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Abinomn
[bsa] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict. Lakes plain area, Baso river mouth east of Dabra at Idenburg river, to headwaters in Foya mountains. 300 (Clouse et al 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Avinomen, “Baso” (pej.), Foja, Foya. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Abui
[abz] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, western half, Alor island. 16,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: “Barawahing” (pej.), Barue, Namatalaki. Dialects: Atimelang, Abui Barat, Alakaman, Abui Selatan. Much dialect diversity. Alakaman may be a dialect of Kamang [woi] (Woisika). May be more than 1 language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor.

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Abun
[kgr] Papua Barat Province, Sorong regency; Ayamaru, Sausapor, and Moraid subdistricts, about 20 villages; north coast, interior of central Bird’s Head, north, south of Tamberau mountain range. 3,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: A Nden, Karon, Manif, Yimbun. Dialects: Abun Tat (Karon Pantai), Abun Ji (Madik), Abun Je. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Aceh
[ace] North tip of Sumatra, both coasts, Aceh Province, Aceh Besar, Aceh Jaya, Aceh Barat, Nagan Raya, Aceh Barat Daya, Aceh Selatan, Aceh Sinkil, Aceh Tamiang, Kota Langsa, Aceh Timr, Aceh Utara, Kota Lhokseumawe, Bireuen, Pidie Jaya, and Pidie regencies; Weh and neighboring islands off north tip; into Sumatera Utara Province, Tapanuli Tengah regency, south coast enclave. 3,500,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 3,500,032. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in Aceh province. Alternate Names: Acehnese, Achehnese, Achinese. Dialects: Banda Aceh, Baruh, Bueng, Daja, Pase, Pidie (Pedir, Timu), Tunong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Acehnese. Comments: Muslim.

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Adang
[adn] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, northwest (Bird’s Head), Alor island, northwest of Kalabahi town towards Banda Sea coast. 3,000 (2000), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alor. Dialects: Aimoli. Because of linguistic differences and social identity, considered a separate language from Kabola [klz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: Bilingual young adults show stronger proficiency in Indonesian [ind] than in Adang (Hamilton et al 2013). Christian.

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Adonara
[adr] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Adonara and east Solor islands, between Flores and Lembata islands. 98,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nusa Tadon, Sagu, Vaiverang, Waiwerang. Dialects: West Adonara, East Adonara, East Solor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Aghu
[ahh] Papua Province, Boven Digoel regency, Jair subdistrict, interior south coast area. Between Mapi and Digul rivers west of Tanamerah town. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djair, Dyair. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Different from Aghu-Tharnggala [gtu] of Australia. Christian, traditional religion.

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Airoran
[air] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Hilir and Pantai Barat subdistricts, Subu, Motobiak, Isirania, and other villages. North coast area, lower Apauwer river. 1,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adora, Aeroran, Iriemkena. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, West Coast. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Alor
[aol] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, coastal Bird’s Head of Alor, pockets along north Pantar and adjacent islands. 25,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alorese. Dialects: Baranusa, Muna. Not inherently intelligible with Lembata languages or Adonara [adr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Muslim.

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Alune
[alp] Maluku Province, Seram island, Seram Bagian Barat regency, Kairatu, Taniwel districts, mainly interior except for coastal strips, north shore, Latuhelu area, two stretches on Piru bay, southwest: 27 villages. 17,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Patasiwa Alfoeren, Sapalewa. Dialects: Kairatu, Central West Alune (Niniari-Piru-Riring-Lumoli), South Alune (Rambatu-Manussa-Rumberu), North Coastal Alune (Nikulkan-Murnaten-Wakolo), Central East Alune (Buriah-Weth-Laturake). Rambatu dialect reportedly prestigious. Kawe [kgb] may be a dialect. Lexical similarity: 77%–91% among dialects, 64% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 63% with Hulung [huk] and Naka’ela [nae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai. Comments: Largest language in west Seram. Christian.

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Amahai
[amq] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, 4 villages; Elpaputih bay, southwest Seram island, near Masohi town. 50 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Amahei. Dialects: Makariki, Rutah, Soahuku. Lexical similarity: 87% with Makariki and Rutah dialects, probably 2 languages; 59%–69% with Saparua [spr], 59% with Kamarian [kzx], 58% with Kaibobo [kzb], 52% with Luhu [lcq] and Hulung [huk], 50% with Alune [alp], 49% with Naka’ela [nae], 47% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 45% with Wemale [weo] and Nuaulu, 44% with Boano [bzn] and Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Amarasi
[aaz] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, southwest tip, Timor island, Kupang regency; on Timur sea near Benini point east to Ela point, interior as far north as Oesa town: 80 villages. Dialect locations: Kotos is central and east, Ro’is is west, Ro’is Tais Nonof is south, Ro’is Hero near Kota Kupang. 70,000 (2011 Unit Bahasa dan Budaya - Gereja Masehi Injili di Timor (UBB-GMIT)). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Timor Amarasi, Uab Meto. Dialects: Kotos, Ro’is, Ro’is Tais Nonof, Ro’is Hero (Kopa). Part of Uab Meto language chain. Reportedly similar to Uab Meto [aoz] but with differences in phonology, vocabulary, and discourse, with semantic shifts, structural differences, intelligibility problems. Ro’is Tais Nonof dialect has intonation like Ro’is dialect, vocabulary like Kotos dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto. Comments: Interspersed with Helong [heg]. Most literature in Kotos dialect. Christian.

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Ambai
[amk] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Selatan and Yapen Timur subdistricts, 10 villages. On Ambai island in Cenderawasih bay, south of Serui town, along south coast of Serui island. 10,100 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ambai-Menawi. Dialects: Randawaya, Ambai (Wadapi-Laut), Manawi. Lexical similarity: 77% with Serui-Laut [seu], 71% with Wandamen [wad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Ambelau
[amv] Maluku Province, central Ambelau island off southeast coast of Buru island; Buru coast, Wae Tawa village, opposite Ambelau. 8 villages. 5,700 (1989 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amblau. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Buru [mhs]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Ambelau. Comments: Schools through junior high on the island. Wild pigs and rocky terrain on Ambelau make cultivation impossible; that is done in Wae Tawa village on Buru Island. Muslim.

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Ampanang
[apg] Southern Kalimantan Timur Province, west of Mahakam river delta, east of Jambu and Lamper towns. 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Barito-Mahakam. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Anakalangu
[akg] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Sumba island, southwest coast, east of Wanukaka. 16,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anakalang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Anasi
[bpo] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Hilir subdistrict. North coast, lower west bank Mamberamo river. 2,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bapu. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Andio
[bzb] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Lamala subdistrict, Tauge and Tangeban villages, near tip of eastern peninsula. 1,700 (Busenitz 1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Andio’o, “Bobongko” (pej.), Imbao’o, Masama. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobongko [bgb], 60% with Batui [zbt], 62% with Saluan [loe], 66% with Balantak [blz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western. Comments: ‘Masama’ is preferred local name. Muslim.

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Ansus
[and] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Barat subdistrict, Ansus, Kairawi, Aibondeni, and Yenusi villages, westernmost Serui island, south coast. 4,600 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Marau [mvr] and Papuma [ppm], 77% with Wandamen [wad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Anus
[auq] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Podena islands off north coast mainly Pulau Anus; coastal area east of Biri river. 320 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Koroernoes, Korur. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Podena [pdn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Anus and Fedan [pdn] may be the same language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Aoheng
[pni] Kalimantan Timur Province, near Sarawak border, western end of province, upper reaches of Kapuas, Barito, and Mahakam rivers; small border areas, Kalimantan Tengah Province. 2,630 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Penihing. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke], 67% with Hovongan [hov]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’.

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Aputai
[apx] Southwest Maluku Province, Maluku Barat Daya regency; north central Wetar island, Banda Sea coast, Ilputih village; south central Wetar, Wetar strait coast, Lurang village. 150 (Hinton 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Ilputih, Opotai, Tutunohan. Dialects: Ilputih, Lurang, Welemur. Welemur dialect has no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Perai [wet], 74% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Ili’uun [ilu], 57% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar. Comments: Christian.

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Aralle-Tabulahan
[atq] Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamasa regency, Mambi subdistrict. 2 separate concentrations around Aralle and Tabulalang towns. 12,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Aralle, Tabulahan, Mambi. Lexical similarity: 84%–89% with other dialects listed, 75%–80% with Bambam [ptu], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumandak [ulm] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Arandai
[jbj] Papua Barat Province, Manokwari regency, Bintuni subdistrict; South Bird’s Head, Ceram Sea coast; west from Sebyar (Timoforo) river area. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dombano, Jaban, Sebyar, Sumuri, Yaban. Dialects: Dombano (Arandai). Lexical similarity: 71% with the Kemberano and Dombano dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Arguni
[agf] Papua Barat Province, Fak-Fak district; Arguni island in Maccluer gulf, off northwest coast, Bomberai peninsula. 150 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Argoeni. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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As
[asz] Papua Barat Province, Sorong regency, Asbakin, Maklaumkarta, and Mega villages, West Bird’s Head area, north coast east of Dampler strait, inland towards Warsamson river. 230 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60% with some dialects on Misool Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Reportedly originates from Gag Island, west of Waigeo Island. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Asilulu
[asl] Maluku Province, Asilulu, Ureng, and Negeri Lima villages. Northwest Ambon island; some in west Seram island, Hoamoal peninsula, south coast. 8,760 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Asilulu, Ureng, Negeri Lima (Henalima, Lima). Lexical similarity: 88% with Asilulu and the Negeri Lima dialect, 78%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 72%–73% with the Wakal dialect of Hitu [htu], 67%–72% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 71%–73% with Luhu [lcq] in Seram. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Asmat, Casuarina Coast
[asc] Papua Province, Mappi regency, Pantai Kasuari and Edera subdistricts. Casuarina Coast from Ewta river north, to Kuti river south, and inland. 9,000 (1991 SIL). 5,200 in Matia and 3,400 in Sapan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaweinag. Dialects: Matia, Sapan (Safan). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Asmat, Central
[cns] Papua Province, Casuarina coast areas, Asmat regency; Sawa-Erma, Agats, Atsy, and Pantai Kasuari subdistricts, south coast from Owap river northwest to Farec river southwest, inland; also, Mappi regency, Nambai and Edera subdistricts, Digul river delta area. 7,000 (Roesler 1972). Most are monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jas, Manowee, Yas. Dialects: Simai (Simay), Misman, Ajam (Ayam). Reportedly similar to Sempan [xse] north of the rivers, Kamoro [kgq] and Citak [txt]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Asmat, North
[nks] Papua Province, Merauke regency, Sawa-Erma subdistrict. Near Pater Le Cocq river headwaters west to Unir river east to the foothills. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Keenok. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Asmat, Yaosakor
[asy] South coast, Papua Province, Asmat regency, Agats and Atsy subdistricts; lower Surets and Eilanden rivers confluence area. 2,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yaosakor. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Atohwaim
[aqm] Papua Province, Mappi regency, Pantai Kasuari subdistrict. South coast inland, northeast of Pirimapun town, between Cook and Kronkel rivers. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaugat. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Auye
[auu] Papua Province, Paniai regency, Napan subdistrict, central highlands southeast of Cenderawasih bay; Siriwo river area. 350 (1995 SIL). Ethnic population: 500 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Auwje. Dialects: None known. Related to Ekari [ekg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Distinct from Awyi [auw] (Awye) in Taikat group. Christian, traditional religion.

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Awbono
[awh] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Modera river area. 100 (1999 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kvolyab. Dialects: None known. Not related to these language families: Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna [mqf], or highland languages like Dani [dnw], or Mek family. Lexical similarity: 55% with Bayono [byl]. Classification: Bayono-Awbono. Comments: Frequently at war with Kopkaka and Korowai.

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Awera
[awr] Papua Province, Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah subdistrict,1 village; east side of Cenderawasih bay, Wapoga river mouth. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Lakes Plain, Awera. Comments: Community shared with 100 Ansus [and] speakers. Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyi
[auw] Papua Province, Keerom regency, Arso subdistrict, northeast highland enclave near Papua New Guinea border, south of Jayapura town. 350 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Awje, Awji, Awye, Njao, Nyao. Classification: Border, Taikat. Comments: Distinct from Auye [auu] in Ekari-Wolani-Moni group. Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, Asue
[psa] Papua Province, Asmat and Mappi regencies, southwest of Wildeman river, east of Kampong river, inland from Pirimapun. 6,500 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Miaro, Miaro Awyu, Pisa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Edera Awyu [awy] and South Awyu [aws], but distinct from Central Awyu [awu] and Jair Awyu [awv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, Central
[awu] Papua Province, Mappi and Boven Digul regencies; Obaa, Citak Mitak, Mandobo, and Bimikia subdistricts. South coast inland, west of Tanahmerah, southwest of Boma town. 7,500 (2002 Sohn Myo-sook). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ajau, Auyu, Avio, Awju, Awya, Nohon. Dialects: 4 dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awyu, Edera
[awy] Papua Province, Merauke regency, both banks, lower Digul river, north of Keisak town. 3,870 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jenimu, Oser, Siagha, Sjiagha, Syiagha, Yenimu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, Jair
[awv] Papua Province, Merauke district. West of northward bend, Digul river. 2,300 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, North
[yir] Papua Province, Merauke district. West side, Digul river, upstream from Tanamerah town. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awyu, Djair, Dyair, Jair, Yair. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Awyu, South
[aws] Papua Province, Merauke and Mappi regencies, both banks, lower Digul river, Bade town area. 9,340 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jenimu, Oser, Siagha, Sjiagha, Syiagha, Yenimu. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Awyu. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Babar, North
[bcd] Maluku Province, south, Maluku Barat Daya regency, Ilwiara, Nakarhamto, and Yatoke villages, northeast Babar island east of Timor island. 1,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dialect variation reported. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North. Comments: Christian.

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Babar, Southeast
[vbb] Maluku Province, Kroing, Letwurung, Kokwari, Wakpapai, Ahanari, Analutur, Manuweri, and Tutuwawan villages. Southeast Babar island coast. 4,460 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Bada
[bhz] Sulawesi Tengah and border area Sulawesi Selatan provinces, Poso and Luwu Utara regencies, Lore Selatan, Pamona Selatan, Poso Pesisir, and Parigi subdistricts, northwest of Lake Poso: at least 24 villages. Ako dialect in northern Mamuju regency, Pasangkayu subdistrict; some in Ampibabo subdistrict, Lemusa village. 6,800 (Martens 1989), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bada’, Tobada’. Dialects: Bada, Ako. Lexical similarity: 85% with Bada and Behoa [bep], 91% with Behoa and Napu [npy], 80% with Bada and Napu [npy]. The 3 are geographically, politically, and culturally separate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic. Comments: ‘Tobada’, Bada person. Christian.

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Badui
[bac] Java, separate enclaves: Banten Province, Rangkasbitung regency, on Ujung river; Pandeglang town, near Mount Kendeng; 2 separate areas in Jawa Barat Province, Sukabumi city area, 1 village, and Cikajang city area; Jawa Timur Province, extreme southwest portion, south of Banyubiru bay. 20,000 (2000 census). 12,000 in Kenekes village area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baduy, Bahasa Sunda, Gajebo. Dialects: Sometimes considered a dialect of Sunda [sun]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sundanese. Comments: A separate socio-religious group from Sunda [sun]. Inner and outer, Badui refer to location and status within the group religion. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bagusa
[bqb] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict. East of Mamberamo river, south of Lake Rombebai. 300 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kapeso, Suaseso. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Kwerba [kwe]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baham
[bdw] Papua Barat Province, northwest Bomberai peninsula, Fakfak regency, Kaimana, Fakfak, and Kokas subdistricts, east of Fakfak city; Kaimana regency, Cape Papisoi area. 1,100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Patimuni. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Iha [ihp]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bahau
[bhv] Kalimantan Timur Province, Kutai Barat regency, Long Apari, Long Pahangai, Long Bagun, and Long Hubung subdistricts. Area around confluence of Ratah and Mahakam rivers. 19,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Bahonsuai
[bsu] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Morowali regency, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Bahonsuai village on the east coast, Tolo bay. 200 (Mead 1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bahoe-soeaai, Bahonsoewaai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Tomadino [tdi], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Bajau, Indonesian
[bdl] Widespread throughout north central Indonesia, Sulawesi island; also throughout Maluku Utara Province on Bacan, Obi, Kayoa, and Sula islands, southwest of Halmahera island. 150,000 (Mead et al 2007). 5,000 or more in North Maluku (Grimes 1982), 8,000 to 10,000 in South Sulawesi (Grimes and Grimes 1987), 7,000 in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo, 36,000 in Central Sulawesi, 40,000 in Southeast Sulawesi (Mead et al 2007), and several thousand in Nusa Tenggara (Wurm and Hattori 1981, Verheijen 1986). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Badjaw, Badjo, Bajao, Bajo, Bayo, Gaj, Indonesian Bajaw, Orang Laut, Sama, Taurije’ne’. Dialects: Jampea, Same’, Matalaang, Sulamu, Kajoa, Roti, Jaya Bakti, Poso, Togian 1, Togian 2, Wallace. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Comments: Known as Bayo and Taurije’ne’ in the Makasar [mak] language. Known as Bajo in Buginese [bug]. Schools in some villages. They live in houses on stilts over water. Other Bajau languages are in Sabah, Malaysia, and the southern Philippines. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bakati’
[bei] Kalimantan Barat Province, Sambas regency, Sambas river headwaters. 4,000 (1986 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakati Nyam, Bakati Riok, Bakatiq, Bekati. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’.

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Bakati’, Rara
[lra] Sarawak border, Kalimantan Barat Province, Bengkayang regency, Pejampi and 2 other villages; small border area in Sanggau regency; upper Lundu and Sambas rivers, east of Sambas town. 12,000 in Indonesia (2004 M. Connor). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bekati’ Kendayan, Bekati’ Nyam-Pelayo, Bekatiq, Lara’, Luru, Rara Bakati. Dialects: Bina’e. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bakati’, Sara
[sre] Kalimantan Barat Province, near Sanggau-Ledo northeast of Ledo. 4,000 (2004 M. Connor). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Riok. Dialects: Some dialect differences. Unidirectional intelligibility of Rara-Bakati’ [lra] by Sara. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’.

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Bakumpai
[bkr] Kalimantan Tengah Province, Kapuas, Barito Selatan, and Barito Utara regencies, Kapuas and Barito rivers, northeast of Kuala Kapuas; possibly into southernmost Murung Raya regency. 100,000 (2003). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as a LWC in the market in central Kalimantan Province. Alternate Names: Bakambai, Bara-Jida. Dialects: Bakumpai, Mengkatip (Mangkatip, Oloh Mengkatip). Lexical similarity: 75% with Ngaju [nij], 45% with Banjar [bjn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, South. Comments: Muslim.

