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Achagua
[aca] Meta Department, right bank of Río Meta, between Puerto López and Puerto Gaitán, community of Umapo. Also in El Turpial reservation. 250 (2000 M. Lozano), decreasing. Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ajagua, Xagua Dialects: Similar to Piapoco [pio]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco Comments: Significant acculturation.

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Andaqui
[ana] Southern highlands, Caquetá Department, upper reaches of Caquetá river, Cauca Department, Fragua valley; Huila Department, Suaza valley. No known L1 speakers. Rural Andaqui communities in Acevedo (Huila) and Belén de los Andaquíes (Caquetá), near Pescado and Fragua rivers, but no longer speaking their language. Some Incas who occupied former Andaqui areas insist that there are still uncontacted Andaqui people. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aguanunga, Andaki, Churuba Classification: Paezan Comments: Different from Andoque [ano] in Amazonas.

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Andoque
[ano] Amazonas Department, Aduche river (tributary of Caquetá), 15 km downriver from Araracuara. 370 (2007 B. Pencue), decreasing. 50 monolinguals. 10,000 in 1908 (Landaburu 1979). Ethnic population: 520 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Andoke, Businka, Cha’oie, Paasi-ahá , Paasiaja Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ethnic autonym: Poosioho, people of the axe. Some intermarriage with Muinanes [bmr] and Huitotos [hux].

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Anserma
[ans] Caldas, Quindio, and Risaralda departments. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Anserna Dialects: Related to Cauca [cca], Arma [aoh] (both extinct), and Caramanta [crf]. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco

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Arhuaco
[arh] Magdalena Department, César at the northeast and southern slopes of the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 8,000 (2009 P. Frank). 90% monolingual. Ethnic population: 14,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aruaco, Bintucua, Bintuk, Bíntukua, Ica, Ijca, Ijka, Ika, Ikan, Ike Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan, Southern and Eastern Arhuacan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Ika. Strong traditional culture. Traditional religion.

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Arma
[aoh] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco Comments: People spoke either Cenu or Cauca [cca] (both extinct).

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Awa-Cuaiquer
[kwi] Pacific slopes of Andes, Nariño, from Ecuador border north, near Barbacoas. Nariño and Putumayo departments, Cumbal, Mallama, Ricaurte, Barbacoas. Cuambíyaslambi, and Cuaiquer del Alto Albí reservations. Also in Ecuador. 12,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), decreasing. No monolinguals. Population total all countries: 13,000. Ethnic population: 13,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa, Awa Pit, Coaiquer, Cuaiquer, Kwaiker, Quaiquer Dialects: Distantly related to Chachi [cbi] and Colorado [cof]. Classification: Barbacoan, Northern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Awa and Înkal Awa, both in Ecuador and Colombia. The presence of petroleum companies, paramilitary groups, guerrilla forces, the cultivation of illicit crops and subsequent widespread fumigation of their territory has had extremely disruptive effects on the Awa society that currently is coping with a very serious acculturation process. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Barasana-Eduria
[bsn] Southern Vaupés Department, Pira-Paraná river and tributaries, Sõnanã, San Miguel, Piedra Ñi, Cachivera Pina, Pacoa, Mitú. Jepa Matsi in Brazil may be dialect. 1,890 (1993 census). 19 ethnic Taiwano (Eduria) (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banera yae, Barasana, Barasano, Come masa, Comematsa, Edulia, Eduria, Hanera oka, Janera, Paneroa, Southern Barasano, Taibano, Taiwaeno, Taiwano Dialects: Barasana (Comematsa, Janera, Paneroa, Southern Barasano, Yebamasa), Eduria (Edulia, Taiwano). Similar to Macuna [myy] and Carapana [cbc] ( 2011 P. Jones). Lexical similarity: 98% between Eduria and Barasano; just some phonological differences. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka Comments: Barasana and Eduria considered separate languages by the people, and distinct ethnic groups that can intermarry.

