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Abinomn
[bsa] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Hulu sub-district. Lakes plain area, Baso river mouth at Idenburg river to headwaters in Foya mountains. 300 (Clouse et al 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Avinomen, Foja, Foya, “Baso” (pej.). Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Abui
[abz] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: west Alor island. 16,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Barue, Namatalaki, “Barawahing” (pej.). Dialects: Atimelang, Abui Barat, Alakaman, Abui Selatan. Much dialect diversity. Alakaman may be a dialect of Kamang [woi] (Woisika). May be more than 1 language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor.

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Abun
[kgr] Papua Barat province: Sorong regency, Ayamaru, Moraid, and Sausapor sub-districts, about 20 villages; north coast, interior of central Bird’s Head. 3,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: A Nden, Karon, Manif, Yimbun. Dialects: Abun Tat (Karon Pantai), Abun Ji (Madik), Abun Je. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aceh
[ace] Aceh province: Aceh Barat, Aceh Barat Daya, Aceh Besar, Aceh Jaya, Aceh Selatan, Aceh Singkil, Aceh Tamiang, Aceh Timur, Aceh Utara, Bireuen, Kota Langsa, Kota Lhokseumawe, Nagan Raya, Pidie, and Pidie Jaya regencies, on Weh and neighboring islands; Sumatera Utara province: Tapanuli Tengah regency, south coast enclave. 3,500,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 3,500,032. Status: 6b (Threatened). De facto language of provincial identity in Aceh province. Alternate Names: Acehnese, Achehnese, Achinese. Autonym: Aceh, Basa Acèh. Dialects: Banda Aceh, Baruh, Bueng, Daja, Pase, Pidie (Pedir, Timu), Tunong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Acehnese. Comments: Muslim.

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Adang
[adn] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Alor island, northwest of Kalabahi town toward Banda Sea coast. 3,000 (2000), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alor. Dialects: Aimoli. Because of linguistic differences and social identity, considered a separate language from Kabola [klz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: Bilingual young adults show stronger proficiency in Indonesian [ind] than in Adang (Hamilton et al 2013). Christian.

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Adonara
[adr] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Adonara and east Solor islands. 98,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nusa Tadon, Sagu, Vaiverang, Waiwerang. Dialects: West Adonara, East Adonara, East Solor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Aghu
[ahh] Papua province: Boven Digoel regency, Jair sub-district in south interior between Mapi and Digul rivers. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djair, Dyair. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Different from Aghu-Tharnggala [gtu] of Australia. Christian, traditional religion.

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Airoran
[air] Papua province: Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Hilir and Pantai Barat sub-districts, Isirania, Motobiak, Subu, and other villages on lower Apauwer river. 1,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adora, Aeroran, Iriemkena. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, West Coast. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Alor
[aol] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: coastal Bird’s Head of Alor, north Pantar and adjacent islands. 25,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alorese. Dialects: Baranusa, Muna. Not inherently intelligible with Lembata languages or Adonara [adr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Muslim.

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Alune
[alp] Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Kairatu and Taniwel districts, 27 villages in Latuhelu area and Piru bay. 17,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Patasiwa Alfoeren, Sapalewa. Dialects: Kairatu, Central West Alune (Niniari-Piru-Riring-Lumoli), South Alune (Rambatu-Manussa-Rumberu), North Coastal Alune (Nikulkan-Murnaten-Wakolo), Central East Alune (Buriah-Weth-Laturake). Rambatu dialect reportedly prestigious. Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Lexical similarity: 77%–91% among dialects, 64% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 63% with Hulung [huk] and Naka’ela [nae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai. Comments: Largest language in west Seram. Christian.

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Amahai
[amq] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, 4 villages; Seram island in Elpaputih bay near Masohi town. 50 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amahei. Dialects: Makariki, Rutah, Soahuku. Lexical similarity: 87% with Makariki and Rutah dialects, probably 2 languages; 59%–69% with Saparua [spr], 59% with Kamarian [kzx], 58% with Kaibobo [kzb], 52% with Luhu [lcq] and Hulung [huk], 50% with Alune [alp], 49% with Naka’ela [nae], 47% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 45% with Wemale [weo] and Nuaulu, 44% with Boano [bzn] and Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Amarasi
[aaz] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Kupang regency, Timor island southwest tip; Timur sea near Benini point east to Ela point, interior as far north as Oesa town; 80 villages. Dialects: central and east (Kotos), west (Ro’is ), south (Ro’is Tais Nonof), Kota Kupang area (Ro’is Hero). 70,000 (2011 Unit Bahasa dan Budaya - Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor (UBB-GMIT)). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Timor Amarasi, Uab Meto. Dialects: Kotos, Ro’is, Ro’is Tais Nonof, Ro’is Hero (Kopa). Part of Uab Meto language chain. Reportedly similar to Uab Meto [aoz] but with differences in phonology, vocabulary, and discourse, with semantic shifts, structural differences, intelligibility problems. Ro’is Tais Nonof dialect has intonation like Ro’is dialect, vocabulary like Kotos dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto. Comments: Interspersed with Helong [heg]. Most literature in Kotos dialect. Christian.

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Ambai
[amk] Papua province: Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Selatan and Yapen Timur sub-districts, 10 villages on Ambai island, Cenderawasih bay, and Yapen island south coast. 10,100 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ambai-Menawi. Dialects: Randawaya, Ambai (Wadapi-Laut), Manawi. Lexical similarity: 77% with Serui-Laut [seu], 71% with Wandamen [wad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Ambel
[wgo] Papua Barat province: Raja Ampat regency, Waigeo Selatan sub-district, Go, Kabare, Kabilol, Nyandesawai, Selegop, Waifoi, and Warsanbin villages in north central Waigeo island off western Bird’s Head. 1,000 (2017 L. Arnold). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Amber, Amberi, Waigeo, Waigiu. Dialects: Metnyo, Metsam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ambelau
[amv] Maluku province: central Ambelau island; Buru island coast, Wae Tawa village; 8 villages. 5,700 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amblau. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Buru [mhs]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Ambelau. Comments: Schools through junior high on the island. Wild pigs and rocky terrain on Ambelau make cultivation impossible; that is done in Wae Tawa village on Buru Island. Muslim.

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Ampanang
[apg] Kalimantan Timur province: east of Jambu and Lamper towns west of Mahakam river delta. 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Barito-Mahakam. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Anakalangu
[akg] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Sumba island, southwest coast. 16,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anakalang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Anasi
[bpo] Papua province: Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Hilir sub-district on north coast, lower west bank Mamberamo river. 2,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bapu. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Andio
[bzb] Sulawesi Tengah province: Lamala sub-district, Tangeban and Tauge villages, peninsula east tip area. 1,700 (Busenitz 1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Andio’o, Imbao’o, Masama, “Bobongko” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobongko [bgb], 60% with Batui [zbt], 62% with Saluan [loe], 66% with Balantak [blz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western. Comments: ‘Masama’ is preferred local name. Muslim.

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Ansus
[and] Papua province: Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Barat sub-district, Aibondeni, Ansus, Kairawi, and Yenusi villages on Yapen island south coast. 4,600 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Marau [mvr] and Papuma [ppm], 77% with Wandamen [wad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Anus
[auq] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pulau Anus and Podena islands off north coast; coastal area east of Biri river. 320 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Koroernoes, Korur. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Podena [pdn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Anus and Fedan [pdn] may be the same language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Aoheng
[pni] Kalimantan Timur province: Sarawak border area, upper reaches of Barito, Kapuas, and Mahakam rivers; Kalimantan Tengah province: border areas. 2,630 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Penihing. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke], 67% with Hovongan [hov]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’.

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Aputai
[apx] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency; Wetar island, Banda Sea coast, Ilputih village; Wetar strait coast, Lurang village. 150 (Hinton 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ilputih, Opotai, Tutunohan. Dialects: Ilputih, Lurang, Welemur. Welemur dialect has no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Perai [wet], 74% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Ili’uun [ilu], 57% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar. Comments: Christian.

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Aralle-Tabulahan
[atq] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamasa regency, Mambi sub-district, Aralle and Tabulalang towns, 2 separate areas. 12,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Aralle, Tabulahan, Mambi. Lexical similarity: 84%–89% with other dialects listed, 75%–80% with Bambam [ptu], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumandak [ulm] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Arandai
[jbj] Papua Barat province: Manokwari regency, Bintuni sub-district; South Bird’s Head, Ceram Sea coast. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dombano, Jaban, Sebyar, Sumuri, Yaban. Dialects: Dombano (Arandai). Lexical similarity: 71% with the Kemberano and Dombano dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Arguni
[agf] Papua Barat province: Fak-Fak district; Arguni island in Maccluer gulf off northwest coast, Bomberai peninsula. 150 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Argoeni. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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As
[asz] Papua Barat province: Sorong regency, Asbakin, Maklaumkarta, and Mega villages; West Bird’s Head area, north coast and inland toward Warsamson river. 230 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with some dialects on Misool Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Reportedly originates from Gag Island, west of Waigeo Island. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Asilulu
[asl] Maluku province: Asilulu, Negeri Lima, and Ureng, villages. Northwest Ambon island and west Seram island, Hoamoal peninsula, south coast. 8,760 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Asilulu, Ureng, Negeri Lima (Henalima, Lima). Lexical similarity: 88% with Asilulu and the Negeri Lima dialect, 78%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 72%–73% with the Wakal dialect of Hitu [htu], 67%–72% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 71%–73% with Luhu [lcq] in Seram. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Asmat, Casuarina Coast
[asc] Papua province: Mappi regency, Edera and Pantai Kasuari sub-districts on Casuarina Coast from Ewta river north to Kuti river south, and inland. 9,000 (1991 SIL). 5,200 in Matia and 3,400 in Sapan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: As-amat, Asmat, Kaweinag. Dialects: Matia, Sapan (Safan). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Asmat, Central
[cns] Papua province: Asmat regency; Sawa-Erma, Agats, Atsy, and Pantai Kasuari sub-districts, south coast from Owap river northwest to Farec river southwest, inland; Mappi regency, Edera and Nambai sub-districts in Digul river delta area. 7,000 (Roesler 1972). Most are monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jas, Manowee, Yas. Dialects: Simai (Simay), Misman, Ajam (Ayam). Reportedly similar to Sempan [xse] north of the rivers, Kamoro [kgq] and Citak [txt]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Asmat, North
[nks] Papua province: Merauke regency, Sawa-Erma sub-district. Near Pater Le Cocq river headwaters west to Unir river east to the foothills. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Keenok. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Asmat, Yaosakor
[asy] Papua province: Asmat regency, Agats and Atsy sub-districts; lower Surets and Eilanden rivers confluence area. 2,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: As-amat, Yaosakor. Autonym: Asmat. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Atohwaim
[aqm] Papua province: Mappi regency, Pantai Kasuari sub-district. South coast inland, between Cook and Kronkel rivers. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaugat. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Auye
[auu] Papua province: Paniai regency, Napan sub-district; central highlands in Siriwo river area. 350 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 500 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Auwje. Dialects: None known. Related to Ekari [ekg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Distinct from Awyi [auw] (Awye) in Taikat group. Christian, traditional religion.

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Awbono
[awh] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency; Modera river area. 100 (1999 SIL). 100 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kvolyab. Dialects: None known. Not related to these language families: Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna [mqf], or highland languages like Dani [dnw], or Mek family. Lexical similarity: 55% with Bayono [byl]. Classification: Bayono-Awbono. Comments: Frequently at war with Kopkaka and Korowai.

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Awera
[awr] Papua province: Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah sub-district,1 village; east Cenderawasih bay at Wapoga river mouth. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Lakes Plain, Awera. Comments: Community shared with 100 Ansus [and] speakers. Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyi
[auw] Papua province: Keerom regency, Arso sub-district; northeast highland enclave near Papua New Guinea border. 350 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Awje, Awji, Awye, Njao, Nyao. Classification: Border, Taikat. Comments: Distinct from Auye [auu] in Ekari-Wolani-Moni group. Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, Asue
[psa] Papua province: Asmat and Mappi regencies; inland from Pirimapun. 6,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Miaro, Miaro Awyu, Pisa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Edera Awyu [awy] and South Awyu [aws], but distinct from Central Awyu [awu] and Jair Awyu [awv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, Central
[awu] Papua province: Mappi and Boven Digul regencies, Bimika, Citak Mitak, Mandobo, and Obaa sub-districts; south coast inland. 7,500 (2002 Sohn Myo-sook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ajau, Auyu, Avio, Awju, Awya, Nohon. Dialects: 4 dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awyu, Edera
[awy] Papua province: Merauke regency, both banks, lower Digul river. 3,870 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jenimu, Oser, Siagha, Sjiagha, Syiagha, Yenimu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, Jair
[awv] Papua province: Merauke district. 2,300 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, North
[yir] Papua province: Merauke district; Digul river west side. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awyu, Djair, Dyair, Jair, Yair. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, South
[aws] Papua province: Merauke and Mappi regencies, Bade town area; lower Digul river. 9,340 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jenimu, Oser, Siagha, Sjiagha, Syiagha, Yenimu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Babar, North
[bcd] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Ilwiara, Nakarhamto, and Yatoke villages, northeast Babar island. 1,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dialect variation reported. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North. Comments: Christian.

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Babar, Southeast
[vbb] Maluku province: Ahanari, Analutur, Kokwari, Kroing, Letwurung, Manuweri, Tutuwawan, and Wakpapai villages; southeast Babar island coast. 4,460 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Bada
[bhz] Sulawesi Tengah and border area Sulawesi Selatan provinces: Luwu Utara and Poso regencies, Lore Selatan, Pamona Selatan, Parigi, and Poso Pesisir sub-districts; at least 24 villages. Northern Mamuju regency, Pasangkayu sub-district; some in Ampibabo sub-district, Lemusa village (Ako dialect). 6,800 (Martens 1989), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bada’, Tobada’. Dialects: Bada, Ako. Lexical similarity: 85% with Bada and Behoa [bep], 91% with Behoa and Napu [npy], 80% with Bada and Napu [npy]. The 3 are geographically, politically, and culturally separate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic. Comments: ‘Tobada’, Bada person. Christian.

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Badui
[bac] Banten province: Rangkasbitung regency, Pandeglang town, on Ujung river; Jawa Barat province: Sukabumi city area, 1 village, and Cikajang city area. 20,000 (2000 census). 12,000 in Kenekes village area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baduy, Bahasa Sunda, Gajebo. Dialects: Sometimes considered a dialect of Sunda [sun]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sundanese. Comments: A separate socio-religious group from Sunda [sun]. Inner and outer, Badui refer to location and status within the group religion. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bagusa
[bqb] Papua province: Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Tengah sub-district. 300 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kapeso, Suaseso. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Kwerba [kwe]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baham
[bdw] Papua Barat province: northwest Bomberai peninsula, Fakfak regency, Fakfak, Kaimana, and Kokas sub-districts; Kaimana regency, Cape Papisoi area. 1,100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Patimuni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Iha [ihp]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bahau
[bhv] Kalimantan Timur province: Kutai Barat regency, Long Apari, Long Bagun, and Long Hubung, and Long Pahangai sub-districts; Ratah and Mahakam rivers’ confluence area. 19,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Bahonsuai
[bsu] Sulawesi Tengah province: Morowali regency, Bungku Tengah sub-district, Bahonsuai village on the east coast, Tolo bay. 200 (Mead 1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bahoe-soeaai, Bahonsoewaai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Tomadino [tdi], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Bajau, Indonesian
[bdl] Sulawesi island: widespread throughout north central area; Maluku Utara province: on Bacan, Kayoa, Obi, and Sula islands. 150,000 (Mead et al 2007). 5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes and Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead et al 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981, Verheijen 1986). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Badjaw, Badjo, Bajao, Bajo, Bayo, Gaj, Indonesian Bajaw, Orang Laut, Sama, Taurije’ne’. Dialects: Jampea, Same’, Matalaang, Sulamu, Kajoa, Roti, Jaya Bakti, Poso, Togian 1, Togian 2, Wallace. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Comments: Known as Bayo and Taurije’ne’ in the Makasar [mak] language. Known as Bajo in Buginese [bug]. Schools in some villages. They live in houses on stilts over water. Other Bajau languages are in Sabah, Malaysia, and the southern Philippines. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bakati’
[bei] Kalimantan Barat province: Sambas regency; Sambas river headwaters. 4,000 (1986 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakati Nyam, Bakati Riok, Bakatiq, Bekati. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’.

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Bakati’, Rara
[lra] Kalimantan Barat province: Bengkayang regency, Pejampi and 2 other villages; Sanggau regency border area; upper Lundu and Sambas rivers. 12,000 (2004 M. Connor). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bekati’ Kendayan, Bekati’ Nyam-Pelayo, Bekatiq, Lara’, Luru, Rara Bakati. Dialects: Bina’e. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bakati’, Sara
[sre] Kalimantan Barat province: near Sanggau-Ledo. 4,000 (2004 M. Connor). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Riok. Dialects: Some dialect differences. Unidirectional intelligibility of Rara-Bakati’ [lra] by Sara. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’.

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Bakumpai
[bkr] Kalimantan Tengah province: Barito Selatan, and Barito Utara, and Kapuas regencies, Kapuas and Barito rivers; possibly southernmost Murung Raya regency. 100,000 (2003). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as a LWC in the market in central Kalimantan Province. Alternate Names: Bakambai, Bara-Jida. Dialects: Bakumpai, Mengkatip (Mangkatip, Oloh Mengkatip). Lexical similarity: 75% with Ngaju [nij], 45% with Banjar [bjn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, South. Comments: Muslim.

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Balaesang
[bls] Sulawesi Tengah province: Donggala regency, Balaesang sub-district, Kamonji, Ketong, and Rano villages on Manimbayu peninsula. 3,200 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balaesan, Balaisang, Pajo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Balantak
[blz] Sulawesi Tengah province: Banggai regency, Balantak, Lamala, Luwuk, and Tinangkung Lamala sub-districts, at least 49 villages; Cape Talabu. 31,000, all users. 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 1,000 (2015 R. Busenitz). 1,500 monolinguals (2015 R. Busenitz). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balanta, Kosian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66% with Andio [bzb], 51% with Saluan [loe], 39% with Bobongko [bgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Bali
[ban] Bali province: widespread; Nusa Tenggara Barat province: Kota Mataram and Lombok Barat regency; west central Lombok island. 3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Includes immigrant speakers in west Nusa Tenggara, west Lombok Islands. Ethnic population: 3,946,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balinese. Autonym: Basa Bali, Basa Bali. Dialects: Lowland Bali (Badung, Buleleng, Gianyar, Jembrana, Karangasem, Klungkung, Tabanan), Highland Bali (“Bali Aga” (pej.)), Nusa Penida. Reportedly 2 distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but users are diminishing. Speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa. Comments: Nusa Penida Island variety associated with Highland Bali dialect. It is a scattering of villages with minimal influence from the former Majapahit Empire. Hindu.

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Bambam
[ptu] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamasa regency, Mambi sub-district, Maloso and Mapilli rivers watershed; into Majene and Mamuju regencies. 22,000 (Strømme 1987). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pitu Uluna Salu, Pitu-Ulunna-Salu. Dialects: Bambam Hulu, Salu Mokanam, Bumal, Mehalaan, Pattae’, Matangnga, Issilita’, Pakkau. Complex dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 83%–94% with Bumal; 85%–80% with dialects of Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumanda [ulm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Banda
[bnd] Maluku province: Maluku Tenggara regency, Banda-Eli and Banda-Elat villages, possibly a third; Kei Besar island west and northeast. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Eli, Elat. Different from other south Maluku languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser. Comments: The people originally came from the Banda Islands, but the language is no longer spoken there. Muslim.

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Banggai
[bgz] Sulawesi Tengah province: Banggai Kepulauan regency, at least 157 villages; Banggai and Bowokan islands. 125,000 (2000 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aki, Banggaai, Banggaiy, Banggay, Banggaya. Dialects: East Banggai, West Banggai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Bangka
[mfb] Kepulauan Bangka Belitung province: widespread, Bangka island. 340,000 (2000 census). 50 or less speakers of the Lom dialect (Wurm 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: North Bangka, South Bangka, Lom (Belom, Mapor), Central Bangka, Capital City Urban Bangka, Port Urban Bangka. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: A network of dialects with distinct lexical, phonological, and grammatical innovations set Bangka apart from other Malay speech varieties. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Banjar
[bjn] Kalimantan Selatan province: Banjarmasin area; Kalimantan Tengah province: Palangkaraya, Pangkalanbun, and Sampit; Kalimantan Timur province: Kutai, Pasir, and Pulau Laut coastal regions, north toward Samarinda city and Mahakan delta; Kalimantan Barat province: some in coastal Matua; Kalimantan south and southeastern coasts, Java Sea and Makassar Strait. 3,500,000 (2000 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 3,505,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Banjar became a LWC through trade. LWC in the market, in business, and in media. Banjar, already dominant in South Kalimantan Province, is also growing rapidly in Central and Eastern Kalimantan provinces. Alternate Names: Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjarese, Labuhan. Autonym: بنجر‎ (Banjar). Dialects: Kuala, Hulu. Lexically influenced by Javanese [jav]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Indonesian [ind], 66% with Tamuan (Malayic Dayak) [xdy], 45% with Bakumpai [bkr], 35% with Ngaju [nij]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Bantik
[bnq] Sulawesi Utara province: Manado city area, 11 villages; north peninsula, northeast section. 3,000 (Utsumi 2001), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Barakai
[baj] Maluku province: Apara, Bemun, Longgar, and Mesiang villages in the south; Barakai island; some on Gomo-Gomo island northeast of Barakai. 4,450 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Workai. Dialects: Barakai, Mesiang. Reportedly similar to Karey [kyd]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Batuley [bay]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Barapasi
[brp] Papua province: Yapen Waropen regency, Waropen Atas sub-district; east Cenderawasih bay, Barapasi river area and tributaries. 2,500 (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baropasi. Dialects: Sipisi, Marikai. Lexical similarity: 67% with Kofei [kpi], 71% with Sauri [srt], 61% with Tefaro [tfo], 64% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baras
[brs] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamuju Utara regency, Baras sub-district, in and north of Bambaloka village, Karossa sub-district, Salubiro village. 250 (Valkama 1987). 50 households. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ende. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Da’a Kaili [kzf], 85% with Inde dialect of Kaili, Da’a [kzf], 80% or more with other Kaili varieties, 64% with Uma [ppk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Some think the language will die out. Muslim.

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Basap
[bdb] Kalimantan Timur and Kalimantan Utara provinces: Berau, Bulungan, Kutai Kartanegara, Penajam Paser Utara, and Kutai Timur regencies, scattered. 15,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bosap. Dialects: Jembayan, Bulungan, Berau, Dumaring, Binatang, Karangan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Batak Alas-Kluet
[btz] Aceh province: inland from Tapaktuan, and northwest towards Kutacane; into Sumatera Utara province. 195,000 (2000 census). Includes 80,000 Alas, 50,000 Kluet, and 65,000 Singkil. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alas-Kluet Batak. Dialects: Alas, Kluet, Singkil (Kade-Kade). Alas dialect may be more similar to Karo Batak [btx], 81% cognate (Soravia 2002), while Kluet and Singkil may be more closely related to Pakpak Dairi [btd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern. Comments: Many reject the label Batak for its cultural connotations. Unclear whether this is a single language.

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Batak Angkola
[akb] Sumatera Utara province: Labuhan Batu, Labuhan Batu Selatan, Padang Lawas, Padang Lawas Utara, Tapanuli Selatan, Tapanuli Tengah, and Tapanuli Utara regencies; inland from Sibolga city area south, east to Binanga, northeast toward the Strait of Malacca. 750,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anakola, Angkola. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mandailing Batak [btm], but distinct sociolinguistically. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Batak Dairi
[btd] Sumatera Utara province: Dairi, Humbang Hasundutan, Pakpak Barat, Samosir, and Tapanuli Tengah regencies, Sidikalang town area south to coast; Aceh province: Aceh Singkil regency. 1,200,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pakpak Dairi. Dialects: Dairi, Pakpak. Dairi and Pakpak dialects are sociolinguistically distinct. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Batak Karo
[btx] Aceh province: Aceh Selatan, Aceh Singli, Aceh Tenggara, and Kota Subulussalam regencies; Sumatera Utara province: Dairi, Deli Serdang, Karo, and Langkat regencies; Tapanuli Tengah regency, south small border area. 600,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karo Batak. Dialects: Singkil. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Batak Mandailing
[btm] Sumatera Utara province: south interior from Padang Sidempuan into Riau and Sumatera Barat provinces. 1,100,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Batta, Mandailing Batak. Dialects: None known. Sociolinguistically different from Angkola Batak [akb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern. Comments: A general form of Batak common to a wider area than Angkola. Muslim.

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Batak Simalungun
[bts] Sumatera Utara province: Deli Serdang, Kota Pematang Siantar, Serdang Bedagai, and Simalungun regencies. 1,200,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Simelungan, Timur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Simalungan.

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Batak Toba
[bbc] Sumatera Utara province: Asahan, Humbang Hasundutan, Labuhan Batu Utara, Samosir, Simalungan, south Tapanuli Tengah, Tapanuli Utara, and Toba Samosir regencies; Samosir island; east, south, and west of Lake Toba. 2,000,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Toba Batak. Autonym: Batta. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Angkola Batak [akb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Bati
[bvt] Maluku province: Seram island east coast between Kian Darat and Keleser towns, inland. 3,500 (Loski and Loski 1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gah. Dialects: None known. Related to Geser-Gorom [ges] and Watubela [wah]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom. Comments: Strong separation of ethnolinguistic identity from Geser-Gorom [ges]. Muslim.

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Batui
[zbt] Sulawesi Tengah province: Banggai regency, Batui sub-district, Balantang, Batui, Sisipan, and Tolando villages; eastern peninsula. 2,900, decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baha. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Saluan [loe], 60% with Andio [bzb], 54% with Bobongko [bgb], 46% with Balantak [blz], 38% with Banggai [bgz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic. Comments: Muslim.

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Batuley
[bay] Maluku province: Aru islands regency, Arafura Sea east coast offshore communities, 7 island villages. 3,640 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gwataley, Watulai. Dialects: None known. Slightly more distant from Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Barakai [baj] and Karey [kyd], 81% with Mariri [mqi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Bauzi
[bvz] Papua province: Jayapura and Yapen Waropen regencies, Mamberamo Tengah and Waropen Atas sub-districts, Danau Bira, Itaba, Kustera, Neao, Noiadi, Solom, and Vakiadi villages; extensive inland area between Mamberamo and Rouffaer rivers. 1,500 (1991 SIL). 1,350 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baudi, Baudji, Baudzi, Bauri. Dialects: Gesda Dae, Neao, Aumenefa. Classification: East Geelvink Bay, Bauzi. Comments: Whistle speech reported. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bayono
[byl] Papua province: Asmat regency, Eilanden-Steenboom river area. 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Not related to language families like Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna, or highlands language families like Dani or Mek. Lexical similarity: 55% with Awbono [awh]. Classification: Bayono-Awbono.

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Bedoanas
[bed] Papua Barat province: Fakfak regency, Kokas sub-district; Bomberai peninsula. 180 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Behoa
[bep] Sulawesi Tengah province: Poso regency, Lore Utara sub-district, 8 villages; Behoa and Napu valleys. 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ako, Besoa. Dialects: None known. Geographically, politically, culturally, and lexically distinct from Bada [bhz] and Napu [npy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Beneraf
[bnv] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district, Beneraf and part of Nenke village; north coast area east of Tor river mouth. 200 (2005 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Boneraf, Bonerif, Edwas. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Edwas may be the name preferred by the people. Christian, traditional religion.

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Benggoi
[bgy] Maluku province: Werinama and Bula districts, Balakeo, Benggoi, and Lesa villages; Seram island, north Seram Sea coast. 350 (1989 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bengoi, Isal, Kobi-Benggoi, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei-Kaclakin, Uhei-Kahlakim. Dialects: Lesa, Benggoi, Balakeo. Lexical similarity: 70% with dialects; 54%–66% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Salas Gunung dialect [sgu], 32%–46% with Sou Upaa [wha]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Bentong
[bnu] Sulawesi Selatan province: Barru, Bone, Pangkep, and Maros regencies; highland areas northeast of Makassar city. 25,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bentong-Dentong, Dentong. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Konjo [kjc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: ‘Bentong’ and ‘Dentong’ are Bugis [bug] and Makasarese [mak] exonyms meaning ‘nonfluent’, but the names do not have negative connotations to speakers themselves. Muslim, Christian.

