Ecuador

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Achuar-Shiwiar
[acu] Morona-Santiago province: Taisha canton, Huasaga; Pastaza province: Pastaza canton, Montalvo and Simón Bolívar communities. Between Conambo, Macuma, and Pindoyacu rivers, north to Achuar, Alto Corrientes, and Pindoyacu communities, south to Peru border. 3,520 (Crevels 2011). 2,940 Achuar and 580 Shiwiar (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 6,200 (2012 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 7,940. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achiar Chicham, Achual, Achuale, Achuar, Achuar-Shiwiara, Achuara, Jivaro, Maina, Mayna. Autonym: Achuar Chicham, Shiwiar Chicham. Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awa-Cuaiquer
[kwi] Carchi and Esmeraldas provinces: extreme north, Andes west slopes, Colombia-Ecuador border, Mira river area. 2,100 (Crevels 2011), decreasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Most monolinguals are women or children under age 16. Ethnic population: 3,130 (2012 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Awa, Awa Pit, Awapit, Cuaiquer, Înkal Awa. Classification: Barbacoan, Northern.

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Chachi
[cbi] Esmeraldas province: Cayapas river and tributaries (Canandé, Cojimíes, Onzole, Sucio, and others), north coastal jungle. 5,870 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 9,390 (2012 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cayapa, Cha’ Palaachi, Cha’palaachi, Kayapa. Autonym: Cha’Palaa. Classification: Barbacoan, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cofán
[con] Napo province: near Santa Rosa de Sucumbíos, and down Aguarico river 130 km; Sucumbíos province; 5 main centers in Colombia and Ecuador border areas. 640 (Crevels 2011), increasing. Many monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,080 (2012 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,020. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: A’i, Kofane, Kofán. Autonym: A’ingae. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Variously classified as Chibchan with Western Tucanoan features (Ferndon, Borman), Barbacoan (J. Mason), or - erroneously - as Jivaroan (Ruhlen 1987). Some Witotoan influences. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Colorado
[cof] Santo Domingo de los Tsáchilas province: provincial capital area. 1,870 (Crevels 2011), increasing. Some monolingual in remote communities. Ethnic population: 2,840 (2012 UNSD). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tsachela, Tsachila, Tsafiki, Tsafiqui. Dialects: None known. Reportedly lexically similar to Chachi [cbi] and Awa-Cuaiquer [kwi], but major differences between the languages in phonology, syntax and grammatical structure (2011 W. Largo). Classification: Barbacoan, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ecuadorian Sign Language
[ecs] Scattered. 231,000 (2011 CONADIS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LSEC, Lengua de Señas de Ecuador. Dialects: Regional variation between coastal dialect (centered in Guayaquil) and sierra dialect (centered in Quito). Ecuadorian deaf community reports variation based on age. Variant used by young signers shows borrowing from American Sign Language [ase] (30% of signs) and Spanish Sign Language [ssp] (20% of sign). (Eberle et al 2012). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Instituto Nacional de Audición y Lenguaje, located in Quito, the largest deaf school in Ecuador, regards LSEC as the natural language and first language of deaf people in Ecuador, while Spanish [spa] is their second. Ecuadorian Sign Language has the most regular contact with sign languages from Peru, Colombia, and the United States. (Eberle et al 2012).

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Epena
[sja] Esmeraldas province: Borbón town on Santiago river delta; northern Pacific coast. 52 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 510 (2012 UNSD). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cholo, Emberá, Emberá Chami, Emberá del Sur, Emberá-Saija, Epená, Epená Saija, Epera Pedede, Epéna Pedée, Saija, Siapedie, Southern Embera, Southern Empera, Êpera. Dialects: Basurudo. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Southern Emberá. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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German, Standard
[deu] Pichincha province: Quito. 112,000 (Holland 2010). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Alemán, Deutsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Media Lengua
[mue] Cotopaxi province: Latacunga canton; Tungurahua province: Santiago de Pillaro canton, border area. 2,600 (Gómez-Rendón 2008). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chapu-shimi, Chaupi-lengua, Chaupi-shimi, Quichuañol, Uchilla-shimi, “Llanga-shimi” (pej.). Dialects: Imbabura Media Lengua, Cotopaxi Media Lengua. Dialectal variations are most noticeable in the pronunciation of the Quichua elements which are based on the surrounding Quichua dialects, in this case northern and central varieties. Classification: Mixed language, Spanish-Quichua. Comments: No longer spoken in Cotopaxi (Shappeck 2011).