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Balaesang
[bls] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Donggala regency, Balaesang subdistrict, Manimbayu peninsula, Ketong, Kamonji, and Rano villages. 3,200 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Balaesan, Balaisang, Pajo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Balantak
[blz] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Banggai regency, Luwuk, Balantak, Tinangkung, and Lamala subdistricts, eastern peninsular tip, Cape Talabu: at least 49 villages.. 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. L2 users: 1,000 (2015 R. Busenitz). No monolinguals (2015 R. Busenitz). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balanta, Kosian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66% with Andio [bzb], 51% with Saluan [loe], 39% with Bobongko [bgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Bali
[ban] Bali Province, widespread throughout entire island, including Penida; to east, Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Kota Mataram and Lombok Barat regency, west central Lombok island. 3,330,000 (2000 census). 7,000 in South Sulawesi. Includes immigrant speakers in west Nusa Tenggara, west Lombok Islands. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balinese. Dialects: Lowland Bali (Badung, Buleleng, Gianyar, Jembrana, Karangasem, Klungkung, Tabanan), Highland Bali (“Bali Aga” (pej.)), Nusa Penida. Reportedly 2 distinct dialects. High Bali is used in religion, but users are diminishing. Speech strata in several lowland varieties (1989 A. Clynes). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa. Comments: Nusa Penida Island variety associated with Highland Bali dialect. It is a scattering of villages with minimal influence from the former Majapahit Empire. Hindu.

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Bambam
[ptu] Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamasa regency, Mambi subdistrict, watershed of Maloso and Mapilli rivers; into Majene and Mamuju regencies. 22,000 (Strømme 1987). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Pitu Uluna Salu, Pitu-Ulunna-Salu. Dialects: Bambam Hulu, Salu Mokanam, Bumal, Mehalaan, Pattae’, Matangnga, Issilita’, Pakkau. Complex dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 83%–94% with Bumal; 85%–80% with dialects of Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], Pannei [pnc], and Ulumanda [ulm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Banda
[bnd] Maluku Province, south, Kei islands, Maluku Tenggara regency, west and northeast side of Kei Besar island, Banda-Eli and Banda-Elat villages, possibly a third. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Eli, Elat. Different from other south Maluku languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser. Comments: The people originally came from the Banda Islands, but the language is no longer spoken there. Muslim.

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Banggai
[bgz] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Banggai Kepulauan regency; off eastern peninsula, Banggai and Bowokan islands, between Peleng strait and Taliabu island: at least 157 villages. 125,000 (2000 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aki, Banggaai, Banggaiy, Banggay, Banggaya. Dialects: East Banggai, West Banggai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Eastern. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Bangka
[mfb] Sumatra, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung Province, widespread, Bangka island. 340,000 (2000 census). 50 or less speakers of the Lom dialect (Wurm 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: North Bangka, South Bangka, Lom (Belom, Mapor), Central Bangka, Capital City Urban Bangka, Port Urban Bangka. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: A network of dialects with distinct lexical, phonological, and grammatical innovations set Bangka apart from other Malay speech varieties. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Banjar
[bjn] Kalimantan south and southeastern coasts, Java Sea and Makassar Strait; Kalimantan Tengah Province as far as Pangkalanbun, Sampit, and Palangkaraya; Kalimantan Selatan Province, around Banjarmasin, to south then east; Kalimantan Timur Province, coastal regions of Pulau Laut, Kutai, and Pasir, north towards Samarinda city and Mahakan delta; smaller region, Kalimantan Barat Province, coastal Matua. 3,500,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 3,505,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Banjar became a LWC through trade. LWC in the market, in business, and in media. Banjar, already dominant in South Kalimantan Province, is also growing rapidly in Central and Eastern Kalimantan provinces. Alternate Names: Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjarese, Labuhan. Dialects: Kuala, Hulu. Lexically influenced by Javanese [jav]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Indonesian [ind], 66% with Tamuan (Malayic Dayak) [xdy], 45% with Bakumpai [bkr], 35% with Ngaju [nij]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Bantik
[bnq] Sulawesi Utara Province, 11 villages. Northern peninsula, northeast section, area around Manado city. 3,000 (Utsumi 2001), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Barakai
[baj] Maluku Province, southern area, Longgar, Apara, Bemun, and Mesiang villages. Southeast Aru chain, Barakai island; some on Gomo-Gomo island northeast of Barakai. 4,450 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Workai. Dialects: Barakai, Mesiang. Reportedly similar to Karey [kyd]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Batuley [bay]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Barapasi
[brp] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Waropen Atas subdistrict. East Cenderawasih bay, along Barapasi river and tributaries. 2,500 (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baropasi. Dialects: Sipisi, Marikai. Lexical similarity: 67% with Kofei [kpi], 71% with Sauri [srt], 61% with Tefaro [tfo], 64% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baras
[brs] Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamuju Utara Regency, Karossa subdistrict, Salubiro village, Baras subdistrict, in and north of Bambaloka village. 250 (Valkama 1987). 50 households. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ende. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Da’a Kaili [kzf], 85% with Inde dialect of Kaili, Da’a [kzf], 80% or more with other Kaili varieties, 64% with Uma [ppk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Some think the language will die out. Muslim.

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Basap
[bdb] Kalimantan Timur and Kalimantan Utara provinces, scattered in Bulungan, Berau, Kutai Timur, Kutai Kartanegara, and Penajam Paser Utara regencies. 15,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bosap. Dialects: Jembayan, Bulungan, Berau, Dumaring, Binatang, Karangan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Batak Alas-Kluet
[btz] Two areas, Aceh Province; 1: inland from Tapaktuan, and 2: northwest towards Kutacane; eventually into Sumatera Utara Province. 195,000 (2000 census). Includes 80,000 Alas, 50,000 Kluet, and 65,000 Singkil. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alas-Kluet Batak. Dialects: Alas, Kluet, Singkil (Kade-Kade). Alas dialect may be more similar to Karo Batak [btx], 81% cognate (Soravia 2002), while Kluet and Singkil may be more closely related to Pakpak Dairi [btd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern. Comments: Many reject the label Batak for its cultural connotations. Unclear whether this is a single language.

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Batak Angkola
[akb] Sumatera Utara Province, Tapanuli Tengah, Tapanuli Selatan, Tapanuli Utara, Padang Lawas Utara, Padang Lawas, Labuhan Batu, and Labuhan Batu Selatan regencies; inland from near Sibolga city south towards Padangsidempuan, east to Binanga towards southern provincial border, northeast towards the Strait of Malacca. 750,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anakola, Angkola. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mandailing Batak [btm], but distinct sociolinguistically. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Batak Dairi
[btd] Sumatera Utara Province, Dairi, Pakpak Barat, Samosir, Humbang Hasundutan, and Tapanuli Tengah regencies, southwest of Lake Toba, area around Sidikalang town, south to coast; also in Aceh Province, Aceh Singkil regency. 1,200,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dairi, Pakpak, Pakpak Dairi. Dialects: Diari and Pakpak dialects are sociolinguistically distinct. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Batak Karo
[btx] Sumatera Utara Province, Langkat, Deli Serdang, Karo, and Dairi regencies west and northwest of Lake Toba; south, small border area in Tapanuli Tengah regency; also in southern Aceh Province, small enclave in Aceh Tenggara regency; south, parts of Kota Subulussalam, Aceh Selatan, and Aceh Singli regencies. 600,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karo Batak. Dialects: Singkil. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Northern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Batak Mandailing
[btm] Sumatera Utara Province; southern interior area extending from Padang Sidempuan, across borders with Riau and Sumatera Barat provinces. 1,100,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batta, Mandailing Batak. Dialects: None known. Sociolinguistically different from Angkola Batak [akb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern. Comments: A general form of Batak common to a wider area than Angkola. Muslim.

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Batak Simalungun
[bts] Sumatera Utara Province, Simalungun, Serdang Bedagai, Deli Serdang, and Kota Pematang Siantar regencies; area northeast of Lake Toba, south of Medan. 1,200,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Simelungan, Timur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Simalungan.

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Batak Toba
[bbc] Central Sumatera Utara Province, Simalungan, Asahan, Labuhan Batu Utara, Toba Samosir, Tapanuli Utara, Samosir, Humbang Hasundutan, and south Tapanuli Tengah regencies; Samosir island; east, south, and west of Lake Toba. 2,000,000 (1991 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Batta, Toba Batak. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Angkola Batak [akb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Batak, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Bati
[bvt] Maluku Province. East coast, Seram island between Kian Darat and Keleser towns, inland. 3,500 (Loski and Loski 1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gah. Dialects: None known. Related to Geser-Gorom [ges] and Watubela [wah]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom. Comments: Strong separation of ethnolinguistic identity from Geser-Gorom [ges]. Muslim.

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Batui
[zbt] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Banggai regency, Batui subdistrict, Balantang, Tolando, Sisipan, and Batui villages, eastern peninsula, mainland across from Peleng island. 2,900, decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baha. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 74% with Saluan [loe], 60% with Andio [bzb], 54% with Bobongko [bgb], 46% with Balantak [blz], 38% with Banggai [bgz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic. Comments: Muslim.

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Batuley
[bay] Maluku Province, Aru islands regency, east coast, Arafura Sea, offshore communities north and south of Karaum, 7 island villages. 3,640 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gwataley, Watulai. Dialects: None known. Slightly more distant from Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Barakai [baj] and Karey [kyd], 81% with Mariri [mqi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Bauzi
[bvz] Papua Province, Jayapura and Yapen Waropen regencies, Mamberamo Tengah and Waropen Atas subdistricts, Vakiadi, Noiadi, Danau Bira, Solom, Kustera, Neao, and Itaba villages. Extensive inland area between Mamberamo and Rouffaer rivers. 1,500 (1991 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baudi, Baudji, Baudzi, Bauri. Dialects: Gesda Dae, Neao, Aumenefa. Classification: East Geelvink Bay, Bauzi. Comments: Whistle speech reported. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bayono
[byl] Papua Province, Asmat regency, Eilanden-Steenboom river area. 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Not related to language families like Ok, Asmat, Awyu-Dumut, Momuna, or highlands language families like Dani or Mek. Lexical similarity: 55% with Awbono [awh]. Classification: Bayono-Awbono.

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Bedoanas
[bed] Papua Barat Province, Fakfak regency, Kokas subdistrict, Bomberai peninsula. 180 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Behoa
[bep] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Poso regency, Lore Utara subdistrict, 8 villages. Most speakers in Behoa valley, northwest of Lake Mantana, some in Napu valley. 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ako, Besoa. Dialects: None known. Geographically, politically, culturally, and lexically distinct from Bada [bhz] and Napu [npy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Beneraf
[bnv] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, north coast area east of Tor river mouth, Beneraf and part of Nenke village. 200 (2005 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Boneraf, Bonerif, Edwas. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Edwas may be the name preferred by the people. Christian, traditional religion.

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Benggoi
[bgy] Maluku Province, Benggoi, Balakeo, and Lesa villages. Seram island, Werinama and Bula districts, north Seram Sea coast. 350 (1989 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bengoi, Isal, Kobi-Benggoi, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei-Kaclakin, Uhei-Kahlakim. Dialects: Lesa, Benggoi, Balakeo. Lexical similarity: 70% with dialects; 54%–66% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Salas Gunung dialect [sgu], 32%–46% with Sou Upaa [wha]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Bengkala Sign Language
[bqy] Java and Bali provinces, Bali island, Buleleng regency, Bengkala village. 41 (2007 SIL). More than 1,200 Kata Kolok signers; about 50 of them are deaf (2011 C. de Vos). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Benkala Sign Language, Kata Kolok. Classification: Sign language. Comments: In the linguistic literature the language is referred to as Kata Kolok which means ‘deaf language’ in Balinese [ban].

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Bentong
[bnu] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Maros, Bone, Pangkep, and Barru regencies, highland areas northeast of Makassar city. 25,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bentong-Dentong, Dentong. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Konjo [kjc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: ‘Bentong’ and ‘Dentong’ are Bugis [bug] and Makasarese [mak] exonyms meaning ‘nonfluent’, but the names do not have negative connotations to speakers themselves. Muslim, Christian.

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Benyadu’
[byd] Kalimantan Barat Province, Landak and Bengkayang regencies. Northwest near Sarawak border. 54,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balantian, Balantiang, Njadu, Nyadu. Dialects: Pandu, Nyadu (Balantian, Balantiang, Njadu). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak.

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Berik
[bkl] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Tor Atas subdistrict, north coast area along mid and upper Tor river, inland from Sarmi peninsula. Bora Bora, Waf, Doronta, Beu, Togonfo, Dangken, Kondirjan, Somanente, Tenwer, Sewan, Safrontani, and Taminambor villages. 1,200 (1994 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berick, Berrik, Sewan Teteris, Upper Tor. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 45% with Keijar [kdy], 13% with Orya [ury]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Formerly the trade language of Tor area. Christian, traditional religion.

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Betaf
[bfe] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, north coast area east of Sarmi. 600 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tena, Ten’a. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Betawi
[bew] Java island, Jawa Barat Province, Bogar, Bekasi, and Karawang regencies including Depok and Bekasi cities; Banten Province, from Tangerang recency and city; dominant in Jakarta special capital territory. 5,000,000 (2000 census). Population count imprecise due to vague ethnic and linguistic definition of ‘Betawi’. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Batavi, Batawi, Betawi Malay, Jakarta Malay, Melayu Betawi, Melayu Jakarte. Dialects: None known. A Malay-based creole distinct from both Indonesian [ind] and other Malay-based pidgins and creoles. It evolved mid-19th century. Unique phonological, morphological, and lexical traits. Influences from Peranakan Indonesian [pea] and Bali [ban]. Often not intelligible to Indonesian speakers not familiar with it (1989 R. Allen). Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Muslim.

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Biak
[bhw] Numerous island communities, east, north, and west of Bird’s Head, Papua Province, Biak Numfor regency, Biak and Numfor islands north, Yapen Island regency, north coast area east of Cape Jobi; Papua Barat Province, including the Mapia islands, 320 kms north of Cape Saweba, Raja Ampat regency, Bantanta and south Waigeo islands northwest of Sorong city. 30,000 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Biak-Numfor, Mafoor, Mafoorsch, Mefoor, Myfoorsch, Noefoor, Noefoorsch, Nufoor. Dialects: Ariom, Bo’o, Dwar, Fairi, Jenures, Korim, Mandusir, Mofu, Opif, Padoa, Penasifu, Samberi, Sampori (Mokmer), Sor, Sorendidori, Sundei, Wari, Wadibu, Sorido, Bosnik, Korido, Warsa, Wardo, Kamer, Mapia, Mios Num, Rumberpon, Monoarfu, Yobi (Jobi). Some consider Biak and Numfor dialect 2 languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Bidayuh, Biatah
[bth] Kalimantan Barat Province, Sanggau regency, area east of Suruh village, near Sarawak border; possibly into northeast Landak regency. 8,480 in Indonesia (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Biatah, Bideyu, Landu, Lundu, Pueh, Siburan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central. Comments: May be distinct from Biatah [bth] of Sarawak. Christian, traditional religion.

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Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong
[sdo] Kalimantan Barat Province, Sanggau and Sintang regencies. Mount Cemaru, near Sarawak border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sabutan, Sadong, Serian, Tebakang. Dialects: Bukar Sadong, Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayah, Bidayuh). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern.

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Biga
[bhc] Papua Barat Province, Sorong district, Biga village; south of Misool island. 300 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat.

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Bilba
[bpz] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, northeast end of Rote island, west of Rikou; communities on Semau island and Timor mainland near Kupang. 7,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Belubaa, Bilbaa, Eastern Rote, Rote, Rote Timur, Roti, Rotinese. Dialects: Bilba, Diu, Lelenuk. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian.

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Bima
[bhp] Nusa Tenggara Barat Province; eastern third of Sumbawa island, east of the isthmus; northeast, Sangeang and Banta islands; Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Komodo island area. 500,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bimanese. Dialects: Kolo, Sangar (Sanggar), Toloweri, Bima, Mbojo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Muslim.

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Bintauna
[bne] Celebes Sea, Sulawesi Utara Province, coastal Bintauna town and inland, Bolaang Mongondou Utara regency. 11,200 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bintaoena, Bintawoena, Bitaoena. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Biritai
[bqq] Papua Province, Puncakjaya district, Biri village. North of mid-Rouffaer river. 250 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aliki, Ati, Biri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Obokuitai [afz], 61% with Eritai [ert], 60% with Kwerisa [kkb], 69% with Kaiy [tcq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Blagar
[beu] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, East Pantar, north Pura, and south Ternate islands. 11,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Belagar, Kaera, Pura, Tarang. Dialects: Apuri, Limarahing, Bakalang, Pura. Retta [ret], spoken on south Pura and nearby islands, is a separate language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Boano
[bzl] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Parigi Moutong subdistrict, north peninsula, south coast, facing gulf of Tomini: Bolano village. 2,700 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boan-diks, Bolano. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 83% with Totoli [txe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli. Comments: Different from Boano [bzn] in Maluku. Muslim.

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Boano
[bzn] Maluku Province, North Buano main village. Boano island, facing northwest point, Seram island. 3,240 (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buano. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal. Comments: Different from Boano [bzl] in Sulawesi.

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Bobongko
[bgb] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Togian islands, Lembanato village on Kilat bay, north side of Togian island, and Tumbulawa village, northwest coast of Batu Daka island. 1,500 (Mead 2001). 1,100 in Lembanato and 400 in Tumbulawa. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Different from Andio [bzb]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Saluan [loe], 44% with Andio [bzb], and 30% with Gorontalo [gor], 25%–30% with Gorontalo-Mongondow languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic. Comments: Bobongko is not derogatory to its speakers, but it is to the Andio [bzb]. Muslim, Christian.

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Bobot
[bty] Maluku Province, Seram Bagian Timur regency, Werinama district, southeast from Atiahu village to Kota Baru, also Tunsai village in Liana area. 4,500 (1989 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ahtiago, Atiahu, Hatumeten, Ntau, Werinama. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Sepa [spb] and Sou Nama [tlt], 42% with Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Bobot. Comments: Muslim.

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Bolango
[bld] Sulawesi Utara Province, Bolaang Mongondow Utara regency and Gorontalo Province, Gorontalo Utara regency, northeast coast, Atinggola town area; south coast of peninsula, Sulawesi Utara Province, Bolaang Mongondow Selantan regency, Molibagu area. 23,000 (Sneddon and Usup 1986). Atinggola 16,000, Bolango 7,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atinggola-Bolango, Bolaang Uki, Bolang-Banka, Bulanga, Bulanga-Uki. Dialects: Bolango (Uki), Atinggola (Andagile, Attingola, Diu, Kattinggola). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Distinct from Gorontalo [gor] (1974 J. Little). Muslim.

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Bolongan
[blj] Kalimantan Timur Province, Tanjungselor town area, lower Kayan river. 30,000 (Kawi et al 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bulungan. Dialects: May be a dialect of Southern Tidung [itd] or Segai [sge]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bonerate
[bna] Sulawesi Selatan Province. Selayer island group; Bonerate, Madu, Kalaotoa, and Karompa islands. 9,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Bonerate, Karompa. Lexical similarity: 79%–81% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 31% with Kalao [kly], 25% with Laiyolo [lji]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate. Comments: Muslim.

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Bonggo
[bpg] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Bonggo subdistrict. 790 (2006 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Armopa, Bgu, Bogu, Bongo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Bgu may be the name preferred by the people. Christian, traditional religion.

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Budong-Budong
[bdx] Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong subdistrict; Makassar strait, Budong-Budong river area, Tongkou village. 70 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bubudong, Tangkou, Tongkou. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Aralle-Tabulahan [atq] and Ulumandak [ulm]. Lexical similarity: 56% with Mamuju [mqx] and Seko Padang [skx], 61% with Seko Tengah [sko], 72% with Panasuan [psn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan. Comments: Muslim.

