Huabei Guanhua (Northern Mandarin), Xibei Guanhua (Northwestern Mandarin), Xinan Guanhua (Southwestern Mandarin), Jinghuai Guanhua (Eastern Mandarin, Jiangxia Guanhua, Lower Yangze Mandarin). Speakers of Kokang variety in Myanmar are reportedly most similar to the dialect spoken in Yunnan Province, China. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: There are Mandarin speakers in all 56 official nationalities of China, but the majority in China are classified under Han, Manchu and Hui nationalities. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Confucianist, Daoist, Jewish, Muslim.

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Chinese, Min Bei
[mnp] Fujian province: 7 counties around Jian’ou; some in Jiangxi and Zhejiang provinces. 10,900,000 in China (2013). Total users in all countries: 10,904,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Min Pei, Northern Min. Dialects: None known. The Chinese now divide Chinese Min into 5 major varieties: Min Nan [nan], Min Bei [mnp], Min Dong [cdo], Min Zhong [czo], and Pu-Xian [cpx]. Others say there are at least 9 varieties which are inherently mutually unintelligible. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Daoist.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Fujian province: Fu’an northeast to Fuzhou; Zhejiang province: boarder area near Luoyang. 8,820,000 in China (2000). Total users in all countries: 9,114,870. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Eastern Min. Dialects: Fuzhou (Foochow, Fuchow, Guxhou). The prestige dialect is spoken in Fujian. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Fujian and Jiangxi provinces: Xiamen; Hainan (Hainan); Guangdong province: Chaozhou-Shantou far east corner (Chao-Shan), Leizhou peninsula (Leizhou), Shaxi and Zhongshan city south of Guangzhou (Longdu dialect island); Zhejiang province: Pingyang and Cangnan area, and Zhoushan archipelago (Zhenan Min). 27,100,000 in China (2013). Total users in all countries: 48,033,100. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Minnan, Southern Min. Dialects: Xiamen (Amoy), Leizhou (Lei Hua, Li Hua), Chao-Shan (Chaozhou, Choushan, Teochew), Hainan (Hainanese, Qiongwen Hua, Wenchang), Longdu, Zhenan Min, Quanzhou (Chinchew), Zhangzhou (Changchew), Mai. Amoy is the prestige dialect. Amoy and Taiwanese are easily mutually intelligible. Chao-Shan has difficult intelligibility with Amoy; Hainan quite different from other dialects and mutually unintelligible with Hokkien and Teochew. Most speakers in Thailand use Chaoshou dialect. Min Nan most widely distributed and influential Min variety. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Daoist.

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Chinese, Min Zhong
[czo] Fujian province: Sha county, Sanming and Yong’an municipalities. 3,100,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Central Min. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Pu-Xian
[cpx] Fujian province: Putian and Xianyou counties. 2,520,000 in China (2000). Total users in all countries: 2,558,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Henghua, Hinghua, Hsienyu, Hsinghua, Putian, Putten, Xianyou, Xinghua. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Wu
[wuu] Anhui province; Fujian province: Shangrao area; Jiangsu province: Chongming Island, Haimen, Qidong, and Qingjiang at mouth of and north of the Changjiang in Nantong area; Jiangxi province: northeast; Shanghai municipality; Zhejiang province: Jinhua, Quzhou, and Wenzhou. 80,100,000 in China (2013). Total users in all countries: 80,102,480. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Jiangnan hua, Jiangsu-Zhujiang hua, Jiangzhe hua, Wu, Wuyue. Dialects: Taihu, Jinhua (Kinhwa), Taizhou, Oujiang, Wuzhou, Chuqu, Xuanzhou, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Wenzhou, Jinhua, Youngkang, Quzhou, Suzhou, Shaoxing, Danyang, Chongming, Zhenhai, Tangxi, Wenling. Varieties of Taihu dialect are Piling, Su-Hu-Jia, Tiaoxi, Hangzhou, Lin-Shao, and Yongjiang; Chuqu subdialects are Chuzhou and Longqu; Xuanzhou varieties are Tongjing, Taigao, and Shiling. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Xiang
[hsn] Hunan province: over 20 counties; parts of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; Guizhou and Hubei provinces. 36,600,000 in China (2013). Total users in all countries: 36,600,290. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Hsiang, Hunan, Hunanese, Xiang. Dialects: Changyi, Luoshao, Jishu, Changsha, Yiyang, Loudi, Shaoyang, Jixu, Xupu, Jishou. Linguistically between Mandarin [cmn] and Wu [wuu] Chinese and marginally intelligible with them. Reportedly becoming more similar to (southwestern) Mandarin [cmn] and is losing non-northern features. 3 main dialect groups: Changyi (includes Changsha and Yiyang), Luoshao (includes Loudi and Shaoyang), and Jixu (Jishu) (includes Xupu and Jishou). A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Guangdong province: most except Hakka-speaking areas northeast, and Min Nan-speaking areas east; Guangxi province: east; Hainan and Hunan provinces. 52,900,000 in China (2013). Total users in all countries: 62,967,910. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Guangdong Province. Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Cantonese, Gwong Dung Waa, Yue, Yueh, Yuet Yue, Yueyu. Dialects: Siyi (Hoisan, Schleiyip, Seiyap, Taishan, Toisan), Gaolei (Gaoyang), Qinlian, Guinan, Ping, Bobai, Tengxian, Cangwu, Yangjiang, Zhongshan, Guangzhou. The Guangzhou variety considered the standard. A member of macrolanguage Chinese [zho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Many members of other nationalities in Guangxi, Guangdong and Hainan also speak Yue dialects.

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Choni
[cda] Gansu province: east Gannan prefecture, Diebu, Lintan, Zhouqu, and Zhuoni counties; Sichuan province: north. 154,000 (2004). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Chona, Chone, Cone, Jone, Zhuoni. Dialects: Hbrugchu (Zhouqu), Thewo (Diebu, Thebo). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish.

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Cun
[cuq] Hainan province: Changjiang county on Changhua river north bank, north Dongfang county on south bank of Changhua river. 80,000 (1999 O. Jueya). 47,200 monolinguals. Mainly children, elders, and some women. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Cunhua, Cun-Hua, Ngao Fon. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Hlai [lic]. Many loanwords from Chinese. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Darang Deng
[mhu] Xizang Autonomous Region: Chayu (Zayü) county along Dulai river valley, Gayao, Qu’antong, and Xiazayu townships, Nyingchi prefecture. 850 in China (1999 Sun Hong Kai). 750 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Darang, Darang Dengyu, Digaro, Digaro-Mishmi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Digarish. Comments: Some Chinese scholars believe them to be in the Jingpo branch. Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Traditional religion.

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Daur
[dta] Heilongjiang province: Nenjiang prefecture, Fuyu and Nehe counties; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: Hulun Buir league, Hailar prefecture, Morin Dawa (Molidawa) Daur autonomous banner, Oroqen autonomous banner and Ewenki autonomous banner; Qiqihar prefecture, Qiqihar city; northwest Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Tacheng prefecture (Ili dialect). 96,100 in China (1999 D. Ying), decreasing. 35,000 Buteha dialect, 35,000 Qiqiha’er dialect, 15,500 Haila’er dialect, 4500 Ili dialect. 24,300 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 132,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Daur. Alternate Names: Daguor, Dagur, Dawar, Dawo’er, Tahuerh, Tahur. Dialects: Buteha (Aihui, Bataxan, Butah, Darbin, Mergen, Nawen, Nemor), Haila’er (Hailar, Mokertu, Nantun), Qiqiha’er (Fularji, Jiangdong, Jingxi, Qiqihar, Tsitsikhar), Ili. Definitely distinct from other Mongolian languages (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Some identify Haila’er dialect as a dialect of Evenki [evn]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Dagur. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Dong, Northern
[doc] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: 20 contiguous counties; Guizhou province: Yuping autonomous county; conjunction of west Hunan province and north Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 463,000 in China (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Dong. Alternate Names: Gam, Kam, Tong, Tung, Tung-Chia. Dialects: None known. Zhanglu speech in Rongjiang County, Guizhou Province is standard variety. Reportedly similar to Mulam [mlm]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Northern Dong varieties, 71% with Southern Dong [kmc], 46% with Lakkia [lbc], 29% with Qabiao [laq], 26% with Hlai [lic], 24% with Gelao, 22% with Lachi [lbt], 6% with Hmong Njua [hnj], 4% with Iu Mien [ium]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Traditional way of life relatively undisturbed. Traditional religion.

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Dong, Southern
[kmc] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: 20 contiguous counties; Guizhou province: Yuping autonomous county; conjunction of west Hunan province and north Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 1000000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dong. Alternate Names: Gam, Kam, Tong, Tung, Tung-Chia. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mulam [mlm]. Lexical similarity: 93% with Southern Dong dialects, 71% with Northern Dong [doc], 46% with Lakkia [lbc], 29% with Qabiao [laq], 26% with Hlai [lic], 24% with Gelao, 22% with Lachi [lbt], 6% with Hmong Njua [hnj], 4% with Iu Mien [ium]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Traditional way of life relatively undisturbed. Traditional religion.

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Dongxiang
[sce] Gansu province: Linxia Hui autonomous prefecture, 7 counties and a city; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Ili Kazak autonomous prefecture, Huocheng and Yining counties. 200,000 (Bradley 2007a). Half in Suonanba dialect. 80,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 514,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Dongxiang. Alternate Names: Santa, Tung, Tunghsiang. Dialects: Suonanba (Xiaonan), Wangjiaji, Sijiaji. Some intelligibility with Bonan [peh]. Minor dialect differences in pronunciation and borrowed words. Suonanba considered the standard. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour. Comments: 30% of vocabulary borrowed from Chinese. Muslim.

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Drung
[duu] Yunnan province: Gongshan Dulong-Nu autonomous county (Dulong River dialect (5,500)); Xizang Autonomous Region: Gongshan Dulong-Nu autonomous county west to Chayu (Zayü) county; Gongshang county, Bingzhongluo; Tibet: Chayu county, Chawalong district (Nu River dialect (8,500). 14,000 in China (2000 census). 8,500 in Nu River dialect, 5,500 in Dulong River dialect. Total population all countries: 14,000. 13,300 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 14,225. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dulong. Alternate Names: Qiuzu. Dialects: Dulong River (Central Dulongjiang, Derung River, Northern Dulongjiang, Southern Dulongjiang), Nu River (Nujiang Dulong). Dialects reportedly inherently intelligible (Thurgood and LaPolla 2003). Nu River Drung is not the same as Tibeto-Burman Anong [nun], which is also in Myanmar. Different from Rawang [raw] in Myanmar. Other possible dialect names are Melam, Metu, Tamalu, and Tukiumu. Lexical similarity: 74% with Matwang dialect of Rawang [raw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Duoluo
[giw] Guangxi province: Longlin county, Muji village; Guizhou province: Guanling county, Dingyinxiao village; Langdai county, Ruojiao and Zhuijiao villages; Zhijin county, Agong village; Zunyi county, Jianshan village; Yunnan province: Malipo (Tu’lu dialect). 1,200 in China (1987 Z. Guo-qiao). Total users in all countries: 1,220. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Bai Gelo, White Gelao. Dialects: Tu’lu. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra.

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Dzao Min
[bpn] Guangdong province: Liannan and Yangshan counties; Hunan province: Yizhang county. 60,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Ba Pai Yao, dzau min, Yao Min, Yau Min, Zaomin. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Mienic languages. Lexical similarity: 61% with Iu Mien [ium], 59% with Kim Mun [mji], 58% with Biao-Jiao Mien [bje]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Zaomin. Comments: Daoist.

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E
[eee] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Rongshui Hmong autonomous county, Yongle district, Simo, Xiatan, Xinglong (Xingyou) and other villages; Luocheng Mulam autonomous county border areas. 30,000 (Edmondson 1992). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Eahua, Kjang E, “Wuse Hua” (pej.), “Wusehua” (pej.). Dialects: A mixed language, with large amounts of Tuguai Hua (also called Pinghua, a Yue Chinese [yue] dialect) and Guiliu Hua (a southwest Mandarin [cmn] dialect) vocabulary, tone category, voice quality, and some word structure. The grammar has been more resistant to Chinese influence. Chinese scholars consider E a mixture of Northern Zhuang languages, Mulam [mlm], Dong [doc] and Chinese. Classification: Mixed language. Comments: Northern Zhuang languages are not used. Traditional religion.

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Enu
[enu] Yunnan province: Honghe prefecture, Luchun county; Jiangcheng county, Jiahe and Qushui townships; Mojiang county, Baliu, Sinanjiang, and Yayi townships, Simao municipality. 30,000 (Dai and Duan 1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Ximoluo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Biyo [byo] (17 % of similarities are Han loanwords that both have borrowed), 74% with Kaduo [ktp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Ximoluo is an exonym given to Enu by other Hani peoples. Not known if it is pejorative.

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Ersu
[ers] Sichuan province: Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Jiulong county; Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Ganluo, Mianning, Muli and Yuexi counties; Ya’an prefecture, Hanyuan and Shimian counties; all on lower Dadu river dispersed among Chinese, Tibetan, and Yi peoples. 20,000 (Shearer and Sun 2002), decreasing. Eastern Ersu (Ersu) 13,000, Central Ersu (Duoxu) 10 or less, Western Ersu (Lizu) 4,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bu’erci, Bu’erzi, Bu’erzi Ersu, Doxu, Duoxu, Erhsu, Lizu, Lusu, T’osu. Dialects: Ersu (Eastern Ersu), Duoxu (Central Ersu), Lisu (Liru, Lüzü, Western Ersu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Ersuish. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Evenki
[evn] Heilongjiang province: Nale prefecture; a few in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: Hulunbuir banners in Arong, Chen Bargu, Ergune East, Ewenki, Huisuomu, Moriadawa, Oronchon. 11,000 in China (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 30,500 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 17,130. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Ewenki. Alternate Names: Ewenk, Ewenke, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Owenke, Solon, Solong, Sulong, Suolun. Dialects: Haila’er, Aoluguya (Olguya), Chenba’erhu (Old Bargu), Morigele (Mergel), Huihe (Hoy). Standard dialect is Huihe. Dialectal differences within Evenki are small and the case for regarding Evenki and Orochen as separate languages is weak (Salminen 2007). Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Evenki. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Ge
[hmj] Guizhou province: Huangping county, Chong’an township; Longchang township, Kaili municipality. 60,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Chonganjiang Miao, Ge Jia, Gedang, Gedong, Gedou, Gedou Miao, Gedoudiu, Gedu, Gejia, Ge-Mong, Gho-mhon, Keh Deo. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other varieties of Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Given special status as Gejia in Guizhou Province. Traditional religion.

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Gelao, Red
[gir] Yunnan province: Wenshan prefecture, Malipo county. A few speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra.

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Geman Deng
[mxj] Southeast Xizang Autonomous Region: Nyingchi prefecture, Chayu (Zayü) county, townships on lower Chayu (Zayü) river in small villages. 200 in China (1999 Sun Hong Kai), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaman, Keman, Miji, Miju, Mishmi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Mijish. Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined nationality. Some Chinese linguists believe the language to be similar to Jingpo [kac]. Traditional religion.