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Benyadu’
[byd] Kalimantan Barat province: Bengkayang and Landak regencies; near Sarawak border. 54,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balantian, Balantiang, Njadu, Nyadu. Dialects: Pandu, Nyadu (Balantian, Balantiang, Njadu). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak.

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Berik
[bkl] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Tor Atas sub-district, Beu, Bora Bora, Dangken, Doronta, Kondirjan, Safrontani, Sewan, Somanente, Taminambor, Tenwer, Togonfo, and Waf villages; north coast, mid and upper Tor river, inland from Sarmi peninsula. 1,200 (1994 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berick, Berrik, Sewan Teteris, Upper Tor. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 45% with Keijar [kdy], 13% with Orya [ury]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Formerly the trade language of Tor area. Christian, traditional religion.

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Betaf
[bfe] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district; north coast area east of Sarmi. 600 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ten’a, Tena. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Betawi
[bew] Banten province: Tangerang recency and city; dominant in Jakarta Special Capital Region; Jawa Barat province: Bekasi, Bogar, and Karawang regencies, also Bekasi and Depok cities. 5,000,000 (2000 census). Population count imprecise due to vague ethnic and linguistic definition of ‘Betawi’. Ethnic population: 6,800,000 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Batavi, Batawi, Betawi Malay, Jakarta Malay, Melayu Betawi, Melayu Jakarte. Dialects: None known. A Malay-based creole distinct from both Indonesian [ind] and other Malay-based pidgins and creoles. It evolved mid-19th century. Unique phonological, morphological, and lexical traits. Influences from Peranakan Indonesian [pea] and Bali [ban]. Often not intelligible to Indonesian speakers not familiar with it (1989 R. Allen). Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Muslim.

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Biak
[bhw] Papua province: Biak Numfor regency, Biak and Numfor islands; Yapen Island regency, north coast area; Papua Barat province: Mapia islands; Raja Ampat regency, Bantanta and south Waigeo islands; numerous island communities, east, north, and west of Bird’s Head. 70,000 (Van den Heuvel 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Biak-Numfor, Mafoor, Mafoorsch, Mefoor, Myfoorsch, Noefoor, Noefoorsch, Nufoor. Autonym: Wós Kovedi, Wós Vyak. Dialects: Ariom, Bo’o, Dwar, Fairi, Jenures, Korim, Mandusir, Mofu, Opif, Padoa, Penasifu, Samberi, Sampori (Mokmer), Sor, Sorendidori, Sundei, Wari, Wadibu, Sorido, Bosnik, Korido, Warsa, Wardo, Kamer, Mapia, Mios Num, Rumberpon, Monoarfu, Yobi (Jobi). Some consider Biak and Numfor dialect 2 languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bidayuh, Biatah
[bth] Kalimantan Barat province: Sanggau regency, area near Sarawak border; possibly northeast Landak regency. 8,480 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Biatah, Bideyu, Landu, Lundu, Pueh, Siburan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central. Comments: May be distinct from Biatah [bth] of Sarawak. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong
[sdo] Kalimantan Barat province: Sanggau and Sintang regencies; Mount Cemaru, near Sarawak border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sabutan, Sadong, Serian, Tebakang. Dialects: Bukar Sadong, Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayah, Bidayuh). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern.

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Biga
[bhc] Papua Barat province: Sorong district, Biga village. 300 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat.

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Bilba
[bpz] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: northeast Rote island; Semau island; Timor mainland near Kupang. 7,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Belubaa, Bilbaa, Eastern Rote, Rote, Rote Timur, Roti, Rotinese. Dialects: Bilba, Diu, Lelenuk. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian.

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Bima
[bhp] Nusa Tenggara Barat province: Sumbawa island, east of the isthmus; Banta and Sangeang islands; Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Komodo island area. 500,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bimanese. Dialects: Kolo, Sangar (Sanggar), Toloweri, Bima, Mbojo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Muslim.

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Bintauna
[bne] Sulawesi Utara province: Bolaang Mongondou Utara regency, Bintauna town and inland; Celebes Sea. 11,200 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bintaoena, Bintawoena, Bitaoena. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Biritai
[bqq] Papua province: Puncakjaya district, Biri village. 250 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aliki, Ati, Biri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Obokuitai [afz], 61% with Eritai [ert], 60% with Kwerisa [kkb], 69% with Kaiy [tcq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Blagar
[beu] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: east Pantar, north Pura, and south Ternate islands. 11,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Belagar, Kaera, Pura, Tarang. Dialects: Apuri, Limarahing, Bakalang, Pura. Retta [ret], spoken on south Pura and nearby islands, is a separate language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Boano
[bzl] Sulawesi Tengah province: Parigi Moutong sub-district, Bolano village; north peninsula, south coast, facing gulf of Tomini. 2,700 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boan-diks, Bolano. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 83% with Totoli [txe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli. Comments: Different from Boano [bzn] in Maluku. Muslim.

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Boano
[bzn] Maluku province: North Buano main village; Boano and Seram islands. 3,240 (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buano. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal. Comments: Different from Boano [bzl] in Sulawesi.

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Bobongko
[bgb] Sulawesi Tengah province: Batu Daka island, Tumbulawa village on northwest coast; Togian islands, Lembanato village on Kilat bay, north side of Togian island. 1,500 (Mead 2001). 1,100 in Lembanato and 400 in Tumbulawa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Different from Andio [bzb]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Saluan [loe], 44% with Andio [bzb], and 30% with Gorontalo [gor], 25%–30% with Gorontalo-Mongondow languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic. Comments: Bobongko is not derogatory to its speakers, but it is to the Andio [bzb]. Muslim, Christian.

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Bobot
[bty] Maluku province: Seram Bagian Timur regency, Werinama sub-district, southeast from Atiahu village to Kota Baru; Tunsai village in Liana area. 4,500 (1989 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ahtiago, Atiahu, Hatumeten, Ntau, Werinama. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Sepa [spb] and Sou Nama [tlt], 42% with Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Bobot. Comments: Muslim.

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Bolango
[bld] Gorontalo province: Gorontalo Utara regency, Atinggola town area; Sulawesi Utara province: Bolaang Mongondow Selantan regency, Molibagu area; Bolaang Mongondow Utara regency. 23,000 (Sneddon and Usup 1986). Atinggola 16,000, Bolango 7,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atinggola-Bolango, Bolaang Uki, Bolang-Banka, Bulanga, Bulanga-Uki. Dialects: Bolango (Uki), Atinggola (Andagile, Attingola, Diu, Kattinggola). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Distinct from Gorontalo [gor] (1974 J. Little). Muslim.

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Bonerate
[bna] Sulawesi Selatan province: Bonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, Karompa, and Selayer islands. 9,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bonerate, Karompa. Lexical similarity: 79%–81% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 31% with Kalao [kly], 25% with Laiyolo [lji]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate. Comments: Muslim.

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Bonggo
[bpg] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district. 790 (2006 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Armopa, Bgu, Bogu, Bongo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Bgu may be the name preferred by the people. Christian, traditional religion.

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Budong-Budong
[bdx] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong sub-district, Tongkou village; Makassar strait, Budong-Budong river area. 70 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bubudong, Tangkou, Tongkou. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Aralle-Tabulahan [atq] and Ulumandak [ulm]. Lexical similarity: 56% with Mamuju [mqx] and Seko Padang [skx], 61% with Seko Tengah [sko], 72% with Panasuan [psn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan. Comments: Muslim.

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Bugis
[bug] Sulawesi Barat province: More, Pasangkayu on Mandar bay; Sulawesi Selatan province: widespread in peninsular interior (except south and east of Makassar city) east to Bone bay; Sulawesi Tengah province: Donggola, Oti, and Toaya, west; 3 Tolo bay enclaves east; Sulawesi Tenggara province: Kasiputih area, 3 interior enclaves near Sulawesi Tenggara, Lake Towuti, Bone bay east coast; possibly in Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra provinces. 5,500,000 in Indonesia, all users. 5,000,000 (2000 census), increasing. 500,000. Total users in all countries: 5,517,800 (as L1: 5,017,800; as L2: 500,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, To Ugi. Autonym: Basa Ugi. Dialects: Bone (Dua Boccoe, Mare, Palakka), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Camba, Sidrap (Alitta, Pinrang Utara, Sidenrang), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sinjai (Bulukumba, Enna, Palattae), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo, Barru (Nepo, Pare-Pare, Soppeng Riaja, Tanete, Tompo), Sawitto (Pinrang), Luwu (Bua Ponrang, Luwu’, Malangke-Ussu, Wara). Bone and Soppeng dialects are central. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis. Comments: Muslim.

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Bukat
[bvk] Kalimantan Barat province: northeast near Sarawak border, Kapuas river, 3 areas. 400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’.

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Bukitan
[bkn] Kalimantan Utara province: Malinau regency on Sarawak border, 2 enclaves on Iwan river. 570 (2000). Total users in all countries: 860. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan. Dialects: Punan Ukit, Punan Busang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang. Comments: Christian.

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Buli
[bzq] Maluku Utara province: central Halmahera, 3 villages on Buli bay north shore. 2,520 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Buli, Wayamli (Jawanli, Wajamli). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast. Comments: Several communities of over 100 dwellings. Muslim, Christian.

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Bulungan
[blj] Kalimantan Timur province: Tanjungselor town area, lower Kayan river. 30,000 (Kawi et al 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bolongan. Dialects: May be a dialect of Southern Tidung [itd] or Segai [sge]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bunak
[bfn] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Belu regency, central interior, near Timor Leste border, on Timor island. 21,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buna’, Bunake, Bunaq, Gae’, Marae. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor. Comments: Small groups scattered among other languages. Traditional religion.

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Bungku
[bkz] Sulawesi Tengah province: Bungku Selatan, Bungku Tengah, and Bungku Utara sub-districts, about 45 coastal villages from Mondeodo south to Kenduri area; Sulawesi Tenggara province: Konawe regency, Asera, Soropia, and Lasolo sub-districts, Tulambatu and Kenduri areas inland, interior enclave southeast of Lake Poso. 27,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikinyikiusa, Tamboeko, Tambuku, Tobuco, “Nahina” (pej.). Dialects: Bungku, Routa, Tulambatu, Torete (To Rete), Landawe, Waia. Lexical similarity: 81% with Torete, Waia, Tulambatu, and Landawe dialects; 38% with Pamona dialects [pmf]; 88% with Landawe dialect; 84% with Waia dialect; 82% with Torete dialect; 74% with Wawonii [wow]; 66% with Taloki [tlk], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]; 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups; 82% with the Routa dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Buol
[blf] Sulawesi Tengah province: Baolan, Biau, Bokat, Bunobogu, Momunu, and Paleleh sub-districts, 68 villages on north coast, near Gorontalo province border. 96,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bual, Bwo’ol, Bwool, Dia. Autonym: Apadu Vuolo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Totoli [txe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Burate
[bti] Papua province: Yapen Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah sub-district, 1 village near Wapoga river mouth. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Demisa [dei], 75% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Burmeso
[bzu] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Tengah sub-district, 1 village on Middle Mamberamo river. 250 (Donohue 1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boromeso, Borumesso, Burumeso, Manau, Monao, Monau, Taurap. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: less than 5% with other languages. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Burmeso. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Buru
[mhs] Maluku province: Buru island except northeast corner, 70 villages; some on Ambon island in Jakarta. 45,000 (Grimes 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boeroe, Buruese. Autonym: Buru. Dialects: Masarete (South Buru), Wae Sama (Waesama), Central Buru (Rana, Wae Geren, Wae Kabo), Fogi (Li Emteban, Tomahu). Li Garan is a special taboo dialect spoken by the Rana people (3,000 to 5,000 users). Ethnic population Fogi dialect: 500, but no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 90% between Masarete and Wae Sama dialects, 88% between Masarete and Rana, 80% between Wae Sama and Rana, 68% between Lisela [lcl] and Masarete, 48% between Leliali dialect of Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 45% between Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 44% between Ambelau [amv] and Masarete, 27%–33% between Buru dialects and Sula [szn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru. Comments: There are word taboos and complex intermarriage patterns on the island. Exogamous. 10 clans. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Burumakok
[aip] Papua province: Pegunungan Bintang regency, Kurima sub-district, Burumakok village. 40 (1994 R. Kroneman). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western.

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Burusu
[bqr] Kalimantan Timur province: Bulungan regency, Sesayap sub-district, Sekatakbunyi town area. 4,350 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berusuh, Bulusu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau.

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Buruwai
[asi] Papua Barat province: Fakfak and Kaimana regencies, Esania, Gaka, Guriasa, Hia, Kuna, Marobia, Tairi, and Yarona villages in Kamrau bay southwest. 1,000 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Asianara, Asienara, Karufa, Madidwana, Sabakor, Sebakoor. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kamberau [irx]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sabakor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Busami
[bsm] Papua province: Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Barat and Yapen Selatan sub-districts, Kamanap, Kaonda and Masiaroti villages on south and north coast of Yapen island. 700 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: 3 dialects. Lexical similarity: 71% with Ansus [and], 63% with Serui-Laut [seu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Busoa
[bup] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Buton regency, Batauga sub-district, Busoa and Laompo villages on Buton island southwest tip, Flores sea. 2,300 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bosoa. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Kambe-Kambero (probably a dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]), 70%–79% with Muna dialects, 71% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Lantoi [zka]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan. Comments: Muslim.

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Campalagian
[cml] Sulawesi Barat province: Polewali Mandar regency on Mandar bay south coast. 30,000 (Strømme 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tallumpanuae, Tasing, Tjampalagian. Dialects: Campalagian, Buku. Lexical similarity: 50%–58% with Mandar [mdr], 50%–62% with Bugis [bug], 55% with Bugis Bone [bug], 62% with Bugis Pangkajene [bug], Bugis Sidrap [bug]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis. Comments: Muslim.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Widespread. Provinces: Aceh, Bangka-Belitung, Java (5 provinces), Lampung, Maluku (Ambon island), Papua (Jayapura city), Riau islands (Batam island), north and south Suluwesi, north and south Sumatra; west Kalimantan, Singkawang city; south Kalimantan, Banjarmasin city. 640,000 (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Scattered throughout Indonesia. 460,000 (1982), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Mandarin is sometimes taught in ‘National Plus’ schools with English and Indonesian.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Bali and Java provinces: scattered throughout. Few speakers. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hokchiu, Min Dong. Dialects: Xinghua (Hsinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Bali, Java, Kalimantan, and Sumatra provinces: Scattered. 700,000 (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Banlamgi, Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Teochew (Chaochow, Tiu Chiu), Hokkien (Fujian). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Jakarta Raya, Kalimantan, and central Sumatra: Scattered. 180,000 (1982). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Konghu, Yue, Yueh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Cia-Cia
[cia] Sulawesi Tenggara province: southeast tip, Flores sea; Buton island, inland between Membula and Pasawajo towns; Batu Atas and Binongko islands. 79,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boetoneezen, Buton, Butonese, Butung, South Buton, Southern Butung. Dialects: Kaesabu, Sampolawa (Mambulu-Laporo), Wabula, Masiri. Lexical similarity: 93% with Masiri dialect, 74% with Kambe-Kambero dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 69% with Busoa [bup], 67% with Lontoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 66% with Liabuku [lix], 61% with Wolio [wlo], 60% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, West Buton. Comments: Language name based on the negator, cia (no). Muslim.

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Citak
[txt] Papua province: Mappi regency, Citak-Mitak sub-district, 19 villages on south coast. 8,000 (1985 M. Stringer). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asmat Darat, Cicak, Kaunak, Tjitak, Tjitjak. Dialects: Senggo, Komasma, Bubis, Esaun, Pirabanak, Vakam, Tiau. Reportedly similar to Asmat [cns]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Citak, Tamnim
[tml] Papua province: Asmat and Mappi regencies, Epem, Tamnim, Wowi, and Zinak villages; Senggo town area. 290 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asmat Darat, Tamnim. Dialects: None known. May be linguistically more similar to Asmat, but speakers want to be called Citak, not Asmat. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Col
[liw] Bengkulu and Sumatera Selatan provinces: Lubuklinggau and Muaraklingi areas south, east, and north; small group east of Bengkulu city. 145,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cul, Sindang. Dialects: Lembak Delapan, Sindang Kelingi, Beliti, Lubuk Linggau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: The Lembak Delapan dialect of Col in Bengkulu is not to be confused with the Lembak subdialect of the Belide dialect of Musi [mui]. Muslim.

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Dabe
[dbe] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district, Dabe village, Tor river valley north to coast. 440 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dai
[dij] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Sinairusi, 3 other villages on Lewa island. 820 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: No dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 72% with Dawera-Daweloor (most similar) [ddw], 71% with Nakarahamto, 49% with Masela-South Babar, 48% with Tepa (Luang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North. Comments: Christian.

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Dakka
[dkk] Sulawesi Barat province: Polewali-Mandar regency, Wonomulyo sub-district. 1,500 (Strømme 1987). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 72%–77% with Pannei [pnc] and Bambam [ptu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Muslim.

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Damal
[uhn] Papua province: central highlands, Paniai regency, Beoga and Ilaga sub-districts; Asmat, Deiya, Mimika, and Puncak regencies, north and south Carstens mountains; possibly Lanny Jaya and Nduga regencies. 14,000 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amung, Amung Kal, Amungme, Amuy, Enggipiloe, Hamung, Oehoendoeni, Uhunduni. Dialects: Damal, Amung, Amongme, Enggipilu. Related to Ekari [ekg], Moni [mnz], and Wolani [wod]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Damal. Comments: Christian.

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Damar, East
[dmr] Maluku province: southeast, 6 villages; east Damar island. 2,800 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: South Damar. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of West Damar [drn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, East Damar.

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Damar, West
[drn] Maluku province: southeast, 2 villages; north Damar island. 800 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Damar. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of East Damar [dmr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, West Damar.

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Dampelas
[dms] Sulawesi Tengah province: Donggala, Parigi-Moutong, and Toli-Toli regencies, Balaesang, Dampelas, and Sojol sub-districts, 8 villages on northwest Makassar Strait. 2,000 (Wurm 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (Wurm 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dampelasa, Dian. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: Dampal dialect is extinct. Muslim.

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Dani, Lower Grand Valley
[dni] Papua province: Ndugu regency, Baliem Grand Valley central highlands; lower gorge. 20,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Grand Valley Dani. Dialects: Lower Grand Valley Hitigima (Dani-Kurima, Kurima), Upper Bele, Lower Bele, Lower Kimbin (Kibin), Upper Pyramid. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dani, Mid Grand Valley
[dnt] Papua province: Lanny Jaya and Ndugu regencies, Baliem Grand Valley central highlands. 50,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baliem Valley Dani, Central Grand Valley Dani, Tulem. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dani, Upper Grand Valley
[dna] Papua province: Lanny Jaya regency, Baliem Grand Valley central highlands; upper gorge. 20,000 (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dani, Western
[dnw] Papua province: Central highlands. 180,000 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dani Barat, Ilaga Western Dani, Laany, Lani, Oeringoep, Timorini. Dialects: Western Dani of Pyramid, Western Dani of Bokondini. Lexical similarity: 65% with Obokuitai [afz], 60% with Wano [wno]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dao
[daz] Papua province: Paniai regency, Napan sub-district; west central highlands along Dao river. 250 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maniwo, “X-Ray” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Auye [auu]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Dawera-Daweloor
[ddw] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Wiratan, Watuwei, and Nurnyaman villages in Banda Sea on twin coral islands northeast of Babar island; Daweloor island; Dawera island, Ilmarang, Letmasa, and Welora villages. 1,270 (2007 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Davelor. Dialects: Minor dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North. Comments: Christian.

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Dela-Oenale
[row] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Rote island west coast, Dela and Oe Nale areas. 7,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dela, Delha, Oe Nale, Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Western Rote. Dialects: Dela (Delha), Oenale (Oe Nale). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dem
[dem] Papua province: Western highlands along Rouffaer river headwaters. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lem, Ndem. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Dem. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Demisa
[dei] Papua province: Waropen Bawah sub-district, Botawa, Desawa, and Muyere villages; inland in northeast Canderawasih bay. 400 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Desawa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Burate [bti], 64% with Kofei [kpi], 60% with Sauri [srt], 65% with Tunggare [trt], 64% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay, Bauzi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dengka
[dnk] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Rote island northwest coast, Ba’a town west to Tasilo bay. 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Western Rote. Dialects: Western Dengka, Eastern Dengka, Lelain. Western Dengka dialect has marked intonation; some occurrences of, ngg, in Eastern Dengka dialect become, nd, in Western Dengka. Some vocabulary of Western Dengka is like Dhao [nfa]. Dengka and Dela-Oenale [row] are more divergent from other languages on Rote. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dera
[kbv] Papua province: Keerom regency, 13 villages on Papua New Guinea border. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,690. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dla, Dra, Kamberataro, Mangguar. Classification: Senagi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dhao
[nfa] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Rote Ndao regency, Ndao island off western tip of Rote island; scattered settlements on Rote and Timor islands. 5,000 (1997 A. Ranoh). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dao, Kahore, Ndao, Ndaonese, Ndaundau. Dialects: None known. Related to Hawu [hvn]. Complex phonology. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Hawu-Dhao. Comments: Christian.

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Diebroud
[tbp] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Hulu sub-district. 300 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bok, Dabra, Taburta, Taria, Taworta, Taworta-Aero. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 35%–40% with Foau [flh]. Classification: Lakes Plain, East. Comments: Used as an inter-language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Dineor
[mrx] Papua province: Sarmi regency on north coast, Walckenaer bay area. 55 (2006 SIL), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Maremgi, Marengge. Dialects: None known. Unintelligible to speakers in neighboring settlements including Bonggo. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Diuwe
[diy] Papua province: Asmat regency, southeast of Wamena city. 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Diuwe.

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Dobel
[kvo] Maluku province: Kepulauan Aru regency, Aru islands; Kobror island central and east coast, 18 villages; southeast Wokam island, 1 village; 4 villages in east Barakai strait on Kobror and Koba islands; 2 villages south of Beding Warlai town; many in Dobo; some in Ambon. 5,680 (2011 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doibel, Kobro’or, Kobroor, Sersifar Tannin. Dialects: Northern Dobel, Straits Dobel, Southeast Dobel. At least 3 dialects. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Koba [kpd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Dondo
[dok] Gorontalo province: Pohuwato regency; Sulawesi Tengah province: Buol and Tolitoli regencies, Baolan, Dampal Utara, Dondo, Galang, and Tolitoli Utara sub-districts; at least 25 villages. 13,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern. Comments: Most of the hill Dondo interact socially with the Dondo coastal population which reinforces the use of Dondo in a variety of functions. Muslim.

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Doutai
[tds] Papua province: Toli-Dou village southwest of Taiyeve town. 70 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 340 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Taori, Taori-So, Tolitai. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Duano
[dup] Sumatra, Riau province: west archipelago and Daratan east coast; into Jambi province: northeast coast; Riau Province, Bengkalis, Kepulauan Meranti, and Pelawan regencies, offshore islands Rangsang, Mendol, and Bengkalis, 4 areas. 15,000 (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: Total ethnic population all countries: 19,000 (2006 E. Seidlitz). Total users in all countries: 15,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Duano’, Orang Kuala. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Duri
[mvp] Sulawesi Selatan province: north Enrekang regency; Makassar city and other communities. 127,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Masenrempulu, Massenrempulu. Dialects: Cakke-Kalosi, Baraka, Benteng Alla. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Duriankere
[dbn] Papua Barat province: one island between Salawati island and Bird’s Head west end. 30 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 60. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Duriankari, Esaro, Sailen. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Inanwatan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dusner
[dsn] Papua Barat province: Teluk Wondama regency. No known L1 speakers. There were 6 elderly speakers in 1978 (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dusnir. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dusun Deyah
[dun] Kalimantan Selatan province: Tabalong river northeast of Bongkang town; into Kalimantan Tengah province. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Deah, Dejah. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Lawangan [lbx], 52% with Tawoyan [twy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, Central.

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Dusun Malang
[duq] Kalimantan Tengah province: North Barito regency, northeast and west of Muarainu town; Kalimantan Timur province: Kutai Barat regency, small border area. 4,500 (2003). 2,000 Bayan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Bayan, Dusun Malang. Lexical similarity: 90% with the 2 dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South.

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Dusun Witu
[duw] Kalimantan Tengah province: South Barito regency, near Pendang and Buntokecil towns. 5,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dusun Pepas, Dusun Witu. Lexical similarity: 75% with Ma’anyan [mhy], 73% with Paku [pku]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South.

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Duvle
[duv] Papua province: south of Van Daalen river; Dagai river (Eastern Duvle), Fedide and Wedi rivers (Western Duvle). 930 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duvde, Duve, Duvele, Duvre, Wiri. Dialects: Eastern Duvle, Western Duvle. Few dialect differences. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Duvle. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Edopi
[dbf] Papua province: southwest Mamberamo Raya and north Puncak regencies; Rouffaer river between Splitsingbivak and Motorbivak. 1,500 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dosobou, Dou, Doufou, Elopi, Foi, Iau, Turu, Urundi, Ururi, Yau. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ekari
[ekg] Papua province: Deiya, Dogiyai, Intan Jaya, north Mimika, south Nabire, and Paniai regencies in west central highlands and Lake Paniai area; Papua Barat province: Kaimana regency south-southwest. 100,000 (1985 M. Doble). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekagi, Kapauku, Me Mana, Mee Mana, Tapiro. Autonym: Me. Dialects: Simori, Yabi (Jabi), Mapiya-Kegata, Mee. Reportedly most similar to Wolani [wod]. Slight dialect difference with Mapiya-Kegata. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Christian.

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Elseng
[mrf] Papua province: Jayapura and Keerom regencies, Abepura, Arso, Kemtuk Gresi, and Senggi sub-districts, Lake Sentani area, south, southwest. 300 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djanggu, Janggu, Sawa, Tabu, “Morwap” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Almost no outside influence. ‘Morwap’ is vigorously rejected as a language name by speakers and government officials. Christian, traditional religion.

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Embaloh
[emb] Kalimantan Barat province: northeast Kapuas Hulu regency, upper Kapuas river, Embaloh, Kalis, Lauh, Leboyan, Nyabau, and Palin tributaries; small area south of the Kapuas, Mandai river, and Batutenobong. 10,000 (1991 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malo, Maloh, Matoh, Mbaloh, Memaloh, Palin, Pari, Sangau, Sanggau. Dialects: Kalis (Kalis Dayak, Kalis Maloh). Kalis may be a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis, Tamanic. Comments: Complex mix of ethnic groups: Taman of upper Kapuas River, Suai, Taman Mendalem, Taman Sibau, Palin, Lauk, Leboyan, Kalis Dayak. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Emem
[enr] Papua province: Keerom and Pegunungan Bintang regencies, border area south of Jayapura city. 2,000 (2005 SIL). Some elderly monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emumu, Imimkal, Kiamerop. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 25% with Yafi [wfg]. Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Emplawas
[emw] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Emplawas village, south Babar island. 250 (2007 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Ende
[end] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: south central Flores island. 110,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Endeh. Dialects: Ende (Djau, Endeh, Ja’o), Nga’o (Ngao, West Ende). Some consider Li’o [ljl] to be a dialect of Ende. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Enggano
[eno] Bengkulu province: Enggano island, southwest of mainland; 4 small nearby islands. 1,500 (2000 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Engganese. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Not conclusively established as an Austronesian language, rather than an isolate with Austronesian loans. Christian, Muslim.