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Barbacoas
[bpb] Nariño Department, near Barbacoas coastal town. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Barbacoan, Northern

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Barí
[mot] Norte de Santander Department, Serranía de los Motilones, Upper Catatumbo and Oro River region, Reserva Indígena Motilón-Barí and Resguardo Indígena Gabarra-Catalaura. Also in Venezuela. 3,500 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 5,270. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barira, Cunausaya, Dobocubi, Motilón, Motilone Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian Comments: Classification as Chibchan has been questioned (1973 M. Durbin); Alternatively classified as Arawakan (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977).

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Bora
[boa] Amazonas Department, Bora: Providencia on Igaraparana (tributary of the Putumayo); Miraña: lower Caquetá River, near Cahuinari river mouth. 100 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 660 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Boro, Meamuyna, Miraña Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane Comments: Some intermarriage with Ocainas and Huitotos (2007 B. Pencue).

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Cabiyarí
[cbb] Cananarí River (tributary of the Apaporis and Vaupés). 270 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 280 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cabiuarí, Cauyarí, Cuyare, Kabiyarí, Kauyarí, Kawiarí, Kawillary, Kawiyarí Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki

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Cacua
[cbv] Lower Vaupés Department, Wacará, 30 km east of Mitú. 400 (2010 A. Gonzalez). Many monolinguals, especially children. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Báda, Cakua, Kakua, Kákwa, Macu de Cubeo, Macu de Desano, Macu de Guanano, Macú-Paraná, Wacara Dialects: Macú-Paraná Cacua, Vaupés Cacua. Related to Hupda [hup] and Nukak Maku [mbr]. Lexical similarity: 90% similarity with Nukak [mbr] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Puinavean, Cacua

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Cagua
[cbh] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified

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Camsá
[kbh] Putumayo Department, Sibundoy valley, near Ingas. 4,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 4,020 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Camëntsëá, Coche, Kamemtxa, Kamsa, Kamse, Sibundoy, Sibundoy-Gaché Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ruhlen and others classify it as Equatorial.

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Carabayo
[cby] Amazonas Department, halfway between San Bernardo and Pure rivers. At least 3 long houses. 150. Ethnic population: 200 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Amazonas Macusa” (pej.), Yuri Classification: Unclassified Comments: “Macusa” or “Macú”, savage, is arbitrarily applied to uncontacted groups.

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Caramanta
[crf] Antioquía Department, Municipality de Jardín, near cities of Andes and Cristianía. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco

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Carapana
[cbc] Vaupés Department, Caño Tí (tributary of middle Vaupés river) and upper Papurí and Pirá-Paraná rivers. Also in Brazil (Karapanã). 600 in Colombia (1990 SIL). Population total all countries: 642. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Carapana-Tapuya, Karapaná, Karapanã, Karapano, Mextã, Mi tea, Mochda, Moxdoa, Muxtea Dialects: Similar to Tatuyo [tav] (Crevels 2007) and to Barasan-Eduria [bsn] (2004 DNP). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano

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Carijona
[cbd] Upper Vaupés Department, Yarí, and lower Caquetá rivers, south of Miraflores, around Puerto Nare. 6 (Crevels 2007). 6 speakers near La Pedrera and a few more near Miraflores (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 290 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Carifuna, Carihona, Hianacoto-Umaua, Huaque, Kaliohona, Karijona, Koto, Omagua, Umawa Dialects: Possibly 2 separate languages, Hianacoto-Umaua and Carijona (1973 M. Durbin). The 2 groups had no contact for many years. Classification: Cariban, Tiriyó, Karihona

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Cauca
[cca] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Related to Anserma [ans]. Classification: Paezan, Coconuco

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Chimila
[cbg] Central Magdalena Department, lowlands south and west of Fundación, and scattered. 480 (2006 T. Malone), decreasing. Ethnic population: 900 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caca Weranos, Chimile, ett E’neka, San Jorge, Shimizya, Simiza Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian Comments: 2 major separated groups.

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Chipiajes
[cbe] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified Comments: A Sáliba surname. Many Guahibo also have that name.

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Cocama-Cocamilla
[cod] Island of Ronda in the Amazon River opposite the city of Leticia, in Leticia, and in villages of Naranjales, Palmeras, and San José. Possibly only a few semi-speakers (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 770 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cocama, Kokama Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama Comments: Ethnonym: Inikana, we ourselves. Intermarriage with Colombian mestizos, Tikunas, Yaguas, and Huitotos (2007 A. Pencue).

