Ghana

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Abron
[abr] Brong-Ahafo region: southwest northwest of Asante Twi [aka] language area. 1,050,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 1,183,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bron, Brong, Doma, Gyaman Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Comments: Muslim.

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Adamorobe Sign Language
[ads] Eastern region: Akuapim South district, Adamorobe village; north of Tema. 41 (Kusters 2012). Many of the approximately 3,500 hearing people in Adamorobe village also use AdaSL, to varying degrees of proficiency (Kusters 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: AdaSL Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: In past years, incidence of deafness was as high as 11% in 1961, but it has dropped drastically, to about 1% in 2012, due to a local law enacted in 1975 forbidding deaf people to marry each other. Many of the approximately 3,500 hearing people in Adamorobe village also use AdaSL, to varying degrees of proficiency. (Kusters 2012).

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Adangbe
[adq] Togo border area east of Ho. Agotime ethnic group mostly in Volta region: Kpoeta, Apegame. 200 in Ghana (2006). Population total all countries: 4,200. Ethnic population: 6,000 (Gblem-Poidi 2012). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adan, Adantonwi, Agotime, Dangbe Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Different from Adangme [ada]. The Adan and Agotime are separate ethnic groups who speak Adangbe.

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Adele
[ade] Volta region: Nkwanta and Jasikan districts; east central border with Togo; Upper Adele dialect in Togo; Lower Adele in Ghana. 11,000 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bidire Dialects: Lower Adele, Upper Adele. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Basila-Adele Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bidire. Ethnonym: Adele, different from Adere [add] of Cameroon. Traditional religion.

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Ahanta
[aha] Western region: Takoradi to Princes Town. Southwest coast. 142,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Akan
[aka] Widespread. 8,300,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Population includes 2,800,000 Asante Twi, 1,900,000 Fante, 555,000 Akuapem Twi (2004). Population total all countries: 8,314,600. L2 users: 1,000,000 in Ghana. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Dialects: Abura Fanti, Agona, Ahafo, Akuapem (Akuapim, Akwapem Twi, Akwapi, Twi), Akyem (Akyem Bosome), Anomabo Fanti, Asante (Achanti, Asanti, Ashante Twi), Asen, Bono, Dankyira, Fante (Fanti, Mfantse), Gomua, Kwawu (Kwahu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Comments: The two main subdivisions of Akan are assigned codes in the ISO 639-3 standard: Fanti (fat) and Twi (twi). Fanti dialects: Agona, Anomabo Fanti, Abura Fanti, Gomua. Twi dialects: Ahafo, Akuapem, Akyem, Asante, Asen, Dankyira, Kwawu.

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Akposo
[kpo] Volta Region, Jasikan district, near Togo border. 7,500 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akposso, Ikposo, Ikposso, Kposo Dialects: Amou Oblou, Ikponu, Iwi (Uwi), Litime (Badou), Logbo, Uma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Traditional religion.

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Animere
[anf] Volta region: enclave north of Jasikan town; Kecheibi and Kunda villages, remote. 700 (2003). Only a few fluent speakers left in an ethnic group of several hundred (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Anyimere, Kunda Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kebu-Animere Comments: Traditional religion.

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Anufo
[cko] Northern region: Wawjayga area. 66,000 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 151,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakosi, Chokosi, Kyokosi, Tchokossi, Tiokossi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Large migration to Togo. Ethnic autonym: Anufo; Ethnonym: Chokosi. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Anyin
[any] Western region: Aowin Suman district; between Abron north and Nzema south, Côte d’Ivoire west, Twi east; Aowin dialect in Ghana. 250,000 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agni, Anyi Dialects: Aowin (Anyin Aowin, Brissa, Brosa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Avatime
[avn] Volta region: center at Amedzofe. 24,000 (2003). L2 users: Understood somewhat as L2 by speakers of nearby languages. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Afatime, Sia, Sideme, Si-ya Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nyangbo [nyb] and Tafi [tcd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awutu
[afu] Central region: Awutu district, coast west of Accra. 180,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Awutu, Efutu, Senya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Comments: Many have school education. Christian, Muslim.