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Enrekang
[ptt] Sulawesi Selatan province: Enrekang and Pinrang regencies, Enrekang town area, west toward Mandar bay head; Sulawesi Barat province: Polewali Mandar regency coastal area. 50,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Endekan, Endekan Timur. Dialects: Enrekang, Ranga, Pattinjo (Letta-Batulappa-Kassa). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Eritai
[ert] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Hulu and Mamberamo Tengah sub-districts, Erai, Haya, and Kustera villages; low mountains, Kustera airstrip area. 530 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aliki, Babiruwa, Babrua, Babruwa, Baburiwa, Barua, Editode Edai, Erai, Eri, Haya. Dialects: The dialect in Obogwi village is reportedly similar but not the same. Lexical similarity: 76% with Obokuitai [afz], 86% with Sikaritai [tty]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Erokwanas
[erw] Papua Barat province: Fakfak regency on Berau bay. 200 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Darembang. Subgroup Darembang may better be considered a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Fayu
[fau] Papua province: Kliki river area; northwest towards Cenderawasik bay. 1,400 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iyarike, Sefoiri, Sehudate, Tearu, Tikere. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West. Comments: 5 nomadic groups: Tearu, Iyarike, Tikere, Sefoiri, and Sehudate. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Fedan
[pdn] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district, coastline and island off north coast of Biri river area. 280 (2005 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fandanus, Podena. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anus [auq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi.

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Foau
[flh] Papua province: Jayapura and Mamberamo Raya regencies, Kecamatan sub-district, 1 village; Mamberamo basin region on Dijai river. 350 (2010 SIL), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abawiri, Doa, Fuau. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 35%–49% with Diebroud [tbp]. Classification: Lakes Plain, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Fordata
[frd] Maluku province: southeast, 30 villages; north archipelago on Fordata, Larat, and Molu-Maru islands; northwest, Yamdena island west coast, Seira island; also Jakarta, other cities. 50,000 (Marshall 2000). 25,000 in the language area and 25,000 elsewhere (Marshall 2000). Decreasing use in mixed language towns. 500 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Larat, Vai Fordata, Vai Sera-Larat-Fordata, Vai Tnebar, Vaidida. Dialects: Fordata-Larat I, Fordata-Larat II, Molo (Molo-Maru), Sera (Seira). Sera is most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kei [kei]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata. Comments: Primary schools in nearly every village, secondary schools for every 3 or 4 villages. Christian, Muslim.

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Galela
[gbi] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera Selatan regency, Bisa island, Koto Wonto area; Obi island: Laiwai and Sesepe area, and Woi Lower and Wui islands on south coast; Kasiratua, Mandioli, and Obit islands in Bacan islands group; Halmahera Utara regency, Galela bay, east of Galela town; Pulau Morotai regency, Rau and Morotai islands. 79,000 (1990 SIL). 41,000 Kadai, 10,000 Kadina, 24,000 Morotai, and 4,000 Sopi. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kadai, Kadina, Morotai, Sopi. Laba [lau] may be a dialect. 65% intelligibility of Loloda [loa], Loloda 85% of Galela. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Galolen
[gal] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Iliwaki village on Wetar island. 680 (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Galoleng, Iliwaki, Ilmedu, Ilwaki, Lir Talo. Dialects: Ilputih, Ilwaki (Iliwaki), Hiay. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Immigrants from Kisar learned Galolen. Christian.

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Gamkonora
[gak] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera island, Baru town and inland on northwest coast. 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Waioli [wli]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Gane
[gzn] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera island, south peninsula. 2,900 (1982 D. Teljeur). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gani, Giman. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Kayoa, a dialect of East Makian [mky]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane. Comments: Muslim.

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Gayo
[gay] Aceh province: Central Aceh, East Aceh, Gayo Lues, and Southeast Aceh regencies; Sumatra highland region near Mount Sembuang. 300,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gajo. Dialects: Deret, Serbejadi-Lukup, Lut, Lues. Not closely related to other languages. Some Gayo people consider Alas [btz] a distant Gayo dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Gebe
[gei] Maluku Utara province: Gag, Gebe, and Yoi’umiya islands, 4 villages; Papua Barat province: Halmahera island. 2,650 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gebi. Dialects: Umera. Lexical similarity: 44% with Patani [ptn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: A school in each village. Muslim.

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Geser-Gorom
[ges] Maluku province: Seram island southeast. 36,500 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gesa, Geser, Goram, Goran, Gorom, Gorong, Seram, Seran, Seran Laut. Dialects: Goram Laut, Mina Mina Gorong, Kelimuri. Lexical similarity: 73%–93% among dialects, 51%–61% with Watubela [wah]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom. Comments: Muslim.

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Gorap
[goq] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera Utara regency, Bobane and Igo villages; Pulau Morotai regency, Pilowo and Waringin villages on Morotai island. 1,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. A mixed language, with Ternate [tft] and Malay [max] words and different word order from other languages of north Halmahera or Austronesian languages. Lexical similarity: 85% with Indonesian [ind], but comprehension is limited. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified. Comments: Consider Sulawesi their ancestral homeland.

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Gorontalo
[gor] Gorontalo province: widespread along both coasts; Sulawesi Utara province: Bolaang Mongondon Utare regency, northeast of Gorontalo city. 1,000,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gorongtalo, Guarantala, Gunongtello, Holontalo, Hulontalo. Dialects: East Gorontalo, Gorontalo Kota, West Gorontalo (Kwandang), Tilamuta, Limboto (Limbotto). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Gresi
[grs] Papua province: Jayapura regency, Bring, Hawa, Ibub, Klaysu, Sunna, Tabangkwari, and Yansu villages. 2,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Geresi, Glesi, Gresik, Klesi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Haji
[hji] Sumatera Selatan province: Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan regency, 2 areas on Sumatra. 17,500 (2000 census). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aji. Dialects: None known. Genetically Malay with approximately one-third Lampung vocabulary. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Hamap
[hmu] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Alor island, Moru town area, 2 villages in east Kalabahi bay. 900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Said to be intelligible with Adang [adn], but Adang speakers live on Bird’s Head area of Alor, while Hamap speakers live geographically separated from Adang speakers, across the bay. Structural and lexical differences with Adang. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: Separate sociopolitical history from Adang. Christian.

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Haruku
[hrk] Maluku province: Haruku island, Lease islands. 18,200 (1989 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Hulaliu, Pelauw, Kailolo, Rohomoni, Kabauw. Each village uses a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: 81%–92% among dialects, 74%–76% with Tulehu [tlu], 67%–71% with Saparua [spr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Hatam
[had] Papua Barat province: Manokwari regency. 16,000 (1993 TEAM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adihup, Atam, Borai, Hattam, Mansim, Miriei, Moi, Tinam, Uran. Dialects: Moi (Moire), Tinam, Miriei, Adihup, Uran. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Hawu
[hvn] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Flores island, Ende area; Raijua and Sawu islands, 3 enclaves; Sumba island, Waingapu and Melolo areas; Timor island, Kupang city. 110,000 (1997). About 30,000 outside Sabu Island. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Havunese, Sabu, Savu, Savunese, Sawu, Sawunese. Dialects: Seba (Heba), Timu (Dimu), Liae, Mesara (Mehara), Raijua (Raidjua). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Hawu-Dhao. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Helong
[heg] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Semau island; Timor island west tip, and Kupang city. 14,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Ethnic population: 18,000 (2015 S. Cameron). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Helon, Kupang, Semau. Autonym: Helong. Dialects: Helong Pulau (Island Helong, Semau), Helong Darat (Bolok), Funai (Land Helong). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Christian.

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Hitu
[htu] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Hila, Hitu, Mamala, Morela, and Wakal villages on Ambon island, Piru Sea coast, Hitu peninsula. 16,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Wakal, Morela, Mamala, Hitu, Hila. Lexical similarity: 67%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 74%–82% with Tulehu [tlu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Hoti
[hti] Maluku province: east Seram island. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). 10 elderly speakers in 1987, but now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, East Seram.

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Hovongan
[hov] Kalimantan Barat province: Kapuas Hulu regency; Kalimantan Timur province: border area northeast near Sarawak. 1,000 (1991 NTM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hobongan, Punan Bungan. Dialects: Hovongan (Hobongan), Penyavung, Semukung Uheng. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke], 67% with Aoheng [pni]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Huaulu
[hud] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, 10 villages on north Seram island, Salemen bay, south end near Opin town. 300 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alakamat, Bahasa Asli. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64%–72% with Sou Upaa [wha] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Culturally distinct from Sou Upaa. Traditional religion.

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Hukumina
[huw] Maluku province: Hukumina, Palumata, and Tomahu districts on northwest Buru island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Balamata, Bambaa, Palamata, Palumata. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Hukumina.

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Hulung
[huk] Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Hulung village on west Seram island. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Spoken by fewer than 10 speakers in 1991, but now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Naka’ela [nae], 63% with Alune [alp], 59% with Wemale [weo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Hulung.

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Hupla
[hap] Papua province: central highlands area, Baliem gorge. 3,000 (1982 WT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Soba. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lower Grand Valley Dani [dni]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Iau
[tmu] Papua province: Puncak Jaya regency, Barere, Fawi, and Taiyai villages between Rouffaer and Van Daalen rivers. Rouffaer river (Foi dialect); Van Daalen river (Turu dialect). 600 (2000 J. Bateman), increasing. 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foi, Iaw, Turu, Urundi, Ururi, Yau. Dialects: Foi (Poi), Turu, Iau. Reportedly similar to Edopi [dbf]. Distinct from Yawa [yva]. Varieties listed as dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Iban
[iba] Kalimantan Barat province: Kapuas Hulu regency, Nanga Katungau north to Sarawak border on middle Kapuas river, east of Mount Betung to Udjungumbut, west to Sebangkung town; Sintang regency, lower Kapuas south bank. 15,000 (Benjamin and Chou 2003). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Sea Dayak. Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau, Kantu’, Ketungau (Air Tabun, Banjur, Demam, Maung, Sebaru’, Sekapat, Seklau, Sesat, Sigarau), Desa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ibu
[ibu] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera Barat regency, Gamlamo and Gamici villages on north Halmahera island, Iboe river mouth. 35 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). In 1987, there were a few elderly speakers but it is now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 50 (1984). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. May be inherently intelligible with Sahu [saj]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu.

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Iha
[ihp] Papua Barat province: Fakfak regency, Fakfak, Kaimana, and Kokas sub-districts on west Bomberai peninsula. 5,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kapaur. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Baham [bdw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Iha Based Pidgin
[ihb] Papua Barat province: Fak Fak regency, Fak Fak Selantan area on Bomberai peninsula south coast. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin, Iha based. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Ile Ape
[ila] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Lembata regency, north Lomblem island, Ile Ape peninsula and inland. 15,000 (2008 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nusa Tadon. Dialects: North Ile Ape, South Ile Ape. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Ili’uun
[ilu] Maluku province: Erai, Esulit, Ilmaumau, Istutun, Karbubu, Klishatu, Nabar, and Telemar villages southwest; Lirang island; Wetar island southwest tip. 1,400 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Erai, Hahutan, Hahutau, Iliun, Ilmaumau, Limera. Dialects: Telemar, Karbubu, Ustutun, Klishatu, Ilmaumau, Eray, Nabar, Esulit. All also use the Ili’uun dialect. Lexical similarity: 93%–97% among dialects, 73% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Aputai [apx], 67% with Perai [wet], 51% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar. Comments: Christian.

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Imroing
[imr] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Emroing village; Babar island southwest. 560 (2007 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Imroin. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Indonesian
[ind] Widespread. 198,000,000 in Indonesia (2010 census), all users. 22,800,000 (2000), increasing. Total users in all countries: 198,395,070 (as L1: 23,195,070; as L2: 175,200,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1945, Constitution, Article 36). Autonym: Bahasa Indonesia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: over 80% with Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Developed from literary ‘Classical Malay’ of the Riau-Johor sultanate (Sneddon 2003). Has regional variants. Muslim.

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Indonesian Sign Language
[inl] Scattered: Java and Bali, especially Jakarta. 8,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ISL. Classification: Sign language. Comments: A blend of Malaysian Sign Language [xml] and indigenous signs centered in Jakarta but being promoted throughout the country. Yogyakarta is distinct, and may need to be recognized as a separate language (2016 J. Woodward). 94 schools for the deaf, oralist.

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Indonesian, Peranakan
[pea] Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, and Jawa Timur provinces scattered on north coast; Yogyakarta province. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baba Indonesian, Chinese Indonesian, Peranakan. Dialects: None known. Based on Indonesian [ind] and Javanese [jav], with Mandarin [cmn] elements in contrast to Baba Malay [mbf], which has Hokkien (Chinese, Min Nan [nan]) elements. Classification: Creole, Malay based.

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Irarutu
[irh] Papua Barat province: Fakfak, north Kaimana, and Teluk Bintani regencies on east Bomberai peninsula, Arguni bay north to Bintuni bay southwest, 44 villages. 4,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arguni Bay, Irahutu, Irutu, Kaitero, Kasira. Dialects: 6 or 7 dialects. Lexical similarity: 90% with Kuri [nbn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Isirawa
[srl] Papua province: Jayapura, north coast, Sarmi regency: Amsira, Arabais, Arsania, Kamenawari, Mararena, Martewar, Nisero, Nuerawar, Perkami, Siaratesa, Waim, Wari, and Webro villages. 1,800 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Okwasar, Saberi, Saweri. Dialects: Western Isirawa, Eastern Isirawa. Reportedly similar to Kwerba [kwe]. Dialects very similar. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Isirawa. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Itik
[itx] Papua province: Sarmi regency, north coast on upper Biri river. 80 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Betef, Borto, Ittik, Ittik-Tor. Dialects: Ittik, Ittik-Tor. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Survey data from 2005 indicates this language may no longer exist or speakers moved to another location. Christian, traditional religion.

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Jangkang
[djo] Kalimantan Barat province: central Sanggau regency, between Sanggau and Balai Sebut towns on Kapuas river tributary. 37,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Jangkang proper, Pompang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern.

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Javanese
[jav] Widespread. Mainly Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Lampung, and Yogyakarta provinces; Sumatra island: scattered; resettlements in Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sulawesi. 84,300,000 (2000 census). 25,000 in south Sulawesi, and 69,000,000 on Java, 500,000 of them being in Banten region and 2,500,000 in Cirebon region of Java. Ethnic population: 95,200,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 84,368,500. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in central and eastern Java. Alternate Names: Djawa. Autonym: Jawa. Dialects: Cirebon (Cheribon, Tjirebon), Tegal, Indramayu, Surakarta (Sawlaw, Solo), Tembung, Pasisir, Surabaya, Malang-Pasuruan, Banten, Manuk, Banyumas. High Javanese (Jawa Halus) is the language of religion, but users diminishing and mostly limited to Central Javanese speakers. Javanese varieties in Suriname and in New Caledonia now only partially intelligible with difficulty. Javanese in New Caledonia reportedly cannot use High Javanese (Koentjaraningrat 1971). Several dialects in Sabah. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Muslim.

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Javindo
[jvd] Java island, Jawa Tengah province: south. No known L1 speakers. May be a few L2 speakers and even a very few L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Derived from Dutch [nld] lexicon and Javanese [jav] grammar. Classification: Creole, Dutch based.

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Jofotek-Bromnya
[jbr] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district, Srum village (Bromnya dialect); Pantai Timur sub-district, Biridua village (Jofotek dialect). 200 (2007), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Jofotek, Bromnya. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kabola
[klz] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: northwest Alor island, Bird’s Head area. 3,900 (1995 N. Johnston). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Pintumbang, Tang’ala, Meibuil, Otvai, Kebun Kopi. Dialect names and locations in Wurm and Hattori (1981) are disputed by native speakers. May be more than 1 language. Based on linguistic differences and social identity, best considered a separate language from Adang [adn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Kaburi
[uka] Papua Barat province: Sorong Selatan and Teluk Bintuni regencies, Inanwatan and Merdei sub-districts; south Bird’s Head and west bank lower Kamundan river. 600 (1986 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kadai
[kzd] Maluku Utara province: Kepulauan Sula regency in Sula Islands, Molucca sea coast, Tjapaplulu strait area; Taliabu island, 2 east coast groups; west Mangole island coast east from Dofa; 2 small offshore islands. 350 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Taliabu [tlv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo. Comments: The government wants to resettle them along the coast. Traditional religion.

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Kaera
[jka] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Abangiwang, Bibit Gomi, Matgomi/Weniwa, Padangsul, Pantar, and Tamalabang villages on northeast coast. 5,500 (2014 M. Kramer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Teiwa [twe]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Kafoa
[kpu] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Alor island, southwest enclave. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aikoli, Fanating, Jafoo, Pailelang, Ruilak. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: The name Kafoa is not known locally.

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Kaibobo
[kzb] Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Kairatu sub-district, Hatusua, Kaibobo, Kamarian, Seruawan, Tihulale, and Waisamu villages; west Seram island, north Piru bay area. 500 (Collins 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kaibubu. Dialects: Kaibobo, Hatusua. Lexical similarity: 82%–88% between Kaibobo and Hatusua dialect, 75% with Kamarian [kzx], 62%–65% with Saparua [spr], 62% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Naka’ela [nae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East. Comments: Christian.

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Kaidipang
[kzp] Sulawesi Utara province: Bolaang Mongondo Utara regency, north coast. 26,600 (2000 census). Kaidipang 8,900, Bolaang Itang 17,700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dio, Kaidipang-Bolangitang. Dialects: Kaidipang (Kaidipan, Kodipang), Bolaang Itang (Bolang-Hitam, Bolang-Itam). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Kaili, Da’a
[kzf] Sulawesi Tengah and Sulawesi Barat provinces: Banawa, Dolo, Marawola, Palolo, and Sigi-Biromaru sub-districts. 55,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 3,000–5,000 Da’a and Inde in south Sulawesi. Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binggi, Bunggu, Da’a, Pakawa, Pekava, Pekawa. Dialects: Da’a (Dombu), Inde. Some intelligibility of Ledo dialect of Kaili, Ledo [lew] and other Kaili varieties, but with major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 98% between the Da’a and Inde dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: ‘Bunggu’ is the name used for Da’a and Inde in West Sulawesi (Mamuju regency, Pasangkayu sub-district). Christian.

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Kaili, Ledo
[lew] Sulawesi Tengah province: south Donggala, Morowali, south Parigi Moutong, Poso, Sigi, and Tojo Una-Una regencies, Kota Palu city; Una-Una island in Togian chain, coastal groups near Malai, Puna, and Tomori bay head. 350,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Ledo is lingua franca in West Toraja area. Alternate Names: Kaili, Ledo, Paloesch, Palu. Autonym: Kaili-Ledo. Dialects: Ledo (Palu), Doi (Kayu Malue, Mamboro), Ado (Pakuli, Sibalaya), Edo (Sidondo), Tado (Ri Io, To ri Io, Torio, Toriu), Tara (Parigi), Rai (Sindue-Tawaili, Tawaili-Sindue), Raio (Kori), Ija (Sigi), Taa (Palolo), Ta’a (Dolago-Sausu, Sausu). Doi dialect is intelligible of Ledo and Edo; Ado next most intelligible; Tado a little less. Some intelligibility of Da’a [kzf], but major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 80%–88% between Ledo and the Ado, Edo, Doi, and Lindu dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Tado dialect different from Tado [klw]. Muslim, Christian.

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Kaili, Unde
[unz] Sulawesi Barat province: Pasangkayu sub-district; Sulawesi Tengah province: Banawa, Palu, and Tawaeli sub-districts; Pulu bay west to Makassar strait. 25,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banava, Banawa. Dialects: Lole, Ganti. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Lole has negative term, unde. Ganti has negative term, ndepuu. Muslim.

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Kaimbulawa
[zka] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Kaimbulawa and Lantoi villages on Siompu island, southwest Buton island, Kambe-kambero village. 2,200 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Kambe-Kambero, Kaimbulawa (Lontoi). Not a dialect of Muna [mnb] or Cia-Cia [cia]. Lexical similarity: 81% with Kambe-kambero dialect, 75% with Busoa [bup], 64%–74% with Muna [mnb] dialects, 64% with Muna, 70% with Liabuku [lix], 66% with Cia-Cia [cia], 58% with Wolio [wlo], 45% with Kaledupa dialect of Tukang Besi North [khc]; Kambe-kambero dialect is 84% with Busoa [bup], 72% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Liabuku [lix]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic. Comments: Muslim.

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Kais
[kzm] Papua Barat province: Sorong Selatan regency, south Bird’s Head area; inland along Kais river: 8 villages. 700 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aiso, Atori, Kampung Baru, Mintamani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kaiy
[tcq] Papua province: Kaiy and Kokou villages in Lakes plain area, lower Rouffaer river. 220 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kai, Taori-Kaiy, Taori-Kei, Todi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Biritai [bqq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalabra
[kzz] Papua Barat province: west Bird’s Head, Kalabra river inland. 3,290 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beraur. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Tehit [kps]. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalao
[kly] Sulawesi Selatan province: Kepulauan Selayar regency, Selayar islands; east Kalao island. 500 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kalaotoa, Lambego. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Laiyolo [lji] and Wotu [wtw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao. Comments: Muslim.

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Kalumpang
[kli] Sulawesi Barat province: southeast Mamuju regency, Kalumpang sub-district, Karama river headwaters; Sulawesi Selatan province. 20,000 (2012 S. Samboy). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galumpang, Ma’ki, Maki, Makki, Mangki, Mangkir. Dialects: Karataun (E’da, Makki), Bone Hau (Ta’da). Smaller dialects not listed. Lexical similarity: 78% with Mamasa [mqj], 78% with Tae’ [rob], 74% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]; 82% between Karataun and Bone Hau dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Kamang
[woi] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: central Alor island. 6,000 (2011 A. Schapper and M. Manimau). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamana-Kamang, Waisika, Woisika. Dialects: Manetaa, Suboo, Takailubui, Tiee, Moo, Kamang. Probably more than 1 language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: North central Alor language complex.

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Kamarian
[kzx] Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, southwest Seram island inland from Ceram strait, Haruku, and Sapura islands. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Under 10 in 1987; now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kamariang, Seruawan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaibobo [kzb], 67% with Saparua [spr], 60% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 59% with Amahai [amq], Luhu [lcq], Naka’ela [nae], and Hulung [huk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Kamarian.

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Kamaru
[kgx] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Buton regency, east Buton island on Lawelu bay. 3,500 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Lasalimu [llm], 67% with Wolio [wlo], 54% with Cia-Cia [cia], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 49% with Tukang Besi [khc], 45% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru. Comments: Muslim.

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Kambera
[xbr] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: east Sumba island. 240,000 (2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Sumba, East Sumbanese, Hilu Humba, Humba, Oost-Sumbaas, Sumba, Sumbanese. Dialects: Kambera, Melolo, Uma Ratu Nggai (Umbu Ratu Nggai), Lewa, Kanatang, Mangili-Waijelo (Rindi, Wai Jilu, Waidjelu, Waijelo), Southern Sumba. Dialect network. Kambera dialect is widely understood. Lewa and Uma Ratu Nggai dialects have difficulty understanding those from Mangili. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kamberau
[irx] Papua Barat province: Kaimana regency, Bahomia, Coa, Inari, Koi, Tanggaromi, Ubia-Seramuku, Waho, Wamesa, and Wamoma villages; southeast Bomberai peninsula, Kamerau bay area. 1,570 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Iria, Kambrau, Kamrau. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Buruwai [asi]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sabakor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kamoro
[kgq] Papua province: south coast; Mukamuga river into Papua Barat province: Etna bay area. 8,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamora, Kaokonau, Lakahia, Mimika, Mukamuga, Nafarpi, Nagramadu, Nefarpi, Neferipi, Umar, Umari. Dialects: Tarya, Yamur, Nanesa. 4 other dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Kamoro. Comments: Different from Yeretuar (Umari) [gop]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kangean
[kkv] Java island, Jawa Timur province: sea coast; Kangean islands. 110,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Barely intelligible with East Madura [mad]. A separate language (Stevens 1968). Lexical similarity: 75% with Madura [mad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese.

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Kanum, Bädi
[khd] Papua province: Merauke regency, south coast border area. 10 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kanum, Kenume, Knwne. Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda. Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common and much ritual exchange. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kanum, Ngkâlmpw
[kcd] Papua province: Merauke regency, Onggaya, Tomer, and Yanggandur villages south along Papua New Guinea border. 150 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kanum, Kenume, Knwne. Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda. Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common, and much ritual exchange. Christian.

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Kanum, Smärky
[kxq] Papua province: Kondo, Rawa Biru, Tomer, Tomerau, and Yanggandur villages, south point bordering Papua New Guinea. 80 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne. Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda. Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common, and much ritual exchange. Christian.

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Kanum, Sota
[krz] Papua province: Merauke regency, Sota village; south, bordering Papua New Guinea. 100 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne. Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda. Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common, and much ritual exchange. Christian.

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Kao
[kax] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera Utara regency; north Halmahera island on Kao bay area near Kao river mouth. 400 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ka’u, Kau. Dialects: Could be a marginal dialect of Pagu [pgu], but relates uniquely to other languages in Kao River subbranch. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu. Comments: Muslim.

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Kapauri
[khp] Papua province: Pagai village, Kamikaru and Magri hamlets on upper Idenburg river north bank. 200 (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kapori. Classification: Kaure, Kapore. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kaptiau
[kbi] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district, Kaptiau village. 230 (2006 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kapitiauw, Kaptiauw, Sobei. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: with Tarpia [tpf] and Bonggo [bpg] (most). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Karas
[kgv] Papua Barat province: Antalisa and Mas villages on Karas island. 240 (1983 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, Karas. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Karey
[kyd] Maluku province: Tarangan island southeast coast, Karey valley in Aru Islands. 610 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kerei, Krei. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Batuley [bay]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Karon Dori
[kgw] Papua Barat province: Asses, Pef, Siakwa, and Sunopi villages; central Bird’s Head Kamundan river headwaters area. 5,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maiyach, Mari, Meon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mai Brat [ayz]. Classification: Maybrat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kata Kolok
[bqy] Java and Bali provinces: Bali island, Buleleng regency, Bengkala village (Desa Kolok deaf village). 1,125, all users. 125 (Marsaja 2008). 47 deaf and 78 hearing. 1,000 (Marsaja 2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bengkala Sign Language, Benkala Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: In the linguistic literature, the language is referred to as Kata Kolok, which means ‘deaf language’ in Balinese [ban]. There are pressures against the language: increasing patterns of deaf and hearing marrying outside the village, possibly leading to the deaf population decreasing in the future, plus increased contact of deaf with Indonesian Sign Language [inl]. So far, however, no decrease in use has been observed (de Vos 2012).

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Kaur
[vkk] Bengkulu province: south; Sumatera Selatan province: northwest from Danay Panay; all on Sumatra island. 40,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bintuhan, Ka’ur, Mulak. Dialects: Borrowings from Lampung Api [ljp]; reportedly difficult to understand for Central Malay [pse] speakers. Lexical similarity: 70% with Central Malay [pse] dialects Pasemah and Serawai. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kaure
[bpp] Papua province: Aurina, Harna, Lereh, Masta, and Wes villages on Nawa river. 450 (1995 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kaureh, Kaurne. Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kauwera
[xau] Papua province: middle Mamberamo river, north bank. 400 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kabera, Kaowerawedj, Kauwerawec, Kauwerawetj, Kawera, Koassa, Tekutameso. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kawe
[kgb] Papua Barat province: Raja Ampat regency, Bird’s Head west coast, Bianci, Menyefun, Salio, and Selepele villages; Batangpele, Kawe, Minjaifuin, Waigeo, and nearby islands. 600 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Maya [slz], Maden [xmx], and Matbat [xmt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kayagar
[kyt] Papua province: Asmat and Mappi regencies, southwest coast from Arafura sea inland. 10,000 (1993 WT), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kajagar, Kaygi, Kaygir, Wiyagar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Tamagario [tcg]; related to Atohwaim [aqm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kayan Mahakam
[xay] Kalimantan Timur province: Malinau and West Kutai regencies; Muller Mountains from south border north almost to Malasia. 1,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper. Comments: Linguistic influences from Ot Danum [otd].

