Guatemala

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Achi
[acr] Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, and El Progreso departments; El Quiché department: Uspantan municipality. 85,600 (2008 N. England). 5,000 monolinguals (2015 C. Barrera). Ethnic population: 130,000 (2015 C. Barrera). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Autonym: Qach’a’teem. Dialects: Cubulco Achi, Maya Achi (Rabinal Achi). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean.

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Akateko
[knj] Huehuetenango department: San Miguel Acatán area. 48,500 (1998). Total users in all countries: 58,130. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Acatec, Acateco, Conob, Kanjobal, Q’anjob’al, San Miguel Acatán Kanjobal, Western Kanjobal, Western Q’anjob’al. Autonym: K’anjob’al. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko.

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Awakateko
[agu] Huehuetenango department. 18,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Aguacatec, Aguacateco. Autonym: Qa’yol. Dialects: Chalchiteko (Chalchitec). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Awakateko-Ixil.

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Chicomuceltec
[cob] Huehuetenango and Petén departments. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Cakchiquel Mam. Classification: Mayan, Huastecan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ch’orti’
[caa] Chiquimula and Zacapa departments; eastern border with Honduras. 30,000 (2000 J. Lubeck). Total users in all countries: 30,010. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Chorti’. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Core Mayan, Cholan-Tzeltalan, Cholan, Chorti-Cholti. Comments: Not the same as the extinct language called Choltí, formerly spoken in the Quiriguá and Izabal area. Nearly extinct in Honduras.

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Chuj
[cac] Huehuetenango department: central western Coatán river area. 41,600 (1991 SIL). Total users in all countries: 44,230. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Chuh, Chuhe, Chuj de San Mateo Ixtatán, Chuje. Autonym: Koti’. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Chujean.

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Garifuna
[cab] Izabal department: Livingston and Puerto Barrios villages; northeast coast. 3,560 (2002 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Black Carib, Caribe, Central American Carib, Garífuna. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean, Iñeri. Comments: Ancestors taken from Saint Vincent Island in 1796–1797, and taken to Roatan Island. Most went to Trujillo, Honduras in 1937. About 35 years later political troubles threatened their existence, and they fled further east into Honduras and Belize. Later they emigrated to other countries.

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Guatemalan Sign Language
[gsm] Scattered. 28,000 (Parks and Parks 2008). Estimates vary widely: 28,000-256,000 signing Deaf (Parks and Parks 2008). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: GSM, LENSEGUA, Lensegua. Dialects: Two clusters of dialects based on intelligibility: 1) Quetzaltenango, Huehuetenango, Mazatenango, and San Marcos; 2) Guatemala City, Escuintla, Zacapa and Cobán (Parks and Parks 2008). Considerable lexical variation, especially outside the two major cities Guatemala City and Quetzaltenango, and among older signers (over age 25 in 2008). Relatively little lexical similarity with ASL [ase], but some lexical borrowing, with subsequent initialization from Spanish [spa] (Parks and Parks 2008). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Since 1996, some schools use Total Communication, and Deaf people have experienced more freedom to learn LENSEGUA and use it publicly. Approximately 50 working interpreters (Parks and Parks 2008).

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Itza’
[itz] Petén department: north of Lake Petén Itzá. 12 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,800 (2001). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Icaiche Maya, Maya, Petén Itza’ Maya, Yucatec Maya. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Mopan-Itzá.

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Ixil
[ixl] El Quiché department: Chajul, Cotzal, and Nebaj municipalities. 69,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Dialects: Nebaj, Cotzal, Chajul. 70%–75% intelligibility among the 3 Ixil dialects. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Awakateko-Ixil.

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Jakalteko
[jac] Huehuetenango department: Concepción Huista and Jacaltenango areas, near Mexico border. 9,000 (1990 SIL). Total users in all countries: 9,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Popti’. Autonym: Jakalteko-Popti’. Dialects: Eastern Jakalteko (Eastern Jacalteco), Western Jakalteko (Western Jacaltec, Western Jacalteco). The eastern and western varieties understand each other’s spoken languages, but not written text. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko.

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Kaqchikel
[cak] Chimaltenango department: Akatenango, San Martín Jilotepeque and Yepocapa municipalities; Santa Ana Chimaltenango and San Martín municipalities, San Juan Sacatepéquez municipality; El Quiché and Escuintla departments; Sololá department: north and east shores of Lake Atitlán. 451,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Cakchiquel, Kaqchiquel. Dialects: Acatenango Southwestern Cakchiquel, Eastern Cakchiquel, Northern Cakchiquel, Santa María de Jesús Cakchiquel (Kach’ab’al), Santo Domingo Xenacoj Cakchiquel, South Central Cakchiquel, Southern Cakchiquel, Western Cakchiquel, Yepocapa Southwestern Cakchiquel. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean, Kaqchikel-Tz’utujil. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kaqchikel-K’iche’ Mixed Language
[ckz] Sacatepéquez department: Santa María Cauqué and Santiago. 2,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Cauque Mixed Language. Dialects: None known. Came from the K’iche’ area in the colonial period. Older speakers show a base of K’iche’. Classification: Mixed language, Cakchiquel-Quiché.

