Guatemala

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Achi
[acr] Central Rabinal area and west, Baja Verapaz Department. 85,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Cubulco Achi, Rabinal Achi. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean

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Akateko
[knj] San Miguel Acatán. Also in Mexico (Western Kanjobal), United States (Western Kanjobal). 48,500 in Guatemala (1998). Population total all countries: 56,840. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Acatec, Acateco, Conob, Q’anjob’al, San Miguel Acatán Kanjobal, Western Kanjobal, Western Q’anjob’al Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko

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Awakateko
[agu] Western Huehuetenango Department. 18,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Aguacatec, Aguacateco Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Awakateko-Ixil

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Chicomuceltec
[cob] No known L1 speakers in Guatemala. Ethnic population: 100 (1982 GR). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cakchiquel Mam Classification: Mayan, Huastecan

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Ch’orti’
[caa] Eastern border with Honduras, Chiquimula and Zacapa departments. Also in Honduras. 30,000 in Guatemala (2000 J. Lubeck). Population total all countries: 30,010. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chorti-Cholti Comments: Not the same as the extinct language called Choltí, formerly spoken in the Quiriguá and Izabal area. Nearly extinct in Honduras.

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Chuj
[cac] Central western Coatán river area, west Huehuetenango Department. Also in Mexico. 41,600 in Guatemala (1991 SIL). Population total all countries: 43,370. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chuh, Chuhe, Chuj de San Mateo Ixtatán, Chuje Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Chujean

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Garifuna
[cab] Northeast coast: Livingston and Puerto Barrios villages. 16,700 in Guatemala. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Carib, Caribe, Central American Carib, Garífuna Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean, Iñeri Comments: Ancestors taken from Saint Vincent Island in 1796–1797, and taken to Roatan Island. Most went to Trujillo in 1937. About 35 years later political troubles threatened their existence, and they fled further east into Honduras and Belize. Later they emigrated to other countries.

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Guatemalan Sign Language
[gsm] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lensegua Classification: Deaf sign language

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Itza’
[itz] North central, north of Lake Petén Itzá in San José Petén. 12 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,800 (2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Icaiche Maya, Maya, Petén Itza’ Maya, Yucatec Maya Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Mopan-Itzá

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Ixil
[ixl] Quiché Department, Chajul, Cotzal, and Nebaj municipalities. 69,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: 70%–75% intelligibility among the 3 Ixil dialects. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Awakateko-Ixil

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Jakalteko
[jac] Huehuetenango Department near Mexico border, Concepción Huista and Jakaltenango areas. Also in Mexico. 9,000 in Guatemala (1990 SIL). Population total all countries: 9,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Popti’ Dialects: Eastern Jakalteko (Eastern Jacalteco), Western Jakalteko (Western Jacaltec, Western Jacalteco). The eastern and western varieties understand each other’s spoken languages, but not written text. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko

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Kaqchikel
[cak] South, Chimaltenango Department, Yepocapa municipality; San Martín Jilotepeque municipality, San Martín and Santa Ana Chimaltenango towns and rural areas; northwest of Guatemala City, San Juan Sacatepéquez; south of Antigua; west of Guatemala City on the Pan American highway; Akatenango municipality; Sololá Department, North and east shores of Lake Atitlán. 451,000 (1990–1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cakchiquel, Kaqchiquel Dialects: Akatenango Soutwestern Cakchiquel, Eastern Cakchiquel, Northern Cakchiquel, Santa María de Jesús Cakchiquel (Kach’ab’al), Santo Domingo Xenacoj Cakchiquel, South Central Cakchiquel, Southern Cakchiquel, Western Cakchiquel, Yepocapa Southwestern Cakchiquel. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean, Kaqchikel-Tz’utujil Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kaqchikel-K’iche’ Mixed Language
[ckz] Santiago, Sacatepéquez, Santa María Cauque villages. 2,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cauque Mixed Language Dialects: Came from the K’iche’ area in the colonial period. Older speakers show a base of K’iche’. Classification: Mixed language, Cakchiquel-Quiché

