Costa Rica

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Boruca
[brn] Puntarenas province: south coast between Golfito and Playa Bonita. 140 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 2,590 (2011 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (1999, Constitutional amendment, Article 76), Constitutional Court ruling April 2014 recognizing indigenous languages’ status. Alternate Names: Boruka, Borunca, Bronca, Brunca, Brunka, Burunca. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A.

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Bribri
[bzd] Limón province: Talamanca cantón, along Lari, Telire, and Uren rivers; Puntarenas province: Buenos Aires cantón. 7,000 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 12,800 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1999, Constitutional Amentment, Article 76), Constitutional Court ruling April 2014 recognizing indigenous languages’ status. Alternate Names: Talamanca. Autonym: Bribri. Dialects: Salitre-Cabagra, Amubre-Katsi, Coroma. Reportedly most similar to, but unintelligible with Cabécar [cjp], Maleku Jaika [gut], and Teribe [tfr]. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Viceitic.

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Cabécar
[cjp] Cartago, Limón, Puntarenas, San José provinces: Turrialba region. 11,100 (2011 census). 2,000 monolinguals (2015 M. Porras). The only language in Costa Rica with monolingual speakers, mostly women (Adelaar 2007). Ethnic population: 12,700 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chirripó. Autonym: Cabécar. Dialects: Chirripó, Telire, Estrella, Ujarrás. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Viceitic. Comments: Identified historically with Huetares.

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Costa Rican Sign Language
[csr] Scattered. 70,700 people with hearing loss (2011 census), number of LESCO users not available. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2012, Ley 9049, Official Recognition of Costa Rican Sign Language). Alternate Names: LESCO, Lengua de Señas Costarricense, Lenguaje de Señas Costarricense. Dialects: New Costa Rican Sign Language (Modern Costa Rican Sign Language, NCRSL), Original Costa Rican Sign Language (OCRSL). Older and younger dialects differ due to influence from American Sign Language (ASL) [ase] starting in the 1970s (2008 C. Ramirez); younger signers not familiar with the older variety cannot understand it well (2013 A. Olviedo). Younger variety has 63% probable cognates with ASL [ase] on a 100-word modified Swadesh word list; older variety only 27% (Woodward 2011). Classification: Sign language. Comments: From 1940 onward education was oralist, but changed to Total Communication in 1974; use of LESCO in the classroom started in the early 2000s. Interpreter training at the Universidad de Costa Rica. (2013 A. Oviedo). Two other sign languages among indigenous groups in the south (the Bribri and Boruca), apparently unrelated to LESCO (Woodward 1991).

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Limón Creole English
[jam] Limón province: East of San José, principally railroad area between Limón and Siquirres, road south of Limón. 55,100 (1986). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Limonese Creole, Southwestern Caribbean Creole English. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jamaican migrants settled in Limón and Panama middle of the 19th century, so those varieties are similar. Some say they do not understand Islander Creole English [icr] of San Andrés.

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Maléku Jaíka
[gut] Alajuela province: Tonjibe and Margarita reservations; northern lowlands. 750 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,070 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2014, Reforma del Subsistema de Educación Indígena N° 37801-MEP). Alternate Names: Guatuso, Malécu lhaíca. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Votic.

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Ngäbere
[gym] Puntarenas province. 2,840 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 3,650 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1999, Constitutional Amendment, Article 76), Constitutional Court ruling April 2014 recognizing indigenous languages’ status. Alternate Names: Guaymí, Nove. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Guaymiíc.

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Plautdietsch
[pdt] Heredia province: Sarapiqui area. 2,000 (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Low German, Mennonite German. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Saxon. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] 4,529,600 in Costa Rica, all users. L1 users: 4,440,000 (2013). L2 users: 89,600 (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1949, Constitution, Article 76). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Teribe
[tfr] Puntarenas province: near Boruca Reservation. No known L1 speakers (2017). Ethnic population: 1,270 (2011 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Recognized language (1999, Constitutional Amendment, Article 76), Constitutional Court ruling April 2014 recognizing indigenous languages’ status. Alternate Names: Naso, Terraba. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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