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Quichua, Calderón Highland
[qud] Cotopaxi province and Napo provinces; Pichincha province: Calderon, Cayambe and Quito areas. 25,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 35,000 (2000). Total Quichua in Ecuador: 408,000 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Calderón Quichua, Cayambe Quichua, Kichwa, Pichincha Quichua, Quichua de la Sierra Cayambe. Autonym: Kichwa Shimi, Runa Shimi. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Chimborazo [qug], Imbabura [qvi], and Salasaca [qxl]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay.

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Quichua, Cañar Highland
[qxr] Azuay, Cañar, and Chimborazo provinces; Morona-Santiago province: Morona canton. 100,000 (1991 UBS). Total Quichua in Ecuador: 408,000 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kichwa, Quichua de la provincia de Cañar. Autonym: Kichwa Shimi, Runa Shimi. Dialects: None known. Lexical differences and a strong sense of linguistic and cultural identity. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Chimborazo Highland
[qug] Bolivar, Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Los Ríos provinces; Tungurahua province: west of Ambato; central highlands. 800,000 (2010 UBS). Total Quichua in Ecuador: 408,000 (Crevels 2011). High percentage of monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ecuadorean Quechua, Kichwa, Kichwa de la Sierra, Quichua de Chimborazo, Quichua de la Sierra Chimborazo. Autonym: Kichwa Shimi, Runa Shimi. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Imbabura Highland
[qvi] Esmeraldas province: small enclave of west Quininde canton; Imbabura province: south and west of Ibarra town into northern Pichincha province; Northern highlands. 150,000 (Gómez-Rendón 2007). Total Quichua in Ecuador: 408,000 (Crevels 2011). Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Imbabura Quichua, Kichwa, Kichwa de la Sierra, Otavalo Quichua, Quichua de la Sierra Imbabura. Autonym: Kichwa Shimi, Runa Shimi. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Loja Highland
[qvj] Azuay province; El Oro province: Portovelo and Zeruma cantons; Loja province: Sarragaro area; Zamora-Chinchipe province: Yacuambi canton, sizable community in Zamora city; southern highlands. 30,500 (2000). Total Quichua in Ecuador: 408,000 (Crevels 2011). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Loja Quichua, Saraguro Quichua. Autonym: Runa Shimi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Cañar Highland Quichua [qxr]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Trend to see Unified Quichua as proper grammar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Napo Lowland
[qvo] Orellana and Sucumbíos provinces; eastern jungle along Aguarico, Napo, and Putomayo rivers, concentrated near schools. 14,000 (2009), increasing. Total Quichua in Ecuador: 408,000 (Crevels 2011). 800 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ecuador Quichua, Ingano, Kichua, Lowland Napo Quichua, Napo Kichwa, Napo Kichwa shimi, Napo Quichua, Quichua del Napo, Quichua del Oriente, Runa Shimi. Dialects: Santa Rosa Quechua. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Ingano is a name for all lowland Quichua. Locations along the Putomayo River not confirmed. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Northern Pastaza
[qvz] Pastaza province: eastern jungle along Bobonaza and Conambo rivers. 8,000 (2007), decreasing. Total Quichua in Ecuador: 408,000 (Crevels 2011). 300 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 10,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alama, Bobonaza Quichua, Canelos Quichua, Pastaza Quichua, Quichua del Oriente, Sarayacu Quichua. Autonym: Runa Shimi. Dialects: Tigre Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Distinct from Southern Pastaza Quechua [qup] of Peru. Spanish [spa] is used for education. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Salasaca Highland
[qxl] Chimborazo and Pastaza provinces: small border areas; Tungurahua province: Salasaca area, 17 towns south and east of Ambato; dialects in Cotopaxi and throughout Tungurahua provinces. 14,300 (2000). Total Quichua in Ecuador: 408,000 (Crevels 2011). 3,580 monolinguals. Children 0–5 and older adults. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kichwa, Salasaca Quichua, Tungurahua Highland Quichua, Tungurahua Quichua. Autonym: Runa Shimibi, Salasaca Shimibi. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Lexically distinct from Chimborazo [qug], Imbabura [qvi], and Calderón [qud]. Population growing in the Galápagos Islands. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quichua, Tena Lowland
[quw] Napo province; Orellana province: Loreto canton; Pastaza province: north border. Eastern jungle. 20,000 (1999 SIL). Total Quichua in Ecuador: 408,000 (Crevels 2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Napo Kichwa, Quichua de Tena, Quichua del Oriente, Quijo, Quixo, Yumbo. Autonym: Runa Shimi. Dialects: None known. Napo [qvo], Pastaza [qvz] and Tena [quw] Quichua understand each other’s spoken language, but not written texts. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Notable differences in vocabulary, pronunciation, and grammar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Secoya
[sey] Sucumbíos province: Cuyabeno canton; Aguarico, Cuyabeno, and Eno rivers, near Colombian border. 85 (Crevels 2011). A few elderly monolinguals (2007 M. Johnson). Ethnic population: 490 (2012 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,005. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Sucumbíos province (2008, Constitution, Articles 16 and 57(21), as revised). Alternate Names: Siona-Secoya. Autonym: Paikoka. Dialects: Angotero (Angutera). Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Shuar
[jiv] Morona-Santiago province: east of Cuenca city. 42,300 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 61,900 (2012 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Morona Santiago Province (2008, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Chicham, Chiwaro, Jivaro, Shuara, Siurra, Siwora, Xivaro, “Jibaro” (pej.). Autonym: Shuar Chicham. Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro. Comments: Different from Achuar Jívaro [acu] of Peru. Preferred ethnic autonym: Shuar. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Siona
[snn] Sucumbíos province: Biaña, Puerto Bolívar and Orawaya communities; Putamayo river south bank. 260 (Crevels 2011). Ethnic population: 610 (2010 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Statutory language of provincial identity in Sucumbíos province (2008, Constitution, Articles 16 and 57(21), as revised). Alternate Names: Baicoca, Kokakañú, Pai Coca. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje.