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Cofán
[con] Colombia-Ecuador border area, Putumayo Department, Valle del Gamuéz, Orito, and San Miguel. 1,500 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), decreasing. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,450 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: A’i, A’ingae, Kofan, Kofane Dialects: Aguarico, Santa Rosa. Classification: Language isolate Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Colombian Sign Language
[csn] 50,000 deaf in Bogotá in 1992. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Some signs similar to those in sign languages of El Salvador, Spain, and the United States. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Began 1929. Manual alphabet for spelling.

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Coxima
[kox] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Koxima Classification: Unclassified

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Coyaima
[coy] Tolima Department. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa

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Cubeo
[cub] Vaupés, Amazonas, and Vichada departments, Vaupés, Cuduyari, Querarí rivers and tributaries. Also in Guainía Department. Also in Brazil, Venezuela. 6,100 in Colombia (Civallero 2008), increasing. 10% monolinguals. Population total all countries: 6,260. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cuveo, Hehenawa, Hipnwa, Kobeua, Kobewa, Kubwa, Pamiwa Classification: Tucanoan, Central Tucanoan Comments: Exogamous marriage pattern with speakers of other languages. Cubeo is the lingua franca of the northwest section of the Vaupés and Tucano is the lingua franca for the southeast section. Decrease in infant mortality has caused an increase in population. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cuiba
[cui] Meta Casanare, Capanaparo rivers and tributaries, El Merey, Esmeralda, Santa María, Betania, Mochuelo, San José de Ariporo. Also in Venezuela. 2,200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). 1,500 monolinguals. Population total all countries: 2,850. Ethnic population: 2,280 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiricoa, Cuiba-Wámonae, Cuiva, Hiwi, Maiben Dialects: Amaruwa (Amorua), Chiricoa, Chiripo (Siripu, Wupiwi), Masiware (Masiguare), Mayayero, Mochuelo-Casanare-Cuiba, Tampiwi (Mariposas), Yarahuuraxi-Capanapara. 8 dialects in Venezuela and Colombia. Classification: Guajiboan Comments: Seminomadic bands.

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Cumeral
[cum] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified

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Curripaco
[kpc] Guainía, Isana, and Inírida rivers. Headwaters of the Río Negro. Also in Inírida, Barrio La Primavera. Also in Brazil, Venezuela. 7,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 11,880. Ethnic population: 7,060 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Curipaco, Karrupaku, Koripako, Kuripaco, Kurripaco, Waquenia Dialects: Similar to Baniwa [bwi]. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki, Karu Comments: The ethnic group is related to the Puinave [pui] and Piapoco [pio] (2011 Suárez).

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Desano
[des] Papurí and Abiyu rivers (tributary of the Vaupés), Pacá river (tributary of the Papurí), Macú Parana river (tributary of the Papurí), plus other tributaries of the Papurí. Villa Fátima village and Montfort, Piracuara, Acaricuara, and Teresita missions. 2,460 in Colombia (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boleka, Desána, Dessana, Kotedia, Kusibi, Oregu, Wina, Wira Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano

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Emberá, Northern
[emp] Atrato river basin in Chocó Department, Pacific coastal rivers from Cabo Corrientes to Antioquia (Río Verde) Department. 49,700 in Colombia (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atrato, Cholo, Darién, Dariena, Eberã, Eberã Bed’ea, Emperã, Eperã Pedea, Panama Embera Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá Comments: Ethnic autonym: Embena (Embera, Epena), people, used by all Chocoan peoples except Waunana to refer to themselves. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Emberá-Baudó
[bdc] Baudó river basin and Pacific (north) coastal rivers between Cabo Corrientes; south of San Juan river, near Northern Emberá [emp] language area. 5,000 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baudó, Catrú Dialects: Somewhat intelligible with Northern Emberá [emp] and Epena [sja]. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá

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Emberá-Catío
[cto] Upper Sinu, San Jorge, San Pedro, and Murri rivers. Also in Panama. 15,000 in Colombia (1992 SIL). 90%–95% monolingual. Population total all countries: 15,040. Ethnic population: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Catio, Embena, Eyabida, Katio Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá Comments: Catio is sometimes used for other Chocoan groups.

