Guinea-Bissau

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Badyara
[pbp] Gabu region: northeast corner. Population: 5,110 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Badian, Badjara, Badyaranké, Bigola, Gola, Kanjad, Pajade, Pajadinca, Pajadinka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda.

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Bainouk-Gunyuño
[bab] Cacheu region: São Domingos sector. Population: 8,520 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagnoun, Bainounk-Gujaher, Bainuk, Banhum, Banyuk, Banyum, Banyun, Banyung, Elomay, Elunay, Guñuun, Gújááhár. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Bainouk-Gunyamoolo [bcz] of Senegal and Gambia. Related to Kobiana [kcj] and Kasanga [ccj] of Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. Reportedly more similar to the Ménik [tnr] varieties of eastern Senegal than to Balanta-Kentohe [ble]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun.

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Balanta-Kentohe
[ble] Widespread in central west. Population: 354,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2016). Total users in all countries: 380,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Alante, Balanda, Balant, Balanta, Balante, Ballante, Belante, Brassa, Bulanda, Frase. Dialects: Nhacra (Fora), Kantohe (Kentohe, Queuthoe), Naga, Mane. Naga, Mane, and Kantohe dialects may be separate languages. Distinct from Balanta-Ganja [bjt] in Senegal. Not intelligible with Mansoanka [msw]. Naga and Mane are related on one end, and Nhacra and Kentohe are very closely related on the other end of the dialect chain, with Kentohe and Mane being furthest apart. Mane speakers say they are the same as Balanta Ganja [bjt] of Senegal. (2009 B. Paris). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Balant-Ganja.

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Bassari
[bsc] Gabu region: Piche sector. Population: 500 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ayan, Basari, Biyan, Onian, Oniyan, Onëyan, Wo. Dialects: Southern Bassari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda.

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Bayot
[bda] Cacheu region: São Domingos area, Arrame village, on Senegal border. Population: 5,110 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baiot, Bayote, Bayotte, Jola Bayote, Kugere-Kuxinge. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Bayot.

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Biafada
[bif] Quinara region: mouth of Rio Grande de Buba inland area; Tombali region: Bedanda and north Catio sectors, into west Quebo sector. Population: 51,000 (2016). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beafada, Bedfola, Biafar, Bidyola, Dfola, Fada. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Badyara [pbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda.

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Bidyogo
[bjg] Bolama region: Bolama sector nearest mainland, Bijago archipelago in Bubaque sector, Bubaque, Orango, and Roxa islands; Caravela sector northwest, Carache, Caravela, and Uno islands; other associated islands. Roxa island (Anhaqui dialect), Bubaque island (Kagbaaga dialect), Orango and Uno islands (Kajoko dialect), Caravela and Carache islands (Kamona dialect). Population: 33,400 (2016). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bijago, Bijogo, Bijougot, Bijuga, Budjago, Bugago. Dialects: Anhaqui (Anhaki), Kagbaaga, Kamona (Caravela), Kajoko (Uno), Karanguna (Orango), Kavrama, Formosa, Kasuga. Some intelligibility problems reported between dialects, but only Kamona said to be unintelligible to others. Important grammatical differences between Kagbaaga and Anhaqui, Kagbaaga and Kajoko. No information about dialects on Galinhas and Formosa islands. Lexical similarity: Galinhas dialect is 69% similar to Uno dialect; Formosa has highest (75%) with Galinhas, and lowest (55%) with Caravela dialect; Bubaque has 66% with Uno; Canhabaque and Caravela have 62% with Uno; Formosa and Uracane have 81% with Uno. (2009 F. Sabio). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Bijago.

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Crioulo, Upper Guinea
[pov] Widespread. Population: 1,239,000 in Guinea-Bissau, all users. L1 users: 239,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2016), increasing. L2 users: 1,000,000 (2015 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,305,800 (as L1: 285,800; as L2: 1,020,000). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Guinea-Bissau Creole, Guinea-Bissau Kriyol, Kriulo, Portuguese Creole. Autonym: Kriyol. Dialects: Bissau-Bolama Creole, Bafatá Creole, Cacheu-Ziguinchor Creole. Lexical similarity: with Kabuverdianu [kea]. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Jahanka
[jad] Gabu and Tombali regions. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding.