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K’iche’
[quc] El Quiché department: Chichicastenango, Chiché, Cunén, Joyabaj, Sacapulas, San Andrés Sajcabajá, Uspantán, Zacualpa municipalities; Quetzaltenango, Retalhuleu, Sololá, Suchitepéquez, and Totonicapán departments; some communities in Huehuetenango and Baja Verapaz departments. 2,330,000. 300,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Central K’iche’, Central Quiché, Chiquel, Quiché. Autonym: Qach’abel. Dialects: Cunén Kiché, Joyabaj Kiché, West Central Kiché, Eastern Kiché, San Andrés Kiché. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mam
[mam] Huehuetenango department: San Sebastián and other towns; Quetzaltenango and Retalhuleu departments; San Marcos department: Ixchiguán, San Juan Ostuncalco, San Martín Sacatepéquez, Sibinal, Tectitán. Dialects in San Miguel Ixtahuacán (18,000) and Concepción Tutapa (30,000). 530,000 (1991). Total users in all countries: 540,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Huehuetenango Mam. Autonym: B’anax Mam, Qyool. Dialects: Southern Mam (Mam Quetzalteco, Ostuncalco Mam, Quetzaltenango Mam, San Juan Ostuncalco Mam), Tajumulco Mam, Tacanec (Mamé, Tacaná Mam, Tiló, Western Mam), Central Mam (Comitancillo Mam, Mam Marquense, Mam Occidental, San Marcos Comitancillo Mam, Western Mam), Todos Santos Cuchumatán Mam (Todos Santos Mam). Tacanec is the most distinctive of all the Mam varieties. Lexical similarity: 77% between Tajumulco and Comitancillo dialects. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam.

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Maya, Mopán
[mop] Petén department: Lake Peten Itza road area, one enclave between Dolores and Poptun, the other near San Luis. 5,000 (Adelaar 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Maya Mopán, Mopane. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Yucatecan, Mopan-Itzá.

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Poqomam
[poc] Chiquimula department; Jalapa department: San Luis Jilotepeque; Guatemala department: 1 enclave northeast of Guatemala City, Chinautla; the other 20 km southwest, mostly in Escuintla department. 35,000 (2015 S. Hilario). Ethnic population: 75,000 (2015 S. Hilario). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Pocomán, Pokomam. Autonym: Qaq’oral. Dialects: Central Poqomam, Eastern Poqomam, Southern Poqomam (Palín Pocomam). Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Poqom, Poqomam.

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Poqomchi’
[poh] Alta Verapaz department: San Cristobal Verapaz area; Baja Verapaz department: notheast of Salama; El Quiché department: eastward from Uspantan. 92,200 (1998). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Pocomchí, Poconchí, Pokomchí, Pokonchí, Tactic Pokomchí. Dialects: Eastern Poqomchi, Santa Cruz Verapaz Poqomchi, Western Poqomchi. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Poqom, Poqomchi’.

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Q’anjob’al
[kjb] Huehuetenango department: Santa Eulalia; El Quiché department: near Soloma. 77,700 (1998). Total users in all countries: 86,040. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2013, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Conob, Eastern Kanjobal, Eastern Qanjobal, Kanhobal, Kanjobal, Qanjobal, Santa Eulalia Kanjobal. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, Q’anjob’alan-Chujean, Q’anjob’alan, Q’anjob’al-Akateko-Jakalteko.

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Q’eqchi’
[kek] Alta Verapaz, Baja Verapaz, and El Quiché departments; Izabal department: north from the lake; Petén department: south of Flores. 800,000 (2009 SIL), increasing. Total users in all countries: 817,600. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Cacche’, Kekchi’, Kekchí, Ketchi’, Quecchi’. Dialects: Alta Verapaz Cobán. Only slight dialect differences. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sakapulteko
[quv] El Quiché department: Sacapulas municipality; some in Guatemala City. 15,000 (2006 M. Schwartz). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Sacapulas K’iche’, Sacapulteco. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean.

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Sipakapense
[qum] San Marcos department. 8,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 12,000 (2000 E. Kindberg). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Sipacapa Quiché, Sipacapense, Sipacapeño. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Spanish
[spa] 13,021,000 in Guatemala, all users. L1 users: 9,750,000 (2012). L2 users: 3,271,000 (2012). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1985, Constitution, Article 143). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tektiteko
[ttc] Huehuetenango department: Tectitán area, Cuilco. 4,900 (2002). Total users in all countries: 4,971. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: K’onti’l, Maya-Tekiteko, Qyool, Teco, Tectitec, Tectiteco, Tectitán Mam, Tujqyol, “Teko” (pej.). Autonym: B’a’aj. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mam [mam]. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, Mamean, Teco-Mam. Comments: Christian.

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Tz’utujil
[tzj] Sololá department: Lake Atitlán, south and southwest shore; Suchitepéquez department: Chicacao area north. 83,800 (1990 SIL), increasing. 17,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Eastern Tzutujil, Santiago Atitlán Tzutujil, Tzutuhil, Tzutujil Oriental. Dialects: Western Tzutujil. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean, Poqom-K’ichean, Core K’ichean, Kaqchikel-Tz’utujil.

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Uspanteko
[usp] El Quiché department: Chicamán municipio, Las Pacayas village is center; San Miguel Uspantán municipio area. 2,000 (2013 Language Museum). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Uspanteco. Classification: Mayan, Yucatecan-Core Mayan, K’ichean-Mamean, K’ichean.

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Xinca
[xin] Jutiapa and Santa Rosa departments. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Recognized language (2003, Law of National Languages, Decree 19). Alternate Names: Szinca. Dialects: None known. Language may be related to Lenca [len]. Classification: Language isolate.

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