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Kayan, Busang
[bfg] Kalimantan Tengah province; Kalimantan Timur province: Muller Mountains, Belayan, upper Mahakam, and Oga river areas. 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Busaang, Busang, Kajan, Kajang. Dialects: Mahakam Busang, Belayan, Long Bleh. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kayan, Kayan River
[xkn] Kalimantan Timur province: Kayan river headwaters south, and downstream. 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kajang, Kayan River Kajan. Dialects: Uma Leken, Kayaniyut Kayan, Uma Laran. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Kayan, Mendalam
[xkd] Kalimantan Barat province: along Mendalam river. 1,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mendalam Kajan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Kayan, Wahau
[whu] Kalimantan Timur province: Kutai Timur regency, Telen river north tributary. 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wahau Kajan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Kayeli
[kzl] Maluku province: Buru regency, northeast Buru island, Kayeli bay area. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Last speaker of Liliali dialect died in 1989 (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Caeli, Cajeli, Gaeli, Kajeli. Dialects: Kayeli, Leliali (Liliali), Lumaete (Lumaiti, Lumara, Mumaite). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Kayeli. Comments: Shifted to Ambonese Malay [abs] or Lisela [lcl] (Wurm 2007). Muslim.

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Kayupulau
[kzu] Papua province: Kota Jayapura city and island in Jayapura harbor. 50 (Wurm 2000). Used by under 10% of the ethnic group (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kajupulau. Dialects: Not a dialect of Tobati (Yotafa) [tti]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay. Comments: Christian.

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Kedang
[ksx] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: northeast Lembata island. 30,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dang, Kdang, Kedangese, Kédang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Kehu
[khh] Papua province: Nabire regency, Sareba bay, Wapoga river in the foothills. 200 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: East Geelvink Bay.

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Kei
[kei] Maluku province: about 207 villages on 10 islands southeast; Besar, Kecil, and surrounding islands, Kei island group, and Kur islands northwest of Kei group. 85,000 (2000 E. Travis). 4,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kai, Keiese, Saumlaki, Veveu Evav. Dialects: Kei Kecil, Kei Besar, Tayando, Tanimbar Kei (Atnebar), Ta’am. Kei Kecil is the prestigious urban dialect. Kei Besar speakers usually also know Kei Kecil, but not vice versa. Kei Besar is reportedly more similar to Fordata [frd] than other Kei dialects. Tanimbar Kei is spoken in only one village. Lexical similarity: 60% with Fordata [frd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Keijar
[kdy] Papua province: Pacific coast east, north of Tor river mouth. 370 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Keder. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 45% with Berik [bkl]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kelabit
[kzi] Kalimantan Timur province: Nunukan regency, 2 remote mountain enclaves, on Sarawak border. 640 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apo Duat, Kalabit, Kerabit. Dialects: Lon Bangag, Tring, Bareo (Bario), Pa’ Mada, Long Napir. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Christian.

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Kemak
[kem] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Belu regency; north central Timor island, Timor-Leste border area. 10,000 (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ema. Dialects: Nogo (Nogo-Nogo), Kemak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kembayan
[xem] Kalimantan Barat province: Balaikarangan and Kembayan to Sarawak border area. 11,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karambai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern.

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Kemberano
[bzp] Papua Barat province: several villages on Bird’s Head south coast, northwest Bomberai peninsula, Kalitami across Bintuni bay. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arandai, Barau, Kalitami, Wariagar. Dialects: Barau, Weriagar. Lexical similarity: 85% with Arandai [jbj], 60% with Kokoda [xod]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kembra
[xkw] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency, Okbibab sub-district. 20 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Unclassified.

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Kemtuik
[kmt] Papua province: Jayapura regency, Aib, Aimbe, Braso, Mamda, Mamdayawang, Meikari, Merem, Sabeyap, Sabeyap Kecil, Sabron Yaru, Sabransamon, Sekorup, and Yanim villages; Lake Sentani southwest area. 2,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kamtuk, Kemtuk. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Gresi [grs]. Classification: Nimboran. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kendayan
[knx] Kalimantan Barat province: Bengkayang, Kota Singkawang, Kuba Raya, Landau, Sambas, and Sanggau regencies; northwest Kalimantan island, South China sea coast, and Madi and Papan jungle area. 321,000 (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 331,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as LWC among non-Muslim Dayaks of northwest West Kalimantan province. Alternate Names: Baicit, Damea, Kanayatn, Kendayan Dayak, Kendayan-Ambawang, Salako. Dialects: Ambawang, Kendayan, Ahe, Selako. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic. Comments: Indonesian [ind] well understood only by a few with at least a 6th-grade education.

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Keninjal
[knl] Kalimantan Barat province: Gelalak, Nangaella, Nangapinoh, and Nangasayan town areas, and along Melawi and Sayan rivers; Kalimantan Tengah province. 32,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dayak Kaninjal, Kaninjal, Kaninjal Dayak. Dialects: Kubing. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with other “Malayic Dayak” dialects in Melawi Basin like Barai, Nanga Nuak, Kebahan, Ransa, Kenyilu, Limbai and Kubin. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic. Comments: Keninjal is one of many ill-defined “Malayic Dayak” varieties.

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Kenyah, Mainstream
[xkl] Kalimantan Timur and Kalimantan Utara provinces: Batu Kajang, Long Belua, Long Setulang, Long Uli, and Pimping villages; Djempang area enclave, Melintang, and Semajang; on Bahau, upper Balui, upper Baram, Belayan, Kayan, Kelai, Mahakam, Malinau, Segah, and Telen rivers. 12,000 (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 52,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Highland Kenyah, Usun Apau Kenyah. Dialects: Lepo’ Tau, Lepo’ Bem, Uma’ Jalan, Uma’ Tukung, Lepo’ Ke, Lepo’ Kuda, Lepo’ Maut, Lepo’ Ndang, Badeng, Bakung, Lepo’ Tepu’. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah.

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Kenyah, Wahau
[whk] Kalimantan Timur province: Berau regency, Batu Majang, Buluk Sen, Kampung Baru, Muara Pedohon, Tabang Lama, Uma’ Bekuai, and Uma’ Dian villages on upper Mahakam river. 8,000 (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 9,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lebu’ Kulit, Wahau Kenya. Dialects: Uma Timai, Lebu’ Kulit, Uma’ Ujok. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah.

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Ke’o
[xxk] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: 4 villages on south central Flores island. 40,000 (2001 L. Baird). Ethnic population: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nage-Keo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly distinct from but most similar to Nage [nxe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: People and language are both called Ke’o. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kepo’
[kuk] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Manggarai Timur regency, 2 areas in central Flores island highlands. 6,000 (2010). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kepoq. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Kereho
[xke] Kalimantan Barat province: east Kapuas Hulu regency; Kalimantan Tengah province: Murung Raya regency; Kalimantan Timur province: Kutai Barat regency. 500 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keriau Punan. Dialects: Seputan, Uheng (Kereho-Uheng). Lexical similarity: 69% with Hovongan [hov], 69% with Aoheng [pni]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’.

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Kerinci
[kvr] Sumatra, Jambi province: Kerinci regency, Sungaipenuh area in western mountains; Sumatera Barat province: Solok Selatan regency. 260,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 285,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kerinchi, Kinchai. Dialects: High dialect diversity in a small area, shading into Jambi Malay [zlm] east and Minangkabau [min] north. Distinct from Kerinci-Minangkabau dialect of Minangkabau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Ketengban
[xte] Papua province: Papua New Guinea border area, east highland slopes, scattered. 9,970 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kupel, Oktengban. Dialects: Okbap, Omban, Bime, Onya. Lexical similarity: 69% with Una [mtg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ketum
[ktt] Papua province: foothills on east Digul river. 900 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kitum, Wambon-Ketum. Dialects: None known. Related to Wambon [wms] and Mandobo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kimaghima
[kig] Papua province: Merauke regency, Kolopom island interior. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaladdarsch, Kimaama, Kimaghama, Kimaghana, Teri-Kalwasch. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kimki
[sbt] Papua province: Pegunungan Bintang regency, Batom sub-district, near Sepik river entrance to Papua New Guinea. 500 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aipki, Kimgi, Sukubatom, Sukubatong. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kioko
[ues] Sulawesi Tenggara province: north Buton regency, Bonegunu and Kambowa sub-districts, east central Buton island. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Kioko, Kambowa. Possibly dialect of the Pancana [pnp] language. Lexical similarity: 82% with Kambowa dialect, 81% with Laompo dialect of Muna [mnb], 74% with Muna, 75% with Liabuku [lix] and Busoa [bup]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Kirikiri
[kiy] Papua province: Dofu Wahuka and Paniai villages, west of Tariku and Kliki rivers’ confluence. 250 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kirira. Dialects: Kirikiri, Faia. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West. Comments: No schools in the area. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kisar
[kje] Maluku province: south, over 20 villages; Kisar island, northeast of Timor island, 19 villages; Roma and Wetar islands, Amau, Hila, Hi’ai, Likagraha, and Naumatan villages; some in Ambon, Dili, and Kupang cities. 20,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meher, Yotowawa. Dialects: Not related to Oirata [oia], which has sometimes been called a dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma. Comments: Called Yotowawa or Meher locally. Christian.

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Klon
[kyo] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Alor regency, Halerman, Manatang, Margera, Probur, Probur Utara, and Tribur villages. 5,000 (2008 L. Baird). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalong, Kelon, Kelong, Kolon. Dialects: Klon Bring, Klon Paneia. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor.

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Koba
[kpd] Maluku province: southeast, at least 3 villages; Aru island group, Baun and Fukarel islands in mouth of Barakai strait. 870 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Southeast Koba. Low comprehension of Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Dobel [kvo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru.

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Kodeoha
[vko] Sulawesi Tenggara province: North Kolaka regency, Lasusua sub-district, 4 villages in upper Bone bay, east coast. 1,500 (Mead 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kondea, Kondeha. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Rahambuu [raz]; 70% with the Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with the several Mori and Bungku [bkz] groups. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Kodi
[kod] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: west Sumba. 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kudi. Dialects: Kodi Bokol, Kodi Bangedo, Nggaro (Nggaura). May be most similar to Wejewa [wew]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kofei
[kpi] Papua province: Mamberamo Raya and Waropen regencies; east side of Cendrawasih bay. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 76% with Sauri [srt], 63% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kohin
[kkx] Kalimantan Tengah province: Kotawaringin Timur regency, 10 villages in central and north Seruyan river area. 8,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bahasa Seruyan, Seruyan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Ot Danum [otd], 50%–69% with Ngaju [nij]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North.

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Kokoda
[xod] Papua Barat province: Sorong Selatan regency in Bird’s Head, northwest coast of Maccluer gulf. 3,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kasuweri, Komudago, Nebes, Oderago, Samalek, Tarof. Dialects: Kasuweri (Komudago), Negri Besar (Negeri Besar), Tarof. Wurm and Hattori (1981) list Kasuweri and Tarof as separate languages. Komudago and Tarof dialects are most similar. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemberano [bzp]; Kasuweri dialect 86% with Tarof dialect; Negri Besar 82% with Tarof. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Central.

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Kola
[kvv] Maluku province: 22 villages in north Aru islands on Kola and adjacent islands. 7,400 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kulaha, Marlasi, Warilau. Dialects: Intelligibility test showed Marlasi dialect intelligible of Kompane [kvp]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Kompane [kvp], 70% with Ujir [udj]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Kombai
[tyn] Papua province: Asmat regency, between upper Wideman and Digul rivers. 4,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Komboy. Dialects: Central Kombai, Tayan. Reportedly most similar to Wanggom [wng]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Komering
[kge] Sumatera Selatan province: Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan, Ogan Komering Ulu Timur, Ogan Komering Ulu, and Ogan Ilir regencies; along Komering river from Ranaumeer to near Palembang city. 470,000 (2000 census). 20,000 in Jakarta (1992). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kumoring. Dialects: Upstream Komering, Downstream Komering, Komering, Kayu Agung Asli, Kayu Agung. Lexical similarity: 70% with the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api [ljp]; 74% with Sungkai dialect of Lampung Api (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung. Comments: Muslim.

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Komodo
[kvh] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Manggarai Barat regency, Komodo island. 1,730 (2015 F. Hurd). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. A separate language from Manggarai [mqy] (1982 J. Verheijen). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Muslim.

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Kompane
[kvp] Maluku province: Kepulauan Aru regency, Kompane village on Kongan island. 330 (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Komfana, Kongampani. Dialects: None known. Similar to Kola [kvv], linguistically between Kola and Batuley [bay]. Good intelligibility of Kola. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Komyandaret
[kzv] Papua province: Sungai river west bank headwaters. 300 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. May be mutually intelligible with Tsaukambo [kvz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Konda
[knd] Papua Barat province: Sorong Selatan regency, Teminabuan sub-district, Konda village; lower Waromge river in southwest Bird’s Head facing Seram Sea. 500 (1988 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ogit, Yabin, Yabin-Konda. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Yahadian [ner]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Konda-Yahadian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Koneraw
[kdw] Papua province: Merauke regency, Kolopom island south coast. 1,200 (2001 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Konorau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mombum. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Konjo, Coastal
[kjc] Sulawesi Selatan province: Bantaeng, Bulukumba, and Sinjai regencies; southeast peninsula on Salayer strait. 125,000 (1990 SIL). 50,000 Kajang, 10,000 Tiro. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kondjo, Tiro. Dialects: Konjo Pesisir (Ara, Bira), Tana Toa (Black Konjo, Kadjang, Kajang, Tana Towa), Bantaeng (Bonthain). Tana Toa is north end of dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 76% with Makassar [mak]; Tana Toa dialect: 10% with other coastal dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: Tana Towa resist modern ways, contact with outsiders. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Konjo, Highland
[kjk] Sulawesi Selatan province: Bone, Bulukumba, Gowa, and Sinjai regencies, south peninsula interior; Mount Lompobatang area northwest, past Makassar city. 150,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Konjo Pegunungan, Konyo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Coastal Konjo [kjc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Kopkaka
[opk] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency, Kurima sub-district, Burungmakok and Siradala villages in lowlands; headwaters area, and Sirac river tributaries. 400 (2002 SIL). 400 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kopka. Dialects: Marub, Tokuni. Reportedly similar to Kwer [kwr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Koroni
[xkq] Sulawesi Tengah province: Morowali regency, Bungku Tengah sub-district, Unsongi village on Tolo bay east coast. 500 (Mead 1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Oengsongi. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Taloki [tlk] and Kulisusu [vkl], 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu. Comments: Muslim.

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Korowai
[khe] Papua province: southeast inland area between upper Sirac and Digul rivers. 3,500 (2007 P. de Vries). 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolufaup. Dialects: North Korowai, South Korowai. Dialects have high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 90% with dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Korowai. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Korupun-Sela
[kpq] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency, Kurima sub-district in eastern highlands, on Erok river upper reaches. 8,000 (1996 E. Young). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kimyal of Korupun, Korapun. Dialects: Korupun (Duram), Dagi, Sisibna (Gobugdua), Deibula, Sela. Lexical similarity: 60% with Nipsan [nps]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kosare
[kiq] Papua province: west of Nawa and Idenburg rivers confluence, south of Jayapura city. 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kosadle. Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kowiai
[kwh] Papua Barat province: Kaimana regency, Adijaya, Kayumerah, Keroi, and Namatota villages; Bomberai peninsula, Kamrau bay area, Kaimana, Namatote, and Adi islands, smaller islands in bay. 600 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adi, Aiduma, Kaiwai, Kajumerah, Kayumerah, Koiwai, Kuiwai, Namatota, Namatote. Dialects: Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Bomberai. Comments: Muslim.

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Kubu
[kvb] Sumatra, Jambi province: Sarolangun and Batang Hari regencies, 2 enclaves, eastern swamp region; Sumatera Selatan province: Musi Banyuasin regency. 10,000 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anak Dalam, Orang Hutan, Orang Rimba. Dialects: Lalang, Bajat, Ulu Lako, Tungkal, Tungkal Ilir, Dawas, Supat, Jambi, Ridan, Nomadic Kubu. Related to Lubu [lcf]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Territory rapidly shrinking, somewhat due to deforestation. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kui
[kvd] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Alor regency. Lerabaing and Buraga villages on Alor island (Kui dialect); Kapebang and Sibera villages in Kalabahi bay (Batulolong dialect). 1,900. Ethnic population: 1,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lerabain, Masin-Lak. Dialects: Kui (Buraga, Lerabaing), Kiramang (Kramang), Batulolong. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Kula
[tpg] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Alor island, northeast coast, Kiralela, Koilela, Maukuru, Peisaka, and Takala villages; also east central mountains. 5,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kola, Lamtoka, Lantoka, Tanglapui. Dialects: Iramang, Kula, Kulatela, Watena, Larena, Kula Watena, Sumang, Arumaka. Reportedly structurally similar to Sawila [swt], but intelligibility is marginal. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Tanglapui. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kulisusu
[vkl] Sulawesi Tenggara province: North Buton regency, Bonegunu, Kulisusu Barat, Kulisusu Induk, and Kulisusu Utara sub-districts on north Buton island. 22,000 (Mead 1999), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalisusu, Kolensusu, Kolinsusu. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 77% with Tolaki [lbw], 75% with Koroni [xkq], 66% with Wawonii [wow] and Bungku [bkz] group, 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu. Comments: Muslim.

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Kumbewaha
[xks] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Buton regency, Lasalimu sub-district, Kumbewaha and Wajah Jaya villages on southeast Buton island. 3,400 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kumberaha, Umbewaha. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton. Comments: Muslim.

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Kur
[kuv] Maluku province: west Kei Kecil district in Kur and surrounding islands southeast. 3,180 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Different from Kei [kei]. Boundaries of intelligibility with dialects north and the central dialect, and with Teor [tev] need further investigation. Lexical similarity: 47%–50% with Kei [kei], 71%–83% with Teor [tev], 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur. Comments: Muslim.

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Kuri
[nbn] Papua Barat province: Teluk Bintuni regency, 16 villages in southwest Bomberai peninsula. 500 (1982 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Modan, Nabi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Irarutu [irh]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kurudu
[kjr] Papua province: Mamberamo Raya regency, Kaipuri and Poiwai villages; Kurudu islands. 2,180 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Wabo [wbb], 46% with Western Serui. Kaipuri dialect has highest lexical similarity with Yapen group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East. Comments: Christian.

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Kwer
[kwr] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency, Kurima sub-district, Kwer village; lowlands area at Sirac river headwaters. 100 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kopkaka [opk]; may be considered the same language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western.

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Kwerba
[kwe] Papua province: Apiaweti, Aurime, Munukania, Tatsewalem, and Wamariri villages in Apauwer river headwaters. 2,500 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Air Mati, Airmati, Armati, Koassa, Mataweja, Naibedj, Segar Tor, Serikenam, Tekutameso. Dialects: Serikenam, Sasawa, Nogukwabai. Lexical similarity: 64% with Bagusa [bqb]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwerba Mamberamo
[xwr] Papua province: Edifalen, Kwerba, and Marinafalen villages on Mamberamo river east bank and into highlands. 300 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Napok, Nobuk, Nogukwabai, Nopuk, Nopukw, Tatsewalem. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: ‘Nopukw’, language, in the Kwerba family, and does not distinguish a particular variety. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwerisa
[kkb] Papua province: Mamberamo Raya regency, lower Rouffaer river. 15 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Taogwe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Biritai [bqq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwesten
[kwt] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Arare, Holmhaven, Mafenter, and Omte villages in Pacific coast area. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Berik [bkl]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kwinsu
[kuc] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district, Ansudu village. 500 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ansudu. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor.

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Laba
[lau] Maluku Utara province: south Loloda district, 4 villages; Halmahera island northwest interior. 2,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kedi, South Loloda. Dialects: None known. Phonology like Galela [gbi], 70% intelligibility, 75% of Loloda [loa]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Galela [gbi], 78% with Loloda [loa]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Christian.

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Laha
[lhh] Maluku province: Laha and other villages on Ambon island south central coast. 3,890 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Ambon. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Sou Upaa [wha]. Lexical similarity: 64%–66% with Asilulu [asl] and Seit-Kaitetu [hik] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Laiyolo
[lji] Sulawesi Selatan province: Kepulauan Selayar regency, Barang-Barang, Laiyolo, Lowa, and other villages on Selayar island south tip. 800 (1997 SIL). 250 Laiyolo, 550 Barang-Barang. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barang-Barang, Da’ang. Dialects: Barang-Barang (Loa, Loa’, Lowa), Laiyolo (Lajolo, Layolo). Lexical similarity: 86% between Laiyolo and Barang-Barang dialect, 76% with Kalao [kly], 65% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Wotu [wtw], 39% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Lamaholot
[slp] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Flores Timur regency; also Solor island; possibly north Pantar coast, northwest Alor, and surrounding islands. 180,000 (2010). Total users in all countries: 225,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Solor, Solorese. Dialects: West Lamaholot (Muhang, Pukaunu), Lamaholot (Ile Mandiri, Larantuka, Lewolaga, Ritaebang, Taka, Tanjung Bunda), West Solor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: ‘Lamaholot-Alor’ is used to refer to both a lingua franca and also to any of several Austronesian varieties spoken from eastern Flores to Alor. Alor [aol] is part of a chain which includes Lamaholot. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Lamalera
[lmr] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: 3 or more villages on Lembata island south coast. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kawela, Lebatukan, Mulan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Lamatuka
[lmq] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: central Lembata island, several villages between Ile Ape [ila] and Lewo Eleng [lwe] language areas. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamatoka. Dialects: None known. Lewo Eleng [lwe] is probably most closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lamboya
[lmy] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Sumba island southwest coast. 25,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lamboya, Nggaura. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Lampung Api
[ljp] Bengkulu province: Kaur regency; Lampung province: Lampung Barat and Tanggamus regencies in Semangko bay area; Way Kanan, north Lampung, and Pringsewu regencies on Lampung bay east coast; also Sebuku, Sebesi, Tabuan, and Legundi islands; Sumatera Selatan province: Ogan Komering Ulu, Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan, and Ogan Komering Ulu Timur regencies, near Kanan river headwaters. 827,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Api, Lampong, Lampung, Lampung Pesisir. Dialects: Krui (Kroe, Kru’i, Njo, Western Lampung), Southern Pesisir, Pubian, Ranau, Sungkai, Daya. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung. Comments: Teachers must use L1, especially in lower grades. Muslim.

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Lampung Nyo
[abl] Lampung province: 3 enclaves east between Kanan and Seputih rivers. 180,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abung, Lampong. Dialects: Abung, Tulangbawang, Sukadana, Melinting. Many differences in vocabulary and phonology with Lampung Api [ljp]. Lexical similarity: 72% between the Menggala dialect and the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api [ljp], 77% among dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung. Comments: Muslim.

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Larike-Wakasihu
[alo] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Allang, Lai, Larike, Tapi, and Wakasihu villages on southwest Ambon island coast, Hitu peninsula. 12,600 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Allang, Wakasihu, Larike. The western end of the Ambon dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 81% among Allang, and Larike, and Wakasihu dialects; 92% between Larike and Wakasihu; 68%–71% with Asilulu [asl], 67%–72% with Negeri Lima dialect of Asilulu [asl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Lasalimu
[llm] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Buton regency, Lasalimu sub-district, Lasalima town, Lasalimu and Malaoge villages facing Lawelu bay on Buton island. 1,700 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kamaru [kgx], 64% with Cia-Cia [cia], 48% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 49% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 50% with Wolio [wlo] and Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton. Comments: Muslim.

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Latu
[ltu] Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Latu village; west Seram island, southwest Elpaputih bay, Point Latu. 2,130 (1982 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82%–84% with Saparua [spr] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua.

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Lauje
[law] Sulawesi Tengah province: Donggala and Parigi Moutong regencies, Ampibabo, Dampelas Sojol, Dondo, Tinombo, and Tomini sub-districts in Sidoan river area. 44,000 (Himmelmann 2001). 6,000 use Ampibabo dialect (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laudje, Tinombo. Dialects: Ampibabo (Ampibabo-Lauje). Ampibabo dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Laura
[lur] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Mamboru town west to Cape Karosso on northwest Sumba island. 10,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laora. Dialects: Laura, Mbukambero (Bukambero). Not intelligible with Kodi [kod]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Lawangan
[lbx] Kalimantan Selatan province: Balangan, Kotabaru, and Tabalong regencies; Kalimantan Tengah province: North, East, and South Barito regencies; Kalimantan Timur province: Karau river area. 100,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Luwangan, Northeast Barito. Dialects: Ajuh, Bakoi (Lampung), Bantian (Bentian), Banuwang, Bawu (Bawo), Kali, Karau (Beloh), Lawa, Lolang, Mantararen, Njumit, Purai, Purung, Tuwang, Pasir, Benua, Taboyan. At least 17 dialects. Tawoyan [twy] may be inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tawoyan [twy], 53% with Dusun Deyah [dun]. Benua (population 25,000, six subdialects) may be distinct enough to be considered a separate language. (Nikolic´ 2008). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, North.

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Legenyem
[lcc] Papua Barat province: Raja Ampat Islands, Waigeo island, Beo, Lempintol, and Wawiai villages in northwest main bay and south coast. 250 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laganyan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Lembata, South
[lmf] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: south Lembata island. 7,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Lembata, West
[lmj] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: west Lembata island. 8,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Labalekan, Mingar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Lemolang
[ley] Sulawesi Selatan province: Luwu Utara regency, Sassa and Salassa villages, in Bone bay and middle Rongko river area; scattered in Sabbang sub-district. 2,000 (Vail 1991), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baebunta, Limola, Limolang. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 41% with Mori Bawah [xmz], 39% with Mori Atas [mzq], 38% with Bungku [bkz], 39% with Wolio [wlo], 31% with Seko Padang [skx], 30% with Rampi [lje], 29% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 26% with Muna [mnb], 25% with Wotu [wtw], 24% with Bugis [bug]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Lemolang. Comments: Muslim.

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Lengilu
[lgi] Kalimantan Timur province: Benuang area in northeast corner. 3 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic.

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Lepki
[lpe] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency, Okbibab sub-district. 530 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Possible genetic similarities with Murkim [rmh]. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Leti
[lti] Maluku province: Maluku regency, Leti island. 7,500 (1995 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Marginal intelligibility and difficulty with written Luang [lex]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Luang [lex]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Luang. Comments: Matrilineal. They share historical and cultural heritage with Luang [lex], but maintain their own identity and local pride. Christian.

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Levuka
[lvu] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: west central Lembata island. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lembata, Lewokukun, Lewuka, Painara. Dialects: Levuka, Kalikasa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lewo Eleng
[lwe] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: central eastern Lembata island; north coastal plains villages are from recent government-induced migration. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lamatuka [lmq] probably most closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lewotobi
[lwt] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: southeastern Flores island in Lewotobi volcano area. 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southwest Lamaholot. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Liabuku
[lix] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Bungi district, Bau-Bau sub-district; south Buton island Liabuku village area north of Bau-Bau. 75 (2004 SIL), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Quite divergent from other Muna varieties. Lexical similarity: 82% with the Burukene dialect of Muna [mnb], 72%–76% with other Muna dialects, 72% with Muna, 75% with Kioko [ues]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Liana-Seti
[ste] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah and Seram Bagian regencies, Tehoru, Timur Bula, and Werinama districts, 8 villages from east Teluti bay north to Seram Sea coast. 3,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Liambata-Kobi, Liana, Lianan, Teula, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei Kaclakin, Uhei Kahlakim. Dialects: Seti, Wahakaim, Kobi. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between Seti (westernmost and interior) and Wahakaim (near coast) dialects, 69%–78% between Kobi and Seti, 70% between Kobi and Wahakaim, 42%–61% between Kobi and Sou Upaa [wha], 54%–66% between Kobi and Benggoi [bgy], 48%–58% between Kobi and Salas [sgu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Speakers use Liana. Christian.

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Lik
[eip] Papua province: Eastern highlands, Eipo river area. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eipo, Eipomek, T-Valley. Autonym: Lik. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Una [mtg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Liki
[lio] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Sarmi sub-district, Liki and Nirumoar islands. 11 (2005 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 320. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Moar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sobei [sob]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi.