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Gepo
[ygp] Yunnan province: Dongchuan, Fumin, Huize, Luoping, Luquan, Luxi, Malong, Mile, Shilin, Shizong, Songming, and Xundian counties. 100,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Baiyi, Gepu, Guo, Gupu, Guzu, Jiantouyi, Köpu, Nasu, Pingtouyi. Dialects: Luquan Naso, Wuding Naisu. Related to Nasu [ywq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern.

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Groma
[gro] Xizang Autonomous Region: Chambi Valley, between Bhutan and Sikkim. 12,800 in China (1993). Total users in all countries: 26,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Tromowa. Dialects: Upper Groma, Lower Groma. Possible dialects or related languages: Spiti, Tomo (Chumbi). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Guiqiong
[gqi] Sichuan Province: Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, 4 townships: Maibeng, Qianqi, Shelian West, Shiji; also Guza town; north Dadu river plateaus. 6,000 (2000 Sun Hong Kai). 1,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000 D. Bradley). About 1,000 ethnic Guiqiong reportedly understand Guiqiong, but do not speak it. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Guichong, Guiqiang, Yutong. Dialects: Phonological dialect differences, but communication is possible. 2 or 3 varieties have difficult mutual intelligibility. Loanwords from Tibetan and Chinese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic. Comments: Buddhist.

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Hagei
[giq] Guangxi province: Longlin county, Sanchong village; Guizhou province: Guanling county, Dingying village; Qinglong county, Liangshuiyang; Qingzhen county, Maixiang village; Renhuai county, Anliang and Taiyang villages; Zhenning county, Huajiangzhen and Ma’ao villages; Zunyi county, Qinglong village. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Hakei. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Hani
[hni] Yunnan province: Jingdong and Jinggu counties, Lancang (Mekong) and Yuanjiang river basins, Ailao mountains. 740,000 in China (Bradley 2007b). 444,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 758,620. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Ha Nhi, Hanhi, Hani Proper, Haw. Dialects: Hani has numerous dialects and is reportedly fairly similar to Akha [ahk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Includes Hani, Akha, Biyo, Kaduo, Honi, and other groups, all speaking Southern Ngwi languages. The Hanhi ethnic group in Viet Nam and Laos speak Hani. Traditional religion.

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Hlai
[lic] Hainan province: Baisha, Chengmai, Danxiang, Tunchang, and Wanning. 667,000 (1999 O. Jueya). 160,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,248,000 (2000 census). Includes about 52,300 Jiamao [jio] speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Li. Alternate Names: Bli, Dai, Day, Dli, Klai, La, Lai, Le, Li, Loi, Slai. Dialects: Ha (Luohua-Hayan-Baoxian), Qi (Gei, Tongshi-Qiandui-Baocheng), Meifu (Moifau), Bendi (Baisha-Yuanmen, Local Li, Zwn). Some dialects may be separate languages. Matisoff (1988) lists 8 varieties: Baoding, Xifang, Tongshi, Baisha, Qiandiu, Heitu, Yuanmen, and Baocheng. Luowo subdialect of Ha dialect is considered the standard. Lexical similarity: 27% with Gelao, 26% with Dong [doc] and Qabiao [laq], 25% with Lachi [lbt]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Hlai. Comments: Together with speakers of Jiamao [jio]. Traditional culture. Traditional religion.

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Hlersu
[hle] Yunnan province: Eshan county, 6 villages; Shiping county, 5 villages; Shuangbai and Zhenyuan counties, scattered mountaintop locations; Xinping county, 40 villages; Yuanjiang county, 38 villages. 15,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Lesu, Sansu, Shansu. Dialects: None known. Related to Lolopo [ycl]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Hmong
[hmn] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 7,706,400 Status: Comments: Includes: Central Huishui Miao [hmc], Central Mashan Miao [hmm], Chuanqiandian Cluster Miao [cqd], Eastern Huishui Miao [hme], Eastern Qiandong Miao [hmq], Eastern Xiangxi Miao [muq], Ge [hmj], Hmong Daw [mww], Hmong Njua [hnj] (Laos), Horned Miao [hrm], Large Flowery Miao [hmd], Luopohe Miao [hml], Northern Guiyang Miao [huj], Northern Huishui Miao [hmi], Northern Mashan Miao [hmp], Northern Qiandong Miao [hea], Sinicized Miao [hmz], Small Flowery Miao [sfm], Southern Guiyang Miao [hmy], Southern Mashan Miao [hma], Southern Qiandong Miao [hms], Southwestern Guiyang Miao [hmg], Southwestern Huishui Miao [hmh], Western Mashan Miao [hmw], Western Xiangxi Miao [mmr].

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Hmong Daw
[mww] Guangxi province: northwest; Guizhou province: south and southwest; Yunnan province: southeast and southwest. 233,000 in China (2004). Ethnic population: All Hmong in China: 8,950,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 1,698,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Banded Arm Hmong, Hmong Dao, Hmong Dleu, Hmong Qua Mpa, Meo Do, Meo Kao, Mong Do, Mong Trang, Pe Miao, Peh Miao, Striped Arm Hmong, Striped Hmong, White Hmong, White Lum, White Meo, White Miao. Dialects: None known. Hmong Daw and Hmong Njua [hnj] are largely mutually intelligible, but there are sufficient sociolinguistic, phonological, and lexical differences to require separate literature. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] Guangxi province: far west; Guizhou province: southwest; Sichuan province: south; Yunnan province: Maguan and Malipo counties, scattered areas west. 40,000 in China (Hattaway 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Unique in culture and language from other Miao groups.

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Honi
[how] Yunnan province: Simao prefecture, Dai, Mojiang Hani, Pu’er Hani, and Yi autonomous counties; Yuxi prefecture: Dai, Yi, and Yuanjiang Hani autonomous counties. 140,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Baihong, Hao-Bai, Haoni, Ho, Ouni, Uni, Woni. Dialects: Haoni, Baihong. Dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Language is distinct from Hani proper. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Horpa
[ero] Sichuan province: Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Danba (Rong-brag), Daofu (rTau, sTau, Dawu), Luhuo, Xinlong (Brag-’go), and Xinlong (Nyagrong) counties. 45,000 (Shearer and Sun 2002). sTau: 23,000, Geshitsa: 21,000, Nyagrong-Minyak: 1,000. 15,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bawang, Bopa, Danba, Daofu, Daofuhua, Dawu, Ergong, Geshitsa, Geshiza, Geshizahua, Hor, Hórsók, Huo’er, Nyagrong-Minyag, Pawang, Rgu, rTau, sTau, Western Gyarong, Western Jiarong, Xinlong-Muya. Dialects: sTau (Daofu, Dawu, rTau), Geshitsa (Geshiza), Nyagrong-Minyag (Xinlong-Muya). The dialects of Horpa reportedly are not mutually intelligible. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, rGyalrongic. Comments: Buddhist.

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Hu
[huo] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong and Mengla counties, 5 villages, including Nahuopa village in Mengyang township. 1,000 (Li 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Possibly a dialect of U [uuu]. 76% similar lexically with U of Shuangjiang County. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Traditional religion.

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Ili Turki
[ili] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Ili Kazak autonomous prefecture, Gongliu, Nilka, Tekes, Xinyuan, Zhaosu, and other counties, Ili valley near Kuldja. 120 in China (1980 R. Hahn), decreasing. The language of about 30 families (Salminen 2007). Total users in all countries: 240. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Uzbek. Alternate Names: Ili Turk, Taranchi, Tuerke, Tu’erke, T’urk. Dialects: None known. Ili Turki is indistinguishable from the Central Uyghur [uig] variety spoken in the Ili (Ghulja) area (2015 A. Dwyer). Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Ethnically and linguistically distinct, discovered in 1956. Their oral history says they came from the Ferghana Valley (Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan) about 200 years ago. Muslim.

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Iu Mien
[ium] Guangdong province: Ruyuan county; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Dayao mountains; Guizhou province: Congjiang, Libo, and Rongjiang counties; Hunan, Jiangxi, and Yunnan provinces. 383,000 in China (Wang and Mao 1995). Total users in all countries: 818,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Ban Yao, Highland Yao, Man, Mian, Mien, Mjen, Myen, Pan Yao, Yao, Yiu Mien, Youmian. Dialects: Guoshan Yao. Dialects may not be intelligible. Biao Mon [bmt] may be a dialect of Iu Mien. Differences from other Mienic languages are in the tone system, consonants, vowel quality, vowel length. Chinese linguists consider the Iu Mien spoken in Changdong, Jinxiu Yao Autonomous County, Guangxi to be the standard. May be most similar to Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kim Mun [mji], 70% with Biao-Jiao Mien [bje], 61% with Dzao Min [bpn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Comments: Ethnic groups: Hua Lan, Hua, Hung, Cao Long, Coc, Khoc, Quan Coc, Quan Trang, Son Trang, Sung, Tien (Tiao Tchaine), Yaya. The Lakkia, Mun, Bunu languages, plus speakers of other Mienic and Hmongic languages, and ethnic Yao who speak Chinese, are officially classified within Yao nationality in China. Pingdi Yao (Piongtuojo, Piongtoajeu) is a variety of Chinese with 1,000,000 speakers, half of whom are members of Yao nationality, Guangdong Province, Hunan-Guangxi border. Daoist, traditional religion.

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Jiamao
[jio] Hainan province: Baoting, Lingshui, and Qiongzhong counties, near Wuzhi mountain. 52,300 (Wurm et al 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Li. Alternate Names: Gevou, Kamau, Ku vou, Tai. Dialects: Considered by Chinese linguists a dialect of Hlai [lic], but very different from Hlai dialects in phonology, grammar, and vocabulary. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Hlai. Comments: Together with Hlai [lic] speakers. Traditional religion.

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Jiarong
[jya] Sichuan province: Dangba, Songgang, Suomo, Zhuokeji (Situ dialect); Aba county, Kehe and Rongan townships; Maerkang county, Chabao district, Dazang, Longerjia, and Shaerzong townships (Chabao); Maerkang county, Sidaba district, Caodeng, Kangshan, and Ribu townships (Sidaba); Rangtang county, between Shili and Wuyi and townships along middle Duke river; Seda county, a small town; Duke and Seda rivers’ confluence. 83,000 (1999 Sun Hong Kai). 25,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 151,000 (Lin 1993). Includes 139,000 in Situ Jiarong, 12,200 in Chabao and Sidaba. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Chiarong, dGyarung, Gyarong, Gyarung, Jarong, Jyarung, Keru, Rgyarong. Dialects: Situ (Eastern Jiarong), Chabao (Central Jiarong, Dazang, Northern Jiarong), Showu (Caodeng, Sidaba, Western Jiarong), Japhug (Northeastern Jiarong), Tshobdun (Northwestern Jiarong). Varieties of Situ are: Ma’erkang, Lixian, Jinchuan (Dajin), and Xiaojin. Varieties of Sidaba are Caodeng and Ribu. Western and Northern phonology are fairly similar but differ greatly from Eastern. Dialects are likely three separate mutually unintelligible languages. Lexical similarity: 75% between Eastern and Northern Jiarong (with significant phonological differences), 60% between Western and Northern, 13% between the Situ dialect and Horpa [ero]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, rGyalrongic. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Jingpho
[kac] Yunnan province: Baoshan prefecture,Tengchong county; Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Longchuan, Ruili, and Yingjiang counties. 40,000 in China (1999 X. Xijian). 20,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 132,000 (2000 census). Includes Atsi [atb], Maru [mhx] and Lashi [lsi] speakers (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Chingpaw, Chingp’o, Dashanhua, Jinghpaw, Jingpo, Kachin, Marip. Dialects: Enkun (Nkhum, Nkhumka), Shidan (Satanka, Xidan), Hkaku (Hka-Hku), Kauri (Gauri, Hkauri, Kauzhika, Khauri), Mengzhi, Dzili (Jili), Dulong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingpho-Luish, Jingpho. Comments: Also includes Zaiwa [atb], Maru [mhx], and Lashi [lsi] speakers. Kachin refers to the cultural rather than the linguistic group. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Jinuo, Buyuan
[jiy] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, east of Jinghong in Youle mountains. 40 villages. 1,000 (1994). Most monolingual. Ethnic population: All Jinuo: 20,900 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jinuo. Alternate Names: Buyuan, Jino. Dialects: Buyuan and Youle dialects not inherently intelligible. Chinese used for communication. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Jinuo, Youle
[jiu] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, near Laos and Myanmar borders, east of Jinghong in Youle mountains. 40 villages. 10,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: All Jinuo: 20,900 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jinuo. Alternate Names: Jino, Youle. Dialects: Youle and Buyuan dialects not mutually inherently intelligible. Chinese used to communicate. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kaduo
[ktp] Yunnan province: primarily southeast Simao prefecture, Jiangcheng, Mojiang, and Pu’er counties. 180,000 in China (Bradley 2007b), increasing. Many monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 185,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Khatu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Different from Kadu [zkd] in Myanmar.

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Kalmyk-Oirat
[xal] Gansu province: northern border area; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: Alashan league; Qinghai province: Kukunor region, Lake Qinghai northwest; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Jungaria region. 130,000 in China (Salminen 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Oirat, Weilate, Western Mongol, Xinjiang Mongolian. Dialects: Torgut (Torghut, Tu’erhute), Kök Nur (Qinghai), Jakhachin, Bayit, Mingat, Olot (Eleuth, Elyut, Ööld), Khoshut (Khoshuud), Dorbot. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kang
[kyp] Yunnan province: southwest. 34,100 in China (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Tai Khang. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Non-indigenous. Related ethnic groups, dialects, or languages in the area: Chang Teo Fah, Kentse, Mengka (Mengkah).

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Kangjia
[kxs] Qinghai province: Tongren county. 1,000 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Hui. Alternate Names: Kangyang Hui. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour. Comments: Muslim.

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Kathu
[ykt] Yunnan province: Guangnan county, Balong district; possibly Guangxi province. 5,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Gasu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Katso
[kaf] Yunnan province: Yuxi prefecture, Tonghai county, Xingmeng Mongolian autonomous township. 4,000 (Bradley 2007a), decreasing. Most young people are semi-speakers, speaking Chinese instead (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 6,340 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Gazhuo, Gezhuo, Kazhuo. Dialects: None known. All are proficient in Southwest Mandarin [cmn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern. Comments: Remnants of an outpost dating back to the Yuan Dynasty.

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Kazakh
[kaz] Gansu province: Akesai Kazakh autonomous county; Qinghai province: northwest; Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region: Yili Kazakh autonomous prefecture, Balikun Kazakh and Mulei Kazakh autonomous counties. 1,250,000 in China (2000 census). 830,000 Northeastern Kazakh, 70,000 Southwestern Kazakh (1982). 1,060,000 monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Language of recognized nationality: Kazakh. Alternate Names: Hazake, Kazak, Kazax. Dialects: Northeastern Kazakh, Southwestern Kazakh. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kemiehua
[kfj] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong county. 1,000 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified. Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Traditional religion.