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Bimoba
[bim] Northern region: Bunkpurugu-Yunyoo and Sabobal-Chereponi districts; Upper East region: Garu-Tempane district, south of Kusaal [kus] and north of Konkomba [xon] language areas. 120,000 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Moar, Moor Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Moba Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Birifor, Southern
[biv] Northern region; Upper West region: Wa West district. Northwest corner. 125,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 129,310. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birifo, Ghana Birifor Dialects: None known. A separate language from Wali [wlx], Southern Dagaari [dga], and Malba-Birifor [bfo] of Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Birifor Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bisa
[bib] Upper East region: Bawku Municipal district. Northeast. 166,000 in Ghana (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bissa Dialects: Baraka (Eastern Bisa), Lebir (Western Bisa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Bissa Comments: Not the same as Busa [bqp] of Nigeria. Ethnonym: Busansi. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Buli
[bwu] Upper East region; Northern region: White Volta river area. Southwest. 150,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bulisa, Guresha, Kanjaga Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Konni [kma]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Mampruli [maw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chakali
[cli] Upper West region: Wa East district; Northern region: West Gonja district; Ducie village is largest. 6,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 62% with Tampulma [tpm], 68% with Vagla [vag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Chala
[cll] Volta region: Nkwanta, Odomi, Ago villages; Northern region: Jadigbe village near Seipe, south of Ekumdipe is 35% Chala. 3,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cala, Tshala Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: They are under the Gikyode [acd] paramount chief. Traditional religion.

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Cherepon
[cpn] Eastern region: east of Koforidua town; a pocket between Ga [gaa] and Twi language areas, north of Larteh. 111,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiripon, Chiripong, Kyerepong, Okere Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chumburung
[ncu] Northern region: East Gonja district; Brong-Ahafo region: Sene district; Volta region: Krachi district; triangular area with Volta lake south, Daka river northwest, Yeji is south of the lake. 69,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. 2,700 Yeji. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kyongborong, Nchimburu, Nchumburu, Nchummuru Dialects: Northern Chumburung (Banda), Southern Chumburung (Bejamse, Borae, Chinderi, Gurubi, Lonto), Yeji (Yedji). Reportedly somewhat intelligible with Krache [kye]. Lexical similarity: 77% with the Yeji dialect, 79% with Kplang [kph], 78% with Krache, 69% with Dwang [nnu], 67% with Nawuri [naw] and Gikyode [acd], 60% with Gonja [gjn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dagaare, Southern
[dga] Upper West region. Northwest corner. 700,000 (2003), increasing. 1,000,000 including Northern Dagara in Burkina Faso (2003). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Dagaare, Dagara, Dagare, Dagari, Dagati, Degati, Dogaari, Southern Dagari Dialects: None known. Southern Dagaare and Southern Birifor [biv] are partially intelligible. Distinct from Northern Dagara [dgi] in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest, Dagaari-Birifor, Dagaari Comments: Dagaare is more prominent politically and socially than Birifor. Different from Northern Dagara [dgi] in Burkina Faso. Christian, traditional religion.

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Dagbani
[dag] Northern region: northeast of Tamale area, as far as Yendi. 800,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Dagbamba, Dagbane, Dagomba Dialects: Nanuni (Nanumba). Lexical similarity: 95% with Mampruli [maw], 90% with Farefare [gur], 89% with Kusaal [kus]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Ethnic autonym: Dagbamba or Dagomba; Ethnonym: Dagbani. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Dangme
[ada] Eastern and Volta regions: Southeast, coast east of Accra and inland, between Volta river dam and river mouth. 800,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Adangme Dialects: Ada, Gbugbla, Krobo, Ningo, Osu, Shai. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme Comments: Traditional religion.

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Deg
[mzw] Brong-Ahafo region: Kintampo North district; Northern region: Bole district; west of Volta lake. 26,400 in Ghana (2003). Population total all countries: 27,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aculo, Buru, Degha, Janela, Mmfo, Mo Dialects: Boe, Longoro, Mangum. Lexical similarity: 78% with Vagla [vag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Ethnic autonym: Deg; Ethnonym: Mo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Delo
[ntr] Volta region: Pampawie area, Togo border. East central. 10,900 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 18,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ntribou, Ntribu, Ntrubo Dialects: None known. Reclassified from Kwa to Gur family. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: ‘Ntrubo’ is the name of the people. The paramount chief is at Brewaniase, 35 km south of Nkwanta. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dompo
[doy] Brong-Ahafo region: Banda quarter called Dompofie. 65 (Blench 1999), decreasing. Ethnic population: 970 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dumpo, Ndmpo Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: ‘Dompo’ is the name of people and language.

