Equatorial Guinea

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Batanga
[bnm] Litoral province: Bapuku along central coast, south of Mbini to Cabo San Juan. 9,000 in Equatorial Guinea (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 15,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Banoho, Banoo, Bano’o, Bapuku, Noho, Nohu, Noku, Puku. Dialects: Bapuku (Bapoko, Bapuu, Naka, Puku). The Puku are an Ndowe coastal people. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.32). Comments: Different from Batanga [bdu] of South West Region in Cameroon (Balundu-Bima), and the Batanga dialect of Caka [ckx]. Traditionally coastal fishermen. All the Benga and Batanga consider themselves ‘Boumba’ (those who use ‘mba’ to refer to ourselves), and together with additional groups are ‘Ndowe’ (the beach peoples). Christian, traditional religion.

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Benga
[bng] Litoral province: Corisco Island, Rio Muni. 3,900 in Equatorial Guinea (2011 S. Smith), decreasing. 400 on Corisco Island. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 5,400. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boumba, Ndowe. Dialects: None known. Related to Batanga [bnm]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.34). Comments: Traditionally coastal fishermen. All the Benga and Batanga [bnm] consider themselves ‘Boumba’ (those who use ‘mba’ to refer to ourselves), and together with additional groups are ‘Ndowe’ (the beach peoples). Christian, traditional religion.

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Bube
[bvb] Bioko Norte and Bioko Sur provinces: Bioko Island, Fernando Po; Bioko Sur province. 51,000 (2011 S. Smith), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adeeyah, Adija, Bobe, Boobe, Boombe, Bubi, Ediya, Fernandian. Dialects: North Bobe, Southwest Bobe, Southeast Bobe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.31). Comments: The Adiya names are historical (1800s). Christian, traditional religion.

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Equatorial Guinean Pidgin
[fpe] Bioko Norte and Bioko Sur provinces: North central Bioko Island, Fernando Po, Malabo area; Musola, Las Palmas, Sampaca, Basupu, Fiston, and Balueri de Cristo Rey. 6,000 (2011 S. Smith), increasing. L2 users: 70,000 (2011 S. Smith). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as LWC across Bioko island, including the capital city of Malabo, in all domains except education and government. Alternate Names: Criollo, Fernandino, Fernando Po Creole English, Fernando Po Krio, Pichi, Pichinglis, Pidgin de Guinea Ecuatorial, Pidginglis. Dialects: Pidgin, Pichi. Offshoot of Krio [kri] of Sierra Leone; intelligible with Cameroon Pidgin [wes], Nigerian Pidgin [pcm], but it has 20% of its lexical inventory as loanwords from Spanish [spa]. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Krio. Comments: Pidgin is the acrolect, used mostly by mother tongue speakers, Pichi is the mesolect, used as a language of wider communication; there is also a basilect form, used by expatriate immigrants. Christian.

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Fa d’Ambu
[fab] Annobón province: Annobón Island, isolated from mainland by 360 km of ocean (2,000); Bioko Island, Malabo (500), a few on continental Equatorial Guinea. 5,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2010 SIL). No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 5,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Annobonense, Annobonés, Annobonese. Dialects: Different from Equatorial Guinean Pidgin [fpe] and Crioulo [pov] of Guinea-Bissau and Kabuverdianu. Little variation between Annobonese in Annobón and Malabo. Lexical similarity: 63% with Sãotomense [cri]. 10% of the lexicon comes from Spanish [spa]. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based. Comments: Famed swimmers, fishermen, and whalers. Christian.

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Fang
[fan] Widespread. Centro Sur, Kié-Ntem, Litoral, Wele-Nzas provinces. 589,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2013 S. Smith), increasing. L2 users: 35,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2013 S. Smith). Total users in all countries: 1,106,900 (as L1: 1,071,900; as L2: 35,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as LWC in continental Equatorial Guinea (the area previously known as Rio Muni). Used in church, market, business, media, and music. It became a LWC by virtue of its dominant status as mother tongue of 85% of the country’s population. Alternate Names: Pahouin, Pamue, Pangwe. Dialects: Ntumu, Okak. Intelligible with Bulu [bum] and Ewondo [ewo] in the Beti language subgroup. More similar to Bulu [bum] than Ewondo [ewo]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Ewondo-Fang (A.75). Comments: Known as warriors of the jungle. Their knowledge of jungle plants, animals, and survival is legendary. Christian, traditional religion.

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French
[fra] Mostly cities. L2 users: 117,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1998, Constitution, Article 4(1) as amended). Alternate Names: Français, Francés. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gyele
[gyi] Centro Sur, Litoral provinces. 29 in Equatorial Guinea (1998 census). Possibly hundreds more in isolated camps. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Babinga, Bagiele, Bagyele, Bajele, Bajeli, Bako, Bakola, Bakuele, Bekoe, Bogyel, Bogyeli, Bondjiel, Giele, Gieli, Gyeli, Likoya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.801). Comments: Pygmies, dispersed in small groups in the forest. Traditional religion.

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Kombe
[nui] Litoral province: Rio Muni coast. 9,200 (2011 SIL). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Combe, Ndowe, Ngumbi. Dialects: One, Mari, Bweko. Closely related to Cameroonian Yasa [yko]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.33). Comments: Traditionally coastal fishermen. All the Kombe, One, Mari, Bweko, and cross-border Yasa consider themselves ‘Bongwe’ (those who use ‘ngwe’ to refer to ourselves), and together with additional groups are ‘Ndowe’ (the beach peoples). Christian, traditional religion.

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Kwasio
[nmg] Litoral province: Bisio in coastal Rio Muni. 13,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bujeba, Mabea, Mabi, Magbea, Mgoumba, Mvumbo, Ngoumba, Ngumba. Dialects: Bisió. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Makaa-Njem (A.81). Comments: One of 3 groups known as semi-playeros, who function well on the coast and in the jungle. Christian, traditional religion.

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Molengue
[bxc] Litoral province: South tip and Rio Benito, inland. 1,000 (2011 SIL), decreasing. L2 users: 0. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balengue, Molendji. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.211). Comments: One of 3 groups known as ‘semi-playeros’, who function well on the coast and in the jungle. Traditional religion.

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Seki
[syi] Litoral province. 11,000 in Equatorial Guinea (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, B, Kele (B.21).

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Spanish
[spa] Widespread. Few L1 users. L2 users: 685,000 in Equatorial Guinea (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2011, Constitution, Article 4). Alternate Names: Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yasa
[yko] Litoral province: Edjabe village. 910 in Equatorial Guinea (2011 S. Smith), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bongwe, Lyassa, Maasa, Yassa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Northwest, A, Bubi-Benga (A.33). Comments: Traditionally coastal fishermen. All the Kombe, One, Mari, Bweko, and cross-border Yasa consider themselves ‘Bongwe’ (those who use ‘ngwe’ to refer to ourselves), and together with additional groups are vNdowe’ (the beach peoples). Christian.

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