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Khakas
[kjh] Heilongjiang province: Fuyu county north of Qiqihar. 10 in China (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 880. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Kyrghyz. Alternate Names: Abakan Tatar, Fuyü Gïrgïs, Fuyu Ka’erkezi, Hakasi, Khakhas, Khakhass, Manchurian Kirghiz, Yenisei Tatar. Dialects: Sagai, Beltir, Kacha, Kyzyl, Shor, Kamassian. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Khlula
[ykl] Yunnan province: southeast Wenshan county, Liujin township; north and central Maguan county, Dalishu, Miechange, Muchang, and Renhe townships. 21,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 34,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Alapha, Black Phula, Black Zokhuo, Hei Phula, Mo, Namupha, Pao, Phulapha, Shaoji Phula, Sifter Basket Phula, Tula, Zokhuo Na. Dialects: Liujing, Muchang, Dalishu. Closely related to Zokhuo [yzk]; some marriage networks maintained with Hlepho Phula [yhl], but not mutually intelligible with either language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Khmu
[kjg] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong county, 9 villages, some in Mengla county. 1,600 in China (1990). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chaman, Damai, Damailao, Damaile, Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Kemu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Khomu, Lao Terng, Mou, Pouteng, Theng. Dialects: Damaile, Damailao. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’. Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality.

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Khuen
[khf] 1,000 in China (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khouen, Khween, Kween. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kim Mun
[mji] Guizhou province: 17 counties. 200,000 in China (Wang and Mao 1995). 61,000 in Hainan Province (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 374,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. The majority officially classified within Yao nationality. Alternate Names: Chasan Yao, Gem Mun, Hainan Miao, Jim Mun, Jinmen, Kem di mun, Kem Mun, Kimmun, Lan Tin, Lanten, Lowland Yao, Man Lantien, Men, Mun, Shanzi Yao. Dialects: Dao Quan Trang, Dao Ho. Not intelligible with Iu Mien [ium]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Iu Mien [ium], 67% with Biao-Jiao Mien [bje], 59% with Dzao Min [bpn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Comments: The largest Yao group after Iu Mien. Daoist.

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Kon Keu
[kkn] Yunnan province: Baoshan, Dai Lincang, Simao, and Xishuangbanna autonomous prefectures. 6,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Alternate Names: Kong Ge, Kongge. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Korean
[kor] Jilin province: Yanbian (Hyanbian) Korean autonomous prefecture; Hebei, Heilongjiang, Liaoning, and Shandong provinces, and Nei Mongol Autonomous Region; some in Beijing municipality. 2,710,000 in China (2012 census). 1,200,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality: Chaoxian (Korean). Alternate Names: Chaoxian, Hanguohua. Classification: Koreanic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist, Christian.

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Kua-nsi
[ykn] Yunnan province: Heqing county, Liuhe township. 5,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Baiyi ren, Kua’ensi, Kua’eshi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kuamasi [yku] and Sonaga [ysg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Kuamasi
[yku] Yunnan province: Heqing county, Liuhe township. 1,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sonaga [ysg] and Kua-nsi [ykn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Kuanhua
[xnh] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong county. 1,000 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Damai. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Unclassified. Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality, but are locally considered part of Khmu peoples. Traditional religion.

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Kucong
[lkc] Yunnan province: Jiangcheng, Jinggu, Jinping, Luchun, Mengla, Xinping, Yuanjiang, and other counties. 40,000 in China (Bradley 2007b), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Alternate Names: Cosung, Lahlu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kyerung
[kgy] Xizang Autonomous Region: Shigatse prefecture, Kyirong district, lower Kyirong (26 villages) and Lende valley (16 villages). 100 in China (2002). Total users in all countries: 600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Kyerong, Kyirong, Kyirong kai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar with Kagate [syw]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 83% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Buddhist.

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Kyrgyz
[kir] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Akqi, Akto, Baicheng, Tekes, Wuqia, Wushi, and Zhaosu counties. 160,000 in China (2000 census). 60,000 Northern Kirghiz, 40,000 Southern Kirghiz (Shearer and Sun 2002). Older adults monolingual. Ethnic population: 161,000 (2000 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Language of recognized nationality: Kyrgyz. Alternate Names: Kara, Ke’erkez, Kirgiz. Dialects: Southern Kyrgyz, Northern Kyrgyz. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Lachi
[lbt] Yunnan province: Miao and Wenshan Zhuang autonomous prefectures, southern Maguan county, several villages. 200 in China (Bradley 2007a), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,600. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: I To, Ku Te, La Chi, Laji, Lati, Lipuljo, Tai Lati, Y Mia, Y Poong, Y To. Dialects: Lipute (Bag Lachi), Liputcio (Han Lachi), Lipuke (Red Lachi), Lipuliongtco (Flowery Lachi), Liputiõ (Black Lachi), Lipupi (Long-Haired Lachi). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra. Comments: Ethnic Lachi in Nanlao (Bag Lachi), Renhe (Han or Sinocized Lachi), Jiahanqing (Han or Sinocized Lachi) and Xiaobazi (Red Lachi) no longer speak Lachi fluently, but understand some.

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Ladakhi
[lbj] Western Xizang Autonomous Region. 12,000 in China (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Ladak, Ladaphi, Ladhakhi, Ladwags. Dialects: Leh (Central Ladakhi), Shamma (Lower Ladakhi, Sham, Shamskat), Nubra Ladakhi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist.

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Lahu
[lhu] Yunnan province: Lincang prefecture, Gengma Dai, and Va autonomous counties; Simao prefecture, Lahu, Lancang Lahu, Menglian Dai, and Va autonomous counties. 280,000 in China (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 530,350. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Alternate Names: Kaixien, Kucong, Kutsong, Lahuna, Laku, Lohei, Moso, Muhso, Mussar, Musso, Mussuh, Namen. Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Lohei, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Musse Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Standard dialect: Na. Black Lahu dialect and Lahu Shi [lhi] have difficult intelligibility. Lahu Shi and Kucong Lahupu (White Lahu dialect, in Zhenyuan County, China) are distinct. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Lahu Shi
[lhi] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Menghai county, Menghai district, Menghai township; Simao prefecture, Lancang Lahu autonomous county, Nuofu district, other areas. 117,000 in China (Bradley 2007b), increasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 120,000. Total users in all countries: 196,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Alternate Names: Kur, Kwi, Lahu Xi, Shi, Yellow Lahu. Dialects: Banlan, Bakeo. Reportedly most similar to Lahu [lhu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Lakkia
[lbc] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Jinxiu Yao autonomous county. 9,000 (Bradley 2007a). 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Chashan Yao, Lajia, Laka, Lakia, Lakja, Lakkja, Tai Laka, Tea Mountain Yao. Dialects: Phonetically similar to Iu Mien [ium], word order to Bunu [bwx]. Not intelligible with Hmong Djua [hnj] or Bunu. Minimal variation within Lakkia. Lexical similarity: 45% with Dong [doc], 23% with Lachi [lbt] and Qabiao [laq], 22% with Gelao. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Lakkja. Comments: The language is nonetheless Tai-Kadai (1990 J-O. Svantesson). Daoist, traditional religion.

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Lalo, Central
[ywt] Yunnan province: Changning, Fengqing, Jingdong, Midu, Nanjian, Weishan, Yangbi, and Yunlong counties. 213,000 (2010 SIL). Over 500,000 in subgroup; many living further west, south or east do not speak the language; less than half are speakers, not all fluent and not many children (Bradley 2007a). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Lalaw, Lalo, Lalopa, Lalu, Laluo, Misapa, Western Yi, Xishanba Lalo. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with other Lalo languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Western Yi dialect. Traditional religion.

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Lalo, Dongshanba
[yik] Yunnan province: Baoshan, Lancang, Midu, Weishan, Xiaguan, Yangbi, and Yongping counties. 30,000 (2002). Over 500,000 in the ethnic group. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Jiantou, Lalu, Lalupa, Lalupu, Maganfang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Daoist, traditional religion.

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Lalu, Eastern
[yit] Yunnan province: Mojiang, Xinping, Yuanjiang, and Zhenyuan counties. 38,000 (2002). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Lalu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Lalu, Western
[ywl] Yunnan province: Baoshan, Longling, Luxi, Shidian, and Zhenkang counties. 38,000 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Lalu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lamu
[llh] Yunnan province: Dali prefecture, northeast Binchuan county. 120 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 300. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Lang’e
[yne] Yunnan province: southwest Yongsheng county. 2,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: La’u. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Laomian
[lwm] Yunnan province: Lancang, Menglian, and Ximeng counties. Menghai county, Mengzhe township, Van Phin (Laopinzhai) village (Laopin dialect). 4,000 (Bradley 2007a), decreasing. Less than 1,000 Laopin (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 5,000 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population does not include Laopin. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Alternate Names: Bisu, Guba, Lawa, Lawmeh, Lua, Mbi, Mibisu, Misu, Pin. Dialects: Lanmeng, Huaipa, Dakao, Laopin. Similar to Pyen [pyy] and Bisu [bzi]. Lexical similarity: 93%–95% between Laopin and Laomian, 88% with Bisu [bzi] in Thailand. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid. Comments: The name ‘Laomian’ is the Chinese derivation of the Lahu name ‘Lawmeh.’ Others officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Some view Bisu as an important link to their culture and hope to preserve it. Traditional religion.

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Lashi
[lsi] Yunnan province: Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Longchuan, Luxi, Ruili, and Yingjiang counties. 1,800 in China (1997). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Acye, Chashanhua, Lachik, Lachikwaw, Laji, Laqi, Lasi, Leqi, Leshi, Letsi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Intermixed with others of Jingpo nationality who use other languages, but call themselves Le Chi (Tshi).

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Lavrung
[jiq] Sichuan province: northwest Jinchuan county; Maerkang county southwest tip on Jinchuan river tributaries; southeast Rangtang county. 50,000 (Lin 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Guanyingqiao, Khroskyabs, Western Jiarong, Zhongzhai. Dialects: Xiaoyili, Siyaowu, Muerzong, Guanyingqiao, Ergali, Taiyanghe, Ere, Yelong. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Lexical similarity: 60% between Western and Northern Jiarong dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, rGyalrongic. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Lawu
[lwu] Yunnan province: Yuxi prefecture, Xinping county, Shuitang district, Jiuha village; possibly in Pu’er prefecture, Zhenyuan county, Jijujia district. 50 (2012 C. Yang). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Lahu. Dialects: None known. Related to Central Lalo [ywt], Kucong [lkc], Lahu [lhu], and Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Lhaovo
[mhx] Yunnan province: Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Lianghe, Longchuan, Luxi, Ruili, and Yingjiang counties. 3,500 in China (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Diso, Lang’e, Langsu, Langwa, Laungaw, Laungwaw, Lawng, Liangsu, Lovo, Malu, Maru, Matu, Nyky, Zi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from the Matu variety of Khumi Chin [cnk]. Maru speakers reportedly preserve ancient cultural characteristics more than other ethnic groups.

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Lhomi
[lhm] Xizang Autonomous Region. 1,000 in China. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Lhoket, Lhomi dzyükki keccyok, Lhomiki keccyok, Shing Saapa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Limi
[ylm] Yunnan province: Fengqing, Yongde, and Yunxian counties. 29,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Liumi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lingao
[onb] Hainan province: Lingao county, parts of Chengmai, Danxian, and Qiongshan counties on north central coast; Haikou city suburbs. 600,000 (2000 Liang Min). 350,000 Lincheng, 170,000 Qiongshan. 100,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Bê, Limkow, Linkow, Ongbe, Ong-Be, Vo Limkou. Dialects: Lincheng (Lingao Proper-Dengmai), Qiongshan. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Lakkja. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Lipo
[lpo] Sichuan province: Renhe county; Yunnan province: Binchuan, Dayao, Lufeng, Luquan, Wuding, Yao’an, Yongren, Yongsheng, and Yuanmo counties. 250,000 (Bradley 2007b). Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Lisu. Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Only those in Dayao and Yongren counties of Western Chuxing Prefecture. Alternate Names: Central Lisu, Dayao, Eastern Lisu, Lolongo, Lolopo. Dialects: Western Lipo, Eastern Lipo. Both dialects are reportedly similar to Lisu [lis], but neither is intelligible with Lisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lisu
[lis] Sichuan province: southwest Liangshan prefecture; Yunnan province: 11 prefectures, 63 counties, upper reaches of Mekong and Salween rivers. 600,000 in China (2000 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 942,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Language of recognized nationality: Lisu. Some 7,000 members of the Nu nationality in China, and more in Myanmar, speak only Lisu. Alternate Names: Chedi, Cheli, Chung, Khae, Leisu, Leshuoopa, Lesuo, Li, Li-Hsaw, Lip’a, Lisaw, Li-Shaw, Lishu, Liso, Lissu, Loisu, Lusu, Lu-Tzu, Yao Yen, Yaw Yin, Yaw-Yen, Yeh-Jen. Dialects: Bai Lisu (White Lisu), Dechang Lisu, Hei Lisu (Black Lisu), Hua Lisu (Flowery Lisu), Lu Shi Lisu, Ninglang Lisu, Northern Lisu, Nujiang Lisu, Shibacha Lisu, Western Lisu. Much dialectal variation; some do not understand each other. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lolopo
[ycl] Yunnan province: Chuxiong, Jingdong, Lufeng, Mouding, Nanhua, Shuangbai, and Yao’an counties primarily. 380,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bai Yi, Central Yi, Gaoshanzu, Hei Yi, Lolopho, Lulupu, Luolu. Dialects: Nanhua Lolopo, Shuangbai Lolopo, Yao’an Lolopo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lolopo, Southern
[ysp] Yunnan province: Jingdong, Jinggu, Lancang, Pu’er, Simao, and Zhenyuan counties. 190,000 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lopi
[lov] Yunnan province: Mojiang, Yuanjiang, and Yuanyang counties. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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[khb] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, 3 counties: Jinghong (Chiang Hung, Chien Rung), Menghai, and Mengla; some in Simao municipal prefecture, Jiangcheng Hani and Yi Autonomous counties. 280,000 in China (2000 census). 140,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 550,960. Status: 2 (Provincial). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Some speakers of other languages use Lü as L2 for trade. Alternate Names: Dai, Dai Le, Lu, Lue, Ly, Pai’i’, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I, Sipsongpanna Dai, Tai Lu, Xishuangbanna Dai. Dialects: Jinghong. Muang Yong and dialects in northern Thailand may converge phonologically with Northern Thai [nod] (Diller and Juntanamalaga 1990). Low intelligibility with Shan [shn] and Tai Nüa [tdd]. Different from Tai Nüa [tdd], each having their own literary tradition. Lexical similarity: 95% with Northern Thai [nod], 86% with Central Thai [tha], 92%–93% with Shan [shn], 92%–95% with Khün [kkh]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Traditional Lü script is used in monastaries and reformed version used in some government functions. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Luoba, Boga’er
[adi] Xizang Autonomous Region: Lhunze and Mainling counties, south of Yaluzangjiang river, Luoyu area. 1,090 in China (1999 O. Jueya). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Lhoba (Luoba). Alternate Names: Abor, Adi, Adi-Bokar, Bengni-Boga’er, Boga’er, Bokar, Lhoba, Lho-Pa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani. Comments: Different from Loke [loy] (Loba) in Nepal. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Luoba, Yidu
[clk] Xizang Autonomous Region: Nyingchi prefecture, Chayu county, Xia Chayu (Zayu) zone, Ba’antong and Xia Chayu (Zayu) townships, in Danba river valley and adjoining mountain slopes, near Bhutan border. 80 in China (1999 Sun Hong Kai). 50 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Lhoba (Luoba). Alternate Names: Chulikata, Idu Lhoba, Idu Mishmi, Lhoba, Lho-Pa, Yidu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Digarish. Comments: Different from Loke (Loba) [loy] in Nepal. 27% attended primary school, 31% have some degree of literacy. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Mak
[mkg] Guizhou province: northwest Libo county, Di’e, Fangcun, Jialiang, and Yangfeng villages; some in Dushan county. 5,000 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Bouyei. Alternate Names: Ching, Mo, Mochiahua, Mohua, Mo-Hua, Mojiahua. Dialects: Mak, Chi, Ching (Cham), Hwa, Lyo. Dialect differences are minor. Reportedly similar to Ai-Cham [aih]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Man Met
[mml] Yunnan province: 5 communities in Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture near the Hu. 900 (1990 J-O. Svantesson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manmi, Manmit. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Reportedly similar to Hu [huo]. Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Manchu
[mnc] Beijing, Hebei, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces; Heilongjiang province: some villages in Aihui and Fuyu counties; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: small enclave northeast. 20 (Bradley 2007a). Some additional semi-speakers in 3 remote villages (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 10,700,000 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Manchu (Man). Alternate Names: Man. Dialects: Bala, Alechuxa, Jing, Lalin. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southwest. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Mang
[zng] Yunnan province: Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Jinping county, Mengla district; 4 villages: Dadui Leigongdaniu Zhai, Heping Xia Zhai, Heping Zhong Zhai, and Nanguo Xin Zhai. 500 in China. Ethnic population: 1,220 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ba’e, Chaman, Manbu, Mang U, Nieng Ó, Xá Lá Vàng, Xá Mang, Xá Ó, Xamang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Mang. Comments: Officially classified as Undetermined Nationality. Traditional religion.