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Dwang
[nnu] Brong-Ahafo region: south of Volta lake and the Chumburung [ncu] language area, east of Atebubu. 8,200 (2003 GILLBT). 1,600 Bekye, 3,300 Kenyen, 3,300 Wiase. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dwan, Nchumunu Dialects: Bekye, Kenyen, Wiase. Reportedly most similar to Kplang [kph]. Comprehension of Chumburung [ncu] 75%. Krache [kye] is understood well due to contact. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Ethnonym: Bassa, historically.

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English
[eng] L2 users: 1,000,000 in Ghana (Voegelin 1977). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Éwé
[ewe] Volta region: easternmost Greater Accra; Eastern region: Askuma town area, west of Lake Volta. Southeast corner. 2,250,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 3,112,000. L2 users: 500,000 in Ghana. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Ebwe, Efe, Eibe, Eue, Eve, Gbe, Krepe, Krepi, Popo, Vhe Dialects: Anglo (Anlo), Awuna, Hudu, Kotafoa. Westernmost language of the Gbe language subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Gbe Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Farefare
[gur] Upper East region: Bolgatanga area, Frafra district, west to Navrongo. Northeast. 820,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Up to 656,000 in Upper East region, and at least 164,000 in various towns and cities in other regions (2003). Population total all countries: 845,100. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Upper East Region. Alternate Names: Frafra, Gurene, Gurenne, Gurune, Nankani, Ninkare Dialects: Booni, Gurune (Gudeni, Gudenne, Gurenne, Zuadeni), Nabt (Nabdam, Nabde, Nabdug, Nabit, Nabnam, Nabrug, Nabte, Namnam), Nankani (Naani, Nankanse), Talni (Talene, Talensi). 5 major dialects and many minor ones. Dialects are divided according to geography and ethnic sub-boundaries. Some named after towns or localities. Consider Southern Dagaare [dga] in particular a sister language. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: Ethnonym: Talensi. Christian, traditional religion.

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Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] Widespread in north. 7,300 in Ghana (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulbe, Maacina, Peul Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Nomadic. Considered foreigners by Ghanaians. Muslim.

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Ga
[gaa] Accra, southeast coast area. 600,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Accra, Acra, Amina, Gain Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Ga-Dangme Comments: Ethnonym: Gamei (literally, Ga people), Ganyo (sg.) or Ganyobi (child of a Ga person). Ga refers to the language, ethnic group, and central part of Accra. Traditional religion.

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Ghanaian Pidgin English
[gpe] Accra and southern towns. 5,000,000 (2011 V. Velupillai). L2 users: 2,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as a lingua franca in multilingual contexts as well as an in-group language among males in secondary schools and universities with the purpose of expressing group solidarity. Alternate Names: Kroo Brofo, Kru English, Pidgin, Pidgin English Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nigerian Pidgin [pcm], Cameroon Pidgin [wes], and Krio [kri]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio Comments: Spoken across ethnic groups.

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Ghanaian Sign Language
[gse] Scattered. 6,000 (2008 WFD). Over 6000 deaf signers (2008 WFD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: GSL Dialects: None known. Related to American Sign Language [ase] and Nigerian Sign Language [nsi]. Ghanaian SL now differs from American Sign Language with new and local signs. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Some sign language classes for hearing people.

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Gikyode
[acd] Volta region: Nkwanta district, on Togo border, 9 remote villages. East central. 10,400 (2003), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chode, Gichode, Kyode Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Ginyanga [ayg] of Togo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Ethnonym: Akyode (Achode). Glossonym: Gikyode (correct spelling), Gichode is the correct English pronunciation. Traditional religion.

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Gonja
[gjn] Northern region: upper basin of Volta lake area; Brong-Ahafo region: Kintampa North district, separate area to west. 230,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Dialects: Choruba (Choroba), Gonja. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Gua
[gwx] Volta and Eastern regions; pocket in Éwé [ewe] language area and Lake Volta to the west. 60,200 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anum-Boso, Guan, Gwa Dialects: Anu (Anum), Boso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Hanga
[hag] Northern region: southeast of Mole Game Reserve, Damongo district; Murugu is biggest village. 6,800 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. 4,100 in the traditional area, 2,700 elsewhere. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anga Dialects: Northern Hanga, Southern Hanga. Kamara [jmr] is a separate language. Subdialects of Southern Hanga are Langantere, Murugu, Damongo; subdialects of Northern Hanga are Yazori and Bowena. Lexical similarity: 84% with Southern Dagaare [dga] and Farefare [gur]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Politically a subgroup of the Gonja.

