United Kingdom

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Angloromani
[rme] Scattered. Population: 90,000 in United Kingdom (Hancock 1990b). Total users in all countries: 99,200. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anglo-Romani, English Romani, Gypsy Jib, Para-Romani, Pogadi Chib, Posh ‘N’ Posh, Romani English, Romani Mixed Dialect, Romanichal, Romano Lavo, Romany, Rummaness. Autonym: Romanes, Romani. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Welsh Romani [rmw], Traveller Swedish [rmu], Traveller Norwegian [rmg], or Traveller Danish [rmd]. Grammar is English with heavy Romani lexical borrowing. Many dialects. Classification: Mixed language, English-Romani.

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British Sign Language
[bfi] Scattered. Population: 327,000, all users. L1 users: 77,000 (2014 EUD). L2 users: 250,000 (2013 K. Crombie Smith). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: BSL. Dialects: Scottish Sign Language, Welsh Sign Language, Northern Ireland Sign Language (BSL-NI, NISL). Deaf community is cohesive so communication is good despite variation in different parts of the United Kingdom (e.g. Scotland, Wales, with more divergence in Northern Ireland, especially among older signers (Parks and Parks 2012)). Signing varies along a continuum from something usually called Signed English (which draws on BSL vocabulary but uses grammatical structure like spoken English) to natural BSL. Different styles of signing used in different situations, and signers vary in terms of how much of the range of signing styles they control. Not inherently intelligible to users of American Sign Language (ASL) [ase], although Northern Ireland variety shows significant influence from ASL. Many structural and lexical similarities between British Sign Language (BSL), Australian Sign Language (Auslan) [asf], and New Zealand Sign Language (NZSL) [nzs] and a high degree of mutual intelligibility. Linguists sometimes use the name BANZSL to refer to them as a group, while still recognizing them as having separate sociolinguistic identities (2003 T. Johnston). Classification: Sign language.

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Cornish
[cor] Cornwall county: scattered. Population: 600, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers, but emerging L2 speakers. The identity of the last speaker is hotly debated by scholars. Some sources say the last L1 speaker was Dorothy ‘Dolly’ Pentreath, who died in 1777. L2 users: 600 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 73,200 (2011 census). Status: 9 (Reawakening). Alternate Names: Curnoack, Kernowek. Autonym: Kernewek. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Breton [bre] and Welsh [cym] with some mutual intelligibility. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic.

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English
[eng] Population: 58,100,000 in United Kingdom, all users. L1 users: 56,600,000 in United Kingdom (2011 census). England and Wales 49,800,000, Scotland 5,118,000, Northern Ireland 1,681,000. L2 users: 1,500,000 (Crystal 2003a). Total users in all countries: 1,132,366,680 (as L1: 379,007,140; as L2: 753,359,540). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Autonym: English. Dialects: Cockney, Scouse, Geordie, West Country, East Anglia, Birmingham (Brummie, Brummy), South Wales, Edinburgh, Belfast, Cornwall, Cumberland, Central Cumberland, Devonshire, East Devonshire, Dorset, Durham, Bolton Lancashire, North Lancashire, Radcliffe Lancashire, Northumberland, Norfolk, Newcastle Northumberland, Tyneside Northumberland, Lowland Scottish, Somerset, Sussex, Westmorland, North Wiltshire, Craven Yorkshire, North Yorkshire, Sheffield Yorkshire, West Yorkshire, Glaswegian. Many local English varieties around the world. Lexical similarity: 60% with German, 27% with French, 24% with Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Irish
[gle] Armagh City, Banbridge and Craigavon district: Armagh county; Belfast; Fermanagh and Omagh county. Population: 5,730 in United Kingdom (2011 census). England and Wales 1,560, Northern Ireland 4,170. Widely used as L2 in all parts of Northern Ireland. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Erse, Gaeilge, Gaelic Irish, Irish Gaelic. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic.

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Irish Sign Language
[isg] Scattered in Northern Ireland, particularly Londonderry and other areas with stronger Catholic ties. Population: 1,500 in United Kingdom (Parks and Parks 2012). 4,500 Deaf signers (2019 EUD). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Some differences with Irish Sign Language as used in Dublin (Parks and Parks 2012). Classification: Sign language.

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Polari
[pld] Scattered. Population: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Palari, Palarie, Parlare, Parlary, Parlyaree. Classification: Unclassified.

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Romani, Welsh
[rmw] England and Wales, scattered. Population: No known L1 speakers. Last speaker, Manfri Wood, died in 1968. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Roma, Romani, Voshanange Kalá, Walsenenge Kale. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Angloromani [rme]. A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern.

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Scots
[sco] Scotland: Aberdeen City; Aberdeenshire; Angus, Argyll and Bute; Scottish Borders, The county: Doric (northeast Scotland dialect); Clackmannanshire; Dumfries and Galloway; East Ayrshire; East Dunbartonshire; East Lothian; East Renfrewshire; Edinburgh, City of; Falkirk; Fife; Glasgow City; Highland; Inverclyde; Midlothian; Moray; North Ayrshire; North Lanarkshire; Orkney Islands; Perth and Kinross; Renfrewshire; Shetland Islands; South Ayrshire; South Lanarkshire; Stirling; West Dunbartonshire; West Lothian; Lallans (south and central Scotland dialect); Northern Ireland (Ulster dialect): Antrim and Newtownabbey; Ards and North Down; Causeway Coast and Glens; Derry City and Strabane; Mid and East Antrim; Mid-Ulster; Newry, Mourne and Down. Population: 1,589,200 in United Kingdom, all users. L1 users: 89,200 in United Kingdom (2011 census). 55,800 in Scotland, 33,400 in Northern Ireland. L2 users: 1,500,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 1,599,200 (as L1: 99,200; as L2: 1,500,000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Braid Scots, Scotch. Autonym: Scots. Dialects: Doric, Lallans, Ulster. Difficult intelligibility among dialects. Northern Scots on the Scottish Islands is considered by some a different language (Shetlandic or Orcadian). Lallans is main literary dialect. Scots is reportedly most similar to English [eng] and Frisian [fry]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Scottish Gaelic
[gla] Highland county: northwest Scotland, Western Isles, islands of Colonsay, Lismore, Raasay, Skye, and Tiree; Edinburgh and Glasgow cities. Population: 57,400 in United Kingdom (2011 census). Over 87,000 people with any Gaelic language skills (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 60,130. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Scotland (2005, Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act). Alternate Names: Gaelic, Gàidhlig Albannach, Gàidhlig na h-Alba, Scots Gaelic. Autonym: Gàidhlig. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Goidelic.

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Shelta
[sth] Scattered in Northern Ireland; major cities of England and Scotland. Population: 16,700 in United Kingdom (2008 A. Redmond). 15,000 in England and Scotland, 1,710 in Northern Ireland (2008 A. Redmond). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Mixed language, Irish-undocumented.

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Traveller Scottish
[trl] Major cities. Population: 460 (2011 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Scottish Cant, Scottish Traveller Cant. Classification: Unclassified.

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Welsh
[cym] Widespread in Wales. Population: 562,000 in United Kingdom (2011 census), decreasing. 32,700 monolinguals (1971 census). Total users in all countries: 573,050. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Wales (1993, Welsh Language Act, C 38). Autonym: Cymraeg. Dialects: Northern Welsh, Southern Welsh. Classification: Indo-European, Celtic, Insular, Brythonic.

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