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Bugis
[bug] Sulawesi island, widespread in Sulawesi Selatan Province, peninsular interior (except for area south and east of Makassar city) eastward through to head of Bone bay, contiguous coastal area; scattered communities generally on various coasts and interior enclaves in other provinces, including Sulawesi Tenggara Province, interior near Sulawesi Tenggara, Lake Towuti, along east coast of Bone bay, 3 enclaves, Kasiputih area facing Muna island; Sulawesi Tengah Province, west side, areas at Oti, Toaya, and Donggola; east side, 3 enclaves on Tolo bay; Sulawesi Barat Province, Mandar bay, 2 more enclaves (More, Pasangkayu) along Makassar strait; possible other small concentrations in Kalimantan, Maluku, Papua, and Sumatra provinces. 5,000,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), increasing. L2 users: 500,000 in Indonesia. Total users in all countries: 5,517,800 (as L1: 5,017,800; as L2: 500,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Boegineesche, Boeginezen, Bugi, Buginese, De’, Rappang Buginese, Ugi. Dialects: Bone (Dua Boccoe, Mare, Palakka), Pangkep (Pangkajene), Camba, Sidrap (Alitta, Pinrang Utara, Sidenrang), Pasangkayu (Ugi Riawa), Sinjai (Bulukumba, Enna, Palattae), Soppeng (Kessi), Wajo, Barru (Nepo, Pare-Pare, Soppeng Riaja, Tanete, Tompo), Sawitto (Pinrang), Luwu (Bua Ponrang, Luwu’, Malangke-Ussu, Wara). Bone and Soppeng dialects are central. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis. Comments: Muslim.

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Bukat
[bvk] Kalimantan Barat Province, northeast near Sarawak border, Kapuas river, southeast of Mendalam. 3 areas. 400 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’.

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Bukitan
[bkn] Sarawak border, Kalimantan Utara Province, Malinau regency, 2 enclaves on Iwan river. 570 in Indonesia (2000). Total users in all countries: 860. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan. Dialects: Punan Ukit, Punan Busang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang. Comments: Christian.

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Buli
[bzq] Maluku Utara Province, 3 villages. Central Halmahera, Buli bay, north shore. 2,520 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Buli, Wayamli (Jawanli, Wajamli). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast. Comments: Several communities of over 100 dwellings. Muslim, Christian.

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Bunak
[bfn] Timor island, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Belu regency, central interior, north of Taroman mountain, near border with Timor Leste. 21,000 in Indonesia (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buna’, Bunake, Bunaq, Gae’, Marae. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Timor. Comments: Small groups scattered among other languages. Traditional religion.

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Bungku
[bkz] Banda Sea, Sulawesi Tengah Province, Bungku Utara, Bungku Tengah, and Bungku Selatan subdistricts, along coast from Mondeodo south to Kenduri area, around 45 villages; northern Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Konawe regency, Asera, Soropia, and Lasolo subdistricts; Tulambatu and Kenduri areas inland; interior enclave southeast of Lake Poso. 27,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ikinyikiusa, Nahina, Tamboeko, Tambuku, Tobuco. Dialects: Bungku, Routa, Tulambatu, Torete (To Rete), Landawe, Waia. Lexical similarity: 81% with Torete, Waia, Tulambatu, and Landawe dialects; 38% with Pamona dialects [pmf]; 88% with Landawe dialect; 84% with Waia dialect; 82% with Torete dialect; 74% with Wawonii [wow]; 66% with Taloki [tlk], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]; 54% with the Mori and Tolaki groups; 82% with the Routa dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Buol
[blf] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Paleleh, Bunobogu, Bokat, Momunu, Biau, and Baolan subdistricts, 68 villages; north coast, near Gorontalo Province border. 96,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bual, Bwool, Bwo’ol, Dia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Totoli [txe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Burate
[bti] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah subdistrict, near Wapoga river mouth: 1 village.. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Demisa [dei], 75% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Burmeso
[bzu] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict,1 village. Middle Mamberamo river, northeast of Lake Holmes. 250 (Donohue 1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boromeso, Borumesso, Burumeso, Manau, Monao, Monau, Taurap. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: less than 5% with other languages. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Burmeso. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Buru
[mhs] Maluku Province, all of Buru island, except northeast corner, 70 villages. Some on Ambon island, in Jakarta. 45,000 in Indonesia (Grimes 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boeroe, Buruese. Dialects: Masarete (South Buru), Wae Sama (Waesama), Central Buru (Rana, Wae Geren, Wae Kabo), Fogi (Li Emteban, Tomahu). Li Garan is a special taboo dialect spoken by the Rana people (3,000 to 5,000 users). Ethnic population Fogi dialect: 500, but no remaining speakers. Lexical similarity: 90% between Masarete and Wae Sama dialects, 88% between Masarete and Rana, 80% between Wae Sama and Rana, 68% between Lisela [lcl] and Masarete, 48% between Leliali dialect of Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 45% between Kayeli [kzl] and Masarete, 44% between Ambelau [amv] and Masarete, 27%–33% between Buru dialects and Sula [szn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru. Comments: There are word taboos and complex intermarriage patterns on the island. Exogamous. 10 clans. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Burumakok
[aip] Papua Province, Pegunungan Bintang regency, Kurima subdistrict, south of Jayapura, Burumakok village. 40 (1994 R. Kroneman). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western.

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Burusu
[bqr] Kalimantan Timur Province, Bulungan regency, Sesayap subdistrict, Sekatakbunyi town area, west of Kayan river delta. 4,350 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berusuh, Bulusu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau.

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Buruwai
[asi] Papua Barat Province, Fakfak and Kaimana regencies, south Bomberai peninsula, Kamrau bay southwest: Yarona, Kuna, Esania, Marobia, Guriasa, Tairi, Hia, and Gaka villages.. 1,000 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Asianara, Asienara, Karufa, Madidwana, Sabakor, Sebakoor. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kamberau [irx]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sabakor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Busami
[bsm] Papua Province, Yapen Waropen regency, Yapen Barat and Yapen Selatan subdistricts, south and north coast, Yapen island, Kamanap, Masiaroti, and Kaonda villages. 700 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: 3 dialects. Lexical similarity: 71% with Ansus [and], 63% with Serui-Laut [seu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Busoa
[bup] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Buton regency, Batauga subdistrict, Busoa and Laompo villages; southwest tip, Buton island, Flores sea. 2,300 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bosoa. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 84% with Kambe-Kambero (probably a dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]), 70%–79% with Muna dialects, 71% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Lantoi [zka]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan. Comments: Muslim.

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Campalagian
[cml] Sulawesi Barat Province, Polewali Mandar regency. South coast, Mandar bay west of Madjene town. 30,000 (Strømme 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tallumpanuae, Tasing, Tjampalagian. Dialects: Campalagian, Buku. Lexical similarity: 50%–58% with Mandar [mdr], 50%–62% with Bugis [bug], 55% with Bugis Bone [bug], 62% with Bugis Pangkajene [bug], Bugis Sidrap [bug]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis. Comments: Muslim.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Widespread. Aceh, Bangka-Belitung, Java (5 provinces), Lampung, Maluku (Ambon island), Papua (Jayapura city), Riau islands (Batam island), North Sulawesi, South Suluwesi, North Sumatra, and South Sumatra. Also in West Kalimantan, Singkawang city; South Kalimantan, Banjarmasin city. 640,000 in Indonesia (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Scattered throughout Indonesia. 460,000 in Indonesia (1982), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Mandarin is sometimes taught in ‘National Plus’ schools with English and Indonesian.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Scattered throughout Java and Bali provinces. Few speakers. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Foochow, Hokchiu, Min Dong. Dialects: Xinghua (Hsinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Scattered throughout Sumatra, Java, Bali and Kalimantan provinces. 700,000 in Indonesia (1982). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Teochew (Chaochow, Tiu Chiu), Hokkien (Fujian). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Scattered in Jakarta Raya, Kalimantan, and Central Sumatra generally. 180,000 in Indonesia (1982). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Cia-Cia
[cia] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, extreme southeast tip, Flores sea; Buton island, area inland between Pasawajo and Membula towns; also Binongko and Batu Atas islands. 79,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boetoneezen, Buton, Butonese, Butung, South Buton, Southern Butung. Dialects: Kaesabu, Sampolawa (Mambulu-Laporo), Wabula, Masiri. Lexical similarity: 93% with Masiri dialect, 74% with Kambe-Kambero dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 69% with Busoa [bup], 67% with Lontoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka], 66% with Liabuku [lix], 61% with Wolio [wlo], 60% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, West Buton. Comments: Language name based on the negator, cia (no). Muslim.

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Citak
[txt] Papua Province, Mappi regency, Citak-Mitak subdistrict, south coast, east of the confluence of the Eilanden and Wilderman rivers, northeast of Senggo town: 19 villages. 8,000 (1985 M. Stringer). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asmat Darat, Cicak, Kaunak, Tjitak, Tjitjak. Dialects: Senggo, Komasma, Bubis, Esaun, Pirabanak, Vakam, Tiau. Reportedly similar to Asmat [cns]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Citak, Tamnim
[tml] Papua Province, Mappi,and Asmat regencies, Tamnim, Epem, Zinak, and Wowi villages. Senggo town area. 290 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asmat Darat, Tamnim. Dialects: None known. May be linguistically more similar to Asmat, but speakers want to be called Citak, not Asmat. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Asmat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Col
[liw] Sumatra, Sumatera Selatan and Bengkulu provinces, Lubuklinggau and Muaraklingi areas south, east, and north generally; very small enclave just east of Bengkulu city. 145,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cul, Sindang. Dialects: Lembak Delapan, Sindang Kelingi, Beliti, Lubuk Linggau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: The Lembak Delapan dialect of Col in Bengkulu is not to be confused with the Lembak subdialect of the Belide dialect of Musi [mui]. Muslim.

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Dabe
[dbe] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Dabe village, Tor river valley north to coast. 440 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dai
[dij] Maluku Province, Maluku Barat Daya regency, Lewa island, north of Babar island; Sinairusi, 3 other villages. 820 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: No dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 72% with Dawera-Daweloor (most similar) [ddw], 71% with Nakarahamto, 49% with Masela-South Babar, 48% with Tepa (Luang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North. Comments: Christian.

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Dakka
[dkk] Sulawesi Barat Province, Polewali-Mandar regency, Wonomulyo subdistrict, northwest of Matakali town. 1,500 (Strømme 1987). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 72%–77% with Pannei [pnc] and Bambam [ptu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Muslim.

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Damal
[uhn] Papua Province, central highlands, Paniai regency, Ilaga and Beoga subdistricts; also in Deiya, Mimika, Asmat, Puncak regencies, southeast of Kemandoga river source, north and south Carstens mountains; possibly in Lanny Jaya and Nduga regencies. 14,000 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amung, Amung Kal, Amungme, Amuy, Enggipiloe, Hamung, Oehoendoeni, Uhunduni. Dialects: Damal, Amung, Amongme, Enggipilu. Related to Ekari [ekg], Moni [mnz], and Wolani [wod]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Damal. Comments: Christian.

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Damar, East
[dmr] Maluku Province, southeast, 6 villages; northeast of Timor island, east of Roma island; Damar island, east side. 2,800 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: South Damar. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of West Damar [drn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, East Damar.

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Damar, West
[drn] Maluku Province, southeast, 2 villages; northeast of Timor island, east of Roma island; Damar island, north side. 800 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: North Damar. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of East Damar [dmr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, West Damar.

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Dampelas
[dms] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Donggala, Parigi-Moutong, and Toli-Toli regencies, Dampelas, Sojol, and Balaesang subdistricts, northwesternmost point, north peninsula, Makassar Strait: 8 villages. 2,000 (Wurm 2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 10,000 (Wurm 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dampelasa, Dian. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: Dampal dialect is extinct. Muslim.

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Dani, Lower Grand Valley
[dni] Papua Province, Ndugu regency, central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley; lower gorge. 20,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Grand Valley Dani. Dialects: Lower Grand Valley Hitigima (Dani-Kurima, Kurima), Upper Bele, Lower Bele, Lower Kimbin (Kibin), Upper Pyramid. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dani, Mid Grand Valley
[dnt] Papua Province, Ndugu and Lanny Jaya regencies, central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley. 50,000 (1990 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baliem Valley Dani, Central Grand Valley Dani, Tulem. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dani, Upper Grand Valley
[dna] Papua Province, Lanny Jaya regency, central highlands, Baliem Grand Valley; upper gorge. 20,000 (1996). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dani, Western
[dnw] Papua Province. Central highlands, west of Baliem Grand Valley, east from upper Kemandoga river valley. 180,000 (1993 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dani Barat, Ilaga Western Dani, Laany, Lani, Oeringoep, Timorini. Dialects: Western Dani of Pyramid, Western Dani of Bokondini. Lexical similarity: 65% with Obokuitai [afz], 60% with Wano [wno]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dao
[daz] Papua Province, Paniai regency, Napan subdistrict. West central highlands; east of Cenderawasih bay, along Dao river. 250 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maniwo, “X-Ray” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Auye [auu]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Dawera-Daweloor
[ddw] Maluku Province, Maluku Barat Daya regency, Banda Sea, twin coral islands northeast of Babar island, Daweloor island, to south, Wiratan, Watuwei, and Nurnyaman villages; Dawera island, to north, Welora, Letmasa, and Ilmarang villages. 1,270 (2007 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Davelor. Dialects: Minor dialect differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, North. Comments: Christian.

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Dela-Oenale
[row] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Rote island west coast, Dela and Oe Nale domains. 7,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dela, Delha, Oe Nale, Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Western Rote. Dialects: Dela (Delha), Oenale (Oe Nale). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dem
[dem] Papua Province. Western highlands; along Rouffaer river headwaters; north of Ilaga town. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lem, Ndem. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Dem. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Demisa
[dei] Papua Province, Waropen Bawah subdistrict, Desawa, Muyere, and Botawa villages. Inland, northeast Canderawasih bay, southeast of Waren town. 400 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Desawa. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Burate [bti], 64% with Kofei [kpi], 60% with Sauri [srt], 65% with Tunggare [trt], 64% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay, Bauzi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dengka
[dnk] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Rote island, northwest coast, from Ba’a town west to Tasilo bay near northwest corner of island. 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Western Rote. Dialects: Western Dengka, Eastern Dengka, Lelain. Western Dengka dialect has marked intonation; some occurrences of, ngg, in Eastern Dengka dialect become, nd, in Western Dengka. Some vocabulary of Western Dengka is like Dhao [nfa]. Dengka and Dela-Oenale [row] are more divergent from other languages on Rote. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dera
[kbv] Northeast Papua Province, Keerom regency, 13 villages. South of Jayapura town, on PNG border. 1,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,690. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dla, Dra, Kamberataro, Mangguar. Classification: Senagi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dhao
[nfa] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Rote Ndao regency, Ndao island off western tip of Rote island; other settlements scattered on Rote and Timor islands. 5,000 (1997 A. Ranoh). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dao, Kahore, Ndao, Ndaonese, Ndaundau. Dialects: None known. Related to Hawu [hvn]. Complex phonology. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Hawu-Dhao. Comments: Christian.

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Diebroud
[tbp] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Hulu subdistrict. Area south of Idenburg river, east of Taiyeve town. 300 (2006 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bok, Dabra, Taburta, Taria, Taworta, Taworta-Aero. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 35%–40% with Foau [flh]. Classification: Lakes Plain, East. Comments: Used as an inter-language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Dineor
[mrx] North coast, Papua Province, Sarmi regency; Walckenaer bay area near Toarim river mouth. 55 (2006 SIL), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Maremgi, Marengge. Dialects: None known. Unintelligible to speakers in neighboring settlements including Bonggo. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Diuwe
[diy] Papua Province, Asmat regency, southeast of Wamena city, east of Catalina river. 100 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Diuwe.

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Dobel
[kvo] Maluku Province, Kepulauan Aru regency; Aru islands, entire east coast of Kobror island, 1 village in southeast Wokam island, 4 villages eastern half of Barakai strait on Kobror and Koba islands, 2 villages in enclave south of Beding Warlai town, central Kobror island: 18 villages; many in Dobo, some in Ambon. 5,680 (2011 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Doibel, Kobroor, Kobro’or, Sersifar Tannin. Dialects: Northern Dobel, Straits Dobel, Southeast Dobel. At least 3 dialects. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Koba [kpd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Dondo
[dok] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Tolitoli and Buol regencies, Tolitoli Utara, Baolan, Dondo, Galang, and Dampal Utara subdistricts, at least 25 villages; Gorontalo Province, inland from Dondo bay, Pohuwato regency. 13,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern. Comments: Most of the hill Dondo interact socially with the Dondo coastal population which reinforces the use of Dondo in a variety of functions. Muslim.

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Doutai
[tds] Papua Province, Toli-Dou village. Area west and south of Taiyeve town. 70 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 340 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Taori, Taori-So, Tolitai. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Duano
[dup] Sumatra, Riau Province, west Riau archipelago and Riau Daratan east coast; into Jambi Province, northeast coast. 15,000 in Indonesia (2006 SIL). Ethnic population: Total ethnic population all countries: 19,000 (2006 E. Seidlitz). Total users in all countries: 15,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Duano’, Orang Kuala. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Duri
[mvp] Sulawesi Selatan Province, north Enrekang regency, northwest of Enrekang town, west of Sadang river; also in Makassar city and other communities in province. 127,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Masenrempulu, Massenrempulu. Dialects: Cakke-Kalosi, Baraka, Benteng Alla. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Duriankere
[dbn] Papua Barat Province; one island between Salawati island and the west end of Bird’s Head. 30 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 60. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Duriankari, Esaro, Sailen. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Inanwatan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Dusner
[dsn] Papua Barat Province, Teluk Wondama regency, west of Wondiwoi peninsula. No known L1 speakers. There were 6 elderly speakers in 1978 (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Dusnir. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dusun Deyah
[dun] Kalimantan Selatan Province, Tabalong river northeast of Bongkang town; also into Kalimantan Tengah Province. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Deah, Dejah. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53% with Lawangan [lbx], 52% with Tawoyan [twy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, Central.

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Dusun Malang
[duq] Kalimantan Tengah Province, North Barito regency, one area west of Muarainu town; a second, northeast of Muarateweh town; small border incursions into Kalimantan Timur Province, Kutai Barat regency. 4,500 (2003). 2,000 Bayan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Bayan, Dusun Malang. Lexical similarity: 90% with the 2 dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South.

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Dusun Witu
[duw] Kalimantan Tengah Province, South Barito regency, near Pendang and Buntokecil towns; south of Muarateweh town. 5,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Dusun Pepas, Dusun Witu. Lexical similarity: 75% with Ma’anyan [mhy], 73% with Paku [pku]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South.