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Maonan
[mmd] Guangxi province: Huanjiang Maonan autonomous county, Xianan area: Nandan, Yishan, and Yizhou; a few in Du’an and Hechi counties; Guizhou province: south central small border area. 30,000 (GXLOUS 2005), decreasing. A few thousand women and children are monolingual. Ethnic population: 107,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Maonan. Alternate Names: Ai Nan. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Daoist, Christian.

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Miao, Central Huishui
[hmc] Guizhou province: Changshun and Huishui counties, south Guiyang municipality suburbs. 40,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Central Huishui Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. 30 to 40 different Hmong (Miao) languages in China. Great linguistic differences. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Central Mashan
[hmm] Guizhou province: Luodian, Wangmo, and Ziyun counties. 70,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Central Mashan Hmong. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of other varieties of Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Chuanqiandian Cluster
[cqd] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: west; Guizhou province; Sichuan province: south; Yunnan province: southeast and northeast. 1,400,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Chuanchientien Miao, Chuanqiandian Miao, Core Farwestern Hmongic, Hua Miao, Sichuan-Guizhou-Yunnan Miao, Western Miao. Dialects: Hmong Dou, Downhill Hmong, Hongxian Miao, Red Thread Miao, Dananshan Miao, Hua Miao, Hwa Miao, Mong Hoa, Flowery Meo, Variegated Mong, Mong Leng, Mong Lenh, Hmong Len, Mong Shi, Mong Si, Hmong Shi, Light Hmong, Bai Miao, Qing Miao, Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Tak Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Ching Miao, Lu Miao, Meo Dam, Black Meo, Meo Lai, Striped Hmong, Hmong Dle Ncha, Qingshui Miao, Clear Water Hmong, Hmong La, Red Mong, Mong La Hou, Red-headed Hmong, Paddyfield Miao, Hmong Shua Bua, Sa Pa Hmong, Meo Den, Hmong Den, Hmong Dlo, Hmong Bua, Hmong Sou, Hei Miao, Black Mong, Black Hmong, Hmong Be, Mountain Hmong, Chuan Miao, River Miao, Sichuan Miao, Yaque Miao, Magpie Miao, Hmong Drout Raol, Six Village Miao, Liuzhai Miao, Luzhai Miao, Dianxi Miao, Western Yunnan Miao, White Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Consider themselves Miao nationality.

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Miao, Eastern Huishui
[hme] Guizhou province: Huishui, Luodian, and Pingba counties. 14,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Eastern Huishui Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Eastern Qiandong
[hmq] Guizhou province: Jianhe, Jinping, and Liping counties; Hunan province: Huitong, Jingzhou, and Tongdao counties. 350,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Black Miao, Central Miao, Chientung Miao, Eastern East-Guizhou Miao, Eastern Hmu, Hei Miao, Hmu. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of other Miao varieties. Corresponds more or less to Ma’s Central Miao and Purnell’s Eastern Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Eastern Xiangxi
[muq] Hunan province: Guzhang, Jishou, Longshan, and Luxi counties; some in Chongqing, Guizhou, and Hubei provinces; Guangxi Zhuang autonomous region. 80,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Eastern Ghao-Xong, Eastern Miao, Eastern West-Hunan Miao, Ghao-Xong, Hsianghsi Miao, Meo Do, Northern Miao, Red Meo, Red Miao. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of other varieties of Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Xiangxi. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Horned
[hrm] Guizhou province: Dafang, Nayong, and Zhijin counties, Anshun, Bijie, Guiyang, and Qingzhen municipalities; Yunnan province: Zhenxiong county. 50,000 (Hattaway 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: A-Hmo, Bai Miao, Changjiao Miao, Forest Miao, Hmo, Hmong Khua Shua Ndrang, Hmong Ndong, Hmong Ndou, Hmong Sou, Jiao Miao, Jiaojiao Miao, Kha-Nzi, Longhorn Miao, Qing Miao, White Miao. Dialects: None known. May have inherent intelligibility of Small Flowery Miao [sfm] (1998 M. Johnson); not inherently intelligible with other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Consider themselves Miao nationality but unique in culture and language from other Miao groups.

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Miao, Large Flowery
[hmd] Guizhou province: Hezhang, Pu’an, Shuicheng, Weining, Zhenning, and Ziyun counties, Liupanshui municipality; Sichuan province: Panzhihua municipality; Yunnan province: Zhaotong area, Daguan, Fumin, Lufeng, Luquan, Qiaojia, Suijiang, Wuding, Xundian, Yongshan, and Yiliang counties, Anning, Chuxiong, Kunming, Qujing, and Xuanwei municipalities. 300,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: A-Hmao, Big Flowery Miao, Da Hua Bei Miao, Da Hua Miao, Diandongbei Miao, Flowery Miao, Great Flowery Tribe, Hua Miao, Hwa Miao, Northeastern Dian Miao, Northeastern Yunnan Miao, Ta Hwa Miao. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miao, Luopohe
[hml] Guizhou province: Guiding, Kaiyang, Longli, and Weng’an counties, Fuquan and Kaili municipalities. 61,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Most officially classified within Miao nationality, except for Xijia group. Alternate Names: Lobohe Miao, Luobo River Miao, Luobohe Hmong, Luopohe Hmong, Xi, Xijia Miao, Ximahe Miao. Dialects: 2 dialects. Not inherently intelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Northern Guiyang
[huj] Guizhou province: Jinsha, Kaiyang, Pingba Guiding, Qianxi, Xifeng, and Xiuwen counties, west Guiyang municipality suburbs. 84,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Northern Guiyang Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Northern Huishui
[hmi] Guizhou province: Guiding, Huishui, and Longli counties, Gaopo district, Guiyang municipality. 70,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Northern Huishui Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Northern Mashan
[hmp] Guizhou province: Changshun, Huishui, and Luodian counties. 35,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Northern Mashan Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Northern Qiandong
[hea] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Longlin county; Guizhou province: Anlong, Danzhai, Fuquan, Guanling, Huangping, Jianhe, Leishan, Majiang, Pingba, Sansui, Shibing, Taijiang, Xingren, Zhenfeng, Zhenning, Zhenyuan, and Ziyun counties, Kaili and Qingzhen municipalities. 1,250,000 (Wang and Mao 1995), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Black Miao, Central Miao, Chientung Miao, East Guizhou Miao, Gha Ne, Gha Ne Dlai, Heh Miao, Hei Miao, Hmu, Northern East Guizhou Miao, Northern Hmu. Dialects: Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. Corresponds more or less to Ma’s Central Miao and Purnell’s Eastern Miao. At least 4 dialects (vernaculars). The official standard variety of Qiandong Miao is based on Yanghao, but with some similarities to other varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Small Flowery
[sfm] Guizhou province: Guanling, Hezhang, Nayong, Shuicheng, and Zhenning counties. 84,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Atse, Ghab-Mvb Ghab-Svd, Gha-Mu, Ghuab-Hmongb Ghuab-Soud, Hsiao Hwa Miao, Xiao Hua Miao. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties (Hattaway 2000). A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miao, Southern Guiyang
[hmy] Guizhou province: Changshun, Zhenning, and Ziyun counties, Anshun municipality. 28,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Southern Guiyang Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Southern Mashan
[hma] Guizhou province: Wangmo county. 10,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Southern Mashan Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Southern Qiandong
[hms] Guangxi province: Rongshui and Sanjiang counties; Guizhou province: Danzhai, Libo, Rongjiang Congjiang, and Sandu counties. 500,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). All Miao in China: 8,950,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Black Miao, Central Miao, Chientung Miao, Hei Miao, Hmu, Southern East-Guizhou Miao, Southern Hmu. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. Corresponds more or less to Ma’s Central Miao and Purnell’s Eastern Miao. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Qiandong. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miao, Southwestern Guiyang
[hmg] Guizhou province: Changshun and Pingba counties, suburbs of Guiyang, Anshun and Qingzhen municipalities. 70,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Southwestern Guiyang Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Southwestern Huishui
[hmh] Guizhou province: Changshun, Huishui, and Sandu counties. 56,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Miao, Southwestern Huishui Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Western Mashan
[hmw] Guizhou province: Wangmo and Ziyun counties. 14,000 (Wang and Mao 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Western Mashan Hmong. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miao, Western Xiangxi
[mmr] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Nandan county, Hechi municipality; Guizhou province: Songtao county, southeast Chongqing and Tongren municipalities, Xiushan and Youyang counties; Hubei province: Xuan’en county; Hunan province: Baojing, Fenghuang, Guzhang, Huadan, Jishou, Longshan, and Xinhuang Mayang counties. 820,000 (Wang and Mao 1995), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Eastern Miao, Ghao-Xong, Hsianghsi Miao, Huayuan Miao, Meo Do, Northern Miao, Red Meo, Red Miao, West Hunan Miao, Western Ghao-Xong, Western West-Hunan Miao. Dialects: None known. Inherently unintelligible of other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Xiangxi. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mili
[ymh] Yunnan province: Jingdong, Xinping, Yunxian, and Zhenyuan counties. 23,000 (2002). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Miqie
[yiq] Yunnan province: Chuxiong Yi Autonomous Prefecture, Wuding county, Chadian, Jincheng, and Jiuchang districts; Dayao, north Fumin, Jingdong, Jinggu, north Lufeng, south Luquan, Nanhua, Yao’an, Yimen, Yongren, and Zhenyuan counties. 30,000 (Bradley 2007b), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Micha, Mielang, Minqi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Moji
[ymi] Yunnan province: possibly east Fumin county, south and southwest Wenshan county, west Xichou county, Luchaichong village. 2,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Flathead Phulai, Muji, Phula, Phulawa, Pingtou Phula. Dialects: Luchaichong. Moji patterns with the Proto-Muji subgroup phylogenetically, but Luchaichong dialect (the most vital dialect) heavily influenced by contact with Khlula [ykl] and Zokhuo [yzk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Monba, Cuona
[twm] Xizang Autonomous Region: Shannan prefecture, Cuona county, Lebu district; Linzhi prefecture, Motuo county, Dexing district, Wenlang village. 1,300 in China (2000 census). 600 Southern Cuona, 700 Northern Cuona. Less than half monolingual: Young children, older people, some young adults. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Menba. Alternate Names: Buruomiba, Cona Monba, Cuona Menba, Cuona Monpa, Dakpa, Dwags, Menba, Menpa, Moinba, Momba, Mompa, Monba, Monpa, Pramipa, Takpa, Tawan Monba. Dialects: Northern Cuona, Southern Cuona. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish. Comments: Cuona Monba [twm] differs from Tshangla in phonology, vocabulary, and grammar, and is not mutually intelligible. Shares many Tibetan language characteristics. Is the same as, or closely related to, Bumthangkha of Bhutan. May also be classified as North Assam, Monpa. Buddhist.

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Mongolian, Peripheral
[mvf] Nei Mongol Autonomous Region; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; Gansu, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning provinces, and Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, Urumchi to Hailar. 3,380,000 in China (1982). Population includes 299,000 Chakhar, 317,000 Bairin, 1,347,000 Khorchin (Horchin), 593,00 Kharchin (Harchin), 123,000 Ordos, 34,000 Ejine. 2,500,000 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Inner Mongolian, Menggu, Monggol, Mongol, Southern-Eastern Mongolian. Dialects: Chahar (Chaha’er, Chakhar, Qahar), Ordos (E’erduos), Tumut (Tumet), Shilingol, Ulanchab (Mingan, Urat), Jo-Uda (Bairin, Balin, Keshikten, Naiman), Jostu (Eastern Tumut, Ke’erqin, Kharachin, Kharchin, Kharchin-Tumut), Jirim (Gorlos, Jalait, Kalaqin, Khorchin), Ejine, Ujumchin. Largely intelligible of Halh Mongolian [khk], but there are phonological and important loanword differences. A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper. Comments: Includes China Buriat [bxu], Tuva [tyv], Kalmyk-Oirat [xal], and speakers of other varieties. In Xinjiang, Torgut, Oold, Korbet, and Hoshut peoples are known as the Four tribes of Oirat. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Muda
[ymd] Yunnan province: Jinghong county, Nanpianshan district. 2,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Muji, Northern
[ymx] Yunnan province: south Mengzi county, Lengquan, Qilubai, and Shuitian townships; west Pingbian county, Xinxian township. 9,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bokha, Hlaka Mujima, Phula. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Southern Muji [ymc]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Muji, Qila
[ymq] Yunnan province: south Jinping county. 2 isolated villages. 1,500 (2008), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Doka, Mujitsu, Phutsu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Muji, Southern
[ymc] Yunnan province: southeast Gejiu county, north, southwest, and east Jinping county, south Mengzi county. 26,000 (Pelkey 2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 28,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Aga, Khlaka, Lahi, Muzi, Phula, Tjeki, Tshebu, Tshibu. Dialects: Dazhai, Ma’andi, Tongchang, Yingpan, Jinhe, Gamadi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mulam
[mlm] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Hechi prefecture, Luocheng Mulao autonomous county (90% in Dongmen and Siba communes); Yizhou county. 86,000 (2005 GXLOUS). Fewer than 10,000 monolinguals (including women and preschool children). Ethnic population: 210,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Mulam. Alternate Names: Abo, Kyam, Molao, Mulao, Mulao Miao, Muliao, Mulou. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Dong (probably Southern Dong [kmc]). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: They live near the Han, Dong [doc], Hmong Njua [hnj], and Iu Mien [ium]. They call themselves Mulam. Some around Luocheng call themselves Kyam. Different from the nearly extinct Western Kra Tai-Kadai language also called Mulao [giu], previously spoken by Gelao nationality people in Guizhou. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Mulao
[giu] Guizhou province: Majiang county, Longli. A few elderly speakers. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Ayo. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra. Comments: Mulao do not understand other Gelao languages. Not to be confused with Mulam [mlm].

