Algeria

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Algerian Sign Language
[asp] Scattered. 220,000 (2014 WFD). Federation National Des Sourds d’Algerie reports 240,000 deaf members (2008 WFD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: LSA, Langue des signes algérienne, Lghh alesharh aljza’er. Dialects: None known. It influenced the deaf community in Oujda in northern Morocco. Not the same as Unified Arabic Sign Language, an artificial system promoted by representatives of 18 Arabic-speaking countries (Rashdan 2016). Classification: Sign language. Comments: 300 sign language interpreters (2008 WFD), but no system of qualifications. Muslim.

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Arabic, Algerian Saharan Spoken
[aao] Adrar, Béchar, Biskra, Djelfa, El Bayadh, El Oued, Ghardaïa, Illizi, Laghouat, Naama, Ouargla, Tamanrasset, and Tindouf provinces; border area along Atlas mountains, northeast to Médéa, southeast to Righ Wadi, south as far as plateau du Tademait. 100,000 (1996). Total users in all countries: 178,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Saharan Arabic, Tamanghasset Arabic, Tamanrasset Arabic. Dialects: None known. Structurally distinct from other Arabic varieties. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Algerian Spoken
[arq] Widespread. 29,000,000 in Algeria, all users. L1 users: 26,000,000 (2012 Sherbrooke University), increasing. L2 users: 3,000,000. Total users in all countries: 32,326,500 (as L1: 29,326,500; as L2: 3,000,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Algerian, Darja. Autonym: دزيرية‎ (Dziria). Dialects: Constantine, Algiers, Oran. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Arabic, Hassaniyya
[mey] Tindouf province. 90,000 (1995 UNHCR). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Mainly refugees from Western Sahara.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] 28,700,000 in Algeria (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1996, Constitution, Article 3). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chenoua
[cnu] Aïn Defla province: north of Khemis; Chlef province: Mount Bissa area; Tipasa province: generally Mount Chenoua area; Mount Chenoua area (Chenoui dialect), south and west (Beni Menacer dialect); Tacheta forest area, and Beni Haoua village (Djebel Bissa dialect). 76,300 (2004 J. Leclerc). Beni Menacer: 61,000; Chenoui: 15,300 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Chenoui. Dialects: Beni Menacer (Chleuh, Tachelhit, Tamenracit), Chenoui, Djebel Bissa, Tamazight de l’Atlas blidéen (Beni-Salah). Lexical similarity: 77% with Tachawit [shy], 76% with Kabyle [kab]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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French
[fra] Mostly in cities. 10,200 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language, in higher education. Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kabyle
[kab] Bouira, Béjaïa, Tizi Ouzou, Bordj Bou Arréridj, Sétif, M’Sila, Jijel, Boumerdès, Mila, and Médéa provinces; Mediterranean coast east of Algiers; from Thenia to Béjaïa (Grande Kabylie dialect); coast and inland between Tichy and Ziama Mansouria, Aokas and Tizi n Berber (Lesser Kabyle dialect). 5,000,000 (2012). Total users in all countries: 5,586,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of national identity (2002, Constitutional Revision, Law No. 02-03). Alternate Names: Amazigh, Kabyl, Kabylia, Tamazight. Autonym: Taqbaylit. Dialects: Greater Kabyle, Lesser Kabyle (Tasahlit). Lesser Kabyle (Tasahlit) may be a separate language. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Kabyle. Comments: Kabyle reported by some sources to derive from the Arabic word for tribesman. Patrilineal and patrilocal. Muslim, Christian.

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Korandje
[kcy] Tabelbala oasis, about halfway between Béchar and Tindouf, 3 villages: Kwara, Ifrnyu, Yami. 3,000 (2010 L. Souag). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Belbalis, Kwarandzyey. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai.

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Tachawit
[shy] Batna, Biskra, Guelma, Khenchela, Oum el-Bouaghi, Souk Ahras, and Tébessa provinces: Aurès mountains, south and southeast of Grand Kabylie. 1,400,000 (1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aurès, Awras, Chaouia, Chawi, Shawia, Shawiya, Tacawit. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Shawiya. Comments: Muslim.

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Tachelhit
[shi] Béchar province: Tabelbala area sourth near the border. 6,000 (2014). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shilha, Southern Shilha, Tachilhit, Tashelhait, Tashelhayt, Tashelhit, Tasoussit. Dialects: Susiua (Sousse, Sus). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Atlas. Comments: Non-indigenous. ‘Shilha’ is the Arabic name for Moroccan Berber varieties in general. Muslim.

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Tagargrent
[oua] Ouargla province: N’Goussa and Ouargla are main centers, near Mzab. 20,000 (2014). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ouargla, Ouargli, Wargla. Dialects: Ouedghir (Wadi), Temacin, Tariyit. Only moderate comprehension of Tumzabt. Tariyit dialect is spoken by the Haratine (former slaves of the Ouargli people). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamahaq, Tahaggart
[thv] Tamanrasset province: south to Niger border in south Hoggar mountains. Southeast, Ganet area and west (Hoggar Ghat dialect). 40,000. Total users in all countries: 77,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tamachek, Tamahaq, Tamashekin, Tomachek, Touareg, Tourage, Tuareg. Dialects: Hoggar (Ahaggaren, Ajjer, Tahaggart), Ghat (Djanet, Ganet). A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamazight, Temacine
[tjo] Ouargla province: Bledit Amor; also Ghomra, Meggarin, Temacine, and Tamelhat areas. 6,000 (1995). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Touggourt, Tougourt, Tugurt. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Tagargrent. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamazight, Tidikelt
[tia] Tamanrasset province: Salah area, Tidikelt, and Tit south. 1,000 (2011), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Tidikelt, Tit. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Tidikelt. Comments: Muslim.

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Tarifit
[rif] Oran and Tlemcen provinces. No known L1 speakers (2010 L. Souag). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Fifia, Northern Shilha, Rif, Riff, Rifi, Ruafa, Shilha, Tirifie. Dialects: Arzeu, Igzennaian, Iznacen (Beni Iznassen). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Riff. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Taznatit
[grr] Adrar, Béchar, El Bayadh, and Naama provinces; Gourara area; Beni Ounif, Boussemghoun, Igli, Ouakda, Taghit. 11,000 (2014 L. Souag). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Zenatiyya. Dialects: Gourara (Gurara), Touat (Tuat, Tuwat), South Oran. Reportedly similar to Tumzabt [mzb], Tagargrent [oua], and Temacine Tamazight [tjo], but not as similar as they are to each other. Low intelligibility of other Tamazight speech forms, including Tumzabt and Tagargrent. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla. Comments: Muslim.

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Tumzabt
[mzb] Ghardaïa province: Mzab region south of Algiers; 7 oases, Ghardaïa is principal one. 150,000 (2010 UNESCO). Women are monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ghardaia, Mozabite, Mzab, Mzabi. Dialects: Only minor dialect variations. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, Mzab-Wargla. Comments: Strong cultural vitality. Tumzabt villages are interspersed among Arabic-speaking villages. Muslim.

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