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Duvle
[duv] Papua Province. Area south of Van Daalen river. Eastern dialect along Dagai river, western dialect along Fedide and Wedi rivers. 930 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duvde, Duve, Duvele, Duvre, Wiri. Dialects: Eastern Duvle, Western Duvle. Few dialect differences. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Duvle. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Edopi
[dbf] Papua Province, southwest Mamberamo Raya and north Puncak regencies; midstream area of Rouffaer river generally between Splitsingbivak and Motorbivak. 1,500 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dosobou, Dou, Doufou, Elopi, Foi, Iau, Turu, Urundi, Ururi, Yau. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ekari
[ekg] Papua Province, south Nabire, Dogiyai, Paniai, and Deiya regencies, some in Intan Jaya and north Mimika regencies; west central highlands, inland; Lake Paniai area; into south-southwest Papua Barat Province, Kaimana regency. 100,000 (1985 M. Doble). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ekagi, Kapauku, Me, Me Mana, Mee Mana, Tapiro. Dialects: Simori, Yabi (Jabi), Mapiya-Kegata, Mee. Reportedly most similar to Wolani [wod]. Slight dialect difference with Mapiya-Kegata. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Christian.

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Elseng
[mrf] Papua Province, Jayapura and Keerom regencies, Arso, Abepura, Kemtuk Gresi, and Senggi subdistricts, south of Jayapura city, Lake Sentani area, south, southwest. 300 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djanggu, Janggu, “Morwap” (pej.), Sawa, Tabu. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Almost no outside influence. ‘Morwap’ is vigorously rejected as a language name by speakers and government officials. Christian, traditional religion.

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Embaloh
[emb] Kalimantan Barat Province, northeast Kapuas Hulu regency, upper Kapuas river, Embaloh, Leboyan, Lauh, Palin, Nyabau, and Kalis tributaries; smaller area south of the Kapuas, the Mandai river and Batutenobong. 10,000 (1991 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malo, Maloh, Matoh, Mbaloh, Memaloh, Palin, Pari, Sangau, Sanggau. Dialects: Kalis (Kalis Dayak, Kalis Maloh). Kalis may be a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis, Tamanic. Comments: Complex mix of ethnic groups: Taman of upper Kapuas River, Suai, Taman Mendalem, Taman Sibau, Palin, Lauk, Leboyan, Kalis Dayak. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Emem
[enr] Papua Province, Keerom and Pegunungan Bintang regencies, border area south of Jayapura city. 2,000 (2005 SIL). Some elderly monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Emumu, Imimkal, Kiamerop. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 25% with Yafi [wfg]. Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Emplawas
[emw] Maluku Province, Maluku Barat Daya regency, Emplawas village, Babar island, southern tip. 250 (2007 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Ende
[end] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; south central Flores island. 110,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Endeh. Dialects: Ende (Djau, Endeh, Ja’o), Nga’o (Ngao, West Ende). Some consider Li’o [ljl] to be a dialect of Ende. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Enggano
[eno] Sumatra island, Bengkulu Province, Enggano island, southwest of mainland; 4 smaller nearby islands. 1,500 (2000 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Engganese. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Not conclusively established as an Austronesian language, rather than an isolate with Austronesian loans. Christian, Muslim.

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Enrekang
[ptt] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Enrekang and Pinrang regencies; Enrekang town area, west toward head of Mandar bay; into coastal area, Sulawesi Barat Province, Polewali Mandar regency. 50,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Endekan, Endekan Timur. Dialects: Enrekang, Ranga, Pattinjo (Letta-Batulappa-Kassa). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Eritai
[ert] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Mamberamo Tengah and Mamberamo Hulu subdistricts, Erai, Kustera, and Haya villages, northwest of confluence of Mamberamo and Rouffaer rivers; area in low mountains, around Kustera airstrip. 530 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aliki, Babiruwa, Babrua, Babruwa, Baburiwa, Barua, Editode Edai, Erai, Eri, Haya. Dialects: The dialect in Obogwi village is reportedly similar but not the same. Lexical similarity: 76% with Obokuitai [afz], 86% with Sikaritai [tty]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Erokwanas
[erw] Bomberai peninsula, Papua Barat Province, Fakfak regency; on Berau bay, southeast of Goras. 200 (Wurm 2000). Probably fewer than 200 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Darembang. Subgroup Darembang may better be considered a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Bomberai. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Fayu
[fau] Papua Province. Kliki river area, west of its juncture with Tariku river; northwest towards Cenderawasik bay. 1,400 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iyarike, Sefoiri, Sehudate, Tearu, Tikere. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West. Comments: 5 nomadic groups: Tearu, Iyarike, Tikere, Sefoiri, and Sehudate. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Fedan
[pdn] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Bonggo subdistrict, coastline and island off north coast of Biri river area. 280 (2005 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Fandanus, Podena. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Anus [auq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi.

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Foau
[flh] Papua Province, Mamberamo Raya and Jayapura regencies, Kecamatan subdistrict, 1 village. Mamberamo basin region, bordering on the southwestern edge of the Foja Mountains, on the Dijai river, north of Mamberamo river. 350 (2010 SIL), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Abawiri, Doa, Fuau. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 35%–49% with Diebroud [tbp]. Classification: Lakes Plain, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Fordata
[frd] Maluku Province, southeast, 30 villages; North Tanimbar islands, Fordata, Larat, and Molu-Maru groups; northwest, Yamdena island west coast, Seira island; also Jakarta, other cities. 50,000 (Marshall 2000). 25,000 in the language area and 25,000 elsewhere (Marshall 2000). Decreasing use in mixed language towns. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Larat, Vai Fordata, Vai Sera-Larat-Fordata, Vai Tnebar, Vaidida. Dialects: Fordata-Larat I, Fordata-Larat II, Molo (Molo-Maru), Sera (Seira). Sera is most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kei [kei]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata. Comments: Primary schools in nearly every village, secondary schools for every 3 or 4 villages. Christian, Muslim.

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Galela
[gbi] Maluku Utara Province, Halmahera island; Pulau Morotai regency, 2 islands, Rau and Morotai island except for coastal areas east and southwest of Mount Baratai; Halmahera Utara regency, Galela bay, north to northern tip of island, scattered communities east of Galela town; Halmahera Selatan regency, Bacan and nearby islands, Obit, Kasiratua, and Mandioli, coastal areas inland; Bisa island, Koto Wonto area, and Obi island: 2 north coast enclaves around Laiwai and Sesepe, and 2 south coast Woi Lower and Wui. 79,000 (1990 SIL). 41,000 Kadai, 10,000 Kadina, 24,000 Morotai, and 4,000 Sopi. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Kadai, Kadina, Morotai, Sopi. Laba [lau] may be a dialect. 65% intelligibility of Loloda [loa], Loloda 85% of Galela. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Galolen
[gal] Southwest, Maluku Province, Wetar island, Maluku Barat Daya regency, Iliwaki village. 680 in Indonesia (1990 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Galoleng, Iliwaki, Ilmedu, Ilwaki, Lir Talo. Dialects: Ilputih, Ilwaki (Iliwaki), Hiay. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Immigrants from Kisar learned Galolen. Christian.

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Gamkonora
[gak] Maluku Utara Province, a few coastal villages. North Halmahera island, northwest coast, from Baru town inland. 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Waioli [wli]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Gane
[gzn] Maluku Utara Province; Halmahera island, southernmost peninsula. 2,900 (1982 D. Teljeur). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gani, Giman. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Kayoa, a dialect of East Makian [mky]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane. Comments: Muslim.

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Gayo
[gay] Aceh Province, Central Aceh, East Aceh, Gayo Lues, and Southeast Aceh regencies. North Sumatra highland region near Mount Sembuang. 300,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gajo. Dialects: Deret, Serbejadi-Lukup, Lut, Lues. Not closely related to other languages. Some Gayo people consider Alas [btz] a distant Gayo dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Gebe
[gei] Maluku Utara Province, Gebe, Yoi’umiya, and Gag islands between Halmahera’s southeastern peninsula and Waigeo island: 4 villages; Papua Barat Province, Halmahera island. 2,650 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gebi. Dialects: Umera. Lexical similarity: 44% with Patani [ptn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: A school in each village. Muslim.

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Geser-Gorom
[ges] Maluku Province, Seram island, southeast tip, nearby Gorom islands. 36,500 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gesa, Geser, Goram, Goran, Gorom, Gorong, Seram, Seran, Seran Laut. Dialects: Goram Laut, Mina Mina Gorong, Kelimuri. Lexical similarity: 73%–93% among dialects, 51%–61% with Watubela [wah]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom. Comments: Muslim.

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Gorap
[goq] Maluku Utara Province, enclaves on both sides of Morotai strait, Pulau Morotai regency, Morotai island, Pilowo and Waringin villages; Halmahera Utara regency, Bobane and Igo villages. 1,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. A mixed language, with Ternate [tft] and Malay [max] words and different word order from other languages of north Halmahera or Austronesian languages. Lexical similarity: 85% with Indonesian [ind], but comprehension is limited. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified. Comments: Consider Sulawesi their ancestral homeland.

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Gorontalo
[gor] Gorontalo Province, widespread along both coasts, Sulawesi sea north, and Maluku sea south; Sulawesi Utara Province, incursion into Bolaang Mongondon Utare regency, northeast from Gorontalo city. 1,000,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gorongtalo, Guarantala, Gunongtello, Holontalo, Hulontalo. Dialects: East Gorontalo, Gorontalo Kota, West Gorontalo (Kwandang), Tilamuta, Limboto (Limbotto). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Gresi
[grs] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, west of Lake Sentani, southwest of Genyem town, Hawa, Bring, Tabangkwari, Yansu, Ibub, Sunna, and Klaysu villages. 2,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Geresi, Glesi, Gresik, Klesi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Haji
[hji] Sumatra island, Sumatera Selatan Province, 2 enclaves, Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan regency. 17,500 (2000 census). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aji. Dialects: None known. Genetically Malay with approximately one-third Lampung vocabulary. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Hamap
[hmu] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Alor island, east Kalabahi bay, around Moru town, 2 villages; area surrounds Kui [kvd] language area. 900 Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Said to be intelligible with Adang [adn], but Adang speakers live on Bird’s Head area of Alor, while Hamap speakers live geographically separated from Adang speakers, across the bay. Structural and lexical differences with Adang. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: Separate sociopolitical history from Adang. Christian.

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Haruku
[hrk] Maluku Province. Haruku island, including Lease islands; between Ambon and Seram islands. 18,200 (1989 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Hulaliu, Pelauw, Kailolo, Rohomoni, Kabauw. Each village uses a separate dialect. Lexical similarity: 81%–92% among dialects, 74%–76% with Tulehu [tlu], 67%–71% with Saparua [spr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Hatam
[had] Papua Barat Province, Manokwari regency. 16,000 (1993 TEAM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adihup, Atam, Borai, Hattam, Mansim, Miriei, Moi, Tinam, Uran. Dialects: Moi (Moire), Tinam, Miriei, Adihup, Uran. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Hawu
[hvn] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Sawu and Raijua islands; 3 enclaves, 2 on Sumba island, Waingapu and Melolo areas; south central Flores island, Ende area. Others in Kupang city, Timor island. 110,000 (1997). About 30,000 outside Sabu Island. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Havunese, Sabu, Savu, Savunese, Sawu, Sawunese. Dialects: Seba (Heba), Timu (Dimu), Liae, Mesara (Mehara), Raijua (Raidjua). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Hawu-Dhao. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Helong
[heg] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Semau island off of Timor island, western tip of Timor, and Kupang city; interspersed with Amarasi [aaz] and other languages. 14,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Ethnic population: 18,000 (2015 S. Cameron). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Helon, Kupang, Semau. Dialects: Helong Pulau (Island Helong, Semau), Helong Darat (Bolok), Funai (Land Helong). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Christian.

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Hitu
[htu] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency: Wakal, Hitu, Mamala, Morela, and Hila villages, Northeast Ambon island, Piru Sea coast, Hitu peninsula. 16,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Wakal, Morela, Mamala, Hitu, Hila. Lexical similarity: 67%–82% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 74%–82% with Tulehu [tlu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Hoti
[hti] Maluku Province, East Seram island. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). 10 elderly speakers in 1987, but now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, East Seram.

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Hovongan
[hov] Kalimantan Barat (Kapuas Hulu regency) and Kalimantan Timur provinces; border area, far northeast corner near Sarawak. 1,000 (1991 NTM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Punan Bungan. Dialects: Hovongan, Penyavung, Semukung Uheng. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kereho [xke], 67% with Aoheng [pni]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Huaulu
[hud] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, North Seram island, Salemen bay, south end near Opin town: 10 villages. 300 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alakamat, Bahasa Asli. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 64%–72% with Sou Upaa [wha] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Culturally distinct from Sou Upaa. Traditional religion.

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Hukumina
[huw] Maluku Province, central area, northwest Buru island, Hukumina, Palumata, and Tomahu districts. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Balamata, Bambaa, Palamata, Palumata. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Hukumina.

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Hulung
[huk] Maluku Province, Seram Bagian Barat regency, west Seram island, Hulung village. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Spoken by fewer than 10 speakers in 1991, but now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Naka’ela [nae], 63% with Alune [alp], 59% with Wemale [weo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Hulung.

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Hupla
[hap] Papua Province. Central highlands area, Baliem gorge, east. 3,000 (1982 WT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Soba. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lower Grand Valley Dani [dni]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Iau
[tmu] Papua Province. Puncak Jaya regency, Barere, Fawi, and Taiyai villages. Area between Rouffaer, upper Van Daalen rivers. Dialects: Poi on Rouffaer river; Turu on Van Daalen river. 600 (2000 J. Bateman), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foi, Iaw, Turu, Urundi, Ururi, Yau. Dialects: Foi, Turu, Iau. Reportedly similar to Edopi [dbf]. Distinct from Yawa [yva]. Varieties listed as dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, Central. Comments: Christian.

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Iban
[iba] Kalimantan Barat Province, Kapuas Hulu regency, middle Kapuas river, north bank; from Nanga Katungau north to Sarawak border, from east of Mount Betung to Udjungumbut area, west to Sebangkung town; separate enclave, Sintang regency, lower Kapuas south bank. 15,000 in Indonesia (Benjamin and Chou 2003). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Sea Dayak. Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau, Kantu’, Ketungau (Air Tabun, Banjur, Demam, Maung, Sebaru’, Sekapat, Seklau, Sesat, Sigarau), Desa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ibu
[ibu] Maluku Utara Province, Halmahera Barat regency, north Halmahera island, Iboe river mouth, Gamlamo and Gamici villages. 35 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). In 1987, there were a few elderly speakers but it is now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 50 (1984). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. May be inherently intelligible with Sahu [saj]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu.

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Iha
[ihp] Papua Barat Province, Fakfak regency; Kaimana, Fakfak, and Kokas subdistricts. West Bomberai peninsula. 5,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kapaur. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Baham [bdw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, West Bomberai Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Iha Based Pidgin
[ihb] Papua Barat Province, Fak Fak regency, Bomberai peninsula, south coast facing Panjang island, Fak Fak Selantan area. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin, Iha based. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Ile Ape
[ila] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Lembata regency, north Lomblem island, Ile Ape peninsula and nearby island interior. 15,000 (2008 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nusa Tadon. Dialects: North Ile Ape, South Ile Ape. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Ili’uun
[ilu] Maluku Province, southwest, Telemar, Karbubu, Klishatu, Ilmaumau, Erai, Nabar, Esulit, and Istutun villages; Wetar island west coast, southwest tip; nearby Lirang island. 1,400 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Erai, Hahutan, Hahutau, Iliun, Ilmaumau, Limera. Dialects: Telemar, Karbubu, Ustutun, Klishatu, Ilmaumau, Eray, Nabar, Esulit. All also use the Ili’uun dialect. Lexical similarity: 93%–97% among dialects, 73% with Tugun [tzn], 69% with Aputai [apx], 67% with Perai [wet], 51% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar. Comments: Christian.

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Imroing
[imr] Maluku Province, Maluku Barat Daya regency, Emroing village; Babar island, southwest. 560 (2007 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Imroin. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Indonesian
[ind] Widespread. 22,800,000 in Indonesia (2000), increasing. L2 users: 175,000,000 in Indonesia (2010 census). Total users in all countries: 198,208,380 (as L1: 23,208,380; as L2: 175,000,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1945, Constitution, Article 36). Alternate Names: Bahasa Indonesia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: over 80% with Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Developed from literary ‘Classical Malay’ of the Riau-Johor sultanate (Sneddon 2003). Has regional variants. Muslim.

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Indonesian Sign Language
[inl] Scattered, Java and Bali. 8,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language. Comments: A blend of Malaysian Sign Language [xml] and indigenous signs.

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Indonesian, Peranakan
[pea] Scattered, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, and Jawa Timur provinces; north coastline area towards Pamanukan town; also in Yogyakarta province. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baba Indonesian, Chinese Indonesian, Peranakan. Dialects: None known. Based on Indonesian [ind] and Javanese [jav], with Mandarin [cmn] elements in contrast to Baba Malay [mbf], which has Hokkien (Chinese, Min Nan [nan]) elements. Classification: Creole, Malay based.

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Irarutu
[irh] Papua Barat Province, mainly Fakfak, Teluk Bintani, and north Kaimana regencies, East Bomberai peninsula; Arguni bay north to Bintuni bay southwest: 44 villages. 4,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arguni Bay, Irahutu, Irutu, Kaitero, Kasira. Dialects: 6 or 7 dialects. Lexical similarity: 90% with Kuri [nbn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Isirawa
[srl] Papua Province, Jayapura, north coast, Sarmi regency: Mararena, Kamenawari, Amsira, Siaratesa, Perkami, Martewar, Arsania, Nisero, Arabais, Webro, Wari, Nuerawar, and Waim villages. 1,800 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Okwasar, Saberi, Saweri. Dialects: Western Isirawa, Eastern Isirawa. Reportedly similar to Kwerba [kwe]. Dialects very similar. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Isirawa. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Itik
[itx] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, north coast east of Tor river, along upper Biri river. 80 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Betef, Borto, Ittik, Ittik-Tor. Dialects: Ittik, Ittik-Tor. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Survey data from 2005 indicates this language may no longer exist or speakers moved to another location. Christian, traditional religion.

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Jangkang
[djo] Kalimantan Barat Province, Central Sanggau regency. Between Sanggau and Balai Sebut towns along tributary of Kapuas river. 37,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Jangkang proper, Pompang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern.

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Javanese
[jav] Widespread throughout Indonesia; mainly in Jawa Tengah, Yogyakarta, Jawa Timur, and Lampung provinces; scattered enclaves on Sumatra island and resettlements in Papua, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Kalimantan. 84,300,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 25,000 in south Sulawesi, and 69,000,000 on Java, 500,000 of them being in Banten region and 2,500,000 in Cirebon region of Java. Total users in all countries: 84,308,740. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in central and eastern Java. Alternate Names: Djawa, Jawa. Dialects: Cirebon (Cheribon, Tjirebon), Tegal, Indramayu, Surakarta (Sawlaw, Solo), Tembung, Pasisir, Surabaya, Malang-Pasuruan, Banten, Manuk, Banyumas. High Javanese (Jawa Halus) is the language of religion, but users diminishing and mostly limited to Central Javanese speakers. Javanese varieties in Suriname and in New Caledonia now only partially intelligible with difficulty. Javanese in New Caledonia reportedly cannot use High Javanese (Koentjaraningrat 1971). Several dialects in Sabah. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Christian.

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Javindo
[jvd] Java island, Jawa Tengah Province, southern area. No known L1 speakers. May be a few L2 speakers and even a very few L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: “Krontjong” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Derived from Dutch [nld] lexicon and Javanese [jav] grammar. Classification: Creole, Dutch based.