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Muya
[mvm] Sichuan province: Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Simian (Shimian) county, Ya’an district; Jiulong (Gyaisi) and Kangbo (Kangding). 10,000 (Bradley 2007a), decreasing. 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Boba, Manyak, Menya, Minyag, Minyak, Miyao, Munya. Dialects: Eastern Muya, Western Muya. Dialects reportedly not mutually inherently intelligible. Loanwords from Tibetan and Chinese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic. Comments: Consider themselves Tibetan. Proper Tibetan Wylie spelling: Minyag. Buddhist.

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Muzi
[ymz] Yunnan province: south and east Gejiu county; west Mengzi county, scattered villages. 10,000 (2008). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Mogeha, Muji. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Notthern Muji [ymx]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Naluo
[ylo] Sichuan province: western Panzhihua city; Yunnan province: southern Huaping and eastern Yongsheng counties. 15,000 (Bradley 2007a). Mostly in Yunnan, with about 2,000 in Pingjiang and Futian townships of Panzhihua (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Aluo Naluo, Gan Yi, Laluo, Naruo, Shui Yi, Shuitian. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Namuyi
[nmy] Sichuan Province, Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Mianning, Muli, Xichang, and Yanyuan counties; southwest Sichuan, Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Jiulong (Gyaisi) county. 5,000 (Bradley 2007a). 200 monolinguals. Mainly older adults. Ethnic population: 5,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Naimuci, Naimuzi, Namuzi. Dialects: Eastern Namuyi, Western Namuyi. Low intelligibility between dialects, with lexical and phonological differences. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Naic. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Nanai
[gld] Northeast corner of Heilongjiang Province, near merge of Heilong, Songhua, and Wusuli rivers, Tongjiang county, Bacha and Jiejinkou villages; Raohe county, Sipai village. 40 in China (Salminen 2007). About half speak Sungari dialect, half speak Nanai proper (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 4,640 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Hezhe. Alternate Names: Gold, Goldi, Hezhe, Hezhen, Juchen, Nanay, Sushen. Dialects: Qileng (Kilen, Kili, Kirin, Qile’en), Sungari. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southeast, Nanaj. Comments: Non-indigenous. Formerly called Sushen. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Narua
[nru] Sichuan and Yunnan provinces border area near Lugu lake, Ninglang Yi autonomous county, Muli Tibetan autonomous county and Yanuyuan county. 47,000 (2010 SIL). Ethnic population: 47,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Sichuan Province speakers assigned to the Mongolian nationality. Language of recognized nationality: Naxi. Yunnan Province speakers officially classified within Naxi nationality. Alternate Names: Eastern Naxi, Meng yu, Moso, Mosso, Mosuo, Musuo yu, Na, Naru, Nazu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–60% with Naxi [nxq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Naic. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Nasu, Wumeng
[ywu] West Guizhou and east Yunnan provinces, Weining, Shuicheng, Hezhang, Nayong, Xuanwei, Huize, and Yiliang counties; Northwest Yunnan Province, Zhaotong, Yongshan, Daguan, and Ludian counties. 150,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Nesu, Wumeng Yi, Wusa Yi, Yuan-Mo Yi. Dialects: Weining Yi, Hezhang Yi, Hen-Ke Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nasu, Wusa
[yig] Yunnan Province, Chuxiong autonomous prefecture and Kumming city, and scattered areas to east; Guizhou Province, Weining Yi-Hui-Miao and Dafang autonomous counties, Hezhang and Pan counties; west Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 500,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Eastern Yi. Dialects: Qian Xi, Bijie, Dafang. Reported low intelligibility between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern.

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Naxi
[nxq] Northwest Yunnan Province, a majority (over 200,000) in Yulong (formerly Lijiang) Naxi autonomous county. Some scattered through Weixi, Zhongdian, Ninglang, Deqing, Yongsheng, Heqing, Jianchuan, and Lanping counties. Some in Sichuan Province, Yanyuan, Yanbian, and Muli counties. A few in Tibet Autonomous Region, Mangkang county. 300,000 (2000 census). 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 300,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Naxi. Official ethnic language of the Narua nationality. Alternate Names: Lomi, “Moso” (pej.), “Mosso” (pej.), “Mo-Su” (pej.), Mu, Nahsi, Nakhi, Naqxi, Nasi. Dialects: Lapao, Lijiang, Ludian. Reportedly similar to Narua [nru]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Naic. Comments: Official ethnic language of the Narua nationality. Buddhist, Confucianist, Daoist.

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Nisi
[yso] Southeast Yunnan Province, Wenshan, Yanshan, Maguan, Funing, Xichou, Malipo, and Honghe counties. 36,000 (2002), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Lolo, Southeastern Lolo Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Probably similar to the language spoken by Lolo nationality in Viet Nam.

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Nisu, Eastern
[nos] Yunnan Province, Jianshui, Tonghai, Gejiu, Kaiyuan, Mengzi, Pingbian, and Hekou counties. 75,000 (2004), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Nisu, Nisupho, Shiping-Jianshui Nisu, Shiping-Jianshui Yi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nisu, Northern
[yiv] Yunnan povince: Chengjiang, Ehan, Jiangchuan, Jinning, north Shiping, Shuangbai, Xinping, north Yuanjiang, Yimen, and Yuxi counties. 160,000, decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: E-Xin Yi, Nasupho, Nisupho. Dialects: Nasu, Nisu. Nasu dialect is distinct from the Nasu language continuum located further north. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Nisu, Northwestern
[nsf] Yunnan province: Dali Bai autonomous prefecture, Yangbi county, Fuheng district; Yongping county, Beidou Yi district; Yunlong county, Tuanjie Yi district. 24,000 (2004 SIL). 7,000 in Yunlong, 7,000 in Yangbi, 8,000 in Yongping districts (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Nisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Nisu, Southern
[nsd] Yunnan province: Honghe, Jinping, east Lüchun, south Shiping, southeast Yuanjiang, and Yuanyang counties. 210,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Nisupho, Yuan-Mo Yi. Dialects: Yuanyang Nisu, Mojiang Nisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nisu, Southwestern
[nsv] Yunnan province: Jiangcheng, west Lüchun, Mojiang, Pu’er, and Simao counties. 15,000 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Dialects: Yuanyang Nisu, Mojiang Nisu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Nuosu
[iii] Sichuan and Yunnan provinces: over 40 counties mainly in Greater and Lesser Liangshan mountains. 2,000,000 (2000 census), increasing. 1,200,000 monolinguals (Jiafa 1994). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Yi, Liangshan Yi, Northern Yi, Nosu Yi, Sichuan Yi. Dialects: Northern Shypnra, Southern Shypnra, Yynuo, Suondi (Adu). Chinese linguists recognize 3 primary dialects: Shengzha (standard), Northern (Lindimu-Yinuo), and Southern (Adur-Suondi) (Bradley 2007b). Some dialects, such as Lindimu, are likely distinct languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern. Comments: When applied to the Nuosu, terms Black Yi (Hei Yi) and White Yi (Bai Yi) refer to caste distinctions rather than to ethnic or linguistic distinctions. However, the same terms often do refer to ethnic and linguistic distinctions when applied to Yi groups in Yunnan. Also, some outsiders refer to Nuosu as Black Yi. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nusu
[nuf] Yunnan province: Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture, southern Fugong county, Pihe town area. Kongtong, Wawa, and Youduoluo villages (Northern Nusu); Guoke, Jiajiu, Puluo, and Tuoping (Tongping) villages (Southern Nusu); Laomudeng, Miangu, Shawa, Zhiziluo, and Zileng villages (Central Nusu). 12,000 in China (Bradley 2007b). 2,000 Northern Nusu; 4,000 Southern; 6,000 Central. 1,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 12,670. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Nu. Dialects: Other dialect speakers comprehend the prestige dialect Miangu (Central Nusu, Miangu, Laomudeng) fairly well. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: With Ayi, Anong, 1,500 Zauzou, and 5,500 Drung. Traditional religion.

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Oroqen
[orh] Heilongjiang province: Da Hinggan Ling prefecture, Huma and Tahe counties; Heihe prefecture, Xunke county; Yichun prefecture, Jiayin county, Heihe city; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: Hulun Buir league, Butha and Oroqen banners. 1,200 (Li and Whaley 2009). 30% of ethnic group (Salminen 2007). Only 12 fluent speakers in 1990, all over 65 yrs (Li and Whaley 2009). 800 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,200 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Oroqen. Alternate Names: Elunchun, Olunchun, Orochen, Orochon, Oronchon, Ulunchun. Dialects: Kumarchen, Orochen, Selpechen, Birarchen. Gankui in Inner Mongolia is the standard dialect. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Evenki. Comments: Maintain native language and customs. Came to China from the Russian Federation. Traditional religion.

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Pa Di
[pdi] Yunnan province: Honghe Hani and Yi prefectures, Hekou and Jinping counties. 1,000 in China. Total users in all countries: 1,300. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Padi. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: In China probably Dai nationality. Traditional religion.

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Pa-Hng
[pha] Yunnan province: Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefecture. 26,800 in China (McConnell 1995). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 50,000 (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 33,610. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Baheng, Bahengmai, Man Pa Seng, Meo Lai, Pa Hng, Pa Ngng, Pa Then, Paheng, Tóng. Dialects: Northern Pa-Hng, Southern Pa-Hng. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Pa-hng. Comments: Official ethnic community in Viet Nam, although the variety spoken there may be a distinct language. Daoist.

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Palaung, Ruching
[pce] Yunnan province: Dehong prefecture, Luxi county, east of Rumai. 9,000 in China (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: De’ang. Alternate Names: Bulai, Bulei, Da’ang, Dlang, Ngwe Palaung, Palay, Pale, Pale Palaung, Pulei, Silver Palaung, Southern Ta’ang. Dialects: Bulei, Raojin, Da’ang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Non-indigenous. Total De’ang nationality in China (17,935, 2000 census). Buddhist.

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Palaung, Rumai
[rbb] Yunnan province: Dehong prefecture, Longchuan and Ruili counties, on Myanmar border. 3,600 in China (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: De’ang. Alternate Names: Humai, Rumai, Ta’ang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Total De’ang nationality in China (17,935, 2000 census).

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Palaung, Shwe
[pll] Yunnan province: Baoshan prefecture, Longyang county; Lincang prefecture, Zhenkang county. 2,000 in China (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: De’ang. Alternate Names: Golden Palaung, Liang Palaung, Shwe. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Palaung. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist.

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Pela
[bxd] Yunnan province: Dehong prefecture, Luxi county, Santaishan township; Lianghe and Yingjiang counties. 400 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2001 J. Edmondson). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Bela, Bola, Bula, Pala, Polo. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Zaiwa [atb]. Considered by some a Zaiwa dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Live among the Jingpo majority and wear Jingpo clothing. They regard themselves as different from Zaiwa and Jingpo and have different traditions. Traditional religion.

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Phala
[ypa] Yunnan province: Honghe and Shiping counties, both banks of Yuanjiang (Honghe) river; Jianshui and Yuanyang counties, a few isolated villages downriver. 12,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 13,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Phula, Bola, Hei Phula, Khapho, Phula, Phulepho. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Phola [ypg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phola
[ypg] Yunnan province: Honghe, Shiping, and Yuanjiang counties, along confluence of Yuanjiang (Honghe) and Xiaohedi rivers. 13,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 13,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bola, Flowery Phula, Hua Phula, Phula, Phulepho, Tsha Phula. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Phala [ypa]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phola, Alo
[ypo] Yunnan province: Yuanjiang county, Tuguozhai village. 500 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bola, Pula. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Phola [ypg], but reportedly unintelligible due to contact with a Tai-Kadai variety. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Pholo
[yip] Yunnan province: west Guangnan, northeast Malipo, southeast Qiubei, northeast and east Yanshan counties. 30,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 34,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Phula, Flowery Phula, Phu, Phula. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Affiliated with the Phula ethnic group historically but not phylogenetically; Ngwi isolate. Traditional religion.

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Phowa, Ani
[ypn] Yunnan province: south Kaiyuan county, Yangjie district; north central Mengzi county, Xibeile district. 10,000 (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Anipho, Flowery Phu, Hua Phu, Laotshipu, Pho, Phula. Dialects: Daheineng, Xibeile, Dayongsheng. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phowa, Hlepho
[yhl] Yunnan province: Kaiyuan county, east Beige township; north Mengzi, north Pingbian, west Weshan counties; Yanshan county, southeast Ashe township. 36,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Abo, Boren, Bozi, Conehead Phula, Cowtail Phula, Daizhanpho, Digaopho, Flowery Phula, Hua Phula, Jiantou Phula, Minjia, Niuweiba Phula, Paola, Pho, Phula, Sandaohong Phula, Shaoji Phula, Sifter Basket Phula, Thrice Striped Red Phula, Xiuba. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phowa, Labo
[ypb] Yunnan province: central, north-central and southeast Kaiyuan county, west Beige township; Laozhai, Lebaidao, Mazheshao, Yanggai, and Zhongheying townships. 17,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 21,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Asaheipho, Asahopho, Ekhepho, Labopho, Pho, Phula, White Phu, Zemapho. Dialects: None known. Transitional with Hlepho Phowa [yhl]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phukha
[phh] Yunnan province: southeast Maguan and southwest Malipo counties. 5,000 in China (Pelkey 2011). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Fu Khla, Phu Khla, Phù Lá, Phù Lá Hán. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Also classified as Phula nationality in Viet Nam.

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Phuma
[ypm] Yunnan province: east central Pingbian county, Baihe township; Baiyun and Wantang townships. 8,000 (Pelkey 2011), increasing. Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Muji, Hei Muji, Muji, Paotlo, Phula, Phuli, Shaoji Phula, Sifter Basket Phula. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Phupa
[ypp] Yunnan province: southwest Mengzi county, southeast Lengquan and southeast Shuitian townships on southeast Gejiu panhandle. 3,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Hlagho, Laghï, Lala, Lamu, La’ou, Lapa, Larhwo, Muzi, Phula, Phupha, Tshebu. Dialects: Gamadi, Nuogumi, Jiangnanbo, Xiao Fengkou, Da Fengkou, Baiwushan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Phupha
[yph] Yunnan province: southwest Gejiu county, 4 villages; Yuangyang county, 1 village across Honghe river. 1,300 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Phula, Phupho, Tsapho. Dialects: None known. Closely related to, but not intelligible of, Alugu [aub]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Phuza
[ypz] Yunnan province: southeast Gejiu county, southeast Kafang township; southwest Mengzi county, west Lengquan township. 6,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Hei Phu, Phu’a, Phujitsu, Phula. Dialects: Bujibai, Dabaqi. Not intelligible of Phupa [ypp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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Pumi, Northern
[pmi] Sichuan province: Jiulong, Muli, and Yanyuan counties; Yunnan province: Ninglang county, Yongning district. 35,000 (1999). 5,000 in Pumi nationality, 30,000 in Tibetan nationality (1994). 10,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Ch’rame, Pimi, P’ömi, Primmi, P’rome, Pruumi, P’umi. Dialects: Taoba. 4 other dialects. Intelligibility of Southern Pumi [pmj] is low. Lexical similarity: between Northern Pumi and Southern Pumi [pmj] is 60%, grammatical differences minor. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Pumi, Southern
[pmj] Yunnan province: Lanping, Lijiand, Weixi, and Yongsheng counties; Ninglang county, Xinyingpan district; Sichuan province: Garze Autonomous Prefecture. 19,000 (1999). 6,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 28,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Pumi. Alternate Names: Pimi, P’ömi, Primmi, P’rome, Pruumi, P’umi. Dialects: Qinghua. 4 other dialects. Intelligibility of Northern Pumi [pmi] is difficult. Lexical similarity: 60% between Northern Pumi [pmi] and Southern Pumi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic. Comments: Buddhist.