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K’iche’
[quc] Central highlands, Totonicapán, southern El Quiché, eastern Sololá, eastern Quezaltenango departments; Quiché Department, Joyabaj municipality; southwest of Lake Atitlán, Quezaltenango, and Totonicapán departments; Chichicastenango and Chiché municipalities; Quiché Department, San Andrés Sajcabajá municipality. 2,330,000. 300,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (2003, National Languages Act, Decree No. 19). Alternate Names: Central K’iche’, Central Quiché, Chiquel, Qach’abel, Quiché Dialects: Cunén Kiché, Eastern Kiché, Joyabaj Kiché, San Andrés Kiché, West Central Kiché. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mam
[mam] Western Huehuetenango Department, San Sebastián and other towns; San Marcos Department, 17 towns; Quetzaltenango Department, 9 towns; Retalhuleu Department, 1 town; Western Ostuncalco area, San Juan Ostuncalco, San Martín Sacatepéquez, and other towns; San Marcos Department, Tajumulco and Ixchiguán; western San Marcos Department, rural areas west of Tacaná, western Guatemala border, and in Sibinal and Tectitán. Dialects in San Miguel Ixtahuacán (18,000) and Concepción Tutapa (30,000). Also in Mexico. 530,000 in Guatemala (1991–2000). Population total all countries: 537,980. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (2003, National Languages Act, Decree No. 19). Alternate Names: Huehuetenango Mam Dialects: Central Mam (Comitancillo Mam, Mam Marquense, Mam Occidental, San Marcos Comitancillas Mam, Western Mam), Southern Mam (Mam Quetzalteco, Ostuncalco Mam, Quetzaltenango Mam, San Juan Ostuncalco Mam), Tacanec (Mamé, Tacaná Mam, Tiló, Western Mam), Tajumulco Mam, Todos Santos Cuchumatán Mam (Todos Santos Mam). Tacanec is the most distinctive of all the Mam varieties. Lexical similarity: 77% between the Tajumulco variety and the Comitancillo dialect. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam

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Maya, Mopán
[mop] Petén Department. 5,000 in Guatemala (Adelaar 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maya Mopán, Mopane Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Mopan-Itzá

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Poqomam
[poc] East, Jalapa Department, San Luis Jilotepeque; northwest of Guatemala City, Chinautla; 20 km south of Guatemala City. Also in El Salvador. 49,000 in Guatemala (1990–1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pocomán, Pokomam Dialects: Central Poqomam, Eastern Poqomam, Southern Poqomam (Palín Pocomam). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Poqom, Poqomam

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Poqomchi’
[poh] Alta Verapaz Department. 92,200 (1998–2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pocomchí, Poconchí, Pokomchí, Pokonchí, Tactic Pokomchí Dialects: Eastern Poqomchi, Santa Cruz Verapaz Poqomchi, Western Poqomchi. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Poqom, Poqomchi’

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Q’anjob’al
[kjb] Huehuetenango Department, Santa Eulalia. Also in Mexico, United States. 77,700 in Guatemala (1998). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Conob, Eastern Kanjobal, Eastern Qanjobal, Kanhobal, Qanjobal, Santa Eulalia Kanjobal Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko

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Q’eqchi’
[kek] Northern Alta Verapaz, southern Petén departments. Also in Belize (Kekchí), El Salvador (Kekchí). 800,000 in Guatemala (2009 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 823,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (2003, National Languages Act, Decree No. 19). Alternate Names: Cacche’, Kekchi’, Kekchí, Ketchi’, Quecchi’ Dialects: Alta Verapaz Cobán. Only slight dialect differences. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sakapulteko
[quv] Quiché Department, Sacapulas municipality; some in Guatemala City. 15,000 (2006 M. Schwartz). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sacapulas K’iche’, Sacapulteco Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean

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Sipakapense
[qum] San Marcos Department. 8,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 12,000 or more (2000 E. Kindberg). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sipacapa Quiché, Sipacapeño, Sipacapense Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] 9,000,000 in Guatemala (2011). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1985, Constitution, Article 143). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

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Tektiteko
[ttc] Huehuetenango Department, Tectitán area, Cuilco. Also in Mexico (Tectitec), United States. 4,900 in Guatemala (2002). Population total all countries: 4,970. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maya-Tekiteko, Teco, Tectitán Mam, Tectitec, Tectiteco, “Teko” (pej.) Dialects: Similar to Mam [mam]. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam Comments: Christian (Roman Catholic).

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Tz’utujil
[tzj] Sololá Department, Lake Atitlán, south and southwest shore. 83,800 (1990–1998 SIL), increasing. 17,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Eastern Tzutujil, Santiago Atitlán Tzutujil, Tzutuhil, Tzutujil Oriental Dialects: Western Tzutujil. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean, Kaqchikel-Tz’utujil

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Uspanteko
[usp] Quiché Department, San Miguel Uspantán. The center is Las Pacayas village. 3,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Uspanteco Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean

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Xinca
[xin] Southeastern. No remaining speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Szinca Dialects: Language may be related to Lenca [len]. Classification: Language isolate

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