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Li’o
[ljl] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: east central Flores island. 105,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aku, Lio, Lionese, Tanah Kunu. Dialects: Dialect subgroup with Ende [end]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Lisabata-Nuniali
[lcs] Maluku province: 5 villages on west and north Seram island. 1,830 (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lisabata, Noniali, Nuniali. Dialects: Lisabata-Timur, Nuniali, Sukaraja, Kawa. Lexical similarity: between Kawa (far western) and Lisabata Timur (far eastern) dialects is 85%, 72% with Naka’ela [nae], 67% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Lisela
[lcl] Maluku province: Buru island; Wae and Apo river valleys, and west on north Seram Sea coast; some in Ambon. 11,900 (1989 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Buru, Li Enyorot, Liet Enjorot, North Buru, Wayapo. Dialects: Lisela (Licela, Licella), Tagalisa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Lola
[lcd] Maluku province: Kepulauan Aru regency, Jambuair, Lola, and Warabal villages in Aru island group on Barakan, Lola, and Penambulai islands. 900 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lola, Warabal. Reportedly linguistically between Batuley [bay] and Dobel [kvo]; similar to Koba [kpd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Lolak
[llq] Sulawesi Utara province: Bolaang Mongondow regency, Lolak sub-district, Lolak, Mongkoinit, and Motabang villages on lower Mongodow river. 3,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Structurally related to Gorontalo [gor], but with heavy lexical borrowing from Mongondow [mog]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Mongondow [mog], 66% with Ponosakan [pns], 63% with Kaidipang [kzp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Lole
[llg] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; west central Rote island, Ba’a town and north to south coast; north and central region (North Lole dialect). 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ba’a, Baä, Central Rote, Loleh, Rote, Rote Tengah, Roti, Rotinese. Dialects: North Lole, South Lole, Ba’a. North Lole, na-hina, becomes South Lole, ni-hina. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian.

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Loloda
[loa] Maluku Utara province: North Halmahera regency on northwest coast, nearby islands. 15,000 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Bakun. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loda, North Loloda. Dialects: Bakun. Intelligibility of Laba [lau] very limited. 85% intelligibility of Galela [gbi], Galela [gbi] has 65% intelligibility of Loloda. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Lorang
[lrn] Maluku Province: Aru islands group, Koba island on northwest coast. 220 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Koba [kpd] and, to a lesser extent, Dobel [kvo]. Some similarities with Manombai [woo], but intelligibility is lower than might be expected. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian.

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Loun
[lox] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, north central Seram island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Loun.

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Luang
[lex] Maluku province: Wetan island, and across Wetan strait to northwest Babar island. 18,000 (1995 SIL). 200 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Letri Lgona, Lgona, Literi Lagona. Dialects: Luang, Wetan (Wetang), Moa, Lakor. Low comprehension of Leti [lti]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Leti [lti]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Luang. Comments: Matrilineal. Christian.

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Lubu
[lcf] Sumatera Utara province: south Sumatra, Kotanopan area. 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Kubu [kvb]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Luhu
[lcq] Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Luhu village on northwest and south coast of Seram island, Boano and Manipa islands. 6,500 (Collins 1983). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Piru. Dialects: Luhu, Batu Merah, Kelang. Lexical similarity: 72% with Luhu dialect, 71%–73% with Asilulu [asl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Lun Bawang
[lnd] Kalimantan Timur province: mountainous Sesayap river area. 23,000 (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 47,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayeh, Lun Dayoh, Lundaya Putuk, Lundayeh, Southern Murut. Dialects: Lun Daye, Papadi, Lun Bawang (Long Bawan, Sarawak Murut). Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ma’anyan
[mhy] Kalimantan Selatan province: border area, and 2 areas near Damar and Tawahan; Kalimantan Tengah province: Barito Selatan and Barito Timur regencies, Awang, Dusun Hilir, Dusun Selatan, Dusun Tengah, Dusun Utara, Gunung Bintang Awai, Karau Kuala, and Patangkep Tutui sub-districts, south Tamianglayang town area. 150,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ma’anjan, Maanyak Dayak. Dialects: Samihim (Buluh Kuning), Sihong (Siong), Dusun Balangan. Related to Malagasy languages in Madagascar. Lexical similarity: 77% with Paku [pku], 75% with Dusun Witu [duv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Maba
[mqa] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera island, Wasilei area on southeast peninsula, north coast facing Buli bay. 6,620 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bicoli, Bitjoli, Ingli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast. Comments: Muslim.

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Maden
[xmx] Papua Barat province: Raja Ampat regency, northwest Salawati island. 600 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Palamul, Saparan, Sapran. Dialects: Kawait. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Possibly the same as Maya [slz]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Madura
[mad] Jawa Timur province: Java island coast south and west of Surabaja city, Bawean, Kangean, and Sapudi islands; Kalimantan Selatan province: Java Sea area. 6,770,000 (2000 census), decreasing. 86,000 Bawean. 2000 census reports large population decrease. Due to intermarriage, language attitudes, and other socioeconomic issues, the Madurese population is likely underreported. Ethnic population: 7,180,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 6,770,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Madhura, Madurese. Dialects: Bawean (Babean, Bhebien, Boyanese), Bangkalan (Bangkalon), Pamekesan (Pamekasan), Sampang, Sapudi, Sumenep. Dialect continuum. Reports differ about inherent intelligibility among dialects: some Sumenep and Sampang report they cannot understand Pamekasan or Sumenep. Difficult intelligibility with Kangean [kkv]. Bawean may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kangean [kkv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese. Comments: Mainly rural. Bawean consider their language separate from Madurese. East Madurese, especially Sumenep, is considered high, or standard Madurese. Sumenep is isolated culturally and geographically. Bangkalon, spoken in Surabaya, is important economically because that city is highly urbanized and is most affected by Bahasa Indonesia. Muslim.

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Mai Brat
[ayz] Papua Barat province: about 40 villages in central Bird’s Head, Ayamaru lakes area. 20,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ajamaru, Atinjo, Ayamaru, Brat, Maibrat, Maite, Majbrat, Mey Brat. Autonym: Mai Brat, Maybrat. Dialects: Maisawiet, Maiyah, Maimaka, Maite, Maisefa. Lexical similarity: 10% with Tehit [kps], Mpur [akc], Abun [kgr], and its most similar neighbors. Classification: Maybrat. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mairasi
[zrs] Papua province; Papua Barat province: Bomberai peninsula, southwest coast facing Arafura Sea, southeast from Arguni bay. 3,300 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Faranyao, Kaniran. Dialects: Northeastern Mairasi. Reportedly similar to Semimi [etz]. Northeastern Mairasi may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 69% with Semimi [etz], 61% with Mer [mnu]. Classification: Mairasi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Maiwa
[wmm] Sulawesi Selatan province: Enrekang and Sidenrang-Rappang regencies; Boya river area. 50,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masenrempulu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Makasar
[mak] Sulawesi Selatan province: Bantaeng, Gowa, Jeneponto, Maros, Pangkajene Dan Kepulauan, and Takalar regencies; southwest peninsula. 2,530,000, all users. 2,130,000 (2000 census). 400,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goa, Macassar, Macassarese, Makassa, Makassaarsche, Makassar, Makassarese, Mangasara, Mengkasara, Taena, Tena. Dialects: Gowa (Goa, Lakiung), Turatea (Jeneponto), Maros-Pangkep. Gowa dialect is prestigious. Dialects form a chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: Muslim.

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Makian, East
[mky] Maluku Utara province: Kota Tidore Kepaluan regency; Bacan, Halmahera west coast, Kayoa, south Mori, and Obi islands. 20,000. 18,000 or more in East Makian, 2,000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Makian Dalam, Makian Timur. Dialects: East Makian, Kayoa (Kajoa). Similar to Gane [gzn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane. Comments: A volcanic eruption on Makian Island, transmigrations, speakers of other languages in the area and pressure from those languages have taken a toll on vitality. Transmigration project near Kao. Muslim.

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Makian, West
[mqs] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera southwest coast, Kayoa, west Makian islands. 12,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 7,000 on Makian Island, 5,000 on Kayoa Islands. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makian Barat, Makian Luar. Dialects: None known. Language isolate within north Halmahera. Formerly classified as Austronesian. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, West Makian. Comments: Muslim.

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Maklew
[mgf] Papua province: Merauke regency; south coast area. 120. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Makleu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yelmek [jel]. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Yelmek-Maklew. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Malay
[zlm] Aceh, Jambi, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Kepulauan Riau, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Riau, Sumatera Barat, and Sumatera Utara provinces; widespread in central and north Sumatra, areas of Kalimantan, and island provinces between. 4,910,000 (2000 census). 3,970,000 in Sumatra (100,000 in Belitung, 1,830,000 in Riau, 2,000,000 Deli, Asahan, etc. in North Sumatra and 40,000 Tamiang in Aceh), and 940,000 in Kalimantan (primarily Pontianak, Sambas and Ketapang). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Sumatra. Alternate Names: Bahasa Daerah, Bahasa Melayu, Malayu. Dialects: Tamiang, Riau Mainland, Deli, Belitung, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands (Sea Tribe dialects), coastal Jambi, Sambas, Landak, Pontianak, Sukadana, Ketapang, Sanggau, Sintang, Sekadau, Kapuas Hulu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: This entry refers to numerous, local or vernacular, Malay varieties not well differentiated from each other, as well as varieties for which further research is required to clarify differentiation from more mainstream dialects. Distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Malay [zsm] and Indonesian [ind]. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Malay, Ambonese
[abs] Maluku province: Kepulauan Aru regency, Aru island group, Wamar island; Seram Bagian Barat regency, Ambon city, Kamarian to Seriholu on Hoamoa peninsula; Maluku Tengah regency, Nusa Laut island, upper Elpaputih bay east to Sepa; Ceram sea coast from Karlutu east to Sawai. 1,600,000 in Indonesia, all users. 200,000 (1987 J. Collins). 1,400,000 (2013 M. Connor). Total users in all countries: 1,649,020 (as L1: 249,020; as L2: 1,400,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Became an LWC through trade, and is used in inter-cultural communication, market, and some media. Alternate Names: Ambonese, Ambong, Malayu Ambon, Moluccan (Maluku) Malay. Autonym: Bahasa Ambon, Bahasa Melaju Ambon. Dialects: Dobo Malay. Marginal intelligibility with Indonesian [ind]. Difficult intelligibility with North Moluccan Malay [max]; speakers switch to Indonesian. Lexical similarity: 81% with Indonesian [ind]. Banda Malay [bpq] may best be considered a dialect of Moluccan Malay [max]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Developed from Sabah Malay [msi] and still reflects some archaic forms. Further diverged by adapting to the vernaculars of central Maluku. Many varieties of trade Malay are considered Malay-based creoles (Grimes 1991a, Grimes 1991b, Holm 1989) and as Austronesian with contact features (Collins 1980, Gil 2001, Wolff 1988). Christian, Muslim.

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Malay, Bacanese
[btj] Maluku Utara province: at least 2 villages on Bacan and Mandioli islands. 6 (2012 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bacan, Batjan. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: No evidence of an earlier indigenous language (1987 J. Collins). Muslim.

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Malay, Balinese
[mhp] Bali province: widespread on Bali and Nusa islands. 25,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Balinese Malay arose as L1 in the Muslim community of Western Bali among immigrants from Southern Sulawesi (2007 S. Paauw).

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Malay, Banda
[bpq] Maluku province: south Banda islands. 3,690 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: May better be considered a dialect of Moluccan (Ambonese) Malay [abs]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Muslim.

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Malay, Berau
[bve] Kalimantan Timur province: Cape Pandan, Tanjungreder, and Muaramalinau towns on lower Segah river; Celebes Sea coast and south past Sepinang town to Cape Batube area. 11,200 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berau, Merau Malay. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Shares phonological innovations with Kutai Malay [vkt], Banjar [bjn], and Brunei [xkd].

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Malay, Bukit
[bvu] Kalimantan Selatan province: Sampanahan river area northwest of Limbungan town. 59,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukat, Bukit, Meratus. Dialects: None known. A variant of Banjar Malay [bjn] (Collins 2001). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Malay, Central
[pse] Bengkulu province: central Bukit Barisan highlands west to Indian Ocean along Bengkulu coast; Lampung province; Sumatera Selatan province: Lematang and Ogan river valleys. 1,590,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bengkulu, Besemah, Enim, Lintang, Melayu Tengah, Midden Maleisch, Ogan, Pasemah, Semendo, Serawai. Dialects: Serawai, Bengkulu, Semenda, Lintang, Benakat, Kisam, Pasemah, Kikim, Lematang Ulu, Ogan, Enim, Rambang. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaur [vkk], 80% between Pekal [pel] and some dialects such as Pasemah and Bengkulu. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Malay, Jambi
[jax] Bengkulu province: small area south of Lake Dipatipan; Jambi province: widespread; Riau province: Indragiri Hulu and Indragiri Hilir regencies; Sumatera Barat province: Pessisir Selantan regency border enclave; Sumatera Selatan province: northern border area; all on southeast Sumatra island. 1,000,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batin, Djambi, Jambi. Autonym: Bahaso Daerah, Bahaso Dusun. Dialects: Downstream Jambi Malay, Upstream Jambi Malay. Forms a network of related varieties with Minangkabau [min] west, Riau Malay [zlm] north, and Musi [mui] south (Anderbeck 2008). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Malay, Kota Bangun Kutai
[mqg] Kalimantan Timur province: Lakes Semajang and Melintang areas, north along Belayen river and central Mahakam river basin. 80,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Not intelligible with mainstream Tenggarong Kutai Malay [vkt], but may be with one of its dialects (Northern Kutai). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Malay, Kupang
[mkn] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Kupang regency, Kupang city and Semau island; all on west Timor island. 350,000, all users. 200,000 (2015 C. Grimes). 150,000 (2015 C. Grimes). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Regional L2. Alternate Names: Basa Kupang. Autonym: Kupang. Dialects: Air Mata, Kupang. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Loanwords from several Rote and Chinese languages, Portuguese [por], Uab Meto [aoz], Sabu [hvn], Spanish [spa], Dutch [nld], English [eng]. Christian, Muslim.

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Malay, Larantuka
[lrt] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Flores Timur regency, Larantuka city area, and southwest Flores Strait towards Lewotobi town. 20,000 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bahasa Nagi, Ende Malay, Melayu Larantuka, Nagi. Classification: Creole, Malay based.

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Malay, Makassar
[mfp] Sulawesi Selatan province: Makassar port area. 1,880,000, all users. No known L1 speakers. 1,880,000 (2000). Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Macassarese Malay, Makassarese Malay, Sulsel Indonesian, Ujung Pandang Indonesian. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Malay, Manado
[xmm] Gorontalo province; Sulawesi Utara province: Minahasa regency, widespread. 2,350,000, all users. 850,000 (2001). 1,500,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). An important, growing lingua franca in many parts of Sulawesi. Alternate Names: Manadonese, Manadonese Malay, Minahasan Malay. Autonym: Bahasa Manado. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to North Moluccan Malay [max]. Also similar to Sri Lankan Malay [sci]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Influences from Portuguese [por] and Ternate [tft]. Christian, Muslim.

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Malay, North Moluccan
[max] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera Selatan regency, Damar, northwest Jaronga, and south Halmahera islands. 1,000,000, all users. 700,000 (2001 SIL). 300,000 (2001 R. Whisler). 100,000 monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Became LWC through trade, also used in daily life, inter-ethnic contact. Alternate Names: Ternate Malay. Autonym: Bahasa Pasar. Dialects: None known. Different meaning of particles from Manado Malay [xmm]. Reportedly more similar to Manado Malay than to Ambonese Malay [abs]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Malay, Papuan
[pmy] Papua province: Widespread. 1,100,000 (Kluge 2014), all users. 500,000 (Clouse 2000), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). LWC in the coastal areas of West Papua. Became an LWC mostly as a result of Dutch colonial language policies in the early 20th century, and before that, to a rather limited extent, through trade (Kluge 2014:11–15). Alternate Names: Bahasa Tanah, Logat Papua. Autonym: Melayu Papua. Dialects: North Papua Malay, Serui Malay, Bird’s Head Malay, South Coast Malay. Reportedly similar to both Ambonese Malay [abs] and Manado Malay [xmm]. Regional variations are minor and support at most a possible dialectal East-West divide (Scott et al 2008:22–100). Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Malay, Tenggarong Kutai
[vkt] Kalimantan Timur province: Mahakam river basin east to Celebes Sea coast, north from Cape Pandan along coast south to Samarinda city area. 210,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 100,000 in Tenggarong, 60,000 in Ancalong, 50,000 in Northern Kutai. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kutai, Tenggarong. Dialects: Tenggarong Kutai, Ancalong Kutai, Northern Kutai. Many dialects. Tenggarong and Kota Bangun (Malay, Kota Bangun Kutai [mqg]) are not inherently intelligible. Shares phonological innovations with Berau Malay [bve], Banjar [bjn], and Brunei [xkd]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Malayic Dayak
[xdy] Widely dispersed; Kalimantan Tengah province: Katingan, Kotawaringgin Barat, Koti Timur, Lamandau, and Sukamara regencies; Kalimantan Barat province: small area near Sintang, area near Putussibau, and Sandai area, all along Kapuas river; Ketapang city northeast towards Kotabaru. Sandai, Muarakayang, Pembuanghulu, Sukamara, and Sukaraja town areas (Kayung and Delang dialects); Sintang to Putus Sibau town areas (Semitau, Suhaid, and Mentebah-Suruk dialects); Singakawang, Bengkayang, Darit, and Sungairaya town areas (Banana’ and Tapitn dialects); Muarakayang, Pembuanghulu, Sandai, Sukamara, and Sukaraja town areas (Kayung and Delang dialects). 520,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 300 Tapitn, 100,000 Banana’, 100,000 Kayung, 200,000 Delang, 10,000 Semitau, 10,000 Suhaid, 20,000 Mentebah-Suruk. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamayo, Bumayoh. Dialects: Tapitn, Banana’, Kayung (Kayong), Delang, Semitau, Suhaid, Mentebah-Suruk, Arut (Sukarame), Lamandau (Landau Kantu), Sukamara (Kerta Mulya), Riam (Nibung Terjung), Belantikan (Sungkup), Tamuan, Tomun, Pangin, Sekakai, Silat, Melahui, Serawai, Tebidah, Payak, Undau. Listed dialects form a chain and may constitute 3 or more languages. Related to Keninjal [knl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic. Comments: Serawai dialect different from the Serawai dialect of Central Malay [pse] in Sumatra. The term Malayic Dayak is misleading and is not linguistically based; it would better be termed Dayak Malayic (Collins 2003). However, it is not yet clear what linguistic label(s) should replace it.

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Malimpung
[mli] Sulawesi Selatan province: Pinrang regency, Patampanua sub-district, Malimpung, Sulili (part), and Urung villages; north Sadang river. 5,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Maiwa [wmm], 70% with Enrekang [ptt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu. Comments: They view themselves as distinct from Bugis [bug] and Enrekang [ptt]. Muslim.

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Mamasa
[mqj] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamasa regency, along Mamasa river; Sulawesi Selatan province: north Pare-Pare area. 100,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mamasa Toraja. Dialects: Northern Mamasa, Central Mamasa, Pattae’ (Binuang, Binuang-Paki-Batetanga-Anteapi, Patta’ Binuang, Southern Mamasa, Tae’). Lexical similarity: 78% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Mamboru
[mvd] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: northwest Sumba island, coastal Memboro town. 10,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Memboro. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Mamuju
[mqx] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong, Kalukku, and Mamuju sub-districts; Point Rangas north along Makassar strait coast to Limba town area. 60,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 in Mamuju dialect. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mamoedjoe, Mamoedjoesch, Mamudju, Udai. Dialects: Mamuju, Sumare-Rangas, Padang, Sinyonyoi. Mamuju dialect is prestigious. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mamuju. Comments: Muslim.

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Mandar
[mdr] Sulawesi Barat province: Majene, Mamuju, and Polewali Mandar regencies, Cape Mandar and Majene city, and 3 coastal enclaves north; coastal area between Parangkayu and Simajo towns; Sulawesi Selatan province: Pangkajene Islands regency, Pabbring islands near Makassar city, other areas. 475,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Andian, Mandharsche, Manjar. Dialects: Majene, Balanipa (Napo-Tinambung), Malunda, Pamboang, Sendana (Cenrana, Tjendana). A complex dialect grouping. May be more dialects than those listed. Balanipa and Sendana may each be more than 1 dialect. Balanipa is prestige dialect. Mandar, Mamuju [mqx], and Bambam [ptu] are separate languages in a language chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mandar. Comments: Muslim.

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Mander
[mqr] Papua province: Sarmi regency, 2 areas on upper Tor river tributary of upper Bu river. 20 (1991 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Nomadic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mandobo Atas
[aax] Papua province: between Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah towns, toward Fly river border in Papua New Guinea. 10,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dumut, Kambon, Kwem, Mandobbo, Nub, Wambon, “Kaeti” (pej.). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mandobo Bawah
[bwp] Papua province: Boven Digul regency, Aiwat, Anggai, Butiptiri, Getentiri, Kaisah, and Subur villages; south of Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah towns, to Fly river on Papua New Guinea border. 20,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dumut, Kambon, Mandobbo, Nub, “Kaeti” (pej.). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manem
[jet] Papua province: Keerom regency, northeast border area, Kiba, Wembi, and Yeti villages. 400 (1978 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jeti, Skofro, Wembi, Yeti. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manggarai
[mqy] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Flores island, western third. 900,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Western Manggarai, Central Manggarai (Ruteng), West-Central Manggarai, Eastern Manggarai. Around 43 subdialects. Reportedly similar to Riung [riu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Mangole
[mqc] Maluku Utara province: Sula islands on Mangole island south coast, south to Sula Besi island south tip. 7,280 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mangoli, Sula Mangoli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula. Comments: Muslim.

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Manikion
[mnx] Papua Barat province: about 50 villages in Bird’s Head area, southeast from Anggi lakes to Momi town on northwest Cenderawasih bay. 12,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mantion, Sogh, Sougb. Dialects: 4 dialects. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Mantion. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manipa
[mqp] Maluku province: Central Maluku regency, 4 villages on Manipa island, west of Seram island. 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Collins 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Soow Huhelia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Luhu [lcq], 60%–62% with Hitu [htu], 60%–61% with Tulehu [tlu] and Asilulu [asl], 58%–61% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 55%–60% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 56% with Boano [bzn] and Kaibobo [kzb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East. Comments: Muslim.

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Manombai
[woo] Maluku province: Aru islands, Manombai strait to Wakua island, from Wokam village south, 21 villages; Kobror island, Benjina; Maikor island, Gardakau; Wokam island east coast, Kobamar village. 9,110 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manobai, Wamar, Wokam. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Lorang [lrn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Mapia
[mpy] Papua Barat province: Manokwari regency, Mapia islands. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: The ethnic group emigrated to Micronesia and probably now speak either Palauan [pau], Sonsorol [sov], or Tobian [tox]. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mapian. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic.

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Marau
[mvr] Papua province: 5 villages on east Yapen island, Cenderawasih bay. 1,700 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Warabori (Natabui, Warembori). Probably the same language as Munggui [mth] (96% lexically similar). Lexical similarity: 82% or more with Pom [pmo], Munggui [mth], Papuma [ppm], and Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian.

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Marind
[mrz] Papua province: Merauke regency south coast area; also, enclave in extreme south Papua. 7,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gawir, Holifoersch, Southeast Marind, Tugeri. Dialects: Gawir, Southeast Marind, Tugeri, Halifoersch. Significant differences between inland and coastal dialects, but speakers report intelligibility. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Nuclear Marind. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Marind, Bian
[bpv] Papua province: Merauke regency, Muting sub-district, Sanayu village in upper Bian river area. 2,900 (2002 Sohn Myo-sook). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bian, Boven-Mbian, Malind Deg, Northwest Marind. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Marind [mrz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Nuclear Marind. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mariri
[mqi] Maluku province: 1 village southeast on Mairi island in Aru island group. 280 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mairiri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Batuley [bay]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Masela, Central
[mxz] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, 3 villages in Ilbutung area on Marsela island. 510 (1980 N. de Jonge). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Central Marsela, Marsela-South Babar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Masela, East
[vme] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, 3 villages from Welulora to Latalola Besar on east central Marsela island west coast. 520 (1980 N. de Jonge). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: East Marsela. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Masela, West
[mss] Maluku province: 5 villages on Masela island west tip. 850 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Marsela. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Masimasi
[ism] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district, Masi-Masi island off north coast. 10 (2005 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Masiwang
[bnf] Maluku province: Bula district along Seram island northeast coast. 1,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bonfia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobot [bty], 43% with Salas [sgu], 39% with Sepa [spb] and Sou Nama [tlt], 36% with Liana Seti [ste] and Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Masiwang.

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Massep
[mvs] Papua province: Sarmi regency, north coast; also west of Sarmi near Apauwer river. 25 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 85. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Masep, Potafa, Wotaf. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Matbat
[xmt] Papua Barat province: Raja Ampat archipelago in Misool and Segaf islands. 1,250 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Me. Dialects: Tomolol, Magey. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mawes
[mgk] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district, Mawes Dai, Mawes Mukti, and Mawes Wres villages on Buri river west bank inland. 850 (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Mawes. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ma’ya
[slz] Papua Barat province: Raja Ampat archipelago on east Bantanta and central Salawati islands. 4,000 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sailolof, Salawati, Samate. Dialects: Ma’ya, Banlol, Batanta Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mekwei
[msf] Papua province: Jayapura regency, Kendate, Maribu, Sabron Dosay, and Waibrong villages. 1,200 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Demenggong-Waibron-Bano, Menggei, Menggwei, Moi, Mooi, Munggai, Mungge, Munkei. Dialects: Moi. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran. Comments: Different from Moi (Mosana) [mxn]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mentawai
[mwv] Sumatera Barat province: Sumatra island; Mentawai islands, across from Padang city. 58,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mentawei, Mentawi. Dialects: Simalegi, Sakalagan, Silabu, Taikaku, Saumanganja, North Siberut, South Siberut, Sipura, Pagai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Meoswar
[mvx] Papua Barat province: Meoswar island, west Cenderawasih bay. 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: War. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mer
[mnu] Papua province: Nabire regency; Papua Barat province: Kaimana and Teluk Wondama regencies on central Bird’s Head, headwaters of Uremo and Wosimi rivers. 85 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Miere, Muri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Semimi [etz], 61% with Mairasi [zrs]. Classification: Mairasi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Meyah
[mej] Papua Barat province: Bird’s Head northeast coast. 14,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arfak, Mansibaber, Meah, Meax, Mejach, Mejah, Meyach. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Manikion [mnx]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Meax. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Minangkabau
[min] Sumatera Barat province; Bengkulu province: west coast Mukomuko area. Sumatra island, Indian Ocean coast, Padang is central area. 5,530,000 (2007). 500,000 in Jakarta. Ethnic population: 6,463,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Minang, Padang. Dialects: Agam, Pajokumbuh, Tanah, Si Junjung, Batu Sangkar-Pariangan, Singkarak, Pancuang Soal (Muko-Muko), Orang Mamak, Ulu, Kerinci-Minangkabau, Aneuk Jamee (Jamee), Penghulu. Not intelligible with Indonesian [ind]. Pekal [pel] may be intelligible with Minangkabau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Mlap
[kja] Papua province: Jayapura regency, west of Lake Sentani. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kuangsu-Bonggrang, Kwangsu-Bonggrang, Kwansu, Kwansu-Bonggrang, Malf. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran. Comments: Much intermarriage with Kemtuik [kmt] speakers. Kwansu is an obsolete village name. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mo
[wkd] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district; Wakde island, and north coastal area. 550 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Wakde. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Modang
[mxd] Kalimantan Timur province: 5 enclaves on upper reaches of Belayan, Kelinjau, Mahakam, and Segah rivers. 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kelingan (Long Wai, Long We), Long Glat, Long Bento’, Benehes, Nahes, Liah Bing. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Modang.

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Modole
[mqo] Maluku Utara province: Kao river headwaters on north Halmahera island. 2,000 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Madole. Dialects: North Modole, South Modole. Minimal differences between north and south Modole. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Some intermarriage with the Tabaru [tby]. Christian.

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Moi
[mxn] Papua Barat province: 9 villages on west Bird’s Head; Salawati island, Sorong city east and southeast. 4,600 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mekwei, Mooi, Mosana, Waipu. Dialects: Mosemah. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Different from Mekwei [msf] (Moi) dialect. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moksela
[vms] Maluku province: east Buru island near Kayeli. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1974. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maksela, Opselan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru.