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Qabiao
[laq] Yunnan province: Malipo county, Wenshan Zhuang and Miao autonomous prefectures, Donggan township, Makun, Matong, Pucha, and Punong on Viet Nam border; Babu district, Longlong; Liuhe district, Meitang and Xinfa; Longlin; Tiechang district, Pufeng. 18 in China (2002 Li Yunbing), decreasing. A few fluent elderly speakers in 2001 (Li 2006). Ethnic population: 400 (Li 2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bendi Lolo, Ka Bao, Ka Beo, Ka Biao, Kabeo, Laqua, Man La Qua, Phubyau, Pu Beo, Pu Péo, Pubiao, Pupeo, Qa Biao, Qa Qiau, Qabiau, Qaqiau. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra. Comments: Intermarriage with Han, Zhuang, Miao and Dai nationality peoples is common.

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Qau
[gqu] Guizhou province: Anshun county, Mosu and Wanzi; Langdai county, Longxia; Pingba county, Dagoufang; Puding county, Wozi; Shuicheng county, Dongkou; Zhijin county, Niudong. 2,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: Gelao. Alternate Names: Aqao, Gao, Klau55. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Western Kra.

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Qiang, Northern
[cng] Sichuan province: Beichuan, Heishui, Mao, and Songpan counties. 57,800 (1999), decreasing. 14,000 Mawo, 14,000 Weigu, 11,000 Luhua, 8,000 Cimulin, and 9,000 Yadu. 130,000 total for Northern and Southern Qiang languages, including 80,000 as Qiang nationality and 50,000 as Tibetan nationality (1990 J-O. Svantesson). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 306,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Qiang. Alternate Names: Ch’iang. Dialects: Mawo, Yadu, Weigu, Cimulin, Luhua. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic. Comments: Buddhist, Daoist, traditional religion.

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Qiang, Southern
[qxs] Sichuan province: Li and Wenchuan counties; south Mao county. 81,300 (1999 J. Evans), decreasing. 8,300 Daqishan, 4,100 Taoping, 3,100 Longxi, 14,500 Mianchi, 31,000 Hehu. Around 130,000 total for Northern and Southern Qiang. 80,000 officially classified within Qiang nationality and speakers 50,000 within Tibetan nationality (1990 J-O. Svantesson). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 306,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Qiang. Alternate Names: Ch’iang, Rrmea. Dialects: Dajishan (Daqishan), Taoping, Longxi, Mianchi, Heihu, Sanlong, Jiaochang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic. Comments: Buddhist, Daoist, traditional religion.

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Queyu
[qvy] Sichuan province: Garzê Autonomous Prefecture: Xinlong (Nyagrong) and Yajiang (Nyagquka) Litang counties. 7,000 (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Choyo, Zhaba. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Zhaba [zhb]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic. Comments: Different from Zhaba language in Zhamai District. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Riang Lang
[ril] Yunnan province: Baoshan prefecture, Longyang county; Lincang prefecture, Zhenkang county. 3,000 in China (1995). Ethnic population: 17,900 (2000 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: De’ang. Alternate Names: Riang. Dialects: De’ang, Liang, Liang Palaung, Na’ang, Xiaoan’gou, Xiaochanggou, Yang Sek, Yang Wan Kun, Yanglam, Yin. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Western Palaungic, Riang. Comments: Non-indigenous. Along with Palaung speakers. Traditional religion.

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Russian
[rus] Heilongjiang province: Heihe; Nei Mongol Autonomous Region: E’erguna Enhe Russian autonomous district, Hulunbeier banner; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Changji, Karamay (Kelamayi), Tacheng, and Urumqi; Yili prefecture, Yi’ning. 2,940 in China (Shearer and Sun 2002). Ethnic population: 15,600 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality: Russian. Alternate Names: Eluosi, Olossu, Russ, Russki. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Salar
[slr] Gansu province: Jishishan autonomous county; Qinghai province: Hualong Hui and Xunhua Salar autonomous counties; Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Yili, Kazakh autonomous prefecture. 70,000 (2002), increasing. Less than 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 131,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Salar. Alternate Names: Sala. Dialects: Eastern Salar (Gaizi, Gandu, Jishishan, Mengda), Western Salar (Ili). Salar is spoken by descendants of Oghuz Turks from the Samarkand region. Has an Oghuz (SW) Turkic base, and took on Eastern and S.Siberian Turkic features through Central Asian contacts, and finally acquired a stratum of features from Chinese and Tibetan (Dwyer 1998). Gaizi (Jiezi) often seen as standard variety. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Samatao
[ysd] Yunnan province: Guandu district, Kunming municipality, Zijun; elderly speakers in Yongde and Zhenkang. 400 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,810 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Samadu, Samaduo, Samou. Dialects: None known. Similar to Samei [smh] and Sanie [ysy], but not mutually intelligible (Bradley 2007a). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern.

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Samei
[smh] Yunnan province: Guandu district, Ala and surrounding communities, Kunming, 47 villages; west Yiliang County, 7 villages. 20,000 (Bradley 2007b). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 28,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Sani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Samtao
[stu] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna prefecture. 100 in China (1993). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Alternate Names: Samtau, Samtuan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Non-indigenous. No recent evidence that this language is still spoken in China. May be officially classified within Blang nationality or Undetermined nationality. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Sangkong
[sgk] Yunnan province: Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Jinghong county, Menglong (1 village) and Xiaojie (3 villages) districts. 1,500 (1995 D. Bradley), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hani. Alternate Names: Buxia. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bisu [bzi] and Phunoi [pho]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Sani
[ysn] Yunnan province: Luxi, Mile, Qiubei, Shilin, and Yilang counties. 100,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Gni Ni. Dialects: Northern Sani, Southern Sani. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: The Samei, an Eastern Yi group east of Kunming in the Guandu region, call themselves Sani, but are not part of the Sani in Shilin. Tones differ on the 2 names, sa21 ni53 versus sa21 ni21. An Eastern Yi group with a similar name call themselves Sanie, immediately west of Kunming in Xishan region and in Anning and Fumin counties. For the Samei, Sani is their autonym. For the Sani in Shilin, Sani is an exonym. The Sani of Shilin call themselves ni21, but outsiders know them by the Chinese name Sani. Traditional religion.

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Sanie
[ysy] Yunnan province: north Anning county, Kunming municipality, Xishan district; southwest Fumin county. 8,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 17,200 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Bai Lolo, Bai Yi, Sa’nguie, Sanyie, Shanie, Shaniepu, White Yi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Samatao [ysd]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern.

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Sarikoli
[srh] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Taxkorgan (Tashkurghan) area, Sarikol valley. 16,000 (2000 G. Erqing). Ethnic population: 20,400 (2000 G. Erqing). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tajik. Alternate Names: Saliku’er, Salikur, Sarikuli, Sariqul, Sarykoly, Tadzik, Tajik, Tajiki. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Shughni [sgh] of Tajikistan and Afghanistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir, Shugni-Yazgulami. Comments: Different from Tajiki [tgk] of Tajikistan, Afghanistan, and Iran. The label Tajik is used in different ways in different countries. Muslim.

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Shan
[shn] Yunnan province: Myanmar border area, 1 village. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Dehong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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She
[shx] Guangdong province: Boluo, Haifeng, Huidong, and Zengcheng counties. More than 10 villages. 910 (1999 Mao Zongwu). 580 Luofu, 390 Lianhua (McConnell 1995). 200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 710,000 (2000 census). 375,000 (Fujian Province), 171,000 (Zhejiang Province), 78,000 (Jiangxi Province), 45,000 (Guizhou Province), 28,000 (Guangdong). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized nationality: She. Alternate Names: Ho Nte, Huo Nte. Dialects: Luofu (Eastern She), Lianhua (Western She). Major linguistic differences with Iu Mien [ium]. Reportedly most similar to Jiongnai Bunu [pnu]. Dialects inherently intelligible. Classification within Hmong-Mien is in dispute (McConnell 1995:1320). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Ho Nte. Comments: Shehua refers to Hakka [hak] variety spoken by the She. Daoist.

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Sherpa
[xsr] Xizang Autonomous Region. 800 in China (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Serwa, Sharpa, Sharpa Bhotia, Sherwi tamnye, Xiaerba. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Buddhist.

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Shixing
[sxg] Sichuan province: Liangshan Yi autonomous prefecture, Muli Tibetan autonomous county, Shuiluo township. 1,800 (2000 D. Bradley). 1,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Xumi. Dialects: Restricted mutual intelligibility between the Upper and the Lower Reaches dialects; salient phonological, lexical and grammatical differences between the two varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Naic. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Sinicized Miao
[hmz] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, Longlin county; Guizhou province: Dafang, Guanling, Nayong, Pu’an, Puding, Qianxi, Qinglong, Shuicheng, Xingren, Zhenning, Zhijin, and Ziyun counties, Anshun municipality; Yunnan province: Funing, Guangnan, and Jinping counties, Gejiu municipality. 250,000 in China (Hattaway 2000). Total users in all countries: 252,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Miao. Alternate Names: Biantou Miao, Changshu Miao, Curved Comb Miao, Flat Head Miao, Han Miao, Hmong Nzi, Hmong Sa, Hmong Shua, Hmong Sua, Long Comb Miao, Lopsided Comb Miao, Mushu Maio, Shuixi Miao, Waishu Miao, Water Miao, West of the Water Miao, Wooden Comb Miao. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with other Miao varieties. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sonaga
[ysg] Yunnan province: Heqing county, Liuhe township. 2,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Suoneiga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kuamasi [yku] and Kua-nsi [ykn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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sTodsde
[jih] Sichuan province: south Rangthang county, Shangzhai district, Puxi, Shili, and Zongke townships; Duke and Zhongke rivers’ confluence. 4,100 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Shangzhai, Western Jiarong. Dialects: Dayili, Zongke, Puxi. Phonologically Western and Northern are fairly similar and differ greatly from Eastern. Lexical similarity: 75% between Eastern and Northern Jiarong, 60% between Western and Northern Jiarong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, rGyalrongic. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Sui
[swi] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Nandan, and Rongshui counties; Guizhou province: Congjiang, Danzhai, Dushan, Duyun, Leishan, Libo, and Rongjiang counties, centered in Sandu; Yunnan province: Fuyuan county. 300,000 in China (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 407,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 300,120. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Shui. Alternate Names: Ai Sui, Shui, Sui Li, Suipo. Dialects: Sandong (Central Sui, Southern Sui), Pandong, Yang’an. Some communication difficulty between dialects. Sandong (Central) is the standard and most intelligible in the area (Castro 2011). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Dam
[blt] Yunnan province: Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Dai, Jinping Miao, and Yao autonomous counties. 10,000 in China (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Black Tai, Hei Dai, Jinping Dai, Tailam, Tailon. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Tai Dón
[twh] Yunnan province: Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Dai, Jinping Miao, and Yao autonomous counties. 15,000 in China (2000 census). Population figure 90% of Dai nationality in Jinping County in 2000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Bai Dai, Tai Jinping, White Tai. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Tai Hongjin
[tiz] Yunnan province: Chuxiong Yi autonomous prefecture, Dayao, Wuding, and Yongren counties, Kunming prefecture, Miao and Luquan Yi autonomous counties (Yongwu dialect); Miao and Wenshan Zhuang autonomous prefectures, Maguan county (Maguan dialect); Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Honghe and Yuanyang counties, and Yuxi prefecture, Dai, Yi, and Yuanjiang Hani autonomous counties (Yuanjiang dialect); Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Jianshui Lüchun, and Shiping counties (Lüshi dialect). 85,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Dialects: Yongwu, Maguan, Yuanjiang (Shui Dai), Lüshi. Dialects are significantly different and probably not all mutually intelligible. Tai Hongjin is a subgroup of scattered non-Buddhist Southwestern Tai language groups, who have some common phonological traits, but many differences as well. Tai Hongjin dialects have undergone more influence from Chinese and surrounding Ngwi languages (Yi and Hani) than other Yunnan Tai languages, and are only 50%–60% lexically similar to other Tai languages. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] Sichuan province: Liangshan autonomous prefecture; Yunnan province: Dehong Dai and Jingpo autonomous prefectures, Baoshan, Lincang, and Simao municipal prefectures. 540,000 in China (Zhou and Luo 2001). Ethnic population: 610,000 (Zhou and Luo 2001). Includes Tai Lü, Tai Hongjin, Tai Ya, Tai Dam and Tai Dón. Total users in all countries: 717,400. Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Chinese Shan, Chinese Tai, Dai Kong, Dai Na, Dai Nuea, Daide, Dehong, Dehong Dai, Shan, Tai Dehong, Tai Le, Tai Mao, Tai Neua, Tai nö, Tai Nü, Tai Nue, Tai taü, Tai-Kong, Tai-Le, Yunannese Shan, Yunnan Shant’ou. Dialects: Mangshi (Debao, Dehong, Taile), Menggeng (Taita), Tai Pong (Ka, La, Sai, Tai Ka, Ya, You), Yongren. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Northern Shan-like varieties in China are referred to collectively as Tai Na, or Dehong Dai in Chinese. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Tai Ya
[cuu] Yunnan province: Honghe Hani and Yi autonomous prefectures, Honghe and Yuanyang counties; Yuxi prefecture, Xinping Yi-Dai autonomous county, Mosha district; Dai, Yi, and Yuanjiang Hani autonomous counties. 50,000 in China (2000 census). Ethnic population: 50,000 (2000 census). Based on county level Dai populations. Total users in all countries: 50,400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Dai. Alternate Names: Cung, Daiya, Huayao Dai, Multi-colored Waistband Tai, Tai Cung, Tai-Chung, Tai-Cung, Ya, Yuanxin Hongjin Dai. Dialects: Tai Ya, Tai Sai (Dai Sai), Tai Kha (Dai Ka), Tai Chung (Cung, Dai Zhong). Dialects mutually intelligible, though speakers of the latter 3 may understand Tai Ya dialect (the largest) more easily than speakers of Tai Ya understand the other 3 dialects. Some linguists have analyzed Tai Ya as most similar to Tai Nüa [tdd], others have grouped Tai Ya with other non-Buddhist Southwestern Tai groups. Tai Ya is probably not easily intelligible with other varieties of Tai. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Called Daiya or Huayao Dai (Multi-colored Waistband Dai) in China. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Talu
[yta] Yunnan province: Huaping county, Tongda township; Ninglang county, Ninglangping townhip; Yongsheng county, mainly 4 villages of Liude township. 13,600 (2007), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Tagu, Taliu, Tazhi. Dialects: None known. Similar to Lolopo [ycl] (Bradley 2007a). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Tanglang
[ytl] Yunnan province: south Lijiang county, Tai’an district, Hongmai community. Locals call this area Tanglangba or Tanglang basin. 950 (Bradley 2007a), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Tholo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lisu [lis]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Tatar
[tat] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Qvqek, Ürümqi, and Yining (Ghulja, Kulja). 800 in China (1999 C. Zongzhen), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,890 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tatar. Alternate Names: Tartar, Tata’er. Classification: Turkic, Western, Uralian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Some speak only Kazakh. Speech in different areas is influenced by Uyghur and Kazakh. Muslim.