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Hausa
[hau] Status: 3 (Wider communication).Used as L2 in the north. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Chadic, West, A, A.1 Comments: Muslim.

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Jwira-Pepesa
[jwi] Western region; Jwira north of Axim from Bamiankaw to Humjibere along Ankobra river (18 villages); Pepesa on Wasa land between Agona Junction and Tarkwa; Dompim is main town. Southwest corner. 18,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gwira, Pepesa-Jwira Dialects: Jwira, Pepesa. 60% intelligibility with Nzema [nzi]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Comments: A mountain range separates the 2 groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kabiyè
[kbp] Northern region: near Togo border. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cabrai, Cabrais, Kabire, Kabure, Kabye Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kamara
[jmr] Northern region: edge of Hanga [hag] language area, on road west of Damongo, Larabanga village. Safaliba [saf] language group sources report another small village 30 km south of Bole. 3,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Significantly different linguistically and culturally from Hanga [hag]. More similar to Dagbani [dag] than to Hanga (1997 G. Hunt). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Population of 3,000 in Bouna, Côte d’Ivoire reported (Becuwe 1981). Muslim.

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Kantosi
[xkt] Upper East region: Sandema district; Navrongo, Bolgatonga, Nalerigu, and Kpaliwogo, near Wa. 2,300 (2003 GILLBT). 280–400 in Sandema District, probably about 280 in Kpaliwongo. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dagaare-Dioula, Kantonsi, Yare, Yarsi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kamara [jmr], Farefare [gur], and Dagbani [dag]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: A source says they are from Niger or Mali. Glossonym: Yare or Yarsi by the Bulsa. Distinct from Dagari-Dioula [dgd] in Burkina Faso. Muslim.

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Kasem
[xsm] Upper West region: Sissala East and West districts; Upper East region: area of Navrongo town west. North central. 130,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Kasena, Kassena, Kassene Dialects: Fere, Kasem, Lela, Nunuma. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Ethnonym: Kasena. Glossonym: Kasem. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Konkomba
[xon] Northern region: east border area, Guerin, Yendi district; north central, many scattered groups. 500,000 in Ghana (2003), increasing. Population total all countries: 584,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kpankpamba Dialects: Lichabool, Ligbeln, Likoonli (Likonl, Liquan), Limonkpel, Linafiel, Nalong. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bikpakpam. Patrilineal, patrilocal. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Konni
[kma] Northern region: West Mamprusi district; isolated, no roads, 5 villages, Yikpabongo and Nangruma largest. 3,800 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koma, Komung, Koni Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Buli [bwu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Buli-Koma Comments: Politically under the Mampruli chief. Ethnonym: Koma. A high percentage of blindness from onchocerciasis. Traditional religion.

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Kplang
[kph] Brong-Ahafo region: Sene district, south of Volta lake and Yeji town. 1,600 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Prang Dialects: 73% intelligibility with Chumburung [ncu]. 96% comprehension of the Yeji dialect of Chumburung due to proximity. Lexical similarity: 92% with the Yeji, 79% with Chumburung [ncu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Krache
[kye] Volta region: central near Nchimburu, Kete Krachi area. 58,000 (2004 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaakyi, Krachi, Krakye Dialects: None known. Considerable mutual intelligibility of Chumburung [ncu] and Dwang [nnu] (Guan languages); less with Guan languages of Gonja [gjn] or Gikyode [acd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bondoukou
[kzc] Brong-Ahafo region: west of Wenchi. West central. 27,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bonduku, Kolango, Koulango, Kulange, Kulango, Nkuraeng, Nkurange Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kulango, Bouna
[nku] Northern region: Bole district, west central border area. 15,500 in Ghana (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bouna Koulango, Buna Kulango, Nkuraeng Dialects: Nabanj, Sekwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Kulango Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kusaal
[kus] Upper East region: Bawku district. Northeast corner. 420,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL), increasing. 350,000 Agole, 70,000 Toende. Population total all countries: 438,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kusaasi, Kusale, Kusasi Dialects: Agole (Angole, Eastern Kusaal), Toende (Western Kusaal). Further investigation of the Toende dialect in Burkina Faso is needed. Possible marginal intelligibility with Eastern (Angole) Kusaal. Many claim to be able to understand the related languages: Mòoré [mos], Dagbani [dag], Mampruli [maw], and Farefare [gur]. Kusaal is a member of the Mòoré-Dagbani subgroup. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Lama
[las] Northern region: between Yendi, and Tamale. Several hundred or perhaps thousands in Ghana (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamba, Losso Dialects: Kadjala (Kadjalla). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern

