Greece

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Albanian, Arvanitika
[aat] Attica region: Athens; Central Greece region: Voiotia, south Evvoia and Salamis islands; Peloponnese region: Argolis and Korinthia areas, Messinia, from Kalamitra northwest, Lakonia, east coastal area near Rikhea; Southern Aegean: Kyklades, Andros island north; Western Greece: northwest Achaia, north of Lapas. Mainly rural, 300 villages. Population: 50,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 150,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arberichte, Arbërisht, Arvanitic, Arvanitika. Dialects: Thracean Arvanitika, Northwestern Arvanitika, South Central Arvanitika. Partially intelligible with Albanian Tosk [als]. Dialects perceived as mutually unintelligible. A member of macrolanguage Albanian [sqi]. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk.

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Albanian, Tosk
[als] Western Macedonia region: Florina and Kastoria, northeast of Lake Orestiada. Population: 10,000 in Greece (2002). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Arvanitika, Camerija, Shqip. Dialects: Cham Tosk. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Scattered, with largest communities in Attica and Thessaly and Central Greece. Population: 20,000 in Greece (2007). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian.

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Aromanian
[rup] Central Macedonia: Pella area, southeast of Lake Vegoritis and into Imathia, Kastoria into Florina and Kozani; Epirus region: western Ioannina; Thessaly region: Trikala southwest corner; Western Macedonia: Grevena. Population: 50,000 in Greece (Salminen 1999). Ethnic population: 700,000 (Association of French Aromanians). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Armani, Armina, Armini, Arumanian, Arumenian, Macedo Romanian, Macedo-Rumanian, Vlach. Dialects: Structurally a distinct language from Megleno Romanian [ruq] (Agard 1984). It split from the other 3 Romanian languages between 500 and 1000 A.D. Many dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Eastern Macedonia and Thrace region: Xanthi and 2 other departments. Population: 75,900 in Greece (2011 census). Based on nationality. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Dialects: Pomak (Pomakci, Pomakika). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern.

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Cappadocian Greek
[cpg] Central Greece region: Mandra village; Central Macedonia: Neo Agioneri and Xirohori villages. Population: 2,800 (2015 M. Janse). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Sille, Western Cappadocian, Pharasa, Misiotika (Misti, Mistiot). Reportedly similar to Pontic [pnt]. Even more distinct from standard Greek [ell] than Pontic. Misiotika is the only Cappadocian dialect still spoken to any extent. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic.

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German, Standard
[deu] Scattered. Population: 552,100 in Greece, all users. L1 users: 11,100 in Greece (2017 Eurostat). Based on nationality. L2 users: 541,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Greek
[ell] Widespread. Population: 10,700,000 in Greece (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 13,170,460 (as L1: 13,111,960; as L2: 58,500). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Grec, Greco, Neo-Hellenic, Romaic. Autonym: Νέα Ελληνικά‎ (Néa Ellīniká), ελληνικά‎ (Elliniká). Dialects: Katharevousa, Dimotiki, Saracatsan. Katharevousa is an archaic literary dialect, Dimotiki is the spoken literary and now official dialect. The Saracatsan are nomadic shepherds of northern Greece. The Greek of Italy and that of Corsica are probably distinct languages (1992 R. Zamponi). In Cyprus, the dialect is reportedly more similar to Classical Greek [grc] in some vocabulary and grammar than that spoken in Greece, and to have Latin [lat] and Turkish [tur] loanwords. Lexical similarity: 84%–93% with Greek [ell] in Cyprus. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic.

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Greek Sign Language
[gss] Scattered. Population: 5,000 (2014 EUD). 42,600 (Van Cleve 1986). 62,500 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2000, Law 2817, Official language of deaf community). Alternate Names: Elleniké Noematiké Glossa, GSL. Dialects: None known. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language.

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Greek, Ancient
[grc] Scattered. Religious language. Population: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Dialects: Koine Greek, Classical Greek. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic.