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Molof
[msl] Papua province: 9 villages 100 km south of Jayapura city. 230 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Poule. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Stronger use in Molof than in Waley. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moma
[myl] Sulawesi Tengah province: Kulawi sub-district, Kulawi and Toro town areas. 5,500 (Barr et al 1979). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kulawi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly historically a variety of Kaili [lew], but strong lexical influences from Uma [ppk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Christian.

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Mombum
[mso] Papua province: Kolopom island. 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kemelom, Kemelomsch, Komolom. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Koneraw [kdw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mombum. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Momina
[mmb] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency, Samboka village on lowland hills at headwaters of Brazza and Einladen rivers. 200 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. May be the same language as Momuna [mqf]. Classification: Somahai.

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Momuna
[mqf] Papua province: west Asmat regency into Yahukimo regency; lowlands south of main ranges. 2,000 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Somage, Somahai, Sumohai. Dialects: None known. May be the same language as Momina [mmb]. Classification: Somahai. Comments: They have contact with Dani who are learning Momuna. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mongondow
[mog] Sulawesi Utara province: Bolaang Mongondow, Bolaang Mongondow Selatan, and Bolaang Mongondow Timur regencies; north peninsula, Nanasi town west to Bijaj river; south side, southwest of Rototok almost to Kombot town. 230,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bolaang Mongondow, Bolang-Mogondo, Minahassa, Mongondou. Dialects: Lolayan, Dumoga, Passi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Moni
[mnz] Papua province: central highlands, northeast Lake Paniai area. 20,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djonggunu, Jonggunu, Migani. Dialects: Awembak (Awembiak). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mor
[mhz] Papua Barat province: Nabire regency, Mor islands, east Cenderawasih bay; coastal area northeast of Ruwianui point. 700 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Austronesian Mor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Mor. Comments: Different from Trans-New Guinea Mor [moq]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mor
[moq] Papua Barat province: Fakfak regency on northwest Bomberai peninsula, Berau bay inland. 30 (2012 H. Hammarström). 70 semi-speakers (2012 H. Hammarström). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mor. Comments: Distinct from Austronesian Mor [mhz]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moraid
[msg] Papua Barat province: west Bird’s Head inland, Mata to Worbo area. 1,000 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mori Atas
[mzq] Sulawesi Tengah province: Lembo, Mori Atas, and Petasia sub-districts, 25 villages on southeast peninsula neck; Sulawesi Selatan province: Nuha sub-district. 14,000 (1988 D. Mead). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aikoa, Berg-Tomori, Boven-Mori, Upper Mori, West Mori. Dialects: Impo, Molio’a, Molongkuni, Ulu Uwoi, Tambee (Ajo, South Mori, Zuid-Mori). Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Bawah [xmz] and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior. Comments: Christian.

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Mori Bawah
[xmz] Sulawesi Tengah province: Bungku Tengah, Lembo, and Petasia sub-districts, 24 villages; Sulawesi Selatan province: Mahalone and Matano lakes. All locations are on southeast Sulawesi island peninsula, Lake Towuti area. 14,000 (1988 D. Mead). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Beneden-Tomori, East Mori, Lower Mori, Nahina, Oost-Mori, Petasia. Dialects: Tinompo (Mokole, Soroako), Watu (Towatoe), Moiki (Tomoiki), Tiu (Tioe), Karunsi’e (Karonsie, Korongsi, Sinongko), Nuha (Soroako). Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Moronene
[mqn] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Bombana regency, Bombana district, Wita Ea village; Rumbia mountains on southeast mainland; Kabaena island, Tokotu’a village; mainland opposite Kabaena. Rumbia, Poleang, and Poleang Timur sub-districts (Wita Ea dialect). 37,000 (2000 D. Andersen), increasing. Wita Ea 23,000, Tokotu’a 14,000. Includes about 3,500 living in cities. Second or third generations in cities no longer speak Moronene. 1,850 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Maronene. Dialects: Wita Ea (Poleang, Rumbia), Tokotu’a (Kabaena). Lexical similarity: Wita Ea dialect 80% with Tokotu’a dialect; 68% with Menui dialect of Wawonii [wow], 66% with Kulisusu [vkl], 65% with Taloki [tlk], Koroni [xkq], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 64% with Bungku [bkz], and 57% with Tolaki [lbw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, Southwest. Comments: Formerly a kingdom. Muslim.

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Morop
[iwo] Papua province: Iwur river valley border area, Ok Iwur east to Ok Denom. Dewok (Dinamne dialect); Aurarin hamlet (Upper Dintere dialect). 6,900 (2011 J. Elliot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iwoer, Iwur. Dialects: Dintere, Upper Dintere, Dinmane, Nemah/Nehayah. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland. Comments: Dintere most widespread dialect. Relationship between Nemah and Dintere is unclear and may constitute more than one language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Morori
[mok] Papua province: south coast border area. 50 (1998 M. Donohue). Ethnic population: 250 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marori, Moaraeri, Moraori, Morari. Dialects: Menge dialect remembered as the language of ceremony, though the last Menge speaker died in 1997. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Moraori. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Moskona
[mtj] Papua Barat province: southeast Bird’s Head, west Bituni Bay; Sebjor river basin. 8,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meninggo, Meningo, Meyah, Sabena. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Meyah [mej]. Also related to Manikion [mnx]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Meax. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mpur
[akc] Papua Barat province: Manokwari regency on north coast of Bird’s Head; also Kebar valley. 7,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amberbaken, Dekwambre, Ekware, Kebar. Dialects: Sirir, Ajiw. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mualang
[mtd] Kalimantan Barat province: Belitang, Belitang Hilir, and Belitang Hulu Sekadau sub-districts along Ayak and Belitang rivers. 40,000 (Tjia 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Mualang Ili’, Mualang Ulu. Reportedly similar to Iban [iba]; however only one-way intelligibility from Mualang to Iban. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: Christian.

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Muna
[mnb] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Buton regency, Kadatuang and Siumpu islands; some in Ambon city; Buton Utara regency on northwest Buton island along Buntung strait, from Puntau north past Lebo; Muna regency, Muna and Tiworo islands. 300,000 (2007 R. Van den Berg). Status: 6b (Threatened). Autonym: Wuna. Dialects: Standard Muna (Northern Muna), Tiworo (Eastern Muna), Gu, Lakudo, Mawasangka, Kadatua, Siompu, Katobengke, Burukene, Laompo, Kapontori. Subvarieties of standard Muna are: Tungkuno, Kabawo, Lawa, Katobu, Tobea Besar; of Gulamas are: Gu, Mawasangka, Lakudo, Wale-Ale, Lawama, Kadatua, Lowu-Lowu, Kalia-Lia, Katobengke, Topa, Salaa, Lawela, Laompo, and Burukene. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pancana [pnp], 62% with Cia-Cia [cia], 52% with Wolio [wlo], 50% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Tukang Besi [khc] or [bhq], 45% with Kamaru [kgx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Munggui
[mth] Papua province: Yapen island north coast, 1 village. 800 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Natabui. Dialects: None known. Probably the same language as Marau [mvr], reportedly 96% lexically similar (Price and Donohue 2009). Lexical similarity: 82% with Papuma [ppm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Murkim
[rmh] Papua province: Pegunungan Bintang regency, Batom sub-district, Milki and Mot villages. 290 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Possible genetic relationship to Lepki [lpe]. Classification: Unclassified.

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Murut, Selungai
[slg] Kalimantan Timur province: Nunukan regency on upper Sembakung river. 640 (2000). Total users in all countries: 1,240. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Murut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut.

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Murut, Sembakung
[sbr] Kalimantan Timur province: Nunukan regency, Sembakung river mouth. 3,180 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Southern.

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Murut, Tagal
[mvv] Kalimantan Utara province: Nunukan regency, northwest valley east to Simalumung. 2,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Semambu, Semembu, Sumambu, Sumambu-Tagal, Sumambuq. Dialects: Rundum (Arundum), Tagal (North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut, Tagol), Sumambu (Semembu, Sumambuq), Tolokoson (Telekoson), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Pensiangan Murut (Lagunan Murut, Pentjangan, Taggal, Tagul), Alumbis (Loembis, Lumbis), Tawan, Tomani (Tumaniq), Maligan (Bol Murut, Bole Murut, Mauligan, Meligan). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut.

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Musi
[mui] Sumatera Selatan province: widespread in northern 2 thirds of province from Musi river upstream to Bukit Barisan mountains, downstream to coastal swamplands; Lampung province: northeast; border areas in Jambi and Bengkulu provinces. 3,105,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Much of the population from other language groups in South Sumatra Province learn enough Urban Palembang dialect to use it as a trade language. Alternate Names: Baso Palembang, Palembang, Palembangnese, Sekayu. Dialects: Pegagan, Musi Sekayu, Penukal, Kelingi, Palembang Lama, Meranjat, Penesak, Belide, Burai, Lematang Ilir, Coastal Malay, Rawas. A mutually-intelligible dialect chain stretching along the Musi River with 2 subgroups: Musi and Palembang. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Muyu, North
[kti] Papua province: south coast border area. 8,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kataut, Kati-Ninanti, Niinati, Ninatie, North Kati, North Moejoe, Yonggom, Yongkom, Yongom. Dialects: Kanggewot, Toemoetoe (Are). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland.

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Muyu, South
[kts] Papua province: south coast, north of Fly river border with Papua New Guinea. 4,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Digoel, Digul, Kati Metomka, Metomka, Moejoe, Ok Bari, South Kati, Yonggom, Yongkom, Yongom. Dialects: Metomka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland.

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Nafri
[nxx] Papua province: Jayapura area, Nafri village on southeast Yotafa bay. 1,630 (1975 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nage
[nxe] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: central Flores island, west slopes of Ebu Lobo volcano. 50,000 (Forth 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nage-Keo, Nagé. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Naka’ela
[nae] Maluku province: Seram Bagian Barat regency, Kairatu village on southwest Seram island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai. Comments: Formerly lived in mountains then moved down to Kairatu.

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Nakai
[nkj] Papua province: east of upper Digul river, Awimbom village in the center of 5 other villages extending toward Ok Sibil northeast, and southwest toward Morop [iwo] language area. 700 (1999 M. Donohue). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Na’ai, Na’i, Nagai. Dialects: They report Indonesian [ind] and Papuan Malay [pmy] difficult to understand. Probably 3 dialects, two of these may constitute a separate language called Nagi. Not the same as Larantuka Malay [lrt] (Nagi) in Nusa Tenggara. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nalca
[nlc] Papua province: east highlands north slopes. 16,000 (2013 R. Doriot). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hmanggona, Hmonono, Kimjal, Kimyal, Naltje, Naltya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 59% with Kosarek Yale [kkl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Distinct from Korupun (Kimyal) dialect of Korupun-Sela [kpq]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Namla
[naa] Papua province: Keerom regency, Senggi sub-district, Namla village. 30 (2005 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Possible genetic relationship to Tofanma [tlg]. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Christian.

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Napu
[npy] Sulawesi Tengah province: Poso regency, Lore Utara sub-district, 10 villages in Tomini bay. 6,100 (2000 R. Hanna), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pekurehua. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Behoa [bep]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic. Comments: Christian.

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Narau
[nxu] Status: Unattested. Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper. Comments: 2006 survey data indicates language may not exist and could possibly be merged with Kosare [kiq]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nasal
[nsy] Bengkulu province: Kaur regency, Gedung Menung, Tanjung Baru, and Tanjung Betuah villages in Nasal river area on Sumatra. 3,000 (2008 K. Anderbeck). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not closely related to surrounding languages, but heavy loans from Lampung [ljp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Nasal. Comments: Muslim.

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Ndom
[nqm] Papua province: Kolopom island. 1,200 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kimaghima [kig] and Riantana [ran]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nduga
[ndx] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency, Tiom in central highlands, and scattered. 10,000 (1985 M. Owen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dauwa, Dawa, Ndauwa, Ndugwa, Pesecham, Pesechem, Pesegem. Dialects: Sinak Nduga, Hitadipa Nduga. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nedebang
[nec] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: north central Pantar island in Banda sea. 1,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balungada, Klamu, Nédebang. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Ngad’a
[nxg] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: south central Flores island. 60,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Badjava, Bajava, Bajawa, Nad’a, Nga’da, Ngada, Ngadha, Rokka. Dialects: Central Ngada, Bajawa, South Ngada. Dialect diversity. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Ngad’a, Eastern
[nea] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: south central Flores, Desa Rowa, Kabupaten Ngada, Kecamatan Boawae, Kecamatan Golewa, Sanga Deto, Sara Sedu, and Taka Tunga. 5,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southeast Ngada. Dialects: Minor dialect variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Ngaju
[nij] Kalimantan Tengah province: Gunung Mas, Kapuas, Katingan, Kota Palangkaraya, Kotawaringin Timur, and Pulang Pisau regencies; headwaters of Kahayan, Kapuas, Katingan, and Mentaya rivers. 890,000 (2003). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widely used as LWC for trade in much of Kalimantan, from Barito to Sampit rivers. Used in many domains (church, school, village-level government, market, etc.). Alternate Names: Biadju, Dayak Ngaju, Ngadju, Ngaja, Ngaju Dayak, Southwest Barito. Dialects: Ba’amang (Bara-Bare, Sampit), Katingan Ngaju, Katingan Ngawa, Kahayan, Kahayan Kapuas, Mantangai (Oloh Mangtangai), Pulopetak. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bakumpai [bkr], 62% with Kohin [kkx], 50% with Ot Danum [otd], 35% with Banjar [bjn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, South.

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Ngalum
[szb] Papua province: Ok Bon, Ok Sibil, and Ok Tsop valleys. 10,000 (1987 SIL). Total users in all countries: 18,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sibil. Dialects: Ngalum, Apmisibil, Sibil. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nggem
[nbq] Papua province: middle Hablifoeri river north of Wamena. 4,400 (2005). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Yali [yac] (Pass Valley), 62% with Walak [wlw], and 50% with Western Dani [dnw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nias
[nia] Sumatera Utara province: Batu, Nias and Mursala islands. Alasa, Sirombu and Mandrehe (Northwest dialect); Gomo, and south in Teluk Dalam and Batu islands (Central dialect). 770,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 1,042,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Batu, Nias Selatan. Dialects: North Nias (Gunung Sitoli), South Nias, West Nias, Northwest Nias, Central Nias. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Nias. Comments: North dialect (particularly Gunung Sitoli) has high prestige and is a lingua franca in Nias. The South dialect (particularly Teluk Dalam variety) has lower prestige, especially in northern Nias, and is considered by many Nias speakers from other areas as unrefined. Christian.

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Nila
[nil] Maluku province: south central Seram island, 6 villages. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Serua [srw]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua.

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Nimboran
[nir] Papua province: Jayapura regency, about 26 villages west of Lake Sentani. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nambrong. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran.

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Ninggerum
[nxr] Papua province: Boven Digoel regency on Papua New Guinea border. 1,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kasiwa, Kativa, Muyu, Ninggeroem, Ninggirum, Ninggrum, Orgwo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland. Comments: 2002–2003 survey data indicates probably all live in Papua New Guinea, but have land on the Indonesia side where they temporarily migrate to gather food. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nipsan
[nps] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency, Kurima sub-district west of Hmanggona. 2,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Jale, Yale-Nipsan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kosarek Yale [kkl], 59% with Nalca [nlc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Distinct from Yali of Ninia [nlk], Yali of Angguruk [yli], and Yali of Pass Valley [yac]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nisa
[njs] Papua province: east Geelvink bay inland, Danau Nisa area. 500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bonefa, Kerema. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nuaulu, North
[nni] Maluku province: 2 villages on Seram island, central north coast and inland, and Saleman bay. 500 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with South Nuaulu [nxl], 64% with Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu. Comments: Distinct from Huaulu [hud].

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Nuaulu, South
[nxl] Maluku province: Amahai district, 6 villages on Seram island inland from south coast. 1,500 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with North Nuaulu [nni]; 50% with South Wemale [weo], Hulung [huk], and Naka’ela [nae]; 48% with Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu. Comments: Different from Huaulu [hud]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nusa Laut
[nul] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Lease islands and Nusa Laut island in Titawai village. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,230 (1989 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nusalaut. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Saparua [spr], 65% with Amahai [amq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi. Comments: Christian.

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Obokuitai
[afz] Papua province: Mamberamo Raya regency, Obogwi village on Lakes plain north of Rouffaer river. 120 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aliki, Ati, Obogwitai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Eritai [ert], 69% with Biritai [bqq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: ’Ati’, language.

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Oirata
[oia] Maluku province: southeast Maluku Barat Daya regency; Kisar island, Oirata village; some in Ambon city. 1,220 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Maaro. Dialects: None known. Not related to other languages on Oirata or to central Maluku languages. Not closely related to languages in East Timor. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar. Comments: Christian.

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Okolod
[kqv] Kalimantan Timur province: Sabah border area in northwest. 3,390 (2000). Total users in all countries: 5,390. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolod, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod Murut. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Okolod variety in Sabah, 70% with Pensiangan Murut dialect of Tagal Murut [mvv], 34% with Lun Bawang [lnd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Onin
[oni] Papua Barat province: Fakfak regency on north Bomberai peninsula in Berau bay south coast west to Wetin point, then southwest to Wirtopin bay; south coast facing Panjang island. 500 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Onim, Sepa. Dialects: Nikuda, Ogar, Patipi, Sepa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Onin Based Pidgin
[onx] Papua Barat province: Fak Fak regency, Maruntiri area on Onin peninsula and inland highlands. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin, Onin based.

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Ormu
[orz] Papua province: Jayapura regency north coast, Ormu Besar and Ormu Kecil villages. 500 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Orya
[ury] Papua province: Jayapura and Sarmi regencies, Bonggo, Lereh, and Unurum-Guay sub-districts, Taja, Wamho, and Witi villages. 1,600 (1985 P. Fields). 900 in Unurum-Guay, 100 in Bonggo subdistrict, 600 in Lereh subdistrict. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Oria, Uria, Warpok, Warpu. Dialects: Barat (West Orya), Timur (East Orya), Yapsi-Taja. Slight dialect differences. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Orya. Comments: Uria is a misspelling used earlier. Glossonym: Warpok by the Nimboran. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Osing
[osi] Jawa Timur province: Banyuwangi regency area on far east Java island facing Bali strait. 300,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banyuwangi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Muslim.

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Ot Danum
[otd] Kalimantan Barat province: Melawi river watershed; Kalimantan Tengah province: upper south Kapuas river, 7 villages; Kalimantan Timur province: Kutai Barat regency. 78,800 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dohoi, Malahoi, Uud Danum, Uut Danum. Dialects: Ot Balawan, Ot Banu’u, Ot Murung 1 (Murung 1, Punan Ratah), Ot Olang, Ot Tuhup, Sarawai (Melawi), Dohoi, Ulu Ai’ (Da’an), Sebaung, Kadorih, Kuhin. Lexical similarity: 70% with Siang [sya], 65% with Kohin [kkx], 60% with Katingan dialect of Ngaju [nij], 50% with Ngaju (main dialect) [nij]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North. Comments: Dohoi and Murung 1 dialects may be separate languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Padoe
[pdo] Sulawesi Selatan province: Luwu Utara regency, Malili, Mangkutana, and Nuha sub-districts, 9 villages inland between Lake Mantana and Usu arm of Bone bay. 5,000 (1991 P. Vuorinen). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alalao, Mori, Pado-e, Padoé, South Mori. Dialects: Central Padoe, Western Padoe. 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Mori Bawah [xmz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Pagu
[pgu] Maluku Utara province: Halmahera Utara regency on lower Kao river and west to interior foothills. 3,310 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Pago, Pagoe. Dialects: Isam, Pagu, Toliwiku (Toliliko). Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Paku
[pku] Kalimantan Tengah province: East Barito regency south of Ampah. 3,500 (2003), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bakau. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Ma’anyan [mhy], 73% with Dusun Witu [duv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South.

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Palu’e
[ple] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Palu’e island; Flores mainland, Nangahure village northwest of Maumere. 10,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lu’a, Palue, Paluqe. Dialects: None known. Possible grouping with Ende [end] and Li’o [ljl] languages; marginal intelligibility of Li’o. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Pamona
[pmf] Sulawesi Selatan province: Luwu Utara district, Bone-Bone, Mangkutana, and north Wotu sub-districts; Sulawesi Tengah province: Poso regency, Ampana Kota, Ampanatete, Bungku Tengah, Bungku Utara, Lage, Mori Atas, Pamona Selatan, Pamona Utara, Parigi, Petasia, Poso Kota, Poso Pesisir, Tojo, Ulubongko, and Una-Una sub-districts. 193 villages. 137,000 (Lauder et al 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bare’e, Baree, Poso. Dialects: Pamona, Laiwonu (Iba), Rapangkaka (Aria), Tomoni, Tobau (Bare’e, Tobalo, Tobao), Tokondindi, Topada, Taa (Topotaa, Wana). Laiwonu and Rapangkaka dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 76% (Taa)–90% among dialects, except for Tombelala [ttp], which has 66%–76% with other Bungku Tengah dialects, and is considered a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona. Comments: Pamona speakers in Bungku Utara recognize 5 ethnic groups with minor dialect differences: Pusangke, Kajumorangka, Tokasiala, Burangas, and Topotaa. The first 4 are interior mountain dwellers; the Topotaa are coastal. Bungku Tengah recognize 5 varieties: Topotaa (same as Taa), Tobau, Tokondindi, and Topada. Christian.

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Panasuan
[psn] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamuju regency, Kalumpang and Seko sub-districts, 2 villages; Sulawesi Selatan province: Luwu Utara regency northwest. 800 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: To Pamosean, To Panasean. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Seko Tengah [sko], 63% with Seko Padang [skx], 72% with Budong-Budong [bdx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan. Comments: Christian.

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Pancana
[pnp] Sulawesi Tenggara province: central Buton island, east and west coasts. 6,000 (2005 D. Andersen). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pantjana. Dialects: Kapontori (Akido), Kalende (Lawele), Labuandiri. Dialect names are also place names. May be more than 1 language. Lexical similarity: 71% with Muna [mnb], 57% with Cia-Cia [cia]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Pannei
[pnc] Sulawesi Barat province: Polewali Mandar regency, Wonomulyo sub-district. 9,000 (1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tapango. Dialects: Tapango, Bulo. Lexical similarity: 87%–93% between the Bulo dialect and other varieties, 75%–80% with dialects of Ulumanda’ [ulm], Bambam [ptu], and Aralle-Tabulahan [atq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Muslim.

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Pantar, Western
[lev] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: west Pantar island. 10,000. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamma, Lamma’, Lemma, Mauta, Pantar Barat. Dialects: Lamma’, Tubbe, Mauta. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Papasena
[pas] Papua province: Lakes plain area, lower Idenburg river. 400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 23% with Sikaritai [tty]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Papuma
[ppm] Papua province: Kepulauan Yapen regency, Papuma village on Yapen island south coast. 600 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Munggui [mth], Marau [mvr], and Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Patani
[ptn] Maluku Utara province: 9 villages on Halmahera island along the west coast. 10,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast. Comments: Different from Pattani Malay [mfa]. Muslim.

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Paulohi
[plh] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Kecamatan and Amahai villages on Seram island, Elpaputih bay west shore. 50 (1982). Very few left (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Solehua. Comments: Experienced a severe earthquake and tidal wave in 2009.

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Pekal
[pel] Sumatera Selatan and Bengkulu provinces: northeast of Ipuh town to Tembesi river, to Argamakmur area south. 30,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Minangkabau [min] with Rejang influences [rej]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: See themselves as Malay culturally and linguistically, not Minangkabau [min], though Pekal has Minangkabau influences. Neither Minangkabau nor Malay readily understand Pekal, due to lexical and phonological distinctiveness. Muslim.

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Pendau
[ums] Sulawesi Tengah province: Balaesang sub-district, Sibayu, Walandano, and other villages; scattered north to Dampal Utara district. 4,500 (Quick 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ndaoe, Ndau, “Umalasa” (pej.). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: “Umalasa” is a Bugis [bug] exonym meaning ‘the sick ones’ with negative connotations. Muslim, Christian.

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Perai
[wet] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Moning and Uhak villages on Wetar island northeast coast. 280 (Hinton 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tutunohan. Dialects: Moning, Uhak. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Aputai [apx], 76% with Tugun [tzn], 67% with Ili’uun [ilu], 51% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar. Comments: Intermarry with the Kisar [kje]. Christian.

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Petjo
[pey] Jakarta Special Capital Region. There are some L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Peco’, Pecok, Petjoh. Dialects: None known. Influences from Dutch [nld], Javanese [jav], and Betawi [bew]. Classification: Creole, Dutch based. Comments: Predominantly Malay and Dutch [nld] vocabulary, with Malay and Sundanese elements.

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Pom
[pmo] Papua province: Kepulauan Yapen regency, Mias Endi, Pom, and Serewen villages on Yapen island, from Pon bay west to Woko point; some on east Num island. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ponosakan
[pns] Sulawesi Utara province: Belang town area. 10 (2016 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ponasakan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Mongondow [mog], 66% with Lolak [llq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic. Comments: Muslim.

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Punan Aput
[pud] Kalimantan Utara province: Malinau regency south of Kayan river. 370 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aput. Dialects: None known. Allegedly unintelligible of other Penan languages (Soriente 2003). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’.

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Punan Merah
[puf] Kalimantan Timur province: Kutai Barat regency on Mahakam river. 140 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Comments: Distinct from Punan Merap [puc].

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Punan Merap
[puc] Kalimantan Utara province: Malinau regency on upper Malinau river. 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau. Comments: Distinct from Punan Merah [puf].

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Punan Tubu
[puj] Kalimantan Timur province: Malinau, Mentarang, and Sembakung river areas. 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Punan Tubu. Comments: Not a Kenyah language (2003 A. Soriente). Penan is generic, nonagricultural peoples (Blust 1974). There are no Penan languages as a distinguishable subgroup.

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Puragi
[pru] Papua Barat province: Sorong Selatan regency on southwest Bird’s Head along Maccluer Gulf, Matamani river area, and inland. 700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mogao. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Putoh
[put] Kalimantan Utara province: Malinau and Nunukan regencies, Bangalan, Longberang, and Mensalong towns in Mentarang river area. 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Putuk. Dialects: Pa Kembaloh, Abai. May be the same as Lun Bawang [lnd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic.

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Rahambuu
[raz] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Kolaka Utara regency, Pakue sub-district on upper Bone bay west coast, Batunong and north; some in Sulawesi Selatan province. 5,000 (Mead 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lellewao, Lellewau, Noihe, Wiaoe, Wiau. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% between dialects, 75% with Kodeoha [vko], 70% with Tolaki [lbw], Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Rajong
[rjg] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Central Flores island near Mount Watuweri, 2 areas. 6,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Razong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Rampi
[lje] Sulawesi Selatan province: Luwu Utara regency, Rampi district, 6 mountain villages; Limbong, Mangkutana, Sabbang, and Wotu districts scattered; Sulawesi Tengah province: border area southwest of Lake Poso. 10,000 (2006). 2,300 in South Sulawesi, 5,700 in Central Sulawesi. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ha’uwa, Leboni, Rampi-Leboni. Dialects: Rampi (Lambu), Rato. Leboni is prestige dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Rasawa
[rac] Papua province: Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah sub-district, 2 villages on Cenderawasih bay east coast at Rombak river mouth. 200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ratahan
[rth] Sulawesi Utara province: Minahasa regency on northeast peninsula and Tomini bay. 500 (Himmelmann and Wolff 1999), decreasing. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1989). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bentenan, Pasan, Toratan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Rejang
[rej] Bengkulu province: Arga Makmur, Curup, Kapahiang, and Muara Aman town areas in southwest highlands; Sumatera Selatan province: Musi Rawas Ulu, west. 350,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djang, Jang, Redjang. Dialects: Lebong, Kepahiang (Kebanagung), Pasisir, Musi (Curup), Rawas. Lebong recognized as central dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Rejang. Comments: 85% live in remote rural areas. Different from Rejang-Baram group of languages on Borneo. Musi and Rawas dialects (named after rivers they are on) not to be confused with Malay varieties of the same name. Muslim.