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Larteh
[lar] Eastern region: east of Adwaso, a pocket in Ga [gaa] language area, Twi area, south of Cherepon. 74,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gua, Late, Lete Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, South Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lelemi
[lef] Volta region: Jasikan district. Southeast. 48,900 (2003), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buem, Lafana, Lefana Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Lelemi-Akpafu Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ligbi
[lig] Brong-Ahafo region: Numasa, east of Sampa, northwest of Wenchi. 15,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT). Population total all countries: 19,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banda, Dzowo, Jogo, Ligwi, Namasa, Nigbi, Nigwi, Tsie, Tuba, Weela, Weila, Wiila Dialects: Atumfuor (Atumfuor-Kasa), Bungase, Dwera (Manji-Kasa), Gyogo, Hwela (Vwela, Weela, Weila, Wiila), Ntoleh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Jogo-Jeri, Jogo Comments: Ethnonym: Banda, also refers to Nafaanra language speakers. Numu is a caste of blacksmiths who speak the same dialect. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Logba
[lgq] Volta region: southeast of Date. 7,500 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikpana Dialects: None known. A population sample averaged 87% comprehension of Éwé [ewe] mixed discourse types. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Logba Comments: Different from Lokpa [dop] of Benin and Togo.

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Mampruli
[maw] Northeast Northern region: east and west of Gambaga; Upper East region: scattered border areas north of the White Volta river, between Pwalagu and Zongoiri. 220,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 230,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in northeast North Region. Alternate Names: Mampelle, Mamprule, Manpelle, Ngmamperli Dialects: Eastern Mampruli, Western Mampruli. 50% intelligibility with Dagbani [dag]. Lexical similarity: 95% with Dagbani [dag], 90% with Farefare [gur]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Southeast Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Nafaanra
[nfr] Brong-Ahafo region: Jaman North, Jaman South, and Tain districts; border area in Northern region: Bole district. West border. 61,000 in Ghana (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banda, Dzama, Gambo, Nafaara, Nafana, Pantera-Fantera Dialects: Fantera, Pantera. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Nafaanra Comments: Ethnonym: Banda, Banafo, or Nafana. Traditional religion.

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Nawdm
[nmz] Scattered, Volta region: Ho and Kpando districts; Greater Accra. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Naoudem, Naudm, Nawdam Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Yom-Nawdm

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Nawuri
[naw] Volta and Northern regions: Lake Volta, mostly Oti river west bank branch, northeast of Katiajeli. 14,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with the Buipe dialect of Gonja [gjn] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nchumbulu
[nlu] Brong-Ahafo region: west of Lake Volta near Kplang, 3 villages. 1,800 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Similar to Chumburung [ncu] and Dwang [nnu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Whistle speech reported.

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Nkami
[nkq] Eastern region: Afram Plains district, Amankwakrom. 7,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nkonya [nko]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: The Nkamis are under Akan (Kwahu) chiefs.