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Jofotek-Bromnya
[jbr] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Biridua village, Bonggo subdistrict, Srum village; Jofotek spoken in Biridua, Bromnya in Srum. 200 (2007), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Jofotek, Bromnya. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kabola
[klz] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; northwest Alor island, eastern half, Bird’s Head, north of Kalabahi town. 3,900 (1995 N. Johnston). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Pintumbang, Tang’ala, Meibuil, Otvai, Kebun Kopi. Dialect names and locations in Wurm and Hattori (1981) are disputed by native speakers. May be more than 1 language. Based on linguistic differences and social identity, best considered a separate language from Adang [adn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Kaburi
[uka] Papua Barat Province, Sorong Selatan and Teluk Bintuni regencies, Merdei and Inanwatan subdistricts; south Bird’s Head, inland north of Maccluer bay, west bank lower Kamundan river. 600 (1986 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kadai
[kzd] Maluku Utara Province, Kepulauan Sula regency, Sula Islands; Molucca sea coast, Tjapaplulu strait area, Taliabu island, two eastern coastal enclaves, western Mangole island coastal stretch east from Dofa, also two small offshore islands. 350 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Taliabu [tlv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo. Comments: The government wants to resettle them along the coast. Traditional religion.

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Kaera
[jka] Nusa Tenggara Timur: Northeastern coast of Pantar, Abangiwang, Padangsul, Bibit Gomi, Matgomi/Weniwa, Tamalabang villages. 5,500 (2014 M. Kramer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Teiwa [twe]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Kafoa
[kpu] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; southwest Alor island, enclave north of Aluben town. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aikoli, Fanating, Jafoo, Pailelang, Ruilak. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: The name Kafoa is not known locally.

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Kaibobo
[kzb] Maluku Province, Seram Bagian Barat regency, Kairatu district, Kaibobo, Hatusua, Waisamu, Kamarian, Seruawan, and Tihulale villages; west Seram island, north Piru bay area, both shores. 500 (Collins 1983). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kaibubu. Dialects: Kaibobo, Hatusua. Lexical similarity: 82%–88% between Kaibobo and Hatusua dialect, 75% with Kamarian [kzx], 62%–65% with Saparua [spr], 62% with Luhu [lcq], 61% with Naka’ela [nae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East. Comments: Christian.

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Kaidipang
[kzp] Sulawesi Utara Province, Bolaang Mongondo Utara regency; north coast, west and east of Bolaangitang town. 26,600 (2000 census). Kaidipang 8,900, Bolaang Itang 17,700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dio, Kaidipang-Bolangitang. Dialects: Kaidipang (Kaidipan, Kodipang), Bolaang Itang (Bolang-Hitam, Bolang-Itam). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Kaili, Da’a
[kzf] Sulawesi Tengah and Sulawesi Barat provinces in Marawola, Dolo, Sigi-Biromaru, Palolo, and Banawa subdistricts. ‘Bunggu’ used for Da’a and Inde in West Sulawesi, Mamuju regency, Pasangkayu subdistrict, near Palu. 55,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 3,000–5,000 Da’a and Inde in south Sulawesi. Many monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binggi, Bunggu, Da’a, Pakawa, Pekava, Pekawa. Dialects: Da’a (Dombu), Inde. Some intelligibility of Ledo dialect of Kaili, Ledo [lew] and other Kaili varieties, but with major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 98% between the Da’a and Inde dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Christian.

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Kaili, Ledo
[lew] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Kota Palu city, south Donggala, south Parigi Moutong, Sigi, Poso, Tojo Una-Una and Morowali regencies; also includes entire Una-Una island in the Togian chain as well as coastal enclaves near Puna, Malai, and the head of Tomori bay. 350,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Ledo is lingua franca in West Toraja area. Alternate Names: Kaili, Ledo, Paloesch, Palu. Dialects: Ledo (Palu), Doi (Kayu Malue, Mamboro), Ado (Pakuli, Sibalaya), Edo (Sidondo), Tado (Ri Io, To ri Io, Torio, Toriu), Tara (Parigi), Rai (Sindue-Tawaili, Tawaili-Sindue), Raio (Kori), Ija (Sigi), Taa (Palolo), Ta’a (Dolago-Sausu, Sausu). Doi dialect is intelligible of Ledo and Edo; Ado next most intelligible; Tado a little less. Some intelligibility of Da’a [kzf], but major sociolinguistic differences. Lexical similarity: 80%–88% between Ledo and the Ado, Edo, Doi, and Lindu dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Tado dialect different from Tado, an alternate name for Lindu [klw]. Muslim, Christian.

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Kaili, Unde
[unz] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Banawa, Palu, and Tawaeli subdistricts; from Pulu bay west to Makassar strait shore; also Sulawesi Barat Province, Pasangkayu subdistrict. 25,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banava, Banawa. Dialects: Lole, Ganti. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Lole has negative term, unde. Ganti has negative term, ndepuu. Muslim.

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Kaimbulawa
[zka] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Siompu island, Kaimbulawa and Lantoi villages, southwest Buton island, southwest of Baubau town, Kambe-kambero village. 2,200 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Kambe-Kambero, Kaimbulawa (Lontoi). Not a dialect of Muna [mnb] or Cia-Cia [cia]. Lexical similarity: 81% with Kambe-kambero dialect, 75% with Busoa [bup], 64%–74% with Muna [mnb] dialects, 64% with Muna, 70% with Liabuku [lix], 66% with Cia-Cia [cia], 58% with Wolio [wlo], 45% with Kaledupa dialect of Tukang Besi North [khc]; Kambe-kambero dialect is 84% with Busoa [bup], 72% with Muna [mnb], 76% with Liabuku [lix]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic. Comments: Muslim.

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Kais
[kzm] Papua Barat Province, Sorong Selatan regency, south Bird’s Head area; inland along Kais river: 8 villages. 700 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aiso, Atori, Kampung Baru, Mintamani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kaiy
[tcq] Papua Province, Kaiy and Kokou villages. Lakes plain area around Kaiy airstrip on lower Rouffaer river. 220 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kai, Taori-Kaiy, Taori-Kei, Todi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Biritai [bqq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalabra
[kzz] Papua Barat Province. West Bird’s Head, southeast of Sorong city, along Kalabra river inland. 3,290 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Beraur. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Tehit [kps]. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalao
[kly] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Kepulauan Selayar regency, Selayar islands; east end, Kalao island, west of Bonerate island. 500 (Friberg and Laskowske 1989). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kalaotoa, Lambego. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 76% with Laiyolo [lji] and Wotu [wtw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao. Comments: Muslim.

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Kalumpang
[kli] Headwaters, Karama river; Sulawesi Barat Province, southeast Mamuju regency, Kalumpang subdistrict; also, Sulawesi Selatan Province. 20,000 (2012 S. Samboy). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galumpang, Maki, Ma’ki, Makki, Mangki, Mangkir. Dialects: Karataun (E’da, Makki), Bone Hau (Ta’da). Smaller dialects not listed. Lexical similarity: 78% with Mamasa [mqj], 78% with Tae’ [rob], 74% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]; 82% between Karataun and Bone Hau dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Kamang
[woi] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; central Alor island. 6,000 (2011 A. Schapper and M. Manimau). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamana-Kamang, Waisika, Woisika. Dialects: Manetaa, Suboo, Takailubui, Tiee, Moo, Kamang. Probably more than 1 language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: North central Alor language complex.

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Kamarian
[kzx] Maluku Province, Seram Bagian Barat regency, southwest Seram island inland from Ceram strait and Haruku and Sapura islands. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Under 10 in 1987; now probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Ethnic population: 6,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Kamariang, Seruawan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaibobo [kzb], 67% with Saparua [spr], 60% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 59% with Amahai [amq], Luhu [lcq], Naka’ela [nae], and Hulung [huk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Kamarian.

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Kamaru
[kgx] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Buton regency, east Buton island on Lawelu bay. 3,500 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Lasalimu [llm], 67% with Wolio [wlo], 54% with Cia-Cia [cia], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 49% with Tukang Besi [khc], 45% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru. Comments: Muslim.

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Kambera
[xbr] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Sumba island, eastern half. 240,000 (2009). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Sumba, East Sumbanese, Hilu Humba, Humba, Oost-Sumbaas, Sumba, Sumbanese. Dialects: Kambera, Melolo, Uma Ratu Nggai (Umbu Ratu Nggai), Lewa, Kanatang, Mangili-Waijelo (Rindi, Wai Jilu, Waidjelu, Waijelo), Southern Sumba. Dialect network. Kambera dialect is widely understood. Lewa and Uma Ratu Nggai dialects have difficulty understanding those from Mangili. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kamberau
[irx] Papua Barat Province, Kaimana regency, Ubia-Seramuku, Bahomia, Waho, Wamoma, Inari, Tanggaromi, Koi, Wamesa, and Coa villages; Southeast Bomberai peninsula, Kamerau bay area. 1,570 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Iria, Kambrau, Kamrau. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Buruwai [asi]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sabakor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kamoro
[kgq] Papua Province, south coast; Mukamuga river into Papua Barat Province, Etna bay area. 8,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamora, Kaokonau, Lakahia, Mimika, Mukamuga, Nafarpi, Nagramadu, Nefarpi, Neferipi, Umar, Umari. Dialects: Tarya, Yamur, Nanesa. 4 other dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Kamoro. Comments: Different from Yeretuar (Umari) [gop]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kangean
[kkv] Java island, Jawa Timur Province, sea coast; Kangean islands, east of Madura island. 110,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Barely intelligible with East Madura [mad]. A separate language (Stevens 1968). Lexical similarity: 75% with Madura [mad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese.

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Kanum, Bädi
[khd] Papua Province, Merauke regency, south coast border area, southeast of Merauke city. 10 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kanum, Kenume, Knwne. Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda. Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common and much ritual exchange. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kanum, Ngkâlmpw
[kcd] Papua Province, Merauke regency, Yanggandur, Tomer, and Onggaya villages, southernmost point of province, east of Merauke city along Papua New Guinea border. 150 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kanum, Kenume, Knwne. Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda. Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common, and much ritual exchange. Christian.

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Kanum, Smärky
[kxq] Papua Province, Yanggandur, Tomer, Tomerau, Rawa Biru, and Kondo villages, southernmost point of province, southeast of Merauke city; bordering Papua New Guinea. 80 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne. Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda. Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common, and much ritual exchange. Christian.

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Kanum, Sota
[krz] Papua Province, Merauke regency, Sota village; southernmost point of province, east northeast of Merauke city, bordering Papua New Guinea. 100 (1996 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Enkelembu, Kenume, Knwne. Dialects: None known. Kanum varieties are separate languages, with difficult mutual intelligibility. Reportedly similar to Yei [jei]. Also classified as Australian, Pama-Nyungan. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Tonda. Comments: One ethnic group with Kanum varieties. Clan marriages common, and much ritual exchange. Christian.

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Kao
[kax] Maluku Utara Province, Halmahera Utara regency; north Halmahera island, on Kao bay, area near Kao river mouth. 400 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kau, Ka’u. Dialects: Could be a marginal dialect of Pagu [pgu], but relates uniquely to other languages in Kao River subbranch. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu. Comments: Muslim.

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Kapauri
[khp] Papua Province, Pagai village, Kamikaru and Magri hamlets. Upper Idenburg river, north bank; southwest of Jayapura city. 200 (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kapori. Classification: Kaure, Kapore. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kaptiau
[kbi] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Bonggo subdistrict, Kaptiau village; north coast west of Jayapura city. 230 (2006 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kapitiauw, Kaptiauw, Sobei. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: with Tarpia [tpf] and Bonggo [bpg] (most). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Karas
[kgv] Papua Barat Province, Antalisa and Mas villages. Karas island off southwest coast of Bomberai peninsula; outside of Sebakor bay. 240 (1983 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, West Bomberai, Karas. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Karey
[kyd] Maluku Province, southern area, South Aru Islands, Tarangan island, southeast coast, Karey valley. 610 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kerei, Krei. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Batuley [bay]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Karon Dori
[kgw] Papua Barat Province, Pef, Asses, Sunopi, and Siakwa villages. Central Bird’s Head; area of headwaters of Kamundan river. 5,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maiyach, Mari, Meon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mai Brat [ayz]. Classification: Maybrat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kaur
[vkk] Sumatra island, Bengkulu Province, southernmost extent of province; Sumatera Selatan Province, area extending northwest from Danay Panay. 40,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bintuhan, Ka’ur, Mulak. Dialects: Borrowings from Lampung Api [ljp]; reportedly difficult to understand for Central Malay [pse] speakers. Lexical similarity: 70% with Central Malay [pse] dialects Pasemah and Serawai. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kaure
[bpp] Papua Province, southwest of Lake Sentani, Nawa River, Lereh, Harna, Wes, Masta, Aurina villages. 450 (1995 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kaureh, Kaurne. Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kauwera
[xau] Papua Province, Middle Mamberamo river, north bank east; southeast of Lake Rombebai. 400 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kabera, Kaowerawedj, Kauwerawec, Kauwerawetj, Kawera, Koassa, Tekutameso. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kawe
[kgb] Papua Barat Province, Raja Ampat regency, west coast of Bird’s Head, west end of Waigeo, Kawe, Batangpele, Minjaifuin, and other nearby islands: Salio, Selepele, Bianci, and Menyefun villages. 600 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Related to Maya [slz], Maden [xmx], and Matbat [xmt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kayagar
[kyt] Papua Province, Asmat and Mappi regencies, southwest coast, Arafura sea, inland from ports Taroea Anim and Pirimapuan. 10,000 (1993 WT), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kajagar, Kaygi, Kaygir, Wiyagar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Tamagario [tcg]; related to Atohwaim [aqm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kayan Mahakam
[xay] Kalimantan Timur Province, West Kutai and Malinau regencies. Area extends from Muller Mountains from south border northward, to within 25 km of Malasia, Sarawak State. 1,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper. Comments: Linguistic influences from Ot Danum [otd].

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Kayan, Busang
[bfg] Kalimantan Timur Province, Muller Mountains, upper Mahakam, Oga, and Belayan river areas; also Kalimantan Tengah Province. 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Busang, Kajan, Kajang. Dialects: Mahakam Busang, Belayan, Long Bleh. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kayan, Kayan River
[xkn] Kalimantan Timur Province; 2 Kayan river areas: one downstream, the other larger one, headwaters and south. 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kajang, Kayan River Kajan. Dialects: Uma Leken, Kayaniyut Kayan, Uma Laran. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Kayan, Mendalam
[xkd] Kalimantan Barat Province. Northeast of Putus Sibau town, along Mendalam river. 1,500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mendalam Kajan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Kayan, Wahau
[whu] Kalimantan Timur Province, Kutai Timur regency, north of Muarawahau town, along north tributary of Telen river. 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wahau Kajan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Kayeli
[kzl] Maluku Province, Buru regency, northeast Buru island, Kayeli bay south of Apu river mouth. No known L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Last speaker of Liliali dialect died in 1989 (Wurm 2007). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Caeli, Cajeli, Gaeli, Kajeli. Dialects: Kayeli, Leliali (Liliali), Lumaete (Lumaiti, Lumara, Mumaite). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Kayeli. Comments: Shifted to Ambonese Malay [abs] or Lisela [lcl] (Wurm 2007). Muslim.

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Kayupulau
[kzu] Papua Province, Kota Jayapura city; island in Jayapura harbor. 50 (Wurm 2000). Used by under 10% of the ethnic group (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kajupulau. Dialects: Not a dialect of Tobati (Yotafa) [tti]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay. Comments: Christian.

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Kedang
[ksx] Nusa Tenggara Timur province; northeast Lembata island. 30,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dang, Kdang, Kédang, Kedangese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Kehu
[khh] Papua Province, Nabire regency, Sareba bay, Wapoga river inland in the foothills. 200 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: East Geelvink Bay.

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Kei
[kei] Maluku Province, southeast portion, about 207 villages on 10 islands; Kei island group west of Aru islands; Kecil, Besar, and surrounding islands; also, Kur islands, lying west and northwest of Kei group. 85,000 (2000 E. Travis). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kai, Keiese, Saumlaki, Veveu Evav. Dialects: Kei Kecil, Kei Besar, Tayando, Tanimbar Kei (Atnebar), Ta’am. Kei Kecil is the prestigious urban dialect. Kei Besar speakers usually also know Kei Kecil, but not vice versa. Kei Besar is reportedly more similar to Fordata [frd] than other Kei dialects. Tanimbar Kei is spoken in only one village. Lexical similarity: 60% with Fordata [frd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Kei-Fordata. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Keijar
[kdy] Papua Province. Pacific coast east; north of Tor river mouth. 370 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Keder. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 45% with Berik [bkl]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kelabit
[kzi] Kalimantan Timur Province, Nunukan regency, 2 remote mountain enclaves, on Sarawak border, northwest of Longkemuat. 640 in Indonesia (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apo Duat, Kalabit, Kerabit. Dialects: Lon Bangag, Tring, Bareo (Bario), Pa’ Mada, Long Napir. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Christian.

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Kemak
[kem] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Belu regency; north central Timor island, Timor-Leste border area bounded by Kewar, Welufi, and Fatubelu towns. 10,000 in Indonesia (2010 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ema. Dialects: Nogo (Nogo-Nogo), Kemak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kembayan
[xem] Kalimantan Barat Province. Area from Balaikarangan and Kembayan towns to near Sarawak border, east of Landak river. 11,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karambai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern.

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Kemberano
[bzp] Papua Barat Province, several villages. Bird’s Head, south coast, northwest Bomberai peninsula, south from Kalitami across Bintuni bay, east of Komundan river. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arandai, Barau, Kalitami, Wariagar. Dialects: Barau, Weriagar. Lexical similarity: 85% with Arandai [jbj], 60% with Kokoda [xod]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kembra
[xkw] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Okbibab subdistrict. 20 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 50. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Unclassified.

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Kemtuik
[kmt] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, southwest shore, Lake Sentani: Mamdayawang, Meikari, Merem, Yanim, Braso, Aib, Sabransamon, Mamda, Sabeyap, Sabeyap Kecil, Sekorup, Aimbe, and Sabron Yaru villages. 2,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kamtuk, Kemtuk. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Gresi [grs]. Classification: Nimboran. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kendayan
[knx] Northwest Kalimantan island, South China sea coast, Kalimantan Barat Province, Sambas, Kota Singkawang, Bengkayang, Kuba Raya, Landau, and Sanggau regencies; Madi and Papan jungle area. 321,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 331,700. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as LWC among non-Muslim Dayaks of northwest West Kalimantan province. Alternate Names: Baicit, Damea, Kanayatn, Kendayan Dayak, Kendayan-Ambawang, Salako. Dialects: Ambawang, Kendayan, Ahe, Selako. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic. Comments: Indonesian [ind] well understood only by a few with at least a 6th-grade education.

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Keninjal
[knl] Kalimantan Barat Province, areas near Nangapinoh, Nangaella, Nangasayan, and Gelalak towns, and along Sayan and Melawi rivers; some in Kalimantan Tengah Province. 32,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dayak Kaninjal, Kaninjal, Kaninjal Dayak. Dialects: Kubing. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with other “Malayic Dayak” dialects in Melawi Basin like Barai, Nanga Nuak, Kebahan, Ransa, Kenyilu, Limbai and Kubin. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic. Comments: Keninjal is one of many ill-defined “Malayic Dayak” varieties.