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T’en
[tct] Guizhou province: Dushan, and east Pingtang counties; Huishui, south of Guiyang; some in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 20,000 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 25,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Bouyei. Alternate Names: Rao, Rau, Then, Yang Hwang, Yanghuang. Dialects: Hedong, Hexi, Huishui. Reportedly similar to Sui [swi], some scholars consider T’en to be a dialect of Sui (Shearer and Sun 2002). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Thangmi
[thf] Xizang Autonomous Region. 300 in China (2002). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dolakha, Thami. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Thopho
[ytp] Yunnan province: Guangnan county, South central Zhetu district; northeast Zhulin district, 2 villages. 200 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Hat Folk, Black Phula, Hei Mao Ren, Phula. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern. Comments: Substantial subsequent contact with Pholo [yip] and Tai-Kadai varieties.

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Tibetan, Amdo
[adx] Gansu province: Tianzhu autonomous county; Sichuan province: Aba (Ngaba) and Ganzi Tibetan autonomous prefectures; Xizang Autonomous Region: Guoluo (Golog), Haibei, Hainan, and Huangnan autonomous prefectures; Qinghai province: Gannan and Haixi Mongol and Tibetan Autonomous prefectures. 1,800,000 (2005 C. Lhungrub). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Amdo, Anduo, Ngambo, Panang. Dialects: Hbrogpa, Rongba, Rongmahbrogpa, Rtahu, Panang (Banag, Banang, Panags, Panakha, Pananag, Sbanag, Sbranag). Central Tibetan [bod] or Khams Tibetan [khg] varieties not intelligible. Lexical similarity: 70% with Central Tibetan [bod] and Khams Tibetan [khg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Amdo. Comments: Those in Golog are called Golog, Ngolok, Mgolog, Ggolo, or Gugoluo. Buddhist.

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Tibetan, Central
[bod] Xizang Autonomous Region; some in Xinjiang Autonomous Region. 1,070,000 in China (1990 census). 570,000 Dbus, 460,000 Gtsang, 40,000 Mngahris out of 4,593,000 in the official nationality. 920,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 1,172,940. Status: 2 (Provincial). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bhotia, Dbus, Dbusgtsang, Phoke, Tibetan, U, Wei, Weizang, Zang. Dialects: Gtsang (Lhasa, Tsang), Dbus, Mngahris (Ngari), Deqing Zang. In the exile community a so-called diaspora Tibetan has developed. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central. Comments: Xifan (Hsifan) and Bhotia are general terms for Tibetan. Probably includes many languages: Groma, Niarong, Lhomi, Panang, Sherpa, Tseku, Tinan Lahul. Nomads in central and northern Tibet in Phala on the 4,500-meter Chang Tang plateau are known as Drokba. They number around 500,000. Written Tibetan is reportedly based on a southern dialect. Buddhist, Muslim.

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Tibetan, Khams
[khg] Qinghai province: Yushu Tibetan autonomous prefecture; Sichuan province: Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture; Xizang Autonomous Region: Changdu (Qamdo) and Naqu (Nagqu) districts; Yunnan province: Diqing (Dechen) Tibetan autonomous prefecture. 1,380,000 in China (1994). 996,000 Eastern, 135,000 Southern, 158,000 Western, 91,000 Northern. Total users in all countries: 1,380,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Kam, Kami, Kang, Khamba, Khampa, Khams, Khams Bhotia, Khams-Yal. Dialects: Eastern Khams, Southern Khams, Western Khams, Northern Khams. Dialects may be distinct languages; large differences reported. Lexical similarity: 80% with Central Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Khams. Comments: Different from Western Parbate [kjl], Eastern Parbate [kif], Sheshi Kham [kip], and Gamale Kham [kgj] of Nepal. Buddhist.

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Tinani
[lbf] Xizang Autonomous Region: western border. 450 in China (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bhotia of Lahul, Gondla, Lahauli, Lahouli, Lahuli Tinan, Rangloi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri.

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Tsat
[huq] Qinghai province: Hainan Tibetan Autonomous prefecture, Yaxian (Sanya) county, Yanglan district, Huixin and Huihui villages. 4,000 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Hui. Alternate Names: Hainan Cham, Hui, Huihui, Poi Tsat, Sanya Hui, Utsat, Utset. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Northern Roglai [rog], but very different. Tsat is structurally changed to be like Chinese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands, Chru-Northern, Northern Cham. Comments: The phonology suggests a history of some independence from other Chamic languages (Maddieson 1991). Their name for themselves is Utsat, for their language Tsat. Huihui or Hui is the Chinese name. Muslim.

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Tseku
[tsk] Xizang Autonomous Region. 12,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Tsuku, Tzuku. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish.

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Tshangla
[tsj] Xizang Autonomous Region: Linzhi prefecture, Motuo (Medoz, Medog) county, Bangxing, Beibeng, Dexing, and Motuo districts; Linzhi (Ngingchi) county, Dongjiu district. 7,000 in China (2000 census). Majority are monolingual. Ethnic population: 8,920 (2000 census). Includes Moinba (Cuona Monba) [twm] speakers. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Menba. Alternate Names: Canglo Monba, Cangluo Menba, Cangluo Monba, Central Monpa, Menba, Monba, Monpa, Motuo Menba, Sangla, Tsangla Monba, Tsanglo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish. Comments: Different from Angami Naga [njm] of India. Buddhist.

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Tu
[mjg] Gansu province; Qinghai province: Hui, Huzhu Tu, and Minhe Tu autonomous counties. 152,000 (2000 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 190,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tu. Alternate Names: Mangghuer, Mongghul, Mongor, Mongour, Monguor, Qighaan Mongghul. Dialects: Huzhu (Halchighol, Mongghul, Naringhol), Minhe (Mangghuer). Reportedly most divergent of all Mongolian languages. Dialects reported not inherently mutually intelligible. Huzhu: 150,000 people, 50,000 speakers; Minhe: 25,000. Dongren Huzhu considered standard. Dialects of Huzhu: Halchi, Karlong (18,000), and Naringhol. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Tujia, Northern
[tji] Chongqing province: southeast; Guizhou province; Hubei province: southwest; Hunan province: Yanhe and Yingjiang counties. Wuling mountain range. 70,000 (Brassett and Brassett 2005). Regularly used but increasingly the young prefer to speak Chinese and are encouraged by their parents. In most areas children acquire a passive knowledge only. No longer used in southeastern Sichuan, northeastern Guizhou, and southwestern Hubei provinces. No longer used or moribund in northwestern Hunan and severely endangered in the remaining areas (Bradley 2007a). 100 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 8,030,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population includes 1,500 speakers of Southern Tujia [tjs]. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Tujia. Alternate Names: pi tsi kha, Tuchia, Tudja. Dialects: Longshan, Baojing. Northern and Southern Tujia [tjs] are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Southern Tujia [tjs]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Tujia. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Tujia, Southern
[tjs] Northwest Hunan Province, Luxi county, 3 villages. 1,500 (Brassett and Brassett 2005), decreasing. Monolinguals are mainly women, children, and older adults. Ethnic population: 8,030,000 (2000 census). Includes 70,000 in Northern Tujia. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Tujia. Alternate Names: Mong Tsi, Tuchia. Dialects: None known. Northern [tji] and Southern Tujia are not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Northern Tujia [tji], but with phonological and grammatical differences. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Tujia. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Tuva
[tyv] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Altay prefecture, Burjin, Habahe, Fuyun, and Altay counties. 2,400 in China (1999 W. Hongwei). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Mongolian. Alternate Names: Diba, Kök Mungak, Tuvin, Tuwa. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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U
[uuu] Southwest Yunnan Province, Baoshan municipal prefecture, Shidian and Changning counties. May be in Myanmar. 40,000 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Alternate Names: A’erwa, Awa Blang, Puman, P’uman, Wa, Wu, Wu Blang. Dialects: Not closely related to Plang [blr] (1990 J-O. Svantesson). May be same as Wu dialect of Wa [wbm] in Myanmar and Hu [huo] of China. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Uyghur
[uig] Northwest, many separate enclaves in Xizang Uyghur Autonomous Region; also in northernmost Gansu Province, border enclave on Mongolia border; possibly scattered in other Chinese provinces and regions. 10,100,000 in China (2010 census). Some are monolingual. Total users in all countries: 10,389,840. Status: 2 (Provincial). Language of recognized nationality: Uygur. Alternate Names: Uighuir, Uighur, Uiguir, Uigur, Uygur, Weiwu’er, Wiga. Dialects: Central Uyghur, Southern Uyghur (Hetian, Hotan), Lopnur (Luobu), Akto Turkmen, Dolan. Central Uyghur comprises the varieties immediately north and south of the Tianshan mountains (Ili (Gulja, Yili, Taranchi), Urumqi (Urumchi), Turfan (Tulufan), Kumul (Hami), Aqsu (Akesu), Qarashahr (Karaxahar), Kucha (Kuqa). Kashgar (Kashi), Yarkand (Shache) and Yengisar (Yengi Hissar) are also generally considered part of Central Uyghur. Southern Uyghur comprises Khotan (Hetian), Keriya (Yutian), and Charchan (Qiemo). Modern standard Uyghur currently encompasses a number of local Turkic varieties whose linguistic affiliations are contested. These include Ainu (Eynu) [aib], Aqto Türkmen, Dolan, and Ili Turki (Taranchi) [ili]. Ainu is a southern Uyghur variety whose lexifier language is partly Persian; it is used as a jargon. Dolan is a slightly Mongol-inflected variety in the Teklimakan desert east of Kashgar. South of Kashgar, in Aqto county, 2,000 residents in the villages of Kösarap and Oytak use a Turkmen-inflected variety dubbed ‘Aqto Türkmen’ by some. Ili Turki (Taranchi) is indistinguishable from the Central Uyghur spoken in that Ili (Ghulja) area. Minor dialect differences between China, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan, overwhelmingly in loan vocabulary (2015 A. Dwyer). Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Those in the north are more influenced by modern Chinese culture. Muslim.

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Uzbek, Northern
[uzn] North and west Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region; Urumqi, Kashgar, and Yining (Ghulja) cities, especially Ili. 5,000 in China (2000 Chen Shiliang). Ethnic population: 12,400 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality: Uzbek. Alternate Names: Ouzbek, Ozbek, Usbaki, Usbeki. Dialects: Andizhan, Tashkent, Samarkand, Fergana. Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Vietnamese
[vie] South coast of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, on Shanxin, Wanwei, and Wutou peninsulas (referred to as the 3 peninsulas), Fangcheng Pan-Nationality autonomous county; Jiangping region. 7,200 in China (1999 O. Jueya). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Jing. Alternate Names: Annamese, Ching, Gin, Jing, Kinh. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese. Comments: Christian, Daoist.

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Wa, Parauk
[prk] Southwest Yunnan Province, Lincang prefecture, Cangyuan Va autonomous, Shuangjiang Lahu, Blang, Dai autonomous, Gengma Dai, and Yongde counties; Simao prefecture, Lancang Lahu autonomous county; Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture, Menghai county, Mengman district. 399,000 in China (2008 P. Hopple). Speaker population based on 2000 census. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized nationality: Blang. Around 10,000 Parauk speakers are classified as being within Blang nationality. Language of recognized nationality: Wa. The vast majority of speakers are assigned to the Wa nationality. Alternate Names: Baraog, Baroke, Buliu, Bulu, Burao, Phalok, Praok, Wa. Dialects: Aishuai, Banhong, Dazhai, Alwa. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa. Comments: According to Chinese sources. Buddhist, Christian.

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Wa, Vo
[wbm] Southwest Yunnan Province, Lincang prefecture, Yongde and Zhenkang counties; Simao prefecture, Lancang Lahu autonomous county. 40,000 in China (Zhou Zhizhi et al 2004). Many monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 40,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Wa. Alternate Names: Ban, Kawa, K’awa, La, Pan, Pinyin, Pun, Va, Vo, Wa Pwi, Wakut. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Waic, Wa. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Wakhi
[wbl] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, Taxkorgan Tajik autonomous county (especially Daftar); mountains south of Pishan. 6,000 in China. Ethnic population: 41,000 (2000 census). Includes Sarikoli [srh] speakers. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tajik. Alternate Names: Khik, Khikwar, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi. Dialects: Eastern Wakhi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Walungge
[ola] Xizang Autonomous Region. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Waxianghua
[wxa] Hunan province: Chunxi, Dayong, Guzhang, Jishou, and Yuanling; a 6,000 square km area in Wuling mountains. 300,000 (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Han. Alternate Names: Wogang, Xianghua. Dialects: None known. Classified as Han nationality. It differs greatly from both Southwestern Mandarin (Xinan Guanhua) [cmn] and Xiang Chinese (Hunanese) [hsn], but is relatively uniform within itself. Neighboring Han Chinese, Miao, and Tujia people do not understand it. Some view it as a special variety of Chinese, others as a minority language, perhaps related to Miao. Classification: Unclassified.

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Wutunhua
[wuh] Qinghai province: Huangnan Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Tongren county, Longwu township, Jiangchama and Upper and Lower Wutun villages. 2,000 (1995). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized nationality: Tu. Alternate Names: Ngandehua, Sanggaixiong, Wutong, Wutun. Classification: Mixed language, Chinese-Tibetan-Bonan Mongour. Comments: A variety of Chinese heavily influenced by Tibetan or perhaps a Tibetan language undergoing relexification with Chinese forms. Also described as Chinese which converged to an agglutinative language, Tibetan or Mongolian, using only Chinese material. Known for their paintings of Buddha. Buddhist.

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Xibe
[sjo] Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region: Gongliu, Huocheng, Nilka, Qapqal, Tekes, Xinyuan, and Zhaosu counties; Bortala prefecture, Bole county, Ürümqi city; Ili prefecture, Yining city; Tacheng prefecture, Tacheng county. 30,000 (2000 A. Jun). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 189,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Xibe. Alternate Names: Sibe, Sibin, Sibo, Xibo. Dialects: None known. Inherently intelligible of Manchu [mnc]. Classification: Tungusic, Southern, Southwest. Comments: Descendants of an 18th century Qing dynasty military garrison. Loans from Uyghur, Kazakh, and Chinese. Traditional religion.