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Nkonya
[nko] Central Volta region: east of Lake Volta, north of Ahenkro. 28,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Guang, North Guang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ntcham
[bud] Northern region: Zabzugul Tantale district. 57,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basar, Basare, Basari, Bassar, Bassari, Ncham, Tobote Dialects: Bitaapul. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Gurma, Ntcham Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nyangbo
[nyb] Volta region: east of Afeyi. 6,400 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tutrugbu Dialects: None known. A population sample averaged 72% comprehension of Éwé [ewe] mixed discourse types. People who have had no contact with Tafi [tcd] had 67% intelligibility of it on tests; people 30 to 50 years old had nearly perfect comprehension. Reportedly only phonological differences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nzema
[nzi] Western region: Jomoro district. Southwesternmost corner. 262,000 in Ghana (2004 SIL). Population total all countries: 328,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1951, Laws of the Gold Coast, Vernacular Literature Board Ordinance, as amended by Ordinance No. 44). Alternate Names: Appolo, Nzima Dialects: Evalue. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Southern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Paasaal
[sig] Upper West region: south of Tumu, 105 km east of Wa, 18 villages; Northern region: West Gonja district. 36,000 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Funsile, Pasaale, Pasaale Sisaala, Southern Sisaala Dialects: Gilbagala, Pasaali. The dialect in Funsi Kundogo is predominant among the Paasaal villages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Safaliba
[saf] Northern region: Mandari, Tanyire, Manfuli, and Gbenfu villages; Bote, Sawla, Kalba town areas. 4,000 (2003), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Safalaba, Safalba, Safali Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Southern Dagaari [dga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: Speakers also reported in Vonkoro and Bouna, Côte d’Ivoire. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sehwi
[sfw] Western region. Southwest. 250,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asahyue, Sefwi Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anyin [any] of Côte d’Ivoire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Bia, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sekpele
[lip] Volta region: north of Hohoe. Southeast. 23,400 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bosele, Likpe, Mu Dialects: Sekpele, Sekwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi Comments: Traditional religion.

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Selee
[snw] Volta region: northeast of Ahenkro, Benua, Bume, and Gbodome villages. Southeast. 11,300 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Santrokofi, Sele, Sentrokofi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Likpe-Santrokofi Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sisaala, Tumulung
[sil] Upper West region: Tumu area east to Sisili river; Upper East region: Bulisa district. North central. 105,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hissala, Isaalung, Issala, Sisai, Sisala Tumu Dialects: Gil Bagale (Galebagla), Isala, Nsihaa, Potule. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sisaala, Western
[ssl] Upper West region: between Lambusie and Tumu. Northwest. 30,000 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Busillu Sisala, Hissala, Issala, Sisai Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sissala [sld] of Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Siwu
[akp] Volta region: Mpeasem area north of Hohoé. Southeast. 27,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Akpafu-Lolobi, Lolobi-Akpafu, Siwusi Dialects: Akpafu, Lolobi. Lolobi and Akpafu dialects are inherently intelligible, but have been politically separate since the 1800s. A population sample averaged 66% comprehension of Éwé [ewe] mixed discourse types. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Lelemi, Lelemi-Akpafu Comments: Ethnonym: Lolobi and Akpafu, also town names. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tafi
[tcd] Volta region: north of Ho, near Togo border. East central. 4,400 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tegbo Dialects: None known. A population sample averaged 73% comprehension of Éwé mixed discourse types. 83% understand Nyangbo [nyb] narrative well. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Avatime-Nyangbo Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tampulma
[tpm] Northern region: Damongo district, south of Sisaala, 25 villages. 16,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tampele, Tamplima, Tampole, Tampolem, Tampolense, Tamprusi Dialects: 2 inherently intelligible dialects. Lexical similarity: 62% with Chakali [cli]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: ‘Tamprusi’ is the name of the people. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tem
[kdh] Greater Accra. 53,000 in Ghana. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cotocoli, Kotokoli, Temba, Tim, Timu Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Eastern Comments: Muslim.

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Tuwuli
[bov] Volta region: Volta lake east to Amanfro on Hohoe-Jasikan road. 11,400 (2003 GILLBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bawuli, Bowili, Bowiri, Liwuli, Siwuri, Tuwili Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Left Bank, Kposo-Ahlo-Bowili Comments: Traditional religion.

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Vagla
[vag] Northern region: Damongo district, near Sawla. West central. 13,500 (2003 GILLBT), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Konosarola, Paxala, Vagala Dialects: Bole, Buge. Lexical similarity: 68% with Chakali [cli]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Western Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wali
[wlx] Upper West region: Wa town south; Northern region, northwest. 138,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ala, Ouala, Waali, Wala Dialects: ’Bulengee, Cherii, ’Dolimi, Fufula, Yeri Waali. Distinct from Southern Birifor [biv] and Southern Dagaari [dga]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: The ’ before dialect names indicates a change in vowel quality. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Wasa
[wss] Western region: mostly south, mainly Wassa West, Wassa East, Wasa Amenti West, and Wass Amenti East districts. 309,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Wasaw, Wassa Dialects: Amenfi, Fianse. Some intelligibility with Abron [abr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kwa, Nyo, Potou-Tano, Tano, Central, Akan Comments: Traditional religion.

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