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Emberá-Chamí
[cmi] Departments of Risaralda, Caldas, Antioquia, Valle, including Caramanta municipality. 5,510 (2001 DNP). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chami Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá

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Emberá-Tadó
[tdc] Chocó Departament, upper San Juan river region. 1,000 (2007 Moyano). Ethnic population: Total Emberá in Colombia: 71,000 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998)). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cholo, Êpêra Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá Comments: Secluded.

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Epena
[sja] South Pacific coast, Caucá, Nariño, and Chocó departments. Also in Ecuador, Panama. 3,500 in Colombia (2004 IMB), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,750. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cholo, Embera, Emberá-Saija, Epená Saija, Saija, Southern Empera Dialects: Basurudó. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guahibo
[guh] Plains regions, Casanare, eastern Meta, Vichada, Guaviare, and Guainía departments. Also in Venezuela. 23,000 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). 40% monolingual. Population total all countries: 34,200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goahibo, Goahiva, Guaigua, Guajibo, Guayba, “Sicuani” (pej.), “Sikuani” (pej.), Wahibo Dialects: Amorua (Rio Tomo Guahibo), Guahibo (Sikuani), Tigrero, Vichadeño. Guahiban languages may not be within Arawakan. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo Comments: Río Tomo Guahibo are nomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Guambiano
[gum] Cauca Department, on western slopes of Andean Cordillera Central, Silvia, Jambaló, Totoró, Caldono, and Toribío municipalities, and on the banks of Piendamó river. 21,000 (Civallero 2008), increasing. Less than 10% monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Guambia, Moguex Classification: Paezan, Coconuco Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Guanano
[gvc] Lower Vaupés river region. 300 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Ethnic population: 1,170 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anana, Kótedia, Kotiria, Uanano, Wanana, Wanano Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan Comments: The Guanano move back and forth across the border with Brazil.

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Guayabero
[guo] Metá and Guaviare departments, Upper Guaviare River. 1,000 (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2007 N. López). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cunimía, Jiw, Mítua, Mítus Classification: Guajiboan Comments: Marriage within their own community; 5% urban, 95% rural. Traditional religion.

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Huitoto, Minica
[hto] Upper Igara-Parana. Caquetá river at Isla de los Monos, Caguan river near Sanvicente del Caguan. 6,800 (2002 A. Bríñez). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meneca, Minica Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai

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Huitoto, Murui
[huu] Southwest, Caraparana, Putumayo, and Leticia rivers. 6,800 in Colombia (2002 A. Bríñez). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bue, Witoto Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai

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Hupdë
[jup] Papurí and Tiquié river systems. 240 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 240 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hup, “Hupdá Makú” (pej.), “Jupdá Macú” (pej.), “Macú de Tucano” (pej.), “Makú-Hupdá” (pej.), Ubdé Classification: Puinavean, Hupda Comments: Subservient to Tucanoan Indians. Some nomadic between Colombia and Brazil.

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Inga
[inb] Sibundoy valley, Santiago area, San Andrés and Colón; Aponte, Department of Nariño. 1,000 in Bogotá, some in regional capitals. Also in Venezuela. 18,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Dispersed in various regions; adopted commerce as a survival strategy (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 22,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Highland Inga Dialects: Aponte Inga, San Andrés Inga, Santiago Inga. Partially intelligible with Imbabura Quichua [qvi] of Ecuador. Aponte Inga dialect is most distinct. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay

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Inga, Jungle
[inj] Upper Caquetá and Putumayo rivers. 11,200 (2007 Organización de Cabildos Indígenas del Putumayo). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ingano, Lowland Inga, Mocoa Dialects: Guayuyaco, Yunguillo-Condagua. Most similar to Highland Inga [inb]. Distinct from Napo Quechua [qvo]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay

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Islander Creole English
[icr] San Andrés and Providencia Islands. 12,000 (1981 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bende, San Andrés Creole Dialects: Very similar to Belize Creole English [bzj]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western

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Kogi
[kog] North, east, and west slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 9,910 (2004 DNP). Nearly all monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coghui, Cogui, Kagaba, Kaggaba, Kogui Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan

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Koreguaje
[coe] Caquetá Department, Orteguaza and Caquetá rivers and tributaries. 2,100 (Civallero 2008). Speakers of Koreguaje represent a fusion of various ethnic groups. Also spoken by Inga, Witoto, Carijona, and Tama (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Caquetá, Chaocha Pai, Coreguaje, Correguaje, Ko’reuaju Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan Comments: ‘Caquetá’ is name of the river, not the people.