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Judeo-Italian
[itk] Ionian Islands region: Kerkyra regional unit. Population: 50 in Greece (Salminen 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Italkian. Dialects: Corfiote Italkian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian.

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Ladino
[lad] Mainly Thessaloniki. Population: 12 in Greece (2017 John Kazaklis). Ethnic population: 1,000 (2018). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian.

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Pontic
[pnt] Central Macedonia: Kilkis, Pella, Serrai, and Thessaloniki except south of Kalamaria borough. Population: 400,000 in Greece (2009 Z. Diakonikolaou). Total users in all countries: 778,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pontic Greek. Dialects: None known. Standard Greek [ell] speakers cannot understand Pontic, and Pontic speakers reportedly do not understand or speak standard Greek [ell]. Pontic clubs and centers exist in the Athens-Peiraeus suburbs. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Epirus (Romancilikanes dialect); Western Macedonia (Serres dialect); Peloponnese region: (Pyrgos dialect). Population: 40,000 in Greece (1996 B. Igla). 10,000 Arlija, 30,000 Greek Romani. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Sepečides Romani (Greek Romani, Sepeči), Arli (Arlije, Erli), Serres, Romancilikanes, Pyrgos. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Attica region: Ajia Varvara, suburb of Athens; Epirus region: Parakalamos; Thessaly region: Karditsa regional unit, Sofades; Trikala regional unit. Population: 1,000 in Greece. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Rom, Romanés, Tsingani. Dialects: Lovari, Grekurja (Greco), Kalpazea, Filipidzía, Xandurja. Grekurja is probably Turkish [tur] influenced, distinct from Greek Romani dialect of Balkan Romani [rmn] (I. Hancock). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax.

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Romanian, Megleno
[ruq] Central Macedonia region: Kilkis and Pella regional units, Meglen area, north of Salonika. Population: 3,000 in Greece (2002). Total users in all countries: 9,050. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Meglenite, Meglenitic. Dialects: None known. Structurally a distinct language from Romanian [ron], Aromanian [rup], and Istro Romanian [ruo] (Agard 1984). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern.

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Romano-Greek
[rge] Thessaly and Central Greece Administrative Unit; secret language, itinerant builders, especially in Evrytania and Fthiotis. Population: 30 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Hellenoromani, Romika. Dialects: None known. Structured on Greek [ell] with heavy Romani lexicon. Classification: Mixed language, Greek-Romani.

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Slavic
[mkd] Central Macedonia region: Florina, Kilkis, Imathia, Pella, Serres, and Thessaloniki; Epirus region: Ioannina; Western Macedonia region: Kastoria except south Nestorio municipality, Kozani. Population: Population for Slavic speakers in Greece is very difficult to find. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern.

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Tsakonian
[tsd] Peloponnese region: Arkadia regional unit, Leonidio and Prastos towns; Kastanitsa, Melana, Pramatefti, Sapounakeika, Sitena, and Tyros villages. Population: 1,500 (2010 M. Kisilier). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Tsakonia. Dialects: Northern Tsakonian (Kastanista-Sitena), Southern Tsakonian (Leonidio-Prastos), Propontis Tsakonian (Vatka-Havoutsi). Southern Tsakonian has at least four subdialects: Prastos-Agios Andreas, Tyros-Sapounakeika, Melana-Pramatefti, and Vaskina. Tsakonian was derived from the Doric dialect spoken in Lakonia by ancient Spartans. Northern and Southern are reportedly mutually intelligible, but Propontis was more distinct, and more similar to standard Greek [ell]. Not inherently intelligible with modern Greek (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Lexical similarity: 70% or less with standard Greek [ell]. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Doric.

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Turkish
[tur] Eastern Macedonia and Thrace region: Xanthi, west of Lake Vistorius, on Bulgaria border; Rodopi, Bulgaria border west of Komotini. Population: 40,000 in Greece, all users. L1 users: 9,700 in Greece (2014). L2 users: 30,300 (2014). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Xanthi, 2 other eastern provinces (1923, Treaty of Lausanne). Alternate Names: Osmanli, Türkçe. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish.

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