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Rembong
[reb] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: north central Flores island. 5,000 (2010 C. Grimes). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Rembong, Wangka, Namu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Reta
[ret] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Alor regency, south Pura and south Ternate (Alor) islands. 800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Retta. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of languages on north Pura. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Riantana
[ran] Papua province: Kolopom island. 1,100 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimaam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ribun
[rir] Kalimantan Barat province: Kapuas Hulu regency, Tayan Hulu sub-district, Landak river area. 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ribun, Bekidoh. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern.

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Rikou
[rgu] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: East Rote island, Landu, Oe Pao, and Rikou areas. 12,000 (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Rote, Ringgou, Rote, Rote Timur, Roti, Rotinese. Dialects: Rikou, Landu, Oe Pao (Oepao). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: ‘Ringgou’ is the pronunciation in some other Rote languages. Ethnic autonym: Rikou. Christian.

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Riung
[riu] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: north central Flores island, Kabupaten Ngada and Kecamatan Riung. 14,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Far Eastern Manggarai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Manggarai [mqy], but marginal intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Roma
[rmm] Maluku province: Jerusu village on Roma island. 1,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Romang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma. Comments: Christian.

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Rongga
[ror] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: south central Flores island. 4,000 (2005 W. Arka). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Roon
[rnn] Papua Barat province: Roon island west of Cenderawasih bay. 1,100 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ron. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sa’ban
[snv] Kalimantan Utara province: Nunukan regency. 850 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Merau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic.

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Sahu
[saj] Maluku Utara province: Jailolo town area on north Halmahera island. 7,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). 3,500 in Tala’i, 4,000 in Pa’disua. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sa’u, Sahu’u, Sau. Dialects: Pa’disua (Palisua), Tala’i. Reportedly similar to Waioli [wli] and Gamkonora [gak]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Sajau Basap
[sjb] Kalimantan Timur province: Berau and Bulungan regencies. 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sajau, Sujau. Dialects: Punan Sajau, Punan Basap, Punan Batu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau. Comments: Punan Batu dialect is different from Punan Batu [pnm], a language of Sarawak, Malaysia.

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Salas
[sgu] Maluku province: Seram Bagian Timur regency, Gunung village on Seram island northeast coast. 50 (1989 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lenkaitahe, Liambata, Salas Gunung. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48%–58% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Benggoi [bgy], 35%–46% with Sou Upaa [wha]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Christian.

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Saleman
[sau] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency on Saleman bay, north central Seram island, 3 areas. 4,800 (1989 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hatue, Sawai, Seleman, Wahai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni], 48% with South Nuaulu [nxl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Saluan
[loe] Sulawesi Tengah province: Banggai regency, Balingara town east to Mount Balantak area; Lamala bay southwest along Peleng strait to Mantawa town, inland to central highlands; Tojo Una-Una regency, Togian islands, Walbabhi island: Batui, Boalemo, Bunta, Kintom, Luwuk, East Luwuk, Nuhon, and Pagimana sub-districts, 136 villages. 76,000 (1978). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Coastal Saluan, Loinang, Loindang, Madi, Mondono. Dialects: Loinang (Baloa’, Kohumama’, Lingketeng), Luwuk, Kintom-Pagimana-Boalemo. Lexical similarity: 74% with Batui [zbt], 53% with Bobongko [bgb], 62% with Andio [bzb], 51% with Balantak [blz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic. Comments: Users prefer Saluan over Loinang. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Samarokena
[tmj] Papua province: Mamberamo Raya and Sarmi regencies, Karfasia, Maseb, Samarkena, and Tamaya villages on north coast, and inland east of Apauwar river and west of Sarmi. 400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karfasia, Samarkena, Tamaja, Tamaya. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, West Coast. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sanggau
[scg] Kalimantan Barat province: Sanggau regency along Kapuas river. 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dosan, Mayau, Sanggau. Very heterogenous dialects, probably more than 1 language in this group. Not all Sanggau isolects mutually intelligible. Koman and Semerawai could be in this group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak.

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Sangir
[sxn] Sulawesi Utara province: Great Sangir island east peninsula. 200,000 (Maryott 1993), increasing. 50,000 Siau, 10,000 Tagulandang. Total users in all countries: 255,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sangi, Sangih, Sangihé, Sangirese. Dialects: Siau (Sjauw), Manganitu (Tamako), Tabukang (Tabukan), Taruna (Tahuna), Tagulandang (Tahulandang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Northern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Saparua
[spr] Maluku province: Hualoy, Iha, Kairatu, Kulur, Latu, Siri-Sori, Tomalehu villages; Saparua and Seram islands. 10,200 (1989 SIL). 4,520 in Iha. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Kulur, Iha-Saparua, Iha-Seram, Siri-Sori. Each village has its own dialect. Lexical similarity: 86%–89% among dialects; 82%–84% with Latu [ltu], 69% with Amahai [amq], 67% with Kamarian [kzk], 68%–71% with Haruku [hrk], 65% with Kaibobo [kzb], 62%–66% with Tulehu [tlu], 49% with Luhu [lcq], 54% with Naka’ela [nae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Saponi
[spi] Papua province: Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah sub-district, Botawa village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi.

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Sarudu
[sdu] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamuju Utara regency, south Pasangkayu sub-district, 1 area near Lariang river mouth, another south, both on Makassar strait north coast. 4,000 (Grimes and Grimes 1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Doda’. Dialects: Nunu’, Kulu (Lariang). Lexical similarity: 75% with Uma [ppk], 80% with Benggaulu dialect of Uma [ppk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern. Comments: Contact with Bugis [bug] and Kaili Ledo [lew] speakers. Muslim.

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Sasak
[sas] Nusa Tenggara Barat province: Lombok island. 2,100,000 (1989). Ethnic population: 3,170,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lombok. Dialects: Kuto-Kute (North Sasak), Ngeto-Ngete (Northeast Sasak), Meno-Mene (Central Sasak), Ngeno-Ngene (Central East Sasak, Central West Sasak), Mriak-Mriku (Central South Sasak). Complex dialect network. Some varieties have low mutual intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa, Sasak-Sumbawa. Comments: Subgroups: Waktu Lima, Waktu Telu. Most Waktu Telu own farms; most Waktu Lima are landless, travel more, and have diverse occupations. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sauri
[srt] Papua province: Waropen regency, Sauri-Sirami village on east Cenderawasih bay. 100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Barapasi [brp], 60% with Demisa [dei], 76% with Kofei [kpi], 63% with Tefaro [tfo]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sause
[sao] Papua Province, southwest of Sentani, northwest of Lereh, Ures, Mubararon, Sause-Bokoko, Witti-Yadow, Lidya, and Puaral villages. 250 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seuce. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Sause. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sawai
[szw] Maluku Utara Province, Halmahera Tengah and Halmahera Selatan regencies, Gane Timur and Weda districts;13 villages. Halmahera island, southeast peninsula, Weda bay, both coasts: 13 villages. 12,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Weda, Weda-Sawai, Were. Dialects: Weda, Sawai, Kobe, Faya-Mafa, Messa-Dote. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast. Comments: Different from Saleman [sau]. Muslim, Christian.

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Saweru
[swr] Papua Province, Serui Waropen regency, Yapen Selatan subdistrict, central Yapen island, an island south of Yapen island near Serui. 300 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sarwar Use. Classification: West Papuan, Yapen. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sawi
[saw] Papua Province, Asmat Regency, Pantai Kasuari and Fayit subdistricts, near south coastal lowland, between Kronkel and Ayip rivers and upper Fayit river area, Kamur, Esebor, Wiagas, Minahai, and Comoro villages. 3,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aejauroh, Sawuy. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Sawi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sawila
[swt] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; southeast Alor island, between Kula [tpg] and Wersing [kvw] language areas. 3,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tanglapui. Dialects: Sawila, Lona, Salimana, Lalamana, Sileba. Marginal intelligibility but reportedly structurally similar to Kula [tpg]; distinct historical ethnic identities. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Tanglapui. Comments: Many current village locations are the result of recent migrations from older locations. Christian, traditional religion.

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Seberuang
[sbx] Kalimantan Barat Province. Kapuas river area from Nanga Silat town to Selimbau town, on Belimbing, Lebang, Belitang, Seauk, Tempunak, Selimbau, and Silat rivers. 37,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Quite similar to Desa, a dialect of Iban [iba] (2004 M. Connor). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sedoa
[tvw] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Lore Utara subdistrict, Sedoa village; Poso Pesisir subdistrict, parts of Tambarona and Pinedapa villages. 900 (2009 S. Shore). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baria, Tawaelia, Tawailia, Topobaria. Dialects: Not a dialect of nearby Napu [npy] or of Kaili languages. Most closely related to Moma [myl] in Palolo Valley. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Christian.

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Segai
[sge] Kalimantan Timur Province, Berau regency. Kelai river area around Longlaai town. 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ga’ay, Menggae, Segayi. Dialects: Kelai, Segah. Called Segayi by the Berau, Ga’ay by the Kenyah and Kayan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Modang.

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Seget
[sbg] Papua Barat Province, west Bird’s Head southwest of Sorong, Walian, Sailolof, Segum, and Seget villages. 1,200 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Seit-Kaitetu
[hik] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, Piru bay, Ambon island, north coast: Seit and Kaitetu villages. 10,200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hila-Kaitetu. Dialects: Seit (Seith), Kaitetu. Lexical similarity: 85% between Kaitetu and Seit dialects. Lexical similarity: 78%–82% with Asilulu [asl], 67%–74% with Tulehu [tlu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Sekak
[lce] Sumatra, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung Province, Bangka Barat, Banka Tenga, and Bangka Selantan regencies, 2 coastal enclaves northern and southeast Bangka island; Belitung regency, western Belitung, Lepar, Liat, Mendanau, and other islands. 420 (2000), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lonchong, Loncong, Lontjong, Orang Laut, Orang Sawang, Sawang, Seka, Sekah. Dialects: Lexically and phonologically distinct from the Belitung dialect of Malay [zlm] and other Sea Tribe varieties. Lexically most similar to Bintan Orang Laut Malay [zlm] dialect. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Southernmost of dozens of Malayic-speaking Orang Laut, sea tribe, groups ranging from the waters of Thailand through the Riau archipelago and Bangka and Belitung. Traditional religion.

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Sekar
[skz] Papua Barat province: Fakfak regency, Kokas area on northwest Bomberai peninsula coast; Ogar island. 450 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Seka. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: highest with Arguni [agf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Seko Padang
[skx] Sulawesi Selatan province: North Luwu regency, northeast Limbong sub-district; Sulawesi Tengah province: Palolo valley. 5,000 (1985 SIL). 2,300 in the Seko area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seko, Wono. Autonym: Sua Tu Padang. Dialects: Lodang, Hono’ (Wono). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko. Comments: Many primary schools. Christian, Muslim.

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Seko Tengah
[sko] Sulawesi Selatan province: west Limbong sub-district along Betue river. 2,500 (Laskowske and Laskowske 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pewanean, Pewaneang, Pohoneang, Seko. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Seko Padang [skx], 67% with Panasuan [psn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Selaru
[slu] Maluku province: Maluku Tenggara Barat regency, Tanimbar island group; at least 6 villages on Nuswotar, Selaru, and Yamdena islands; some in Ambon and Saumlaki. 8,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Salaru. Dialects: Kandar. Slight dialect differences. Not closely related to nearby languages. Lexical similarity: 56% with Seluwasan [sws]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Selayar
[sly] Sulawesi Selatan province: Selayar island. 128,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Salajar, Salayar, Salayer, Saleier, Siladja, Silajara. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Makassar [mak]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Seluwasan
[sws] Maluku province: Maluku Tenggara Barat regency, Batu Putih, Makatian, Marantutu, and Wermatang villages in Tanimbar island group on Yamdena island southwest coast. 2,840 (2005). 740 Makatian, 2,100 Seluwasan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Selvasa, Selwasa. Dialects: Seluwasan, Makatian. Makatian dialect quite different from others. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Semandang
[sdm] Kalimantan Barat province: Ketapang regency in Kualan and Semandang river areas. 20,000 (2004 M. Connor). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kualan-Semandang. Dialects: Semandang, Gerai, Beginci, Bihak, Komi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Semimi
[etz] Papua Barat province: Kaimana regency, Bomberai peninsula from Tarera bay west and north to Lacmora and Aiwasa lakes area; Papua province: Nabire regency, border area west of Lake Jamur. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Etna Bay, Muri, Wesrau. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Mairasi [zrs], 63% with Mer [mnu]. Classification: Mairasi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sempan
[xse] Papua province: middle south coast, between Agats and Kokonao. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nararapi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kamoro [kgq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sempan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sentani
[set] Papua province: Lake Sentani area, about 30 scattered villages; scattered in other parts of Indonesia. 30,000 (1996 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buyaka. Dialects: East Sentani, West Sentani, Central Sentani. Lexical similarity: 30% with Tabla [tnm]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sepa
[spb] Maluku province: Sepa village on Seram island, and several areas on southwest coast. 2,600 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tamilouw. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69%–78% with Sou Nama [tlt], 50% with Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East.

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Serili
[sve] Maluku province: Babar island group, Papilewan town on northeast Marsela island. 330 (1980 N. de Jonge). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Serua
[srw] Maluku province: south central Seram island, 4 villages. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nila [nil]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua. Comments: Government had moved them from Serua Island, south central Maluku, to Seram due to volcanic activity on their island.

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Serui-Laut
[seu] Papua province: Kepulauan Yapen regency, Serui town area on Yapen island south coast; west past Panduan point; Sareba bay on Nau island; 5 villages. 1,200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arui. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Ansus [and], 77% with Ambai [amk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian.

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Siang
[sya] Kalimantan Tengah province: Murung Raya regency, Barito river north along tributary. 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ot Siang. Dialects: Siang, Murung 2. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North.

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Sika
[ski] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: east Flores island. 175,000 (Lewis and Grimes 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krowe, Maumere, Sara Sikka, Sikka, Sikkanese. Dialects: Sara Krowe (Central Sikka), Sikka Natar (Kangaé, South Coast Sikka), Tana Ai. Wide linguistic and cultural variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Sikaritai
[tty] Papua province: Haya, Iri, and Sikari villages in Lakes plain area. 2,000 (2015 C. Wanarahardja). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aikwakai, Araikurioko, Ati, Sikari, Tori, Tori Aikwakai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Eritai [ert]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sikule
[skh] Aceh province: central Simeulue island. 20,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Salang, Sichule, Sigulai, Sikhule, Simeulue Barat, Wali Banuah. Dialects: Leukon (Lekon), Tapah. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Nias.

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Silimo
[wul] Papua province: central highlands, Amo and Kiniage valleys. 5,000 (1987 SIL). 2,500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Paiyage, South Ngalik, Usak, Wulik. Dialects: Lower Samenage. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Simeulue
[smr] Aceh province: east and west Simeulue island; Babi and Banyak islands. 30,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Defayan, Long Bano, Simalur, Simeuloë, Simulul. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. Comments: Muslim.

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Skou
[skv] Papua province: Sko-Mabu, Sko-Sai, and Sko-Yambe villages, north coast border area at Tami river mouth. 700 (1999 M. Donohue). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sekol, Sekou, Sko, Skouw, Skow, Sukou, Te Mawo, Tumawo. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Nuclear Skou, Skou. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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So’a
[ssq] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Flores island, central Kabupaten Ngada. 10,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Soa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngad’a [nxg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Sobei
[sob] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Sarmi sub-district, north coast area. 1,000 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,850 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Biga, Imasi, Liki. Dialects: None known. Reported comprehension of Liki [lio]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Government schools through entire area. Increasing intermarriage with other groups. Christian.

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Sou Nama
[tlt] Maluku province: south Seram island, Teluti bay area. 17,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Silen, Taluti, Tehoru, Teluti, Tihoru, Wolu. Dialects: West Sou Nama (Haya, Tehoru, Tehua, Wolu), Laha Serani. Lexical similarity: 74%–89% among dialects, 69%–78% with Sepa [spb], 50% with Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Sou Upaa
[wha] Maluku province: 30 villages on north Seram island mountain area; south along Teluti bay. 7,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manusela, Wahai, Wahinama. Dialects: Kanikeh, Hatuolu, Maneo, South Sou Upaa. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between the Kanikeh dialect and other varieties, 67%–75% with Hatuolo, 64%–86% with Maneo, 66%–86% with Maneoratu, 67%–80% with South Sou Upaa; 64%–72% with Huaulu [hud], 42%–61% with Liana Seti [ste], 45% with Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Sowanda
[sow] Papua province: Keerom regency, northeast border area. 210 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waina, Waina-Sowanda, Wanja, Wanya, Wina. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sowari
[dmy] Papua province: Ambora, Muris Besar, Muris Kecil, and Yougafsa villages on north coast. 1,300 (2000), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Demta, Muris. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Demta. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Suabo
[szp] Papua Barat province: south Bird’s Head, 15 villages along Maccluer bay. 1,100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iagu, Inanwatan, Mirabo, Suabau. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Duriankere [dbn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Inanwatan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sula
[szn] Maluku Utara province: Sula islands; Sula Besi (Sanana) island, widespread; Mangole island scattered on east, west and north coasts; Buru island northeast coast. 20,000 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sanana. Dialects: Fagudu, Falahu, Facei (Facé). Reportedly similar to Mangole [mqc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula. Comments: Muslim.

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Sumbawa
[smw] Nusa Tenggara Barat province: Sumbawa and Moyo islands. 300,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Semawa, Sumbawarese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa, Sasak-Sumbawa.

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Sunda
[sun] Banten and Jawa Barat provinces: western third of Java; Jawa Tengah province: Cilacap regency. 34,000,000 (2000 census). Ethnic population: 36,700,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in western Java. Alternate Names: Priangan, Sundanese. Autonym: Sunda. Dialects: Bogor (Krawang), Pringan, Cirebon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sundanese. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sunum
[ymn] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district, coastal area and Nirumoar island. 560 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yamna. Autonym: Sunum. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Suwawa
[swu] Gorontalo province: Bone Bolango regency, Bunda river valley; Sulawesi Utara province: Bolaang Mongondow, Bolaang Mongondow Selantan, and Bolaang Mongondow Utara regencies in Pinogu area inland. 5,000 (2012 Y. Kitada). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bonda, Bone, Bunda, Bune, Suvava, Toewawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Separate language from Gorontalo [gor]. Muslim.

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Tabaru
[tby] Maluku Utara province: West Halmahera regency, Ibu, Jailolo, and Oba sub-districts. 15,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tobaru. Dialects: Adu, Nyeku. Northern dialect is the main one. Dialects mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Christian.

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Tabla
[tnm] Papua province: Jayapura regency, Bukia, Depapre, and Wari towns, and 13 villages on north coast. 3,750 (1990 UBS). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jakari, Tabi, Tanah Merah, Tanahmerah, Tepera. Dialects: Yokari, Tepera, Yewena-Yongsu. Yokari dialect understood by other dialects at 80% to 95%, others have 95%–100% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 30% with Sentani [set]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper. Comments: Distinct from Tanahmerah [tcm] (Sumeri) of Bomberai Peninsula. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tado
[klw] Sulawesi Tengah province: Lindu sub-district, Anca, Langko, and Tomado villages near Lake Lindu. 2,400 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lindoe, Lindu, Linduan. Autonym: Tado. Dialects: Tado is reportedly very similar to Moma [myl]; considered by some a Moma dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Tado is different from Tado dialect of Kaili Ledo [lew]. Christian.

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Tae’
[rob] Sulawesi Selatan province: Luwu and North Luwu regencies; northwest coast; Bone bay; Bastem sub-district, Rongkong river valley. East Luwu regency, Nuha sub-district (Rongkong dialect). 340,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Toraja, Luwu’, Luwu-Rongkong, Rongkong, Rongkong-Luwu, Tae’ Tae’, Taeq, Toraja Timur, Toware, “Toala’” (pej.). Dialects: Rongkong, Northeast Luwu (Bone-Bone, Masamba), South Luwu, Bua. Dialect chain throughout Tae’ area east into Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Lexical similarity: 82% or greater among dialects, 82% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Different from Toraja-Sa’dan (Tae’) [sda]. Different from the Bugis-Luwu dialect of Bugis [bug]. Different from the Bugis-speaking “Toala” identified by P. and F. Sarasin (1903). “Toala’” is a pejorative Bugis exonym meaning forest people. Rongkong dialect has Seko Lemo, Rongkong Atas (Rongkong-Kanandede) and Rongkong Bawah (Sabbang) subdialects. Bua dialect has Bajo (Palili’) and Bastem (“Toala’”) subdialects. Muslim.

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Taikat
[aos] Papua province: northeast border area south of Jayapura. 500 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arso, Tajkat. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Awyi [auw]. Classification: Border, Taikat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Taje
[pee] Sulawesi Tengah province: Parigi Moutong regency, Ampibabo and Parigi Tengah sub-districts in Tomini bay. 350 (Himmelmann 2001), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andje, Lole, Petapa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: Different from the Lole dialect of Kaili Unde [unz]. Muslim.

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Tajio
[tdj] Sulawesi Tengah province: Ampibabo, Sindue, and Tinombo sub-districts, 21 villages on Tomini bay west coast. 12,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Adjio, Kasimbar, Ta’adjio, Tadjio. Dialects: Northern Tajio, Central Tajio, Western Tajio. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: Kasimbar is the main town. Muslim.

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Talaud
[tld] Sulawesi Utara province: Talaud islands. 82,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Talaur, Talaut, Talodda. Dialects: Kaburuang, South Karakelong (Karakelang, Karakelong), Nenusa-Maingas, Essang, Arangka’a, Dapalan (Riung), Awit, Beo, Lirang (Salebabu, Salibabu). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Taliabu
[tlv] Maluku Utara province: Sula island group; Taliabu island northwest coast; some on Mangole island. 4,520 (2000). 500–1,500 in Mangei. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taliabo. Dialects: Padang (Samada), Mananga, Mangei (Mang, Mange, Mange’e, Sobojo, Soboyo). Dialects 90% or more lexically similar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo. Comments: Talo, Seho, Biha, and Bono (Mbono) are place names. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Taloki
[tlk] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Buton Utara regency; Kapontori and Wakorumba sub-districts, Maligano and Wakalambe villages on Buton island northwest coast. 550 (2005 R. Van den Berg). 400 in Maligano, 150 in Wakalambe. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Talloki, Taluki. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Kulisusu [vkl]; 75% with Koroni [xkq]; 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu. Comments: Muslim.

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Talondo’
[tln] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamuju regency, Bonehau sub-district, Bonehau village area. 1,200 (2011 A. Tadollo), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Talondo Kondo. Dialects: None known. May be in the Seko subgroup (Padang [skx] or Tengah [sko]). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kalumpang [kli]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Tamagario
[tcg] Papua province: south coast area. 3,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buru, Tamaraw, Wagow, Wiyagar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kayagar [kyt], also related to Atohwaim [aqm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Taman
[tmn] Kalimantan Barat province: Kapuas Hulu regency; upper Kapuas river. 30,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dayak Taman, Taman Dayak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis, Tamanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tanahmerah
[tcm] Papua Barat province: Teluk Bintuni regency on north Bomberai peninsula, Bintuni bay, Bapai and Gondu river areas. 500 (1978 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sumeri, Sumerine. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tanah Merah. Comments: Distinct from Tanahmerah (Tabla) of Sentani [set] branch. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tandia
[tni] Papua province: Nabire regency, Bird’s Head neck area south of Wandamen peninsula and Wohsimi river; possibly Papua Barat province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Tandia. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tangko
[tkx] Papua province: Kawemaot village. 100 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Tangko. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tarangan, East
[tre] Maluku province: 12 villages in south Aru islands, Tarangan island east coast, and Maikor strait (Sungai Maikor). 6,110 (2011 SIL). Population counted in the 12 villages only. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: East Trangan, Tarangan Timur. Dialects: North East Tarangan, South East Tarangan. Lexical similarity: 71% with West Tarangan [txn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Tarangan, West
[txn] Maluku province: south Aru islands, Tarangan island west coast. 7,910 (2011 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tarangan Barat, West Trangan. Dialects: Southwestern Tarangan (Rau Jar-jar, Tarangan Barat, TarBar, West Tarangan), North Central Tarangan (Northwest-Serwatu Tarangan, Ra Jir-jar, Rau Jar-jar). 2 sharply distinct dialect groups with minor variation within them. Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Manombai [woo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Largest language group in Aru Islands. Christian, Muslim.

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Tarpia
[tpf] Papua province: Jayapura regency, Demta sub-district, Tarfia village on north coast. 630 (2006 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sufrai, Tarfia. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kaptiau [kbi] and Bonggo [bpg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian.

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Tause
[tad] Papua province: Mamberamo Raya and Waropen regencies, 3 areas on Rouffaer river. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Darha, Doa. Dialects: Tause, Weirate, Deirate. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West. Comments: First contact with outside world in 1982. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tausug
[tsg] Kalimantan Utara province: scattered coastal settlements; immigrants from Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines. 12,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Joloano Sulu, Jolohano, Moro Joloano, Sinug Tausug, Sooloo, Sulu, Suluk, Taosug, Tausog, Taw Sug. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Tawoyan
[twy] Kalimantan Tengah province: Palori town area; Kalimantan Timur province: southeast border area. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tabojan, Tabojan Tongka, Taboyan, Tabuyan, Tawoyan Dayak, Tewoyan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Lawangan [lbx], 52% with Dusun Deyah [dun]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, North.

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Tebi
[dmu] Papua province: Keerom regency, Affi, Dubu, and Jembatan Web villages’ border area. 220 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dubu. Classification: Pauwasi, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tefaro
[tfo] Papua province: Demba and Tefaro villages in east Cenderawasih bay. 100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Demba. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Barapasi [brp], 63% with Sauri [srt], 70% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tehit
[kps] Papua Barat province: Sorong regency, most of Teminabuan sub-district, half of Sawiat sub-district, about 31 villages in southwest Bird’s Head. 10,000 (2000 R. Hesse). 500 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaibus, Tahit, Tehid, Teminabuan. Dialects: Tehit Jit, Mbol Fle, Saifi, Imyan, Sfa Riere, Fkar, Sawiat Salmeit. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kalabra. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Teiwa
[twe] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: 6 villages on central Pantar island. 4,000 (Klamer and Klamer 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tewa. Dialects: Deing, Madar, Lebang. Deing (Diang) may be a separate language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Tela-Masbuar
[tvm] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Masbuar and Tela villages on southwest Babar island. 1,050 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Masbuar-Tela, Tela’a. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Tengger
[tes] Jawa Timur province: south of Pasuran regency, near Mount Bromo. 80,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tenggerese. Dialects: None known. May be marginally intelligible with Javanese [jav]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Ethnically distinct from Javanese. Hindu.

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Teor
[tev] Maluku province: Watubela archipelago, Teor and Ut islands. 1,100 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tio’or. Dialects: Gaur Kristen, Ut. Self-report to understand Kur [kuv]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Gaur Kristen and Ut, 71%–83% with Kur [kuv], 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Tereweng
[twg] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: 2 villages on Tereweng island; 1 village on Pantar island. 800 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar. Comments: Distinct ethnic identity from Blagar.

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Termanu
[twu] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Bokai, Keka, Korbafo, Talae, and Termanu areas on central Rote island. 30,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Rote, Pa’da, Rote, Rote Tengah, Roti, Rotinese. Dialects: Pa’da (Termanu), Pa’da Kona (Keka-Talae, Southern Termanu), Korbafo (Korbaffo), Bokai. Reportedly seems more similar to Lole [llg] than to other varieties on Rote. Korbafo and Bokai may need to be separated for sociolinguistic reasons. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian.

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Ternate
[tft] Maluku Utara province: Kota Ternate regency, Hiri and Ternate islands; Halmahera Selatan regency, islands between Bacan and Kasiruta islands; Halmahera island southeast of Gane bay; Damar and Yoronga islands. 62,000, all users. 42,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 20,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tidore [tvo]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Ternate-Tidore. Comments: Muslim.