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Kuna, Border
[kvn] North coast region near Panama isthmus, along east and west banks of the Gulf of Uraba, Darién region; Antioquia Department, Caiman Nuevo, Caiman Alto (Viejo); Chocó Department, Arquía. Also in Panama. 2,600 in Colombia (2012 SIL). Population total all countries: 3,500. Ethnic population: 1,170 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caiman Nuevo, Colombia Cuna, Cuna, Paya-Pucuro Dialects: Classification of Kuna uncertain; may be an isolate with some Chibchan features. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Cuna

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Macaguaje
[mcl] Lower Putumayo Department, tributaries of Caquetá River. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 50 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje Comments: A few still maintain group identity.

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Macaguán
[mbn] Arauca, Agualinda, and San José de Lipa between the Lipa, Ele, and Cuiloto rivers; other scattered locations. 300 (Civallero 2008). Most monolingual. Ethnic population: 540 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Agualinda Guahibo, Hitnü, Macaguane, Macaguane-Hitnu Dialects: Unintelligible to other Guahibo variety speakers. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo Comments: Small groups. Semi-nomadic.

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Macuna
[myy] Vaupés Department, lower Pira-Parana; Apaporis tributaries and Mirití-Paraná. Also in Brazil. 1,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 1,170. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buhagana, Emoa, Ide, Jepa-Matsi, Makuna, Paneroa, Roea, Suroa, Tabotiro Jejea, Umua, Wuhána, Yeba, Yepá-Mahsá Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan

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Malayo
[mbp] South and east slopes of Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta. 1,850 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,850 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arosario, Arsario, Damana, Guamaca, Guamaka, Maracasero, Marocasero, Sancá, Sanja, Sanka, Wiwa Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Northern Colombian, Arhuacan, Southern and Eastern Arhuacan, Guamaca-Atanque

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Muinane
[bmr] Amazonas Department, Upper Cahuinarí, on Caquetá tributary. 150 (2007 Moyano). Ethnic population: 550 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Muename, Muinana, Muinani Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane Comments: Not the same as Muinane Huitoto [hux].

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Natagaimas
[nts] Tolima Department. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Unclassified

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Nhengatu
[yrl] Vaupés Department, scattered along the borders of Brazil, Colombia, and Venezuela. 8,000 in Colombia (2004 IMB). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Geral, Modern Tupi, Nheengatu, Nyengato, Waengatu, Yeral Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Tupí

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Nonuya
[noj] Amazonas Department, Puerto Santander municipality, Peña Roja. Also in Peru. 3 in Colombia (2007 J. Echeverri). Ethnic population covers both Colombia and Peru. Population total all countries: 4. Ethnic population: 90. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Witotoan

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Nukak Makú
[mbr] Jungle region between Guaviare and Inírida rivers, up to Mapiripan. Near Charco Caimán. 700 (2010 A. Gonzalez). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guaviare, Maczsa, Nukak Dialects: Sometimes considered the same language as Kakua [cbv] as they share a large percentage of their lexicon and supposedly are mutually intelligible (Crevels 2007). Classification: Puinavean, Cacua Comments: Evasive hunters.

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Ocaina
[oca] Amazonas Department, Upper Igará-Paraná and tributaries. 140 in Colombia (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Okaina Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo’tsa. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina

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Omejes
[ome] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified

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Páez
[pbb] Cauca Department, central Andes range near Popayán. 40,000 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 119,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Paniquita (Panikita), Pitayo. Classification: Paezan, Paezan Comments: Christian.