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Jola-Felupe
[eja] Cacheu region: São Domingos sector, east of Cape Roxo. Population: 6,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2012 SIL). Total users in all countries: 8,230. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ediamat, Ejamat, Feloup, Felup, Felupe, Floup, Flup, Fulup. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Jola-Fonyi [dyo] or Jola-Kasa [csk]; 50% with Gusilay [gsl] or Bandial [bqj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat.

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Jola-Fonyi
[dyo] Cacheu region: Sao Domingos sector. Population: 500 in Guinea-Bissau (2012). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diola-Fogny, Jola, Jola-Fogny, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak Kati Fooñi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi.

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Kasanga
[ccj] Cacheu region: Felupe border area, sparsely populated. Population: May be a few elderly speakers left (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cassanga, Guhaaca, Haal, I-Hadja, Kassanga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bainouk-Gunyuno [bab]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun.

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Kobiana
[kcj] Cacheu region: near Banyun and Cacheu. Population: 700 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buy, Cobiana, Guboy, Uboi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bainouk-Gunyuno [bab] and Kasanga [ccj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun.

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Mandinka
[mnk] Bafata region: Contuboel, north Gamamundo, and Sonaca sectors; Cacheu region: Bigene, Cacheu, and São Domingos sectors; Gabu region: Pirada and Sonaco sectors; Oio region: Farim and north Mansaba sectors. Population: 174,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2016). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manding, Mandinga, Mandingo, Mandingue, Mandinque. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West.

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Mandjak
[mfv] Bafata region: Gamamundo sector; Cacheu region; Oio region: north. Population: 215,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2016). Total users in all countries: 356,800. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanyop, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjaku, Manjanku, Manjiak, Mendyako, Ndyak. Autonym: Manjáku. Dialects: Bok (Babok, Sarar, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaam), Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Cur (Churo), Lund, Yu (Pecixe, Pulhilh, Siis). Some dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel.

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Mankanya
[knf] Bolama region: Bolama island; Cacheu region: northwest of Bissau; Quinara region: Rio Grande de Buba mouth; Tombali region: Cacine sector. Population: 50,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2016). Total users in all countries: 85,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bola, Mancagne, Mancang, Mancanha, Mankaañ, Mankanha. Autonym: Uhula. Dialects: Uhula, Uwoh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel.

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Mansoanka
[msw] Oio region: Mansoa sector, Mantefa area. Population: 17,600 in Guinea-Bissau (2016). Total users in all countries: 18,910. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kunant, Kunante, Mansoanca, Maswanka, Sua. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Balanta-Kentohe [ble] or Mandinka [mnk], although called, Mandinkanized Balanta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Sua.

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Nalu
[naj] Tombali region: Cacine river estuary near Atlantic coast. Population: 8,520 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nalou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Mbulungish-Nalu.

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Papel
[pbo] Biombo region: Quinhamel area west of Bissau. Population: 158,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2016). Total users in all countries: 164,200. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Moium, Oium, Papei, Pepel. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mankanya [knf] and Mandjak [mfv]. 3 dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel.

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Portuguese
[por] Bissau region. Population: 396,280 in Guinea-Bissau, all users. L1 users: 5,280 in Guinea-Bissau (2016). L2 users: 391,000 (2015 UNSD). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Português. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Bafata region: especially south of Geba river; Gabu region: central and north; Tombali region: between Aldeia Formosa and Carubel river. Population: 310,000 in Guinea-Bissau (2016). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulfulde-Pulaar, Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde. Dialects: Fulacunda (Fula Forro, Fula Preto, Fulakunda, Fulkunda), Fula de Gabu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western.

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Pular
[fuf] Gabu region: south Bafata and north Tombali regions. Population: 1,200 in Guinea-Bissau (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Fouta Dyalon, Fulbe, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central.

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Soninke
[snk] Gabu region: Pirada and Sonaco sectors; scattered in other major towns and cities. Population: 5,110 in Guinea-Bissau (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Maraka, Marka, Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Serahule, Soninkanxanne. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke.

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