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Kenyah, Mainstream
[xkl] Scattered highland areas, Kalimantan Timur and Kalimantan Utara provinces; enclave in foothills area near Djempang, Melintang, and Semajang, northeast of Samarinda: Kayan, Mahakam, Upper Baram, Bahau, Upper Balui, Malinau, Belayan, Segah, Kelai, and Telen river areas, Pimping, Long Setulang, Batu Kajang, Long Uli, and Long Belua villages. 12,000 in Indonesia (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 52,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Highland Kenyah, Usun Apau Kenyah. Dialects: Lepo’ Tau, Lepo’ Bem, Uma’ Jalan, Uma’ Tukung, Lepo’ Ke, Lepo’ Kuda, Lepo’ Maut, Lepo’ Ndang, Badeng, Bakung, Lepo’ Tepu’. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah.

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Kenyah, Wahau
[whk] Kalimantan Timur Province, Berau regency, upper Mahakam river area: Batu Majang, Buluk Sen, Uma’ Dian, Muara Pedohon, Kampung Baru, Uma’ Bekuai, and Tabang Lama villages. 8,000 in Indonesia (2007 A. Soriente), decreasing. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 9,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lebu’ Kulit, Wahau Kenya. Dialects: Uma Timai, Lebu’ Kulit, Uma’ Ujok. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah.

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Ke’o
[xxk] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, 4 villages; south central Flores island, south and southeast of Ebu Lobo volcano. 40,000 (2001 L. Baird). Ethnic population: 40,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nage-Keo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly distinct from but most similar to Nage [nxe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: People and language are both called Ke’o. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kepo’
[kuk] Central Flores island, highlands, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Manggarai Timur regency, 2 separate areas. 6,000 (2010). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kepoq. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Kereho
[xke] Near Sarawak border, Kereho river, Kalimantan Tengah Province, Murung Raya regency; Kalimantan Barat Province, far east Kapuas Hulu regency; Kalimantan Timur Province, Kutai Barat regency. 500 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keriau Punan. Dialects: Seputan, Uheng (Kereho-Uheng). Lexical similarity: 69% with Hovongan [hov], 69% with Aoheng [pni]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’.

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Kerinci
[kvr] Sumatra, Jambi Province, Kerinci regency, western mountains, Sungaipenuh area, north and west; also into Sumatera Barat Province, Solok Selatan regency. 260,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 285,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kerinchi, Kinchai. Dialects: High dialect diversity in a small area, shading into Jambi Malay [zlm] east and Minangkabau [min] north. Distinct from Kerinci-Minangkabau dialect of Minangkabau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Ketengban
[xte] Papua Province. Near Papua New Guinea border, east highland slopes; scattered. 9,970 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kupel, Oktengban. Dialects: Okbap, Omban, Bime, Onya. Lexical similarity: 69% with Una [mtg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ketum
[ktt] Papua Province. Foothills of Eastern Highlands, east of East Digul river, about 40 km west of Papua New Guinea border. 900 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kitum, Wambon-Ketum. Dialects: None known. Related to Wambon [wms] and Mandobo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kimaghima
[kig] Papua Province, Merauke regency, widespread, Kolopom island, interior, east of Merauke city. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaladdarsch, Kimaama, Kimaghama, Kimaghana, Teri-Kalwasch. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kimki
[sbt] Papua Province, Pegunungan Bintang regency, Batom subdistrict, border area where Sepik river enters Papua New Guinea. 500 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aipki, Kimgi, Sukubatom, Sukubatong. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kioko
[ues] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, North Buton regency, Bonegunu and Kambowa subdistricts, east central Buton island, Banda sea. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Kioko, Kambowa. Possibly dialect of the Pancana [pnp] language. Lexical similarity: 82% with Kambowa dialect, 81% with Laompo dialect of Muna [mnb], 74% with Muna, 75% with Liabuku [lix] and Busoa [bup]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Kirikiri
[kiy] Papua Province, Dofu Wahuka and Paniai villages. On Papua New Guinea border, west of confluence of Tariku and Kliki rivers. 250 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kirira. Dialects: Kirikiri, Faia. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West. Comments: No schools in the area. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kisar
[kje] Maluku Province, southern part, over 20 villages total; Kisar island, northeast of Timor island, 19 villages; nearby Roma and Wetar islands, Hila, Likagraha, Amau, Naumatan, and Hi’ai villages; some in Ambon, Dili, and Kupang cities. 20,000 (1995 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meher, Yotowawa. Dialects: Not related to Oirata [oia], which has sometimes been called a dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma. Comments: Called Yotowawa or Meher locally. Christian.

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Klon
[kyo] Southwest Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Alor regency: Halerman, Margera, Manatang, Probur, Probur Utara, and Tribur villages. 5,000 (2008 L. Baird). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalong, Kelon, Kelong, Kolon. Dialects: Klon Bring, Klon Paneia. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor.

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Koba
[kpd] Maluku Province, southeast, at least 3 villages; Aru island group, Baun and Fukarel islands southeast of Kobroor island, mouth of Barakai strait. 870 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Southeast Koba. Low comprehension of Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 78%–86% with Dobel [kvo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru.

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Kodeoha
[vko] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, North Kolaka regency, Lasusua subdistrict, 4 villages. Upper Bone bay, east coast. 1,500 (Mead 1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kondea, Kondeha. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Rahambuu [raz]; 70% with the Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with the several Mori and Bungku [bkz] groups. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Kodi
[kod] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, West Sumba. 20000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kudi. Dialects: Kodi Bokol, Kodi Bangedo, Nggaro (Nggaura). May be most similar to Wejewa [wew]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kofei
[kpi] Papua Province, Waropen and Mamberamo Raya regencies; east side of Cendrawasih bay. 100 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 76% with Sauri [srt], 63% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kohin
[kkx] Kalimantan Tengah Province, Kotawaringin Timur regency, 10 villages. Central and north Seruyan river area. 8,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bahasa Seruyan, Seruyan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Ot Danum [otd], 50%–69% with Ngaju [nij]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North.

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Kokoda
[xod] Papua Barat Province, Sorong Selatan regency; Bird’s Head, northwest coast of Maccluer Gulf, east of Inanwatan city. 3,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kasuweri, Komudago, Nebes, Oderago, Samalek, Tarof. Dialects: Kasuweri (Komudago), Negri Besar (Negeri Besar), Tarof. Wurm and Hattori (1981) list Kasuweri and Tarof as separate languages. Komudago and Tarof dialects are most similar. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemberano [bzp]; Kasuweri dialect 86% with Tarof dialect; Negri Besar 82% with Tarof. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Central.

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Kola
[kvv] Southeast Maluku, 22 villages. North Aru islands, Kola island, widespread, to adjacent islands. 7,400 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kulaha, Marlasi, Warilau. Dialects: Intelligibility test showed Marlasi dialect intelligible of Kompane [kvp]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Kompane [kvp], 70% with Ujir [udj]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Kombai
[tyn] Interior south coast area, Papua Province, Asmat regency, on plain between upper Wideman and Digul rivers, east of Senggo city. 4,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Komboy. Dialects: Central Kombai, Tayan. Reportedly most similar to Wanggom [wng]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Komering
[kge] Sumatera Selatan Province, Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan, Ogan Komering Ulu Timur, Ogan Komering Ulu, and Ogan Ilir regencies; separate areas along Komering river from Ranaumeer to near Palembang city. 470,000 (2000 census). 20,000 in Jakarta (1992). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kumoring. Dialects: Upstream Komering, Downstream Komering, Komering, Kayu Agung Asli, Kayu Agung. Lexical similarity: 70% with the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api [ljp]; 74% with Sungkai dialect of Lampung Api (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung. Comments: Muslim.

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Komodo
[kvh] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Manggarai Barat regency, Komodo island. 1,730 (2015 F. Hurd). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. A separate language from Manggarai [mqy] (1982 J. Verheijen). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Muslim.

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Kompane
[kvp] Northeast Aru islands, Maluku Province, Kepulauan Aru regency. Kompane village, Kongan island east of Wokam island. 330 (1995 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Komfana, Kongampani. Dialects: None known. Similar to Kola [kvv], linguistically between Kola and Batuley [bay]. Good intelligibility of Kola. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Komyandaret
[kzv] Papua Province. Headwaters of Sungai river, west bank. 300 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. May be mutually intelligible with Tsaukambo [kvz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Konda
[knd] Southwest Bird’s Head area facing Seram Sea, Papua Barat Province, Sorong Selatan regency, Teminabuan subdistrict, Konda village; lower Waromge river, south of Teminabuan city. 500 (1988 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ogit, Yabin, Yabin-Konda. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Yahadian [ner]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Konda-Yahadian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Koneraw
[kdw] Papua Province, Merauke regency, Yos Sudarso island, south coast east of Konerau. 1,200 (2001 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Konorau. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mombum. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Konjo, Coastal
[kjc] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Sinjai, Bulukumba, and Bantaeng regencies; southeasternmost corner of peninsula, Salayer strait. 125,000 (1990 SIL). 50,000 Kajang, 10,000 Tiro. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kondjo, Tiro. Dialects: Konjo Pesisir (Ara, Bira), Tana Toa (Black Konjo, Kadjang, Kajang, Tana Towa), Bantaeng (Bonthain). Tana Toa is north end of dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 76% with Makassar [mak]; Tana Toa dialect: 10% with other coastal dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: Tana Towa resist modern ways, contact with outsiders. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Konjo, Highland
[kjk] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Sinjai, Bone, Gowa, and Bulukumba regencies, southern peninsula interior; Mount Lompobatang area northwest, past Makassar city. 150,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Konjo Pegunungan, Konyo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Coastal Konjo [kjc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Kopkaka
[opk] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Kurima subdistrict, Siradala, and Burungmakok villages. In lowlands south of the main ranges; headwaters area, several tributaries of upper Sirac river. 400 (2002 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kopka. Dialects: Marub, Tokuni. Reportedly similar to Kwer [kwr]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Koroni
[xkq] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Morowali regency, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Unsongi village; on Tolo bay, east coast. 500 (Mead 1999). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Oengsongi. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Taloki [tlk] and Kulisusu [vkl], 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu. Comments: Muslim.

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Korowai
[khe] Papua Province. Southeast inland area, northeast of Senggo town; between upper Sirac and Digul rivers. 3,500 (2007 P. de Vries). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolufaup. Dialects: North Korowai, South Korowai. Dialects have high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 90% with dialects. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Korowai. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Korupun-Sela
[kpq] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Kurima subdistrict. Eastern highlands, on upper reaches of Erok river. 8,000 (1996 E. Young). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kimyal of Korupun, Korapun. Dialects: Korupun (Duram), Dagi, Sisibna (Gobugdua), Deibula, Sela. Lexical similarity: 60% with Nipsan [nps]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kosare
[kiq] Papua Province. West of Nawa and Idenburg rivers confluence; south of Jayapura city. 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kosadle. Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kowiai
[kwh] Papua Barat Province, Kaimana regency, Bomberai peninsula, south coast; Kamrau bay area, Kaimana, Namatote, and Adi islands, smaller islands in bay: Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota, and Kayumerah villages. 600 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adi, Aiduma, Kaiwai, Kajumerah, Kayumerah, Koiwai, Kuiwai, Namatota, Namatote. Dialects: Keroi, Adijaya, Namatota. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Bomberai. Comments: Muslim.

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Kubu
[kvb] Sumatra, Jambi Province, Sarolangun and Batang Hari regencies, 2 enclaves, eastern swamp region; Sumatera Selatan Province, Musi Banyuasin regency. 10,000 (1989). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anak Dalam, Orang Hutan, Orang Rimba. Dialects: Lalang, Bajat, Ulu Lako, Tungkal, Tungkal Ilir, Dawas, Supat, Jambi, Ridan, Nomadic Kubu. Related to Lubu [lcf]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Territory rapidly shrinking, somewhat due to deforestation. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kui
[kvd] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Alor regency; Alor island, Kui dialect on south coast in Lerabaing and Buraga villages, also in Moru in Kalabahi bay, Batulolong dialect: Sibera and Kapebang villages. 1,900. Ethnic population: 1,900. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lerabain, Masin-Lak. Dialects: Kui (Buraga, Lerabaing), Kiramang (Kramang), Batulolong. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Alor. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Kula
[tpg] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Alor island, central eastern mountains, between Kamang [woi] and Sawila [swt] language areas; also on northeast coast, Maukuru, Takala, Koilela, Peisaka, and Kiralela villages. 5,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kola, Lamtoka, Lantoka, Tanglapui. Dialects: Iramang, Kula, Kulatela, Watena, Larena, Kula Watena, Sumang, Arumaka. Reportedly structurally similar to Sawila [swt], but intelligibility is marginal. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Tanglapui. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kulisusu
[vkl] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, North Buton regency, Kulisusu Utara, Kulisusu Induk, Kulisusu Barat, and Bonegunu subdistricts. Northernost Buton island. 22,000 (Mead 1999), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalisusu, Kolensusu, Kolinsusu. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81% between dialects, 77% with Tolaki [lbw], 75% with Koroni [xkq], 66% with Wawonii [wow] and Bungku [bkz] group, 65% with Moronene [mqn], 54% with the Mori languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu. Comments: Muslim.

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Kumbewaha
[xks] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Buton regency, Lasalimu subdistrict, Kumbewaha and Wajah Jaya villages. Buton island, southeast; west of Wangiwangi island. 3,400 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kumberaha, Umbewaha. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton. Comments: Muslim.

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Kur
[kuv] Maluku Province, southeast area, West Kei Kecil district. Kur and surrounding islands. 3,180 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Different from Kei [kei]. Boundaries of intelligibility with dialects north and the central dialect, and with Teor [tev] need further investigation. Lexical similarity: 47%–50% with Kei [kei], 71%–83% with Teor [tev], 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur. Comments: Muslim.

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Kuri
[nbn] Papua Barat Province, Teluk Bintuni regency, southwest Bomberai peninsula; area south of Bituni bay, northeast of Arguni bay: 16 villages. 500 (1982 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Modan, Nabi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Irarutu [irh]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kurudu
[kjr] Papua Province, Mamberamo Raya regency, Kaipuri and Poiwai villages; Kurudu islands between east tip of Yapen island and northwest mainland. 2,180 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with Wabo [wbb], 46% with Western Serui. Kaipuri dialect has highest lexical similarity with Yapen group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East. Comments: Christian.

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Kwer
[kwr] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Kurima subdistrict, Kwer village; lowlands area south of main ranges, headwaters of Sirac river tributaries, northeast of Senggo town. 100 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kopkaka [opk]; may be considered the same language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Western.

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Kwerba
[kwe] Papua Province, Aurime, Munukania, Wamariri, Tatsewalem, and Apiaweti villages. Northeast mainland interior; headwaters of Apauwer river. 2,500 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Air Mati, Airmati, Armati, Koassa, Mataweja, Naibedj, Segar Tor, Serikenam, Tekutameso. Dialects: Serikenam, Sasawa, Nogukwabai. Lexical similarity: 64% with Bagusa [bqb]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwerba Mamberamo
[xwr] Papua Province, Kwerba, Edifalen, and Marinafalen villages. East bank, Mamberamo river, into highlands; southeast of Kasonaweja town. 300 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Napok, Nobuk, Nogukwabai, Nopuk, Nopukw, Tatsewalem. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: ‘Nopukw’, language, in the Kwerba family, and does not distinguish a particular variety. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwerisa
[kkb] Papua Province, Mamberamo Raya regency, lower Rouffaer river. 15 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 130. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Taogwe. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Biritai [bqq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kwesten
[kwt] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Holmhaven, Mafenter, Arare, and Omte villages; Pacific coast area east of Sarmi town, area west of lower Tor river. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Berik [bkl]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kwinsu
[kuc] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Ansudu village. 500 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ansudu. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor.

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Laba
[lau] Maluku Utara Province, south end of Loloda district, 4 villages. North Halmahera island, interior from northwest coast. 2,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kedi, South Loloda. Dialects: None known. Phonology like Galela [gbi], 70% intelligibility, 75% of Loloda [loa]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Galela [gbi], 78% with Loloda [loa]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Christian.

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Laha
[lhh] Maluku Province, Laha and other villages. Ambon island, south central coast. 3,890 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Ambon. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Sou Upaa [wha]. Lexical similarity: 64%–66% with Asilulu [asl] and Seit-Kaitetu [hik] (most similar). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Laiyolo
[lji] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Kepulauan Selayar regency, south tip, Selayar island; Laiyolo, Barang-Barang, Lowa, and other villages. 800 (1997 SIL). 250 Laiyolo, 550 Barang-Barang. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barang-Barang, Da’ang. Dialects: Barang-Barang (Loa, Loa’, Lowa), Laiyolo (Lajolo, Layolo). Lexical similarity: 86% between Laiyolo and Barang-Barang dialect, 76% with Kalao [kly], 65% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Wotu [wtw], 39% with Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Kalao. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Lamaholot
[slp] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Flores Timur regency, also Solor island; possibly in pockets on north Pantar coast, northwest Alor, surrounding islands. 180,000 in Indonesia (2010). Total users in all countries: 225,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Solor, Solorese. Dialects: West Lamaholot (Muhang, Pukaunu), Lamaholot (Ile Mandiri, Larantuka, Lewolaga, Ritaebang, Taka, Tanjung Bunda), West Solor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: ‘Lamaholot-Alor’ is used to refer to both a lingua franca and also to any of several Austronesian varieties spoken from eastern Flores to Alor. Alor [aol] is part of a chain which includes Lamaholot. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Lamalera
[lmr] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; south coast, Lembata island. At least 3 villages. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kawela, Lebatukan, Mulan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Lamatuka
[lmq] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; central Lembata island, between Ile Ape [ila] and Lewo Eleng [lwe] language areas; several villages. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamatoka. Dialects: None known. Lewo Eleng [lwe] is probably most closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lamboya
[lmy] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Sumba island, southwest coast, southwest of Waikabubak city. 25,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lamboya, Nggaura. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Lampung Api
[ljp] Southernmost Sumatra island, 3 provinces, many communities near or on Selat Sunda, west, central, and south Lampung Province, regencies: Lampung Barat and Tanggamus, southwest coast and coastline around Semangko bay, Way Kanan, Lampung Utara, and Pringsewu, inland, southeast tip, Lampung Selatan, east coast of Lampung bay and nearby islands Sebuku, Sebesi, Tabuan, and Legundi; Sumatera Selatan Province, Ogan Komering Ulu Selatan, Ogan Komering Ulu Timur, and Ogan Komering Ulu regencies, near headwaters of Kanan river; south Bengkulu Province, Kaur regency. 827,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Api, Lampong, Lampung, Lampung Pesisir. Dialects: Krui (Kroe, Kru’i, Njo, Western Lampung), Southern Pesisir, Pubian, Ranau, Sungkai, Daya. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung. Comments: Teachers must use L1, especially in lower grades. Muslim.