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Palenquero
[pln] San Basilio de Palenque village southeast of Cartagena, and 2 neighborhoods in Barranquilla. 500 (Holm 1989). Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lengua, Palenque Dialects: Linguistic influences from Koongo [kng] in Democratic Republic of the Congo (Hancock 1987). Classification: Creole, Spanish based Comments: People are culturally distinct from nearby Spanish [spa] speakers. Palenque is Spanish for a fortified village of runaway slaves.

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Piapoco
[pio] Tributaries and lower Vichada river region, and Meta and Guaviare rivers. Also in Venezuela. 4,930 in Colombia (2007 Moyano). Population total all countries: 6,380. Ethnic population: 4,930 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Very similar to Guarequena [gae] (Crevels 2007). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki, Piapoco

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Piaroa
[pid] Extreme east of Vaupés Department, on the border with Venezuela, on the banks of the smaller tributaries of the Manaveni, Vichada, Guaviare, and Zama rivers, Selva de Matavén, Resguardo Matavén Fruta. 80 in Colombia (1991 W. Adelaar). Ethnic population: 800 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Adole, Ature, Guagua, Kuakua, Maco, Quaqua Dearuwa, Wo’tiheh Classification: Sálivan, Piaroa-Maco Comments: ’Ature’ (Adole) may be alternate name.

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Pijao
[pij] Tolima Department. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Piajao Dialects: Not enough data to classify it linguistically (1973 M. Durbin). Classification: Unclassified

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Piratapuyo
[pir] Amazonas Department, Papurí river and lower Vaupés. Most near Roman Catholic mission at Teresita. Other scattered groups. 450 in Colombia. Ethnic population: 630 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Uaikena, Urubu-Tapuya, Waikino Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan

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Playero
[gob] Arauca Department, Venezuela border, banks of Arauca river from Gaviotas Island to Arauca. Also in Venezuela. 150 in Colombia (Crevels 2007). Population total all countries: 350. Ethnic population: 160 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pepojivi, Rio Arauca Guahibo Dialects: Low intelligibility of other Guahibo. Classification: Guajiboan, Guajibo Comments: Many have fields in Venezuela.

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Ponares
[pod] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified Comments: A Sáliba surname. Might have been a Piapoco or Achagua subgroup.

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Providencia Sign Language
[prz] Providencia Island off Nicaraguan coast. 19 (1986). Known by most people on the island including 19 born deaf out of 2,500 to 3,000 population (Washabaugh 1986). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Not exposed to other sign languages. East differs from west with some variation between villages. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: High deaf population probably caused by in-breeding. Deaf fairly well integrated into daily activities.

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Puinave
[pui] Guainía Department, Inírida river and tributaries. Also in Venezuela. 2,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 2,880. Ethnic population: 5,380 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Puinabe Dialects: Related to Macú (Ruhlen and others). Classification: Puinavean

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Quichua, Napo Lowland
[qvo] Putumayo river. Undetermined number in Colombia. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lowland Napo Quechua Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 4,850 in Colombia (2005 census). Several hundred thousand in Latin America (Hancock 1984). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Central zone, Romani, Vlax Comments: Christian.

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Runa
[rna] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Chocoan

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Sáliba
[slc] Meta and Casanare rivers. Also in Venezuela. 1,300 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 1,550. Ethnic population: 1,900 (2004 DNP). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sáliva Classification: Sálivan

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Siona
[snn] Putumayo Department, along Putumayo river and its tributaries, between Poñuna Blanca and Poñuna Negra, in the Resguardo Buenavista as well as in El Tablero. Also in Ecuador. 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 500. Ethnic population: 730 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ceona, Ganteya, Ganteyabain, Kanú, Koka, Pioche-Sioni, Pioje, Sioni, Zeona Dialects: Ethnically different from the Secoya [sey], but they use the same language, Paicoca (2011 W. Largo). Lexical similarity: 95% with Secoya [sey] (2007 W. Largo). Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje Comments: Those in Ecuador consider themselves Colombians. Distinct from Secoya (Siona-Secoya) [sey].