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Yerong
[yrn] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Baise prefecture, Napo county, Longhe district, Gonghe village; Pohe district, Guoba, Shanhe, and Yong’an Guoba villages; Debao county, Batou district, Rongtun village on Yunnan province and Viet Nam borders. 380 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yao. Alternate Names: Ban Yao, Da Ia, Daban Yao, Eastern Buyang, Guangxi Buyang, Ia Hrong, Iron Yao, Khyung Buyang, Liu Yao, Napo Buyang, Six Yao, Tie Yao, Tu Yao Indigenous Yao, Yalang, Yang Khyung, Yerong Buyang. Dialects: None known. Not mutually intelligible of the 3 Buyang languages. May be most similar to En [enc] of Northern Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 67% with Langnian Buyang [yln], 63% with E’ma Buyang [yzg], and 46% with Baha Buyang [yha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kra, Eastern Kra. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Yi, Wuding-Luquan
[ywq] Sichuan province: Huili county; Yunnan province: Huize, Lufeng, Luquan, Qujing, Wuding, Xundian, Yongren, and Yuanmou counties. 250,000 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Black Yi, Dian Dongbei Yi, Hei Yi, Nasu, Nasupho, Wu-Lu Yi. Dialects: Luquan Naso, Wuding Naisu. The Naisu dialect is also called Hong Yi (Red Yi). Degrees of similarity between dialects, and also with Naluo [ylo], needs further investigation. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Northern. Comments: Hei Yi means Black Yi. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yugur, East
[yuy] Gansu province: east Sunan Yugur autonomous county, Dahe, Kangle, and Mati districts; some in Qinghai province. 4,000 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yugur. Alternate Names: Eastern Yogor, Enge’er, Enger, Shera Yogur, Shira Yugur, Yogor, Yögur, Yugar, Yugu. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Mongour. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Yugur, West
[ybe] Gansu province: Sunan Yugur autonomous county near Zhangye (Kanchow). 4,600 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 7,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Yugur. Alternate Names: Sari Yogur, Sarig, Sarygh Uygur, Sary-Uighur, Ya Lu, Yellow Uighur, Yugu, Yuku. Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Zaiwa
[atb] Yunnan province: Dehong Dai-Jingpo autonomous prefecture, Bangwa, Longchuan, Luxi, Ruili, and Yingjiang counties. 80,000 in China (1999 X. Xijian). 20,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 110,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized nationality: Jingpo. Alternate Names: Aci, Aji, Atshi, Atsi, Atsi-Maru, Atzi, Azi, Szi, Tsaiva, Tsaiwa, Xiaoshanhua. Dialects: Longzhun, Tingzhu, Bengwa. Some consider Pela [bxd] (Bola, Polo, Pala), Lashi [lsi] (Leqi), and Maru [mhx] (Langsu, Langwa) to be dialects of Zaiwa. Dialects have only minor phonological differences. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Daoist.

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Zakhring
[zkr] Xizang Autonomous Region: Zayul county, Lower Zayul township, 3 villages: Lading, Songgu, and Tama. 600 in China (Bradley 2007a). Total users in all countries: 900. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Charumba, Zaiwa, Zha. Dialects: None known. Similar to Tibetan [bod] (Singh 1994b), Miju-Mishmi [mxj] (Bradley 2007a). Not related to Zaiwa [atb] in Yunnan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Keman.

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Zauzou
[zal] Yunnan province: Nujiang Lisu autonomous prefecture, Lanping county, Biji, Guoli, Jiangmo, Tu’e, Wupijiang, and Xiaocun districts; Lushui county, Liukuzhen, Luzhang, and Shuilizhai districts and townships. 2,100 (Bradley 2007b). 210 monolinguals. Mainly older adults. Ethnic population: 2,500 (1999 Sun Hong Kai). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Nu. Alternate Names: Jaojo, Raorou, Rourou. Dialects: Bijilan, Wupijiang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Also Nusu [nuf], and 5,500 ethnic Nung who speak Drung [duu]. Traditional religion, Daoist.

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Zhaba
[zhb] Sichuan province: Ganzi (Garzê) Tibetan autonomous prefecture, Daofu (Dawu) county, Zhaba district; Yajiang (Nyagquka) county, Zhamai district. 7,800 (Gengxua and Hu 2008), decreasing. Many young monolingual speakers in Zhaba and Zhamai districts. Ethnic population: 9,000 (Gong 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Tibetan. Alternate Names: Bazi, Bozi, Draba, nDrapa, Zaba, Zha. Dialects: Drate (Northern nDrapa), Drame (Southern nDrapa, Zhami). Reportedly similar to Stau (Horpa [ero]) and Queyu [qvy], but no mutual intelligibility. Many loanwords from Tibetan and Chinese varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Northeastern Tibeto-Burman, Qiangic. Comments: Different from Queyu [qvy]. Buddhist.

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Zhuang
[zha] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 14,936,200 Status: Comments: Includes: Central Hongshuihe Zhuang [zch], Dai Zhuang [zhd], Eastern Hongshuihe Zhuang [zeh], Guibei Zhuang [zgb], Guibian Zhuang [zgn], Lianshan Zhuang [zln], Liujiang Zhuang [zlj], Liuqian Zhuang [zlq], Minz Zhuang [zgm], Nong Zhuang [zhn], Qiubei Zhuang [zqe], Yang Zhuang [zyg], Yongbei Zhuang [zyb], Yongnan Zhuang [zyn], Youjiang Zhuang [zyj], Zuojiang Zhuang [zzj].

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Zhuang, Central Hongshuihe
[zch] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Dahua, Du’an, Mashan, north Shanglin, possibly east Pingguo; both sides of central Hongshuihe river. 1,080,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Zhuang, Dai
[zhd] Yunnan province: Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Guangnan county, Zhulin township; Maguan and Malipo (west) counties; Wenshan county, Dehou, Kaihua, Laohuilong, Matang, and Panzhihua townships; Yanshan county, Pingyuan township. 100,000 in China (Wang and Johnson 2008). Very few monolinguals, though it is L1 learned by children in most Dai Zhuang villages. Ethnic population: 120,000. Total users in all countries: 100,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Bu Dai, bu6 daai2, Kau Ndae, Khaau Daai, Thu Lao, Tu, Tuliao, Tuzu, Wen-Ma Southern Zhuang, Zhuangyu Nanbu fangyan Dejing tuyu, Zhuangyu Nanbu Fangyan Wen-Ma Tuyu. Dialects: Western Yanshan-Northern Wenshan (Da Tou Tu), Central Wenshan (Ping Tou Tu), Maguan-Malipo (Jian Tou Tu), Guangnan (Pian Tou Tu). Most similar language is Nong Zhuang [zhn], but not mutually intelligible of Nong Zhuang, Min Zhuang [zgm] or Yang Zhuang [zyg] (2010 E. Johnson). Lexical similarity: 63%–70% among Nong, Yang [zhn], Yongnan [zyn], Zuojiang [zzj], and Dai [zhd]; 54% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb] (2011 E. Johnson). A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Buddhist, Daoist.

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Zhuang, Eastern Hongshuihe
[zeh] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: south Shanglin county, south Xincheng district, south Xingbin district, north Guigang city, west Guiping city, and south Wuxuan county; some in Guangdong province; south of Hongshuihe and Qianjiang rivers. 1,200,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Zhuang, Guibei
[zgb] Guizhou and Hunan provinces; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Bama, Donglan, Hechi, Huanjiang, Longsheng, Luocheng, Nandan, Rongan, Rongshui, Sanjiang, Tian’e, and Yongfu. 1,500,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Zhuang, Guibian
[zgn] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Fengshan, Leyun, Lingyun, Longlin, Tianlin, and Xilin; Yunnan province: Funing, and north Guangnan. 1,000,000 (2007). 420,000 monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. In concentrated Guibian areas, the main trade language on market days. Alternate Names: Buyei, Buyoi, Kang Yei, Northern Zhuang. Dialects: None known. Some intelligibility of standard Bouyei [pcc]; none of Qiubei Zhuang [zqe], Yongbei Zhuang [zyb], or Nong Zhuang [zhn] (2011 E. Johnson). Lexical similarity: 71% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb], 83% with Qiubei Zhuang [zqe] (northern Taic), 64%–66% with Nong Zhuang [zhn] (central Taic). A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Zhuang, Lianshan
[zln] Guangdong province: Huaji county, Xiashuai and Zhongzhou districts; Lianshan Zhuang Yao autonomous county; Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. 48,000 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Zhuang, Liujiang
[zlj] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: north Laibin, Liucheng, Liujiang, north Xincheng, and Yishan. 1,560,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Zhuang, Liuqian
[zlq] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Luzhai, north Wuxuan, and Xiangzhou; possibly Hezhou, Pingle, and Yangshuo; east of Liujiang and north of Qianjiang rivers. 370,000 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Zhuang, Minz
[zgm] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Dejing area, Debao, Jingxi, and Napo counties; Yunnan province: Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, Funing county, Langheng district, Tianbeng township, Anha, Bagan, Gecai, Getao, Gezao, Longnong, Na’en, Sankeshu, Shangmabu, Tianfang, and Xionggu villages. 173,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Black Zhuang, Bu Xiong, Heiyi Zhuang, Kon Min, Sung, Zong Zhuang. Dialects: Cuengh (Zong), Minz (Min). Nong Zhuang [zhn] is reportedly most similar. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Zhuang, Nong
[zhn] Yunnan province: Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, central and west Guangnan, Maguan, Malipo, north Wenshan, Xichou, and east Yanshan counties; a few in Funing and Qiubei counties. 500,000 (Wang and Johnson 2008). 125,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600,000 (2007). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Daez, Kau Nong, Khaau Nong, Noangx, Nong hua, Phu Nong, Phu Tei, Tei Nong, Yan-Guang Southern Zhuang, Zhuangyu Nanbu fanyan Yan-Guang tuyu. Dialects: Western Guangnan, Liancheng, Central Zhuang, Southern Zhuang. Reportedly most similar Tày [tyz], and Min Zhuang [zgm]. Some Tày dialects near Viet Nam-Yunnan border reportedly mutually intelligible. Nong Dialects mutually intelligible for simple topics. Not intelligible of Dai Zhuang [zhd], Min Zhuang [zgm], Yang Zhuang [zyg], Guibian Zhuang [zgn], or Qiubei Zhuang [zqe]. Lexical similarity: over 70% with Nong, Yang [zyg], Yongnan [zyn], and Zuojiang [zzj]; about 67% with Dai [zhd]; 54% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb]. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: ‘Phu Nong’, Nong People; ‘Khau Nong’, Nong Language. Over half the Nong live in Guangnan and Yanshan counties. Nong represent a majority of Zhuang in all their counties except for Funing and Qiubei, where mostly northern Taic Zhuang languages are spoken. Traditional religion.

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Zhuang, Qiubei
[zqe] Yunnan province: Wenshan Zhuang and Miao Autonomous Prefecture, west edge Guangnan and Qiubei counties; Qujing municipal prefecture, Shizong county, Longqing Yi-Zhuang and Wulong Zhuang autonomous districts. 140,000 (2007 census). 28,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 150,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Bau i, Bui, Buyi, Northern Zhuang, Qiubei Sha. Dialects: None known. Not mutually intelligible with Guibian Zhuang [zgn], Nong Zhuang [zhn], or Dai Zhuang [zhd]. Lexical similarity: 83% with Guibian Zhuang [zgn], 69% with Yongbei (standard) Zhuang [zyb], 64%–66% with Nong Zhuang [zhn] and Yang Zhuang [zyg], 55% with Dai Zhuang [zhd]. (2011 E. Johnson). A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Zhuang, Yang
[zyg] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Debao, Jingxi, and Napo counties; Yunnan province: Funing county, scattered in Bo’ai, Banlun, Dongbo, Guichao, Xinhua, and Zhesang townships and districts. 765,000 in China (2004). 745,000 in the Dejing area (Jingxi, Napo, and Debao Counties, Guangxi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Caj coux, Can Yang, Dejing Zhuang, Dianbao, Fouh, Gen Yang, Jingxi Zhuang, Lang, Nong, Nung Giang, Tianbao, Tianpao, Tuhua, Yangx, Yangyu, Yangzhou, Zhuangyu Nanbu fangyan Dejing tuyu. Dialects: Yang (Tuhua, Yangyu), Tianbao (Dianbao, Tianpao), Fouh (Fu), Sengh (Sheng), Caj coux (Jiazhou, Zouzhou). Most similar languages are Zuojiang Zhuang [zzj] and other Nung languages of Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 70% with Nong Zhuang [zhn], Yang [zyg], Yongnan [zyn], Zuojiang, and Dai [zhd], 65% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb]. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Zhuang, Yongbei
[zyb] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Bingyang, Hengxian, Pingguo, Wuming, and north Yongning. 1,980,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Zhuang, Yongnan
[zyn] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Fangcheng, Fusui, Jingxi, Longan, Quinzhou, Shangsi, and south Yongning counties; Yunnan province: Funing county. 1,800,000 in China (2000 J. Edmondson). Total users in all countries: 1,810,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Bou Rau, Boux Toj, Long An, Long’an, Nongz Anx, Nung An, Southern Zhuang, Yongnan Vernacular of the Southern Dialect of the Zhuang Language, Zhuangyu nanbu fangyan Yongnan tuyu. Dialects: None known. Most similar languages are Zuojiang Zhuang [zzj] (Nung Chao), Yongbei Zhuang [zyb], Yang Zhuang [zyg] (Nung Giang), and other Nung languages of Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 70% with Nong [zhn], Yang [zyg], Yongnan [zyn], Zuojiang [zzj], and Dai [zhd], 65% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb]. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Zhuang, Youjiang
[zyj] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Baise, Tiandong, and Tianyang; some in Yunnan province. 870,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Zhuang, Zuojiang
[zzj] Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region: Chongzuo, Daxin, Jingxi, Longzhou, Ningming, Pingxiang, and Tiandeng counties; Yunnan province: Funing county, a few villages. 1,500,000 in China (2000 census). 35,000 in Jingxi and Napo counties. Total users in all countries: 1,840,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized nationality: Zhuang. Alternate Names: Canto, Ken Tho, Longyin, Longzhou, Nongz Anx, Pho Thai, Potai, Pu Tho, Puto, Southern Zhuang, Zhuangyu nanbu fangyan Zuojiang tuyu. Dialects: None known. Most similar languages are Yang Zhuang [zyg], Yongnan Zhuang [zyn], Nong Zhuang [zhn], and other Nung languages of Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 70% between Nong [zhn], Yang [zyg], Yongnan, and Dai [zhd], 65% with Yongbei Zhuang [zyb]. A member of macrolanguage Zhuang [zha]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: The language is named for Zuojiang river that runs through this area, from northern Viet Nam into Longzhou, Chongzuo, and Fusui counties. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Daoist.

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Zokhuo
[yzk] Yunnan province: southeast Wenshan county, south Dongshan and north Zhuiligai townships; south Yanshan county. 13,000 (Pelkey 2011), decreasing. Ethnic population: 17,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized nationality: Yi. Alternate Names: Cowtail Phula, Nimitso, Niuweiba Phula, Phula, Ruoke, Tshokha, Zekhe, Zuoke. Dialects: Daxingzhai, Longle. Most closely related to, but not mutually intelligible with, Khlula [ykl]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southeastern.

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