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Lampung Nyo
[abl] Sumatra, east Lampung Province. 3 enclaves situated between Kanan and Seputih rivers. 180,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abung, Lampong. Dialects: Abung, Tulangbawang, Sukadana, Melinting. Many differences in vocabulary and phonology with Lampung Api [ljp]. Lexical similarity: 72% between the Menggala dialect and the Kalianda dialect of Lampung Api [ljp], 77% among dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Lampung. Comments: Muslim.

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Larike-Wakasihu
[alo] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, southwesternmost Ambon island coast, Hitu peninsula: Larike, Wakasihu, Tapi, Allang, and Lai villages. 12,600 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Allang, Wakasihu, Larike. The western end of the Ambon dialect subgroup. Lexical similarity: 81% among Allang, and Larike, and Wakasihu dialects; 92% between Larike and Wakasihu; 68%–71% with Asilulu [asl], 67%–72% with Negeri Lima dialect of Asilulu [asl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Hoamoal. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Lasalimu
[llm] East Buton island, Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Buton regency, Lasalimu subdistrict, Lasalimu and Malaoge villages, Lasalima town area facing Lawelu bay. 1,700 (1999 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Kamaru [kgx], 64% with Cia-Cia [cia], 48% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 49% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 51% with Pancana [pnp], 50% with Wolio [wlo] and Muna [mnb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Buton, East Buton. Comments: Muslim.

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Latu
[ltu] Maluku Province, Seram Bagian Barat regency, Latu village; west Seram island, southwest Elpaputih bay, Point Latu. 2,130 (1982 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82%–84% with Saparua [spr] dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua.

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Lauje
[law] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Parigi Moutong and Donggala regencies, Dampelas Sojol, Dondo, Tinombo, Tomini, and Ampibabo subdistricts; northwest coast along Tomini bay, Sidoan river area. 44,000 (Himmelmann 2001). 6,000 use Ampibabo dialect (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laudje, Tinombo. Dialects: Ampibabo (Ampibabo-Lauje). Ampibabo dialect may be a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Laura
[lur] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; northwest Sumba island, from Mamboru town west to Cape Karosso. 10,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laora. Dialects: Laura, Mbukambero (Bukambero). Not intelligible with Kodi [kod]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Lawangan
[lbx] Central Kalimantan Timur Province, Karau river area; Kalimantan Selatan Province, Kotabaru, Balangan, Tabalong regencies; Kalimantan Tengah Province, North, East, and South Barito regencies. 100,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Luwangan, Northeast Barito. Dialects: Ajuh, Bakoi (Lampung), Bantian (Bentian), Banuwang, Bawu (Bawo), Kali, Karau (Beloh), Lawa, Lolang, Mantararen, Njumit, Purai, Purung, Tuwang, Pasir, Benua, Taboyan. At least 17 dialects. Tawoyan [twy] may be inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tawoyan [twy], 53% with Dusun Deyah [dun]. Benua (population 25,000, six subdialects) may be distinct enough to be considered a separate language. (Nikolic´ 2008). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, North.

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Legenyem
[lcc] Papua Barat Province, Raja Ampat Islands, Waigeo island in northwest end of main bay and on south coast; Beo, Lempintol, and Wawiai villages. 250 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laganyan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Lembata, South
[lmf] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; south Lembata island, between Lamalera [lmr] and Lamatuka [lmq] language areas. 7,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Lembata, West
[lmj] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Lembata island, western end. 8,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Labalekan, Mingar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Lemolang
[ley] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Luwu Utara regency, Sassa and Salassa villages. Inland from northeast coast, Bone bay; middle Rongko river area. Scattered in Sabbang, possibly Baebunta areas. 2,000 (Vail 1991), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baebunta, Limola, Limolang. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 41% with Mori Bawah [xmz], 39% with Mori Atas [mzq], 38% with Bungku [bkz], 39% with Wolio [wlo], 31% with Seko Padang [skx], 30% with Rampi [lje], 29% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 26% with Muna [mnb], 25% with Wotu [wtw], 24% with Bugis [bug]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Lemolang. Comments: Muslim.

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Lengilu
[lgi] Kalimantan Timur Province, northeast corner, Benuang area. 3 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic.

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Lepki
[lpe] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Okbibab subdistrict. Near middle Sogber river, north of Apmisibil town. 530 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Possible genetic similarities with Murkim [rmh]. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Leti
[lti] Maluku Province southwest, Maluku regency, Leti island, east of Timor-Leste. 7,500 (1995 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Marginal intelligibility and difficulty with written Luang [lex]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Luang [lex]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Luang. Comments: Matrilineal. They share historical and cultural heritage with Luang [lex], but maintain their own identity and local pride. Christian.

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Levuka
[lvu] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; west central Lembata island between Ile Ape [ila] and Lamalera [lmr] language areas. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lembata, Lewokukun, Lewuka, Painara. Dialects: Levuka, Kalikasa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lewo Eleng
[lwe] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; central eastern Lembata island, between Lamatuka [lmq] and Kedang [ksx] language areas, several villages; north coastal plains villages are from recent government-induced migrations. 4,000 (2008 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lamatuka [lmq] probably most closely related. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Lewotobi
[lwt] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; southeastern Flores island across from Solor island, Lewotobi volcano area. 6000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southwest Lamaholot. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Liabuku
[lix] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Bungi subdistrict; on south Buton island across From Muna island, part of Liabuku village north of Bau-Bau. 75 (2004 SIL), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Quite divergent from other Muna varieties. Lexical similarity: 82% with the Burukene dialect of Muna [mnb], 72%–76% with other Muna dialects, 72% with Muna, 75% with Kioko [ues]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Liana-Seti
[ste] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah and Seram Bagian regencies, Timur Bula, Werinama, and Tehoru districts, 8 villages; Seram island, from east Teluti bay north to Seram Sea coast. 3,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Liambata-Kobi, Liana, Lianan, Teula, Uhei Kachlakan, Uhei Kaclakin, Uhei Kahlakim. Dialects: Seti, Wahakaim, Kobi. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between Seti (westernmost and interior) and Wahakaim (near coast) dialects, 69%–78% between Kobi and Seti, 70% between Kobi and Wahakaim, 42%–61% between Kobi and Sou Upaa [wha], 54%–66% between Kobi and Benggoi [bgy], 48%–58% between Kobi and Salas [sgu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Speakers use Liana. Christian.

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Lik
[eip] Papua Province. Eastern highlands area, Eipo river, east of Naltya town. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eipo, Eipomek, T-Valley. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Una [mtg]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Liki
[lio] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Sarmi subdistrict, Liki and Nirumoar islands off north coast of Sarmi. 11 (2005 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 320. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Moar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sobei [sob]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi.

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Lindu
[klw] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Lindu subdistrict, Anca, Tomado, and Langko villages. Area near Lake Lindu. 2,400 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lindoe, Linduan, Tado. Dialects: Lindu is reportedly very similar to Moma [myl]; considered by some a Moma dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: ‘Tado’ (alternate for Lindu) is different from Tado dialect of Kaili Ledo [lew]. Christian.

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Li’o
[ljl] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; east central Flores island, bi-coastal, between Sika [ski] and Ende [end] language areas. 105,000 (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aku, Lio, Lionese, Tanah Kunu. Dialects: Dialect subgroup with Ende [end]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Lisabata-Nuniali
[lcs] Maluku Province, 5 villages. West and north Seram island, across north coast. 1,830 (1982). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lisabata, Noniali, Nuniali. Dialects: Lisabata-Timur, Nuniali, Sukaraja, Kawa. Lexical similarity: between Kawa (far western) and Lisabata Timur (far eastern) dialects is 85%, 72% with Naka’ela [nae], 67% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Lisela
[lcl] Maluku Province. Buru island, west of Manipa, Seram islands. 4 separate areas; largest area: northeast coast, lower inland Wae and Apo river valleys west of Kajeli town; other 3 areas westward across north Seram Sea coast. Some in Ambon. 11,900 (1989 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Buru, Li Enyorot, Liet Enjorot, North Buru, Wayapo. Dialects: Lisela (Licela, Licella), Tagalisa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Lola
[lcd] Maluku Province, Kepulauan Aru regency, Aru island group, southeast area; Penambulai, Lola, and Barakan islands east of Kobroor and Baun: Lola, Warabal, and Jambuair villages. 900 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Lola, Warabal. Reportedly linguistically between Batuley [bay] and Dobel [kvo]; similar to Koba [kpd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Lolak
[llq] Sulawesi Utara Province, Bolaang Mongondow regency, Lolak subdistrict, Lolak, Mongkoinit, and Motabang villages. Inland area watershed of lower Mongodow river. 3,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Structurally related to Gorontalo [gor], but with heavy lexical borrowing from Mongondow [mog]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Mongondow [mog], 66% with Ponosakan [pns], 63% with Kaidipang [kzp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Muslim.

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Lole
[llg] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; west central Rote island, from northern coast Ba’a town to south coast; North Lole dialect covers north and central regions of Lole domain. 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Ethnic population: 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ba’a, Baä, Central Rote, Loleh, Rote, Rote Tengah, Roti, Rotinese. Dialects: North Lole, South Lole, Ba’a. North Lole, na-hina, becomes South Lole, ni-hina. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian.

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Loloda
[loa] Maluku Utara Province; North Halmahera island, northwest coast, nearby islands. 15,000 (1991 SIL). 2,000 Bakun. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loda, North Loloda. Dialects: Bakun. Intelligibility of Laba [lau] very limited. 85% intelligibility of Galela [gbi], Galela [gbi] has 65% intelligibility of Loloda. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Lorang
[lrn] Southeast Maluku Province. Central Aru island group, Koba island, northwest coast. 220 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Koba [kpd] and, to a lesser extent, Dobel [kvo]. Some similarities with Manombai [woo], but intelligibility is lower than might be expected. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian.

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Loun
[lox] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, north central Seram island west of Sawai bay. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Loun.

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Luang
[lex] Maluku Province. East of Timor island; entire Wetan island, across Wetan strait to northwest Babar island. 18,000 (1995 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Letri Lgona, Lgona, Literi Lagona. Dialects: Luang, Wetan (Wetang), Moa, Lakor. Low comprehension of Leti [lti]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Leti [lti]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Luang. Comments: Matrilineal. Christian.

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Lubu
[lcf] Sumatra, Sumatera Utara Province, southern end, Kotanopan area. 30,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Kubu [kvb]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Luhu
[lcq] Maluku Province, Seram Bagian Barat regency, western Seram island, Hoamoal peninsula, northwest coast on Boano strait, south coast facing Piru bay: Luhu village. Boano and Manipa islands, west of Seram island. 6,500 (Collins 1983). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Piru. Dialects: Luhu, Batu Merah, Kelang. Lexical similarity: 72% with Luhu dialect, 71%–73% with Asilulu [asl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Lun Bawang
[lnd] Kalimantan Timur Province; mountainous area where Sesayap River tributaries arise. 2 enclaves in western Sabah State. 23,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 47,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayeh, Lun Dayoh, Lundaya Putuk, Lundayeh, Southern Murut. Dialects: Lun Daye, Papadi, Lun Bawang (Long Bawan, Sarawak Murut). Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ma’anyan
[mhy] Kalimantan Tengah Province, Barito Selatan and Barito Timur regencies, Dusun Hilir, Karau Kuala, Dusun Selatan, Dusun Utara, Gunung Bintang Awai, Dusun Tengah, Awang, and Patangkep Tutui subdistricts; south Tamianglayang town area, Patai river watershed; into Kalimantan Selatan Province, border area, and 2 interior enclaves near Tawahan and Damar. 150,000 (2003). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ma’anjan, Maanyak Dayak. Dialects: Samihim (Buluh Kuning), Sihong (Siong), Dusun Balangan. Related to Malagasy languages in Madagascar. Lexical similarity: 77% with Paku [pku], 75% with Dusun Witu [duv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Maba
[mqa] Maluku Utara Province; Halmahera island, southeast peninsula, north coast facing Buli bay; Wasilei area. 6,620 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bicoli, Bitjoli, Ingli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast. Comments: Muslim.

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Maden
[xmx] Papua Barat Province, Raja Ampat regency, northwestern Salawati island. 600 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Palamul, Saparan, Sapran. Dialects: Kawait. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Possibly the same as Maya [slz]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Madura
[mad] Jawa Timur Province, coastal areas of main island south and west of Surabaja city, southwest of Madura island; other island groups with speakers include Sapudi, Bawean, and Kangean islands; Java Sea, assorted islands with language communities under jurisdiction of Kalimantan Selatan Province. 6,770,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), decreasing. 86,000 Bawean. 2000 census reports large population decrease. Due to intermarriage, language attitudes, and other socioeconomic issues, the Madurese population is likely underreported. Total users in all countries: 6,770,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Basa Mathura, Madhura, Madurese. Dialects: Bawean (Babean, Bhebien, Boyanese), Bangkalan (Bangkalon), Pamekesan (Pamekasan), Sampang, Sapudi, Sumenep. Dialect continuum. Reports differ about inherent intelligibility among dialects: some Sumenep and Sampang report they cannot understand Pamekasan or Sumenep. Difficult intelligibility with Kangean [kkv]. Bawean may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kangean [kkv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Madurese. Comments: Mainly rural. Bawean consider their language separate from Madurese. East Madurese, especially Sumenep, is considered high, or standard Madurese. Sumenep is isolated culturally and geographically. Bangkalon, spoken in Surabaya, is important economically because that city is highly urbanized and is most affected by Bahasa Indonesia. Muslim.

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Mai Brat
[ayz] Papua Barat Province, about 40 villages. Central Bird’s Head, area around Ayamaru lakes. 20,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ajamaru, Atinjo, Ayamaru, Brat, Maibrat, Maite, Majbrat, Maybrat, Mey Brat. Dialects: Maisawiet, Maiyah, Maimaka, Maite, Maisefa. Lexical similarity: 10% with Tehit [kps], Mpur [akc], Abun [kgr], and its most similar neighbors. Classification: Maybrat. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mairasi
[zrs] Papua Barat Province, Bomberai peninsula, southwest coast facing Arafura Sea; area from Arguni bay east, southeast toward Triton bay on south coast; westernmost extent, Papua Province (Papua Timur). 3,300 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Faranyao, Kaniran. Dialects: Northeastern Mairasi. Reportedly similar to Semimi [etz]. Northeastern Mairasi may be a separate language. Lexical similarity: 69% with Semimi [etz], 61% with Mer [mnu]. Classification: Mairasi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Maiwa
[wmm] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Enrekang and Sidenrang-Rappang regencies. Interior highlands east of Enrekang town; both sides of Boya river. 50,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masenrempulu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Makasar
[mak] Sulawesi Selatan Province, southwest corner of the peninsula, most of Pangkajene Dan Kepulauan, Maros, Gowa, Bantaeng, Jeneponto, and Takalar regencies. 2,130,000 (2000 census). L2 users: 400,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Goa, Macassar, Macassarese, Makassa, Makassaarsche, Makassar, Makassarese, Mangasara, Mengkasara, Taena, Tena. Dialects: Gowa (Goa, Lakiung), Turatea (Jeneponto), Maros-Pangkep. Gowa dialect is prestigious. Dialects form a chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: Muslim.

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Makian, East
[mky] Maluku Utara Province, Kota Tidore Kepaluan regency, Halmahera island, west coast, nearby east Makian, south Mori, Kayoa, Bacan, and Obi islands. 20,000. 18,000 or more in East Makian, 2,000 or more in Kayoa (1983 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Makian Dalam, Makian Timur. Dialects: East Makian, Kayoa (Kajoa). Similar to Gane [gzn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, East Makian-Gane. Comments: A volcanic eruption on Makian Island, transmigrations, speakers of other languages in the area and pressure from those languages have taken a toll on vitality. Transmigration project near Kao. Muslim.

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Makian, West
[mqs] Maluku Utara Province; south Halmahera island, southwest coast near Gita town; west Makian island, some Kayoa islands. 12,000 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). 7,000 on Makian Island, 5,000 on Kayoa Islands. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makian Barat, Makian Luar. Dialects: None known. Language isolate within north Halmahera. Formerly classified as Austronesian. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, West Makian. Comments: Muslim.

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Maklew
[mgf] Papua Province, Merauke regency, south coast area, east of Dolak island and Marianne strait, north of Bulaka river. 120 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Makleu. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yelmek [jel]. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Yelmek-Maklew. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Malay
[zlm] Widespread primarily in coastal regions of central and north Sumatra, sections of Kalimantan, and the island provinces between them; Riau, Sumatera Utara, Sumatera Barat, Jambi, and Aceh provinces; Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Tengah, and Kalimantan Selatan provinces; Kepulauan Riau and Kepulauan Bangka Belitung provinces. 4,910,000 in Indonesia (2000 census). 3,970,000 in Sumatra (100,000 in Belitung, 1,830,000 in Riau, 2,000,000 Deli, Asahan, etc. in North Sumatra and 40,000 Tamiang in Aceh), and 940,000 in Kalimantan (primarily Pontianak, Sambas and Ketapang). Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Sumatra. Alternate Names: Bahasa Daerah, Bahasa Melayu, Malayu, Melayu. Dialects: Tamiang, Riau Mainland, Deli, Belitung, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands (Sea Tribe dialects), coastal Jambi, Sambas, Landak, Pontianak, Sukadana, Ketapang, Sanggau, Sintang, Sekadau, Kapuas Hulu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: This entry refers to numerous, local or vernacular, Malay varieties not well differentiated from each other, as well as varieties for which further research is required to clarify differentiation from more mainstream dialects. Distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Malay [zsm] and Indonesian [ind]. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Malay, Ambonese
[abs] Maluku Province, Seram Bagian Barat regency, Kota Ambon, Hoamoa peninsula, coastal strip on Piru bay, east shore of bay from Kamarian to Seriholu; Makulu Tengah regency, Banda seacoast, Kota Ambon, Nusa Laut island, upper Elpaputih bay past Amahai, east to Sepa; Ceram sea coast from Karlutu east around Cape Namaa to Sawai on Sawai bay; Kepulauan Aru regency, northwest Aru island group, Wamar island. 200,000 in Indonesia (1987 J. Collins). L2 users: 1,400,000 in Indonesia (2013 M. Connor). Total users in all countries: 1,645,020 (as L1: 245,020; as L2: 1,400,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Became an LWC through trade, and is used in inter-cultural communication, market, and some media. Alternate Names: Ambonese, Ambong, Malayu Ambon, Moluccan (Maluku) Malay. Dialects: Dobo Malay. Marginal intelligibility with Indonesian [ind]. Difficult intelligibility with North Moluccan Malay [max]; speakers switch to Indonesian. Lexical similarity: 81% with Indonesian [ind]. Banda Malay [bpq] may best be considered a dialect of Moluccan Malay [max]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Developed from Sabah Malay [msi] and still reflects some archaic forms. Further diverged by adapting to the vernaculars of central Maluku. Many varieties of trade Malay are considered Malay-based creoles (Grimes 1991a, Grimes 1991b, Holm 1989) and as Austronesian with contact features (Collins 1980, Gil 2001, Wolff 1988). Christian, Muslim.

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Malay, Bacanese
[btj] Maluku Utara Province, at least 2 villages. Bacan island west of southern Halmahera island, Labuha Area; some on Mandioli Island. 6 (2012 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bacan, Batjan. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: No evidence of an earlier indigenous language (1987 J. Collins). Muslim.