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Siriano
[sri] Vaupés Department, Paca and Vina rivers. Also in Brazil. 200 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 217. Ethnic population: 750 (2001 Guía Etnográfica de Colombia). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chiranga, Cirnga, Si-Ra, Sura Masa Dialects: Lexical similarity: 90% with Desano [des], but the 2 languages diverge in their use of grammatical suffixes (Crevels 2007). Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Desano-Siriano Comments: Ethnic differences are important due to the system of exogamy, and persons are identified by L1 of father. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] 42,300,000 in Colombia (2011). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1991, Constitution, Article 10). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Tama
[ten] Caquetá Department, Vicente, Orteguaza river. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Koreguaje [coe]. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan

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Tanimuca-Retuarã
[tnc] Amazonas Department, Guacayá and Oiyaka rivers (tributaries of the Mirití-Paraná), Mirití-Paraná, Apaporis, and Popeyaka rivers near mouth of Pira river below Popeyaca. 300 (1976 SIL). 180 Tanimuca. Ethnic population: 1,800 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Letuama, Letuhama, Ohañara, Opaima, Retuama, Retuarã, Tanimboka, Tanimuca-Letuama, Uairã, Ufaina Dialects: Retuarã, Tanimuca. Tanimuca and Retuarã are 2 ethnic groups living near each other who speak the same language. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan Comments: All work for one rubber hunter.

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Tariana
[tae] Vaupés Department, lower Papurí. No known L1 speakers in Colombia. Ethnic population: 330 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Tariána, Tariano Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Eastern Nawiki

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Tatuyo
[tav] Vaupés Department, Pira-Paraná headwaters and upper Papurí. 400 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 400 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Juna, Oa, Pamoa, Sina, Sura, Tatutapuyo Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Carapano Comments: Majority marry Carapana, Northern Barasano, or Barasana women.

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Ticuna
[tca] Along west bank of Amazon River, in the Trapecio amazónico, on the banks of the Loretoyacu, Atacuari, Amacayacu, and Arara. 6,600 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Ethnic population: 6,590 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tikuna, Tucuna, Tukúna Classification: Language isolate

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Tinigua
[tit] Metá Department, Sierra de la Macarena. Formerly in Caquetá Department, Llanos de Yarí. 2 (2000). Ethnic population: 2. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Tiniguas Classification: Tiniguan

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Tomedes
[toe] No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tamudes Classification: Maipurean, Unclassified

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Totoro
[ttk] Cauca Department, 17 km west of Silvia, in Totoro town. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,550 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Paezan, Coconuco

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Tucano
[tuo] Vaupés Department, Upper Papurí river and tributaries. 2,000 in Colombia. Ethnic population: 6,800 (Civallero 2008). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Betaya, Betoya, Dachsea, Dasea, Daxsea, Tukana, Tukano Dialects: Pisamira. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano

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Tunebo, Angosturas
[tnd] 50. All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: 71% intelligibility by Barro Negro [tbn] of Angosturas Tunebo. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese

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Tunebo, Barro Negro
[tbn] Isolated, Andes foothills, edge of eastern plains above Paz de Ariporo, in Barro Negro, San Lope (Casanare), and Tabías (Casanare), south of Tame Arauca. 300 (1981 SIL). All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Tunebo Dialects: 62% intelligibility of Cobaría Tunebo [tuf]. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese

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Tunebo, Central
[tuf] Boyacá and Arauca departments, north slopes of Sierra Nevada de Cocuy; Satocá, Calafita, Tegría (Boyacá), Cobaría (Boyacá). Also in Venezuela. 2,500 in Colombia (2000 SIL). All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cobaría Tunebo, Lache, U’wa, Uwa-Tunebo Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese Comments: A taboo on the use of paper for writing was observed at one time.