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Spanish
[spa] 15,609,000 in Ecuador, all users. L1 users: 14,800,000 (2015). L2 users: 809,000 (2015). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2008, Constitution, Article 2). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Tetete
[teb] Sucumbíos province: near Colombia border, eastern Cofán jungle area. No known L1 speakers. Only 3 ethnic group members reported in 1969 (SIL). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Secoya [sey] but intelligible only with difficulty. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan.

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Waorani
[auc] Orellana province: south from Tiputini river, including portions of Yasuní National Park; Pastaza province: Arajuno and Pastaza cantons including a small group near Puyo community; Napo province; eastern jungle between Napo and Curaray rivers. 1,650 (2004). Ethnic population: 2,420 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Orellana, Pastaza and Napo provinces (2008, Constitution, Articles 16 and 57(21), as revised). Alternate Names: Huao, Huaorani, Sabela, Wao, Wao Terero, Wao Tiriro, Waodäni, Waodäni Tededö, Waos, Waotededo, “Auca” (pej.). Autonym: Wao Tededö. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Mixed marriage families include mostly Quichua but also Shuar [jiv] and Záparo [zro] individuals who rely upon Spanish [spa] for communication (2015 P. Kelley). Spanish is more likely to extinguish the language because the mixed marriages tend to use both languages plus the attraction to Spanish-speaking towns and impact by non-Waorani teachers who are aggressive in denigrating Waorani (2015 J. Yost). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Záparo
[zro] Pastaza province: Peru border, between Curaray and Bobonaza rivers. 5 (2007 UNESCO). About 20 elderly Záparo still have some variable degree of knowledge of the language (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 350 (Crevels 2011). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kayapi, Kayapwe, Sápara, Zápara. Classification: Zaparoan, Záparo. Comments: Distinct from Andoa [anb] (Shimagae) of Peru.

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