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Ternateño
[tmg] Maluku Utara province: Kota Ternate city on Ternate island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ternatenyo. Dialects: Spanish [spa] relexification. Historical relationship with Chavacano and dialects, still spoken in the Philippines. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Tetun
[tet] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: central Timor island. 400,000 (2011). Total users in all countries: 463,500. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in portions of Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara province. Alternate Names: Belo, Belu, Fehan, Teto, Tettum, Tetu, Tetum, Tetun Belu, Tetung. Autonym: Tetun. Dialects: Eastern Tetun (Lakluta, Natarbora, Soibada, Tetun Loos, Tetun Los, Tetun Terik), Southern Tetun (Belu Selatan, Fehan, Lia Fehan, Plains Tetun, South Belu, South Tetun, Tasi Mane), Northern Tetun (Belu Utara, Foho, Hill Tetun, Lia Foho, North Belu, Tasi Feto, Tetun Terik, Tetun Therik). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Different language from Tetun Dili [tdt]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Te’un
[tve] Maluku province: 4 villages on central and south central Seram island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Teun. Comments: Government moved them from Teun Island, south central Maluku, due to volcanic activity on their island.

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Tidore
[tvo] Maluku Utara province: Tidore, Mare, and Moti islands; Halmahera island west coast areas. 46,000, all users. 26,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ternate [tft]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Ternate-Tidore. Comments: Muslim.

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Tidung, Southern
[itd] Kalimantan Utara province: Atap, Malinau, Mensalong, Nunukan, Pembeliangan, Tarakan, and Tideng Pale towns. 27,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camucones, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong. Dialects: Nonukan (Nunukan), Penchangan, Sedalir (Sadalir, Salalir, Saralir, Selalir), Sesayap (Sesajap), Sibuku, Tarakan (Terakan), Tidung. There is also no inherent intelligibility between Northern Tidung [ntd] and Southern Tidung according to speakers of varieties of both languages. Lexical similarity: 65% with Northern Tidung [ntd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Tidung.

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Tii
[txq] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: southwest Rote island. 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Thie, Ti, Western Rote. Dialects: Minor variation, third singular verb prefix, na-fa’da, varies with, i-fa’da. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian.

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Tobati
[tti] Papua province: Enggros, Entrop, Kota Raja, Tanah Hitam, and Tobati villages on Jayapura bay. 100 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Enggros, Humboldt Jotafa, Jayapura, Jotafa, Tobwadic, Yautefa, Yotafa. Dialects: None known. Formerly classified as Papuan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay. Comments: Christian.

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Tobelo
[tlb] Maluku Utara province: Kao, Jailolo, and Tubelo districts on north Halmahera island; Maba and Wasile districts on central Halmahera; Morotai island central east coast; Ambon, Bacan, Gane, Obi, Patani, Raja Ampat, and Weda islands; Papua province: Sorong area. 27,700 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Dodinga, Boëng, Tobelo (Heleworuru). Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Taught in middle school in Tobelo town. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tofanma
[tlg] Papua province: Keerom regency, Senggi sub-district, most of Namla, Tofanma Dua, and Tofanma Satu villages in south Jayapura border area. 250 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tofamna. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tolaki
[lbw] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Kolaka, North Kolaka, Konawe, North Konawe, and South Konawe regencies, Mekongga district; Point Kolono on southeast peninsula, northwest across plains to highlands; west coast, past Klaka town toward Bone bay narrows. 331,000 (2000 census). 298,000 Tolaki (Konawe), 33,000 Mekongga and 200 Wiwirano. Asera and Laiwui not separately listed, but less than 1,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laki, Lolaki, To’olaki, Tokia, Tololaki. Dialects: Wiwirano (Nohina), Asera (Asera Wanua, Noie), Konawe (Kendari, Kioki, Tambuoki), Mekongga (Bingkokak, Kolaka, Konio, Norio, Tamboki), Laiwui. Lexical similarity: 88% with Asera, 84% with Konawe, 85% with Mekongga, 81% with Laiwui, 78% with Waru, 70% with Rahambuu and Kodeoha, 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Mekongga has 86% with Konawe, 80% with Laiwui. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast. Comments: Language names based on negative forms are no longer in use. Muslim.

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Tomadino
[tdi] Sulawesi Tengah province: Bungku Tengah sub-district, Sakita village on Tolo bay east coast. 600 (Mead 1999). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Bahonsuai [bsu], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior. Comments: Muslim.

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Tombelala
[ttp] Sulawesi Tengah province: Morowali regency, Bungku Tengah sub-district, 4 villages on Tolo bay west coast. 1,100 (Mead and Mead 1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baria, Belala, Mbelala. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66%–76% with Pamona [pmf] varieties and 38% with Bungku [bkz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona. Comments: Consider themselves Pamona. Muslim.

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Tombulu
[tom] Sulawesi Utara province: Minahasa regency, Kota Tomohon city. 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Minahasa, Minhasa, Tombalu, Tombula, Tombulu’, Toumbulu. Dialects: Taratara, Tomohon. Reportedly most similar to Tondano [tdn] and Tonsea [txs]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan, North, Northeast. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tomini
[txm] Sulawesi Tengah province: Parigi Moutong and Toli-Toli regencies; Gorontalo province: Pohuwato regency, east to Mautang area. 42 villages. 30,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mouton, Moutong, Tiadje, Tialo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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Tondano
[tdn] Sulawesi Utara Province: Minahasa and Minahasa Utara regencies on north peninsula, Lake Tondano area. 92,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tolou, Tolour, Tondanou, Toulour. Dialects: Tondano, Kakas (Ka’kas), Remboken. Reportedly most similar to Tombulu [tom] and Tonsea [txs]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan, North, Northeast. Comments: Christian.

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Tonsawang
[tnw] Sulawesi Utara province: Minahasa, Minahasa Selatan, and Minahasa Tenggara regencies; highland area southwest of Lake Tondano, north area near Ronoketang town, south area between Tumani and Kotamobagu. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tombatu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan. Comments: Christian.

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Tonsea
[txs] Sulawesi Utara province: Minahasa Utara regency, Kota Bitung and Kota Manado cities. 90,000 (1989), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tonsea’. Dialects: Maumbi, Airmadidi, Likupang, Kauditan, Kalabat Atas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan, North, Northeast. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tontemboan
[tnt] Sulawesi Utara province: Minahasa Selatan regency on Amurang bay inland; Minahasa and Minahasa Tenggara regencies, Lake Tondano southeast strip to coast. 150,000 (1990 J. Merrifield). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pakewa, Tompakewa, Tountemboan. Dialects: Tompaso (Makelai, Makela’i-Maotow), Sonder (Matanai, Matana’i-Maore’). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Minahasan, North. Comments: Christian.

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Topoiyo
[toy] Sulawesi Barat province: Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong sub-district, inland along Budong-Budong river. 450 (Yamaguchi and Nakashima 2001), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66% with Sarudu [sdu] and Da’a [kzf], 56% with Ledo [lew], 54% with the Parigi dialect of Kaili [lew]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Recent settlers from elsewhere and rubber plantation development brought new language contacts. Muslim.

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Toraja-Sa’dan
[sda] Sulawesi Selatan province: Luwu and Tana Toraja regencies; Sulawesi Barat province: Mamasa regency; possibly Makassar city, west coast. 750,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sa’dan, Sa’dansche, Sada, Sadan, Sadang, South Toraja, Tae’, Taeq, Toradja, Toraja. Dialects: Makale (Tallulembangna), Rantepao (Kesu’), Toraja Barat (Mappa-Pana, West Toraja). Rantepao is prestige dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Totoli
[txe] Sulawesi Tengah province: Toli-Toli regency, Baolan, Dampal Selatan, Dampal Utara, Dondo, Galang, and Tolitoli Utara sub-districts, 29 villages; also Kabetan island. 25,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gage, Tolitoli, Tontoli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli. Comments: Muslim.

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Towei
[ttn] Papua province: Pegunungan Bintang regency, Towe Hitam village. 120 (1975 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Towe. Classification: Pauwasi, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Trimuris
[tip] Papua province: Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Tengah sub-district on Mamberamo river east bank. 300 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Low intelligibility of Kwerba [kwe]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kauwera [xau] and 60% with Kwerba [kwe]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tsaukambo
[kvz] Papua province: upper Digul river west side. 780 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kotogüt, Tsakwambo, Tsokwambo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Komyandaret [kzv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tugun
[tzn] Maluku province: southwest in Arwala, Ilpokil, Ilway, Kahailin, Mahuan, Masapun, and Tomliapat villages; southeast Wetar island. 1,200 (1990 SIL). 10 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahuan, Tutunohan. Autonym: Tugun. Dialects: Mahuan, Masapua, Tomliapat, Ilpokil, Kahailin Ilway, Arwala. Lexical similarity: 92%–97% among dialects, 76% with Perai [wet], 74% with Aputai [apx], 73% with Ili’uun [ilu], 52% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar. Comments: Christian.

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Tugutil
[tuj] Maluku Utara province: East Halmahera regency, Maba district, Miaf, Bebsili, and Marasipno villages; Wasile district, pass between Lolobata and Buli; North Halmahera regency, Kao district, Taboulamo area; Tobelo district, Kusuri. Dodaga, Tutuling, Akelamo, and Mabulan rivers in Maba district. 2,590 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Teluk Lili, Kusuri. Possibly several dialects separated by large distances. Inadequate intelligibility with Tobelo [tlb] variety. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Forest people who have contact with village people when selling copra and purchasing supplies. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tukang Besi North
[khc] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Ambon, Bacan, Buru, Kaledupa, Maluku, Mongole, Runduma, Seram, Sulabesi, Taliabu, and Wangiwangi islands; Baubau and Sumbawa cities. 120,000 (1995 SIL). 60,000 in Maluku. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buton, Wakatobi. Dialects: Kaledupa (Kahedupa), Wanci (Wangi- Wangi, Wanje, Wanji, Wantji). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kaledupa and Wanci, and may be separate languages. 70%–75% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 48% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Cia-Cia [cia], 40% with Kamaru [kgx], an average of 35% with other nearby languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate. Comments: Most in Nusa Tenggara and Maluku are mixed with Tukang Besi South. Muslim.

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Tukang Besi South
[bhq] Papua province: western areas; Sulawesi Selatan province: Selayar regency, Bonerate, Kalaotoa, Karompa, and Madu islands; Alor, Ambon, Buru, Maluku, Mongole, Seram, Sulabesi, and Taliabu islands; Sulawesi Tenggara province: Tukang Besi archipelago, south islands, and northern Binongko and Tomea islands. 130,000 (1995 SIL), increasing. 100,000 in Maluku. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buton, Tukang-Besi, Wakatobi. Dialects: Binongko, Bonerate, Tomea (Tomia). Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 48% with Cia-Cia [cia], 49% with Lasalimu [llm], average of 35% with other nearby languages. Lexical similarity 85% with Binongko and Tomea, 81% with Bonerate, 79% with Tomea and Bonerate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate. Comments: Muslim.

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Tulehu
[tlu] Maluku province: Maluku Tengah regency, Ambon island, 4 villages on northeast coast. 18,800 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northeast Ambon, Sou Amana Teru. Dialects: Tulehu, Liang, Tengah-Tengah, Tial. Each dialect is in a separate village. Eastern end of Ambon dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 84%–90% among dialects, 74%–82% with Hitu [htu], 72%–76% with Haruku [hrk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Tunggare
[trt] Papua province: Nabire regency, south Cendrawasih bay, Nabire town northeast past Ruwiami point. 500 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tarunggare, Turunggare. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bauzi [bvz], 75% with Burate [bti], 65% with Demisa [dei], 70% with Tefaro [tfo], 69% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: May be better considered a dialect of Burate [bti]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tunjung
[tjg] Kalimantan Tengah province: North Barito regency border area; Kalimantan Timur province: Kutai Barat and Kutai Kartanegara regencies between Adas, Dempar, and Melak towns, then down Mahakam river, east around Djempang lake. 50,000 (Nikolic´ 2008). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tunjung Dayak. Dialects: Tunjung (Tunjung Tengah), Tunjung Londong, Tunjung Linggang, Pahu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Barito-Mahakam.

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Uab Meto
[aoz] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: most of west Timor island. 700,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atoni, Meto, Orang Gunung, Timol, Timor, Timoreesch, Timoreezen, Timorese, Uab Atoni Pah Meto, Uab Pah Meto, “Dawan” (pej.), “Rawan” (pej.), “Timor Dawan” (pej.). Autonym: Uab Meto. Dialects: Amfoan-Fatule’u-Amabi (Amabi, Amfoan, Amfuang, Fatule’u), Amanuban-Amanatun (Amanatun, Amanuban, Amanubang), Mollo-Miomafo (Miomafo, Mollo), Biboki-Insana (Biboki, Insanao), Kusa-Manlea (Kusa, Manea, Manlea). Much dialect variation. Ethnological and linguistic differences in nearly every valley. Same language chain as Amarasi [aaz] and Baikeno [bkx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ujir
[udj] Maluku province: Kepulauan-Aru regency; northwest Aru islands on Udjir and Wokam islands. 1,030 (2011 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Udjir. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kola [kvv] in north Aru, and slightly less with Kola on the west coast of Kola Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Ulumanda’
[ulm] Sulawesi Barat province: Majene, Mamuju, and Polewali-Mandar regencies, mostly interior. 30,000 (1986 SIL). 18,000 in Polmas and Majene. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awo-Sumakuyu, Botteng-Tappalang, Kado, Oeloemanda, Tubbi, Ulumandak, Ulunda. Dialects: Sondoang, Tappalang, Botteng. About 6 dialects. Lexical similarity: 75%–80% with dialect of Bambam [ptu], Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], and Pannei [pnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Muslim.

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Uma
[ppk] Sulawesi Barat province: Lariang river west bank area; Sulawesi Selatan province: north Luwu regency, enclave within Seko Padang [skx] language area; south Pasangkayu regency, Mamuju sub-district; Sulawesi Tengah province: Donggala regency, South Kulawi and Pipikoro sub-districts, 32 villages on Lariang river and tributaries. 20,000 (1990 M. Martens), increasing. 15,000 in the region, 5,000 outside (1990 SIL), 500 in Benggaulu. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koro, Oema, Pipikoro. Autonym: Uma. Dialects: Winatu (Northern Uma), Tobaku (Dompa, Ompa, Western Uma), Tolee’ (Eastern Uma), Kantewu (Central Uma), Southern Uma (Aria), Benggaulu (Bingkolu), Bana. Literature exists in Kantewu dialect, but many would prefer to read their own dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Uma’ Lasan
[xky] Kalimantan Timur province: Malinau regency, Long Jelet Mesahan, Long Pejalin (Uma Alim dialect), and Long Pujungan villages. 1,500 (Soriente 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Western Kenyah. Dialects: Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Lasan, Uma’ Baka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan. Comments: Christian.

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Uma’ Lung
[ulu] Kalimantan Utara province: Bulungan regency, small area; Malinau regency, Batu Kajang, Pimping, Long Belua, Long Setulang, Long Uli villages on middle Malinau river. 3,000 (Soriente 2006), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Oma Longh. Dialects: None known. Marginally intelligible of Uma Lasan [xky]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan.

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Una
[mtg] Papua province: Langda, Bomela, and Sumtamon areas in east Weip and Yay valleys. 5,600 (2006 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Goliath, Langda, Mount Goliath, Oranje-Gebergte. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Eipomek [eip], 69% with Ketengban [xte]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Uruangnirin
[urn] Papua Barat province: Fak-Fak regency, Faur and Tuburuasa islands; southwest Bomberai peninsula mainland; possibly Karas island. 400 (1983 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Faur, Tubiruasa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Comments: Blust (1991) says this appears to be Central Malayo-Polynesian. Christian, traditional religion.

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Usku
[ulf] Papua province: Keerom regency, Usku village west of Sobger river. 110 (2004 SIL). Population estimates range from 20 to 160 (Wurm 2007). Few monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Afra. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Afra may be the name preferred by the people.

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Viid
[snu] Papua province: Senggi village in border area south of Jayapura. 250 (2005 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Senggi. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Vitou
[vto] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur sub-district, Takar village inland. 630 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Takar. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Betaf [bfe]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wabo
[wbb] Papua province: Kepulauan Yapen regency, 6 villages on Yapen island, north and south coast. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nusari, Woriasi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Kurudu [kjr], 46% with Western Serui [seu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wae Rana
[wrx] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: south central Flores island, 2 separate areas between Manggarai [mqy] and Ngad’a [nxg] language areas. 3,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waerana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Waioli
[wli] Maluku Utara province: northwest Halmahera island coast from Sasu town inland to highland interior. 3,000 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wajoli, Wayoli. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Gamkonora [gak]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Walak
[wlw] Papua province: Jayawijaya regency, Bugi village; Central Mamberano regency, Ilugwa, Mogonik, Wodo, and Wurigelebur villages. 20,000 (2007 P. Seow). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lower Pyramid, Wodo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wambon
[wms] Papua province: Boven Digoel regency, Ambatkwi sub-district. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kenon, Kenyam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wandamen
[wad] Papua Barat province: Manokwari, Wasior, Wandamen bay to Bintuni bay east end. 5,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bentoeni, Bentuni, Bintuni, Wamesa, Wandamen-Windesi, Windesi, Windessi. Dialects: Windesi, Bintuni, Wamesa (Ubu), Wasior, Ambumi, Dasener, Aibondeni, Steenkool, Waruritinao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian.

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Wanggom
[wng] Papua province: Boven Digoel regency, upper Digul river area. 1,180 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wanggo, Wangom. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kombai [tyn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut.

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Wano
[wno] Papua province: Puncak and Puncak Jaya regencies in central highlands area; Van Daalen river to upper Rouffaer river. 1,000 (2011), decreasing. 0. 200 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Waano. Autonym: Wano. Dialects: East Wano, Central Wano, West Wano. Reportedly similar to Nggem [nbq], and Walak [wlw]. Lexical similarity: 65% with Western Dani [dnw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Wano. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wanukaka
[wnk] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: west Sumba island, southwest coast. 10,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wanokaka. Dialects: Wanukaka, Rua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Warembori
[wsa] Papua province: Maberamo Raya regency, Bonoi, Poiwai, Tamakuri, and Warembori villages, Mamberamo river mouth west to Manini point. 620, all users. 600 (1998 SIL). 20. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Waremboivoro, Warenbori. Dialects: Bonoi Buroro. Lexical similarity: 33% with Yoke [yki]. 30% Austronesian vocabulary. Classification: Lower Mamberamo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wares
[wai] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Maweswares village on Biri river headwaters south side. 200 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: 2005 survey data indicates language may not exist or speakers have moved. Maweswres village now inhabited by Mawes [mgk] speakers. Christian, traditional religion.

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Waris
[wrs] Papua province: Keerom regency, Waris sub-district. 1,500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walsa. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Waritai
[wbe] Papua province: Tolikara regency; Taiyeve area south of Idenburg, Mamberama, and Rouffaer rivers’ confluence. 150 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wari, Weretai. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Different from Waris [wrs] or Wares [wai]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Warkay-Bipim
[bgv] Papua province: Asmat regency south coast, 3 villages near Otsianep and northeast near Bapiem. 300 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bipim, Bipim As-So. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Yaqay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Waropen
[wrp] Papua province: Mamberamo Raya and Waropen regencies; south Waropen bay area (Ambumi dialect), and southwest to Rombak river mouth. 6,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aropen, Wonti, Worpen. Dialects: Waropen Kai, Napan, Ambumi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Waropen. Comments: Christian.

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Waru
[wru] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Konawe Utara regency, Asera sub-district interior, Mopute village. 350 (Mead 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mapute, Mopute. Dialects: Waru, Lalomerui. Lexical similarity: 86% with the Waru and Lalomerui dialects, 79% with Mekongga and other Tolaki [lbw] dialects, 70% with Rahambuu [raz] and Kodeoha [vko], 54% with the Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Watubela
[wah] Maluku province: Watubela islands east central area. 4,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esiriun, Kasiui, Kasui, Kesui, Matabello, Snabi Watubela, Wesi. Dialects: Tamher Timur, Sulmelang. Lexical similarity: 77% between dialects, 51%–61% with Geser-Gorom [ges], 41% with Teor [tev] and Kur [kuv], 37% with Bobot [bty], 34% with Masiwang [bnf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Wauyai
[wuy] Papua Barat province: Raja Ampat regency, Wauyai village on southeast coast. 300 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wawonii
[wow] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Wawonii and Menui islands near Kendari port. 30,000 (2004 D. Andersen), increasing. 22,500 Wawonii, 7,500 Menui. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wowonii. Dialects: Wawonii, Menui (Manoei). Lexical similarity: 75% with Bungku [bkz] and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 66% with Taloki [lbw], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Wejewa
[wew] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: west Sumba island interior. 55,000 (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Veveva, Waidjewa, Wajewa, West Sumbanese, Wewewa, Wewjewa, Weyewa. Dialects: Weyewa, Lauli (Loli), Tana Righu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wemale
[weo] Maluku province: at least 14 villages on Seram island north coast, from Taniwel to Walakone towns; also southwest Seram. 6,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Honitetu, Oemale, Tala. Dialects: West Wemale, West-Central Wemale, East Wemale, South Wemale. Lexical similarity: 84% with east and west dialects, 70% with South Wemale dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Wemale. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Wersing
[kvw] Nusa Tenggara Timur province: Alor island, Pietoko, Pureman, and 2 enclaves on central north, east, and southeast coasts. 3,700 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolana, Kolana-Wersin, Warsina, Wersin. Dialects: Kolana, Maneta, Langkuru (Mademang, Pureman). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar. Comments: Cultural and historical relationship with Liquisa area in East Timor. Christian, traditional religion.

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Woi
[wbw] Papua province: west Yapen island, Wooi and Wainap villages. 1,800 (2012 Y. Sawaki). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wo’oi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Pom [pmo], Marau [mvr], and Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian.

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Wolani
[wod] Papua province: west central highlands, Kemandoga and Mbiyandogo rivers area northeast of Lake Paniai, north of Wissel Lakes. 5,000 (1992 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Woda, Woda-Mo, Wodani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wolio
[wlo] Sulawesi Tenggara province: Buton regency, Kota Bau-Bau city on Buton island southwest coast. 65,000 (2004 D. Andersen). Population does not include those in other provinces. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baubau, Buton, Butonese, Butung. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Cia-Cia [cia]; 60% with Masiri dialect of Cia-Cia and Lantoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru. Comments: ‘Buton’ usually used generically inside Southeast Sulawesi to refer to Wolio; outside Southeast Sulawesi it refers to people from Southeast Sulawesi, or is sometimes confused with Bajau people as sailors. Muslim.

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Woria
[wor] Papua province: Waropen regency, Botawa village; Sanoringga river mouth to interior, and northeast. 5 (2000 R. Doriot). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 63% with Kofei [kpi], 69% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Botawa is a Demisa and Waropen [wrp]-speaking village.

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Wotu
[wtw] Sulawesi Selatan province: Luwu Timur regency, Wotu sub-district, Bawalipu and Lampenai villages in north Bone bay; coast near Kalaena river mouth. 500 (2009 Masruddin and Wahibah), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wadu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Laiyolo [lji], average 43% with South Sulawesi Group, 43% with Kaili-Pamona Subgroup, 41% with Seko Padang [skx], 39% with Tae’ Luwu [rob], 36%–43% with Bungku-Tolaki Subgroup, 37% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 33% with Bugis [bug], 31% with Rampi [lje], 25% with Lemolang [ley]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio. Comments: Muslim.

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Yahadian
[ner] Papua Barat province: Sorong Selatan regency, south Bird’s Head along Maccluer bay. 500 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jahadian, Nerigo, Yabin Yahadian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Konda [knd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Konda-Yahadian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yalahatan
[jal] Maluku province: Makulu Tengah regency, south central Seram island coastal area. 1,700 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atamanu, Awaiya, Jahalatan, Jahalatane. Dialects: Slight dialect differences reported between the 2 villages. Lexical similarity: 50%–52% with Sepa [spb], 49%–50% with Sou Nama [tlt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers. Comments: The name Atamanu is not currently known.

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Yale, Kosarek
[kkl] Papua province: eastern highlands. 2,300 (1993 R. Doriot). 2,300 monolinguals. Nearly 100% are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: In-lom, Kosarek, Wanam, Yale-Kosarek. Dialects: Kosarek, Gilika (Kilika), Tiple. Lexical similarity: 78% with Nipsan [nps], 59% with Nalca [nlc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: The name In-lom refers to only half the group. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yali, Angguruk
[yli] Papua province: central highlands area. 15,000 (1991 J. Wilson). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angguruk, Northern Yali, Yalimo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yali, Ninia
[nlk] Papua province: central highlands, Holuwon, Lolat, and Ninia villages. 10,500 (1999 J. Wilson). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jaly, Jalè, Ninia, North Ngalik, Southern Yali, Yali Selatan. Dialects: None known. Different from Yali of Pass Valley [yac], Yali of Angguruk [yli], and Hupla [hap]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yali, Pass Valley
[yac] Papua province: central highlands, Jayawijaya, Kurima, and Kurulu regencies. 5,000 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abendago, North Ngalik, Pass Valley, Western Yali, Yaly. Dialects: Pass Valley, Landikma, Apahapsili. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yamdena
[jmd] Maluku province: Tannembar islands, east coast Yamdena island, south to north tip of Selaru island, 35 villages; southwest Yamdena island, Latdalam village. 25,000 (1991 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jamden, Jamdena, Tanemprar lirin. Dialects: North Yamdena (Nus Das), South Yamdena (Nus Bab). A chain of related varieties from north to south with 90% lexical similarity between extremes, but with morphological and phonological differences. Southern dialect thought more prestigious. Lexical similarity: 90% among the north and south dialects, 47% with Fordata [frd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Yamdena. Comments: Christian.

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Yaqay
[jaq] Papua province: Mappi regency, south coast along Obaa river north to Gandaimu area. 10,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jakai, Jaqai, Mapi, Sohur, Yaqai. Dialects: Oba-Miwamon, Nambiomon-Mabur, Bapai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Yaqay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yarsun
[yrs] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Bonggo sub-district. 200 (1991 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Yarsun may not exist or speakers may have moved (2005 SIL). Christian, traditional religion.

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Yaur
[jau] Papua province: Nabire regency, west Cenderawasih bay, Manggua point south to Wororomi. 350 (1978 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jaur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yaur. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yawa
[yva] Papua province: central Yapen island, 8 north coast villages, 2 interior villages, and 18 south coast villages. 10,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mantembu, Mora, Turu, Unat, Yapanani, Yava. Autonym: Yawa Unat. Dialects: Central Yawa (Mora), West Yawa, South Yawa, North Yawa, East Yawa. Classification: West Papuan, Yapen. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yei
[jei] Papua province: Merauke regency, 6 villages in south coast area, along Maro river. 2,390 (2001 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Je, Jei, Yei-Nan, Yey. Dialects: Upper Yei, Lower Yei. Dialects mutually inherently intelligible only with difficulty. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Yey. Comments: Different cultural group from Marind. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yelmek
[jel] Papua province: Merauke regency south coast, east Muli strait. 400 (1978 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jab, Jabsch, Jelmek, Jelmik. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Maklew [mgf]. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Yelmek-Maklew. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yeresiam
[ire] Papua province: Nabire regency, south Cenderawasih bay, Yamur lake area; Papua Barat province: Kaimana regency. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Beduba, Iresim. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Iresim. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yeretuar
[gop] Papua province: Nabire regency, lower Kwatisore bay; Papua Barat province: south Teluk Wondama regency, Wandamen peninsula. 350 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Goni, Umar, Umari. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yeretuar. Comments: Distinct from Kamoro [kgq]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yetfa
[yet] Papua province: Pegunungan Bintang regency, Okbibab sub-district. 1,400, all users. 1,000 (1996). 400 (2013 M. Donohue). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Trade language in the area, extending to Papua New Guinea border. Alternate Names: Biaksi, Biksi, Inisine. Dialects: None known. Yetfa and Biksi are 2 ethnic groups, speaking the same language. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yoke
[yki] Papua province: Sarmi regency, Mantarbori village northeast of Rombebai lake, east of Mamberamo river. 200 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bitovondo, Jauke, Pauwi, Yauke, Yoki. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 33% with Warembori [wsa]. Classification: Lower Mamberamo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zorop
[wfg] Papua province: Keerom regency, Warlef village. 230 (2005 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jafi, Jafi Wagarindem, Wagarindem, Wargarindem, Warlef, Yaffi, Yafi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 25% with Emem [enr]. Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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