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Tunebo, Western
[tnb] Southern Santander Department. 700 (1998). All ethnic Tunebos: 7,010 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aguas Blancas, U’wa Dialects: Most divergent Tunebo language. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Colombian, Southern Colombian, Cundicocuyese

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Tuyuca
[tue] Southeast, Vaupés Department, on the Upper Tiquié, Papurí, and Inambú. Along headwaters of the Comeyaca. Also in Brazil. 350 in Colombia (1995 SIL). Population total all countries: 940. Ethnic population: 570 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dochkafuara, Tejuca, Tuyuka Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka

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Waimaha
[bao] Southeastern Vaupés Department, tributaries of mid and upper Pira-Paraná, upper Papurí and Tiquié, Mitú. Also in Brazil. 500 in Colombia (2004 DNP). Some monolinguals over 40. Population total all countries: 539. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Bará” (pej.), Barasano, Northern Barasano Dialects: Eastern Waimaha, Pamoa Bara. Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Bará-Tuyuka Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wajiara
[yui] Upper Paca river (tributary of the Papurí river), Caño Yi river (tributary of the Vaupes river), and Caño Tuy river (tributary of the Vaupés river). Also in Brazil. 1,100 in Colombia (2011 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Population total all countries: 1,150. Ethnic population: 690 (2004 DNP). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Juriti, Juriti-Tapuia, Juruti, Luruty-Tapuya, Patsoka, Totsoca, Wadzana, Waijiara masa-wadyana, Waikana, Waimasá, Wayhara, Yuriti, Yuruti, Yuruti-Tapuya, Yurutiye Classification: Tucanoan, Eastern Tucanoan, Tucano Comments: Marriage patterns require spouses to be from different language groups. Children speak the languages of both parents and grandparents, but identify with the father’s language. Ethnic autonym: Wajiara, fish people. Yuriti and Juriti are incorrect spellings.

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Wayuu
[guc] Guajira peninsula, Caribbean coast. Also in Venezuela. 122,000 in Colombia (Civallero 2008). Population total all countries: 321,000. Ethnic population: 144,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Goajiro, Guajira, Guajiro, Uáira, Waiu, Wayu, Wayúu, Wayuunaiki Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean

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Woun Meu
[noa] Chocó Department, banks of middle and lower San Juan river, especially north of Buenaventura. Also in Panama. 4,000 in Colombia (Aikhenvald 2007). Population total all countries: 10,800. Ethnic population: 7,970 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Waumeo, Waun Meo, Waunana Classification: Chocoan Comments: Ethnic autonym: Wounaan.

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Yahuna
[ynu] Amazonas Department, on the Apaporis and Mirití rivers. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 95 (Crevels 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Yaúna, Yayuna Dialects: Datuana, Opaina. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan

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Yarí
[yri] Caquetá Department, Yarí river, above El Capitán waterfalls; upper Vaupés river near Puerto Nare. 760 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Carijona [cbd] (Carib), a Western Tucanoan language, or Huitoto [huu]. Classification: Unclassified Comments: Ethnonym: Yarí, due to location on Yarí river.

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Yucuna
[ycn] Amazonas Department, Mirití-Paraná (tributary Caquetá); La Pedrera on lower Caquetá, Ararcuara; Leticia. 1,800 (2001 SIL). 10–20 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Matapi, Yucuna-Matapi, Yukuna Dialects: In some traditional ceremonies ritual language used, mostly unintelligible even to those who have learned it. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon, Western Nawiki Comments: Local subversive activity caused some Yucuna to move to other areas. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yukpa
[yup] Serranía de Perijá, Cesar Department, Augustín Codazzi municipality and neighboring municipalities north and south, Colombia-Venezuela border. Río Casacará dialect in Agustín Codassi municipality along Casacará river and Caño Iroka. Yukpa sur dialect, Becerril municipality. Also in Venezuela. 3,000 in Colombia (2009 W. Largo). 20% monolingual. Population total all countries: 6,040. Ethnic population: 3,530 (Arango Ochoa and Sánchez Gutierrez 1998). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Carib Motilón, Macoíta, Northern Motilón, Yuco, Yucpa, Yuko, Yupa Dialects: Coyaima, Río Casacará (Iroka), Río Maracas, Yukpa sur (Caño Padilla-La Laguna). At least 5 extant dialects including 2 in Venezuela. Río Cascará and Río Maracas dialects are probably largest, and may be separate languages. Venezuela dialects seem more similar to Río Maracas. Unrelated to Barí [mot]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Japreria [jru] of Venezuela (2008 W. Largo). Classification: Cariban, Yukpa, Yucpa-Yapreria Comments: Traditional religion.

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