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Malay, Balinese
[mhp] Bali Province, widespread on Bali and Nusa islands. 25,000 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Balinese Malay arose as L1 in the Muslim community of Western Bali among immigrants from Southern Sulawesi (2007 S. Paauw).

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Malay, Banda
[bpq] Maluku Province. Banda islands; south, off southeast coast of Seram island. 3,690 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: May better be considered a dialect of Moluccan (Ambonese) Malay [abs]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Muslim.

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Malay, Berau
[bve] Kalimantan Timur Province; central coastal area; north, Cape Pandan, Tanjungreder, and Muaramalinau towns on lower Segah river; south along Celebes Sea coast past Sepinang town to Cape Batube area. 11,200 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Berau, Merau Malay. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Shares phonological innovations with Kutai Malay [vkt], Banjar [bjn], and Brunei [xkd].

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Malay, Bukit
[bvu] Kalimantan Selatan Province; central interior; Sampanahan river area, northwest of Limbungan town. 59,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukat, Bukit, Meratus. Dialects: None known. A variant of Banjar Malay [bjn] (Collins 2001). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Malay, Central
[pse] Sumatra island, Sumatera Selatan Province; east down Lematang and Ogan river valleys, south of Muaraenim town, east and southeast of Lahat town; Bengkulu Province; central Bukit Barisan highlands west to Indian Ocean along Bengkulu coast; Lampung Province, 4 separate enclaves. 1,590,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bengkulu, Besemah, Enim, Lintang, Midden Maleisch, Ogan, Pasemah, Semendo, Serawai. Dialects: Serawai, Bengkulu, Semenda, Lintang, Benakat, Kisam, Pasemah, Kikim, Lematang Ulu, Ogan, Enim, Rambang. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kaur [vkk], 80% between Pekal [pel] and some dialects such as Pasemah and Bengkulu. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Malay, Jambi
[jax] Southeast Sumatra island, Jambi Province, widely spoken throughout; Sumatera Selatan Province, thin shared language zone running length of northern border; Riau Province, small corner areas, Indragiri Hulu and Indragiri Hilir regencies; Sumatera Barat Province, Pessisir Selantan regency, border enclave; Bengkulu Province, small area south of Lake Dipatipan. 1,000,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batin, Djambi. Dialects: Downstream Jambi Malay, Upstream Jambi Malay. Forms a network of related varieties with Minangkabau [min] west, Riau Malay [zlm] north, and Musi [mui] south (Anderbeck 2008). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Malay, Kota Bangun Kutai
[mqg] Kalimantan Timur Province; Lakes Semajang and Melintang areas, north along Belayen river; westward then south, central Mahakam river basin. 80,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Not intelligible with mainstream Tenggarong Kutai Malay [vkt], but may be with one of its dialects (Northern Kutai). A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Malay, Kupang
[mkn] West end,Timor island, Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Kupang regency and Kota Kupang, also on Semau island. 200,000 (2015 C. Grimes). L2 users: 150,000 (2015 C. Grimes). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Regional L2. Alternate Names: Basa Kupang, Kupang. Dialects: Air Mata, Kupang. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Loanwords from several Rote and Chinese languages, Portuguese [por], Uab Meto [aoz], Sabu [hvn], Spanish [spa], Dutch [nld], English [eng]. Christian, Muslim.

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Malay, Larantuka
[lrt] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Flores Timur regency; east end, Flores island, Larantuka city area, also third area near southwest Flores Strait towards Lewotobi town. 20,000 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bahasa Nagi, Ende Malay, Melayu Larantuka, Nagi. Classification: Creole, Malay based.

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Malay, Makassar
[mfp] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Makassar port area. L2 users: 1,880,000 (2000). Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Macassarese Malay, Makassarese Malay, Sulsel Indonesian, Ujung Pandang Indonesian. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Malay, Manado
[xmm] Sulawesi Utara Province, throughout Minahasa regency; other areas in North Sulawesi and Gorontalo provinces. 850,000 (2001). L2 users: 1,500,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). An important, growing lingua franca in many parts of Sulawesi. Alternate Names: Manadonese, Manadonese Malay, Minahasan Malay. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to North Moluccan Malay [max]. Also similar to Sri Lankan Malay [sci]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Influences from Portuguese [por] and Ternate [tft]. Christian, Muslim.

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Malay, North Moluccan
[max] Maluku Utara Province, Halmahera Selatan regency; southern tip of Halmahera island, Gane bay area, nearby islands south and west: most of Damar and northwest Jaronga islands, large island in Patinti strait. 700,000 (2001 SIL). L2 users: 300,000 (2001 R. Whisler). No monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Became LWC through trade, also used in daily life, inter-ethnic contact. Alternate Names: Ternate Malay. Dialects: None known. Different meaning of particles from Manado Malay [xmm]. Reportedly more similar to Manado Malay than to Ambonese Malay [abs]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Malay, Papuan
[pmy] Widespread throughout Papua province. 500,000 (Clouse 2000), increasing. Status: 3 (Wider communication). LWC in the coastal areas of West Papua. Became an LWC mostly as a result of Dutch colonial language policies in the early 20th century, and before that, to a rather limited extent, through trade (Kluge 2014:11–15). Alternate Names: Bahasa Tanah, Logat Papua, Melayu Papua. Dialects: North Papua Malay, Serui Malay, Bird’s Head Malay, South Coast Malay. Reportedly similar to both Ambonese Malay [abs] and Manado Malay [xmm]. Regional variations are minor and support at most a possible dialectal East-West divide (Scott et al 2008:22–100). Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Malay, Tenggarong Kutai
[vkt] Kalimantan Timur Province; east central coastal area, from Mahakam river basin east to Celebes Sea coast, north from Cape Pandan along coast south to Samarinda city area. 210,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 100,000 in Tenggarong, 60,000 in Ancalong, 50,000 in Northern Kutai. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kutai, Tenggarong. Dialects: Tenggarong Kutai, Ancalong Kutai, Northern Kutai. Many dialects. Tenggarong and Kota Bangun (Malay, Kota Bangun Kutai [mqg]) are not inherently intelligible. Shares phonological innovations with Berau Malay [bve], Banjar [bjn], and Brunei [xkd]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Malayic Dayak
[xdy] Widely dispersed; Kalimantan Tengah Province, southwest, Sukamara, Lamandau, Kotawaringgin Barat, Koti Timur and Katingan regencies; Kalimantan Barat Province, along Kapuas river, dispersed between small region near Sintang and larger one around Putussibau, third area around Sandai; from Ketapang city northeast towards Kotabaru; Semitau, Suhaid, and Mentebah-Suruk dialects: southeast of Kapuas river, from Sintang to Putus Sibau towns; Banana and Tapitn dialects: area bounded by Singakawang, Bengkayang, Darit, and Sungairaya towns; Kayung and Delang dialects: area bounded by Sandai, Muarakayang, Pembuanghulu, Sukamara, and Sukaraja townsTanjung Riau, east and southeast; Semitau, Suhaid, and Mentebah-Suruk dialects: southeast of Kapuas river, from Sintang to Putus Sibau towns; Banana and Tapitn dialects: area bounded by Singakawang, Bengkayang, Darit, and Sungairaya towns; Kayung and Delang dialects: area bounded by Sandai, Muarakayang, Pembuanghulu, Sukamara, and Sukaraja towns. 520,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 300 Tapitn, 100,000 Banana’, 100,000 Kayung, 200,000 Delang, 10,000 Semitau, 10,000 Suhaid, 20,000 Mentebah-Suruk. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bamayo, Bumayoh. Dialects: Tapitn, Banana’, Kayung (Kayong), Delang, Semitau, Suhaid, Mentebah-Suruk, Arut (Sukarame), Lamandau (Landau Kantu), Sukamara (Kerta Mulya), Riam (Nibung Terjung), Belantikan (Sungkup), Tamuan, Tomun, Pangin, Sekakai, Silat, Melahui, Serawai, Tebidah, Payak, Undau. Listed dialects form a chain and may constitute 3 or more languages. Related to Keninjal [knl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic. Comments: Serawai dialect different from the Serawai dialect of Central Malay [pse] in Sumatra. The term Malayic Dayak is misleading and is not linguistically based; it would better be termed Dayak Malayic (Collins 2003). However, it is not yet clear what linguistic label(s) should replace it.

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Malimpung
[mli] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Pinrang regency, Patampanua subdistrict, Malimpung, Sulili (part), and Urung villages. Northward bend of Sadang river, northwest of Maiwa town. 5,000 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Maiwa [wmm], 70% with Enrekang [ptt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Masenrempulu. Comments: They view themselves as distinct from Bugis [bug] and Enrekang [ptt]. Muslim.

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Mamasa
[mqj] Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamasa regency, along Mamasa river; into Sulawesi Selatan Province, area north of Pare-Pare. 100,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mamasa Toraja. Dialects: Northern Mamasa, Central Mamasa, Pattae’ (Binuang, Binuang-Paki-Batetanga-Anteapi, Patta’ Binuang, Southern Mamasa, Tae’). Lexical similarity: 78% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Mamboru
[mvd] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; northwest Sumba island, coastal area, Memboro town. 10,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Memboro. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Mamuju
[mqx] Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamuju regency, Mamuju, Kalukku, and Budong-Budong subdistricts, from Point Rangas north along Makassar strait coast to just beyond Limba town. 60,000 (1991 SIL). 50,000 in Mamuju dialect. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mamoedjoe, Mamoedjoesch, Mamudju, Udai. Dialects: Mamuju, Sumare-Rangas, Padang, Sinyonyoi. Mamuju dialect is prestigious. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mamuju. Comments: Muslim.

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Mandar
[mdr] Sulawesi Barat Province, Majene, Polewali Mandar, and Mamuju regencies. Main area near Cape Mandar and Majene city; 3 coastal enclaves north of Majene city; northernmost point of province, coastal area between Parangkayu and Simajo towns. Also, south Sulawesi Province, Pangkep regency, Pabbring islands near Makassar city, other areas. 475,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Andian, Mandharsche, Manjar. Dialects: Majene, Balanipa (Napo-Tinambung), Malunda, Pamboang, Sendana (Cenrana, Tjendana). A complex dialect grouping. May be more dialects than those listed. Balanipa and Sendana may each be more than 1 dialect. Balanipa is prestige dialect. Mandar, Mamuju [mqx], and Bambam [ptu] are separate languages in a language chain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Mandar. Comments: Muslim.

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Mander
[mqr] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, 2 enclaves, upper Tor river tributary of upper (Boe) Bu river. 20 (1991 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Nomadic. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mandobo Atas
[aax] Papua Province. Area south of Digul river headwaters, between Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah towns, extending towards Fly River border, Papua New Guinea. 10,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dumut, “Kaeti” (pej.), Kambon, Kwem, Mandobbo, Nub, Wambon. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mandobo Bawah
[bwp] Papua Province, Boven Digul regency, area east of Digul river south of Tanahmerah and Mindiptanah towns, to Fly River on Papua New Guinea border: Getentiri, Anggai, Butiptiri, Subur, Aiwat, and Kaisah villages. 20,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dumut, “Kaeti” (pej.), Kambon, Mandobbo, Nub. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manem
[jet] Papua Province, Keerom regency, northeast border area, south of Jayapura city, Wembi, Yeti, and Kiba villages. 400 in Indonesia (1978 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jeti, Skofro, Wembi, Yeti. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manggarai
[mqy] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Flores island, western third. 900000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Western Manggarai, Central Manggarai (Ruteng), West-Central Manggarai, Eastern Manggarai. Around 43 subdialects. Reportedly similar to Riung [riu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Mangole
[mqc] Maluku Utara Province; Sula islands; Mangole island, south coast; south to Sulabesi island, south tip. 7,280 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mangoli, Sula Mangoli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula. Comments: Muslim.

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Manikion
[mnx] Papua Barat Province, about 50 villages; Bird’s Head area, east, southeast from the Anggi lakes to Momi town on northwest Cenderawasih bay. 12,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mantion, Sogh, Sougb. Dialects: 4 dialects. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Mantion. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manipa
[mqp] Maluku Province, 4 villages. Manipa island, west of Seram island. 1,500 (Voorhoeve and Collins 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Soow Huhelia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Luhu [lcq], 60%–62% with Hitu [htu], 60%–61% with Tulehu [tlu] and Asilulu [asl], 58%–61% with Seit-Kaitetu [hik], 55%–60% with Larike-Wakasihu [alo], 56% with Boano [bzn] and Kaibobo [kzb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East. Comments: Muslim.

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Manombai
[woo] Maluku Province, southeast area, Aru islands, Manombai strait (Sungai) area as far as Wakua, west coast of Wokam island, from Wokam village south, 21 villages; Kobror island, Benjina; west end of Barakai strait, Maikor island, Gardakau; east coast of Wokam island, Kobamar village. May no longer be spoken on Wamar island. 9,110 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manobai, Wamar, Wokam. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Dobel [kvo]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Lorang [lrn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Mapia
[mpy] Papua Barat Province, Manokwari regency, Mapia islands, about 290 km north. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: The ethnic group emigrated to Micronesia and probably now speak either Palauan [pau], Sonsorol [sov], or Tobian [tox]. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mapian. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Micronesian, Micronesian Proper, Pohnpeic-Chuukic, Chuukic.

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Marau
[mvr] Papua Province, 5 villages. South coast, eastern Serui island fronting Cenderawasih bay. 1,700 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Warabori (Natabui, Warembori). Probably the same language as Munggui [mth] (96% lexically similar). Lexical similarity: 82% or more with Pom [pmo], Munggui [mth], Papuma [ppm], and Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian.

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Marind
[mrz] Papua Province, Merauke regency. South coast area; north and west of Merauke city; also, enclave at southernmost extreme of province. 7,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gawir, Holifoersch, Southeast Marind, Tugeri. Dialects: Gawir, Southeast Marind, Tugeri, Halifoersch. Significant differences between inland and coastal dialects, but speakers report intelligibility. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Nuclear Marind. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Marind, Bian
[bpv] Papua Province, Merauke regency, Muting subdistrict, Sanayu village; upper Bian river area. 2,900 (2002 Sohn Myo-sook). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bian, Boven-Mbian, Northwest Marind. Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible with Marind [mrz]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Nuclear Marind. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mariri
[mqi] Maluku Province, southeast area, 1 village. Aru island group; Mariri island, east of Kobroor island. 280 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mairiri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Batuley [bay]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Masela, Central
[mxz] Maluku Province, Maluku Barat Daya regency, Marsela island southwest of Babar island, Ilbutung town area: 3 villages. 510 (1980 N. de Jonge). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Central Marsela, Marsela-South Babar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Masela, East
[vme] Maluku province: Maluku Barat Daya regency, Marsela island southwest of Babar island, east central area, Welulora town inland west to Latalola Besar on west coast: 3 villages. 520 (1980 N. de Jonge). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: East Marsela. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Masela, West
[mss] Maluku Province south: Masela island south of Babar island, western tip. 5 villages. 850 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: West Marsela. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Masimasi
[ism] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Masi-Masi island off north coast facing Takar town. 10 (2005 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Masiwang
[bnf] Maluku Province, Bula district. Seram island; area along northeast coast, up from Waru bay. 1,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bonfia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 44% with Bobot [bty], 43% with Salas [sgu], 39% with Sepa [spb] and Sou Nama [tlt], 36% with Liana Seti [ste] and Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Masiwang.

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Massep
[mvs] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, north coast east of Mamberamo river mouth and west of Sarmi, near Apauwer river. 25 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 85. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Masep, Potafa, Wotaf. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Matbat
[xmt] Papua Barat Province: Raja Ampat archipelago; Misool and Segaf islands. 1,250 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Me. Dialects: Tomolol, Magey. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mawes
[mgk] Northeast coastal area, Papua Province, Sarmi regency: Bonggo subdistrict, southeast of Sarmi town; west bank of Buri river inland; Mawes Wres, Mawes Dai, and Mawes Mukti villages. 850 (2006 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Mawes. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ma’ya
[slz] Papua Barat Province; Raja Ampat archipelago; central Salawati and east end of Bantanta islands. 4,000 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sailolof, Salawati, Samate. Dialects: Ma’ya, Banlol, Batanta Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mekwei
[msf] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Maribu, Waibrong, Kendate, and Sabron Dosay villages; area north of Genyem, west of Lake Sentani. 1,200 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Demenggong-Waibron-Bano, Menggei, Menggwei, Moi, Mooi, Munggai, Mungge, Munkei. Dialects: Moi. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran. Comments: Different from Moi (Mosana) [mxn]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mentawai
[mwv] Sumatra island, Sumatera Barat Province; Mentawai islands, across from Padang city. 58,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mentawei, Mentawi. Dialects: Simalegi, Sakalagan, Silabu, Taikaku, Saumanganja, North Siberut, South Siberut, Sipura, Pagai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Meoswar
[mvx] Papua Barat Province; Meoswar island, west Cenderawasih bay. 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: War. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Biakic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mer
[mnu] Papua Province, Nabire regency; Papua Barat Province, Kaimana and and Teluk Wondama regencies: Central Bird’s Head area, headwaters of Wosimi and Uremo rivers. 85 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Miere, Muri. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Semimi [etz], 61% with Mairasi [zrs]. Classification: Mairasi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Meyah
[mej] Papua Barat Province. Eastern Bird’s Head; northeast coast, west of Manokwari town. 14,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arfak, Mansibaber, Meah, Meax, Mejach, Mejah, Meyach. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Manikion [mnx]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Meax. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Minangkabau
[min] Widespread in the Indonesian Archipelago; Sumatra island, Indian ocean coast, Sumatera Barat Province, Padang is central area; nearly half live outside central Sumatra; Sumatera Selantan, west coast Mukomuko area. 5,530,000 (2007). 500,000 in Jakarta. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Minang, Padang. Dialects: Agam, Pajokumbuh, Tanah, Si Junjung, Batu Sangkar-Pariangan, Singkarak, Pancuang Soal (Muko-Muko), Orang Mamak, Ulu, Kerinci-Minangkabau, Aneuk Jamee (Jamee), Penghulu. Not intelligible with Indonesian [ind]. Pekal [pel] may be intelligible with Minangkabau. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Mlap
[kja] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, west of Lake Sentani. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kuangsu-Bonggrang, Kwangsu-Bonggrang, Kwansu, Kwansu-Bonggrang, Malf. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran. Comments: Much intermarriage with Kemtuik [kmt] speakers. Kwansu is an obsolete village name. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mo
[wkd] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict; Wakde island, and north coastal area to southwest, just east of Tor river. 550 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Wakde. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Modang
[mxd] Kalimantan Timur Province; 5 enclaves, upper reaches of the Mahakam, Segah, Kelinjau, and Belayan rivers. 15,300 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kelingan (Long Wai, Long We), Long Glat, Long Bento’, Benehes, Nahes, Liah Bing. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Modang.

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Modole
[mqo] Maluku Utara Province; interior north Halmahera island, Kao river headwaters. 2,000 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Madole. Dialects: North Modole, South Modole. Minimal differences between north and south Modole. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Some intermarriage with the Tabaru [tby]. Christian.

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Moi
[mxn] Papua Barat Province, 9 villages. West Bird’s Head area; eastern Salawati island around to Sorong city east and southeast. 4,600 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mekwei, Mooi, Mosana, Waipu. Dialects: Mosemah. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Different from Mekwei [msf] (Moi) dialect. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moksela
[vms