Guinea-Bissau

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Badyara
[pbp] Gabu region: northeast corner. L1 users: 5,110 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Badian, Badjara, Badyaranké, Bigola, Gola, Kanjad, Pajade, Pajadinca, Pajadinka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: Muslim.

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Bainouk-Gunyuño
[bab] Cacheu region: São Domingos sector. L1 users: 8,520 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagnoun, Bainuk, Banhum, Banyuk, Banyum, Banyun, Banyung, Elomay, Elunay, Guñuun. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Bainouk-Gunyamoolo [bcz] of Senegal and Gambia. Related to Kobiana [kcj] and Kasanga [ccj] of Senegal and Guinea-Bissau. Reportedly more similar to the Ménik [tnr] varieties of eastern Senegal than to Balanta-Kentohe [ble]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Banyun. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Balanta-Kentohe
[ble] Widespread in central west. L1 users: 354,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 380,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Alante, Balanda, Balant, Balanta, Balante, Ballante, Belante, Brassa, Bulanda, Frase. Dialects: Nhacra (Fora), Kantohe (Kentohe, Queuthoe), Naga, Mane. Naga, Mane, and Kantohe dialects may be separate languages. Distinct from Balanta-Ganja [bjt] in Senegal. Not intelligible with Mansoanka [msw]. Naga and Mane are related on one end, and Nhacra and Kentohe are very closely related on the other end of the dialect chain, with Kentohe and Mane being furthest apart. Mane speakers say they are the same as Balanta Ganja [bjt] of Senegal. (2009 B. Paris). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Balant-Ganja. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bassari
[bsc] Gabu region: Piche sector. L1 users: 500 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ayan, Basari, Biyan, Onian, Oniyan, Onëyan, Wo. Dialects: Southern Bassari. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bayot
[bda] Cacheu region: São Domingos area, Arrame village, on Senegal border. L1 users: 5,110 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baiot, Bayote, Bayotte, Jola Bayote. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Bayot. Comments: Bayot in Guinea-Bissau is different (about 70% the same) from the variety in Senegal. One dialect in Kasu and Arrame villages; the other in Elia, Kulaje, Ijobel, and Nambalan villages. Traditional religion.

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Biafada
[bif] Quinara region: mouth of Rio Grande de Buba inland area; Tombali region: Bedanda and north Catio sectors, into west Quebo sector. L1 users: 51,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beafada, Bedfola, Biafar, Bidyola, Dfola, Fada. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Badyara [pbp]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Tenda. Comments: Heavily influenced by Mandinka [mnk]. Muslim.

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Bidyogo
[bjg] Bolama region: Bolama sector nearest mainland, Bijago archipelago in Bubaque sector, Bubaque, Orango, and Roxa islands; Caravela sector northwest, Carache, Caravela, and Uno islands; other associated islands. Roxa island (Anhaqui dialect), Bubaque island (Kagbaaga dialect), Orango and Uno islands (Kajoko dialect), Caravela and Carache islands (Kamona dialect). L1 users: 33,400 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bijago, Bijogo, Bijougot, Bijuga, Budjago, Bugago. Dialects: Anhaqui (Anhaki), Kagbaaga, Kamona (Caravela), Kajoko (Uno), Karanguna (Orango), Kavrama, Formosa, Kasuga. Some intelligibility problems reported between dialects, but only Kamona said to be unintelligible to others. Important grammatical differences between Kagbaaga and Anhaqui, Kagbaaga and Kajoko. No information about dialects on Galinhas and Formosa islands. Lexical similarity: Galinhas dialect is 69% similar to Uno dialect; Formosa has highest (75%) with Galinhas, and lowest (55%) with Caravela dialect; Bubaque has 66% with Uno; Canhabaque and Caravela have 62% with Uno; Formosa and Uracane have 81% with Uno. (2009 F. Sabio). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Bijago. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Crioulo, Upper Guinea
[pov] Widespread. 839,000 in Guinea-Bissau, all users. L1 users: 239,000 (2016), increasing. L2 users: 600,000. Total users in all countries: 1,061,800 (as L1: 441,800; as L2: 620,000). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Guinea-Bissau Creole, Guinea-Bissau Kriyol, Kriulo, Portuguese Creole. Autonym: Kriyol. Dialects: Bissau-Bolama Creole, Bafatá Creole, Cacheu-Ziguinchor Creole. Lexical similarity: with Kabuverdianu [kea]. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Jahanka
[jad] Gabu and Tombali regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Jola-Felupe
[eja] Cacheu region: São Domingos sector, east of Cape Roxo. L1 users: 6,000 (2012 SIL). Total users in all countries: 8,230. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ediamat, Ejamat, Feloup, Felup, Felupe, Floup, Flup, Fulup. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Jola-Fonyi [dyo] or Jola-Kasa [csk]; 50% with Gusilay [gsl] or Bandial [bqj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Her-Ejamat. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Jola-Fonyi
[dyo] Cacheu region: Sao Domingos sector. L1 users: 500 (2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Diola-Fogny, Jola, Jola-Fogny, Kujamataak, Kújoolaak Kati Fooñi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Jola, Jola Proper, Jola Central, Jola-Fonyi. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kasanga
[ccj] Cacheu region: Felupe border area, sparsely populated. L1 users: May be a few elderly speakers left (Dimmendaal and Voeltz 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Cassanga, Guhaaca, Haal, I-Hadja, Kassanga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bainouk-Gunyuno [bab]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kobiana
[kcj] Cacheu region: near Banyun and Cacheu. L1 users: 700 (2014 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 690. Total users in all countries: 1,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buy, Cobiana, Guboy, Uboi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bainouk-Gunyuno [bab] and Kasanga [ccj]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Eastern Senegal-Guinea, Nun. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mandinka
[mnk] Bafata region: Contuboel, north Gamamundo, and Sonaca sectors; Cacheu region: Bigene, Cacheu, and São Domingos sectors; Gabu region: Pirada and Sonaco sectors; Oio region: Farim and north Mansaba sectors. L1 users: 174,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manding, Mandinga, Mandingo, Mandingue, Mandinque. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim.

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Mandjak
[mfv] Bafata region: Gamamundo sector; Cacheu region; Oio region: north. L1 users: 215,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 356,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kanyop, Mandjaque, Mandyak, Manjaca, Manjack, Manjaco, Manjaku, Manjanku, Manjiak, Mendyako, Ndyak. Dialects: Bok (Babok, Sarar, Teixeira Pinto, Tsaam), Likes-Utsia (Baraa, Kalkus), Cur (Churo), Lund, Yu (Pecixe, Pulhilh, Siis). Some dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Mankanya
[knf] Bolama region: Bolama island; Cacheu region: northwest of Bissau; Quinara region: Rio Grande de Buba mouth; Tombali region: Cacine sector. L1 users: 50,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 85,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bola, Mancagne, Mancang, Mancanha, Mankaañ, Mankanha. Dialects: Uhula, Uwoh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mansoanka
[msw] Oio region: Mansoa sector, Mantefa area. L1 users: 17,600 (2016). Total users in all countries: 18,910. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kunant, Kunante, Mansoanca, Maswanka, Sua. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Balanta-Kentohe [ble] or Mandinka [mnk], although called, Mandinkanized Balanta. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Sua. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nalu
[naj] Tombali region: Cacine river estuary near Atlantic coast. L1 users: 8,520 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nalou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Mbulungish-Nalu. Comments: Intermarriage in border area with another group. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Papel
[pbo] Biombo region: Quinhamel area west of Bissau. L1 users: 158,000 (2016). Total users in all countries: 164,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Moium, Oium, Papei, Pepel. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Mankanya [knf] and Mandjak [mfv]. 3 dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Bak, Manjaku-Papel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Portuguese
[por] Bissau region. L1 users: 5,110 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Alternate Names: Português. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Bafata region: especially south of Geba river; Gabu region: central and north; Tombali region: between Aldeia Formosa and Carubel river. L1 users: 310,000 (2016). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fulfulde-Pulaar, Peul, Peulh, Pulaar Fulfulde. Dialects: Fulacunda (Fula Forro, Fula Preto, Fulakunda, Fulkunda), Fula de Gabu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western. Comments: Fula Forro are free Fulas; Fulacunda are slave Fulas. Muslim.

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Pular
[fuf] Gabu region: south Bafata and north Tombali regions. L1 users: 1,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Fouta Dyalon, Fulbe, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Muslim.

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Soninke
[snk] Gabu region: Pirada sector, isolated enclave. L1 users: 5,110 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maraka, Marka, Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Serahule, Soninkanxanne. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke. Comments: Non-indigenous. Trace their origins to Gambia and Mali. Ethnic groups: Aser, Aswanik, Gadyaga, Marka, Markanka, Nono, Saracole, Sarawule, Serahuli, Tonbakai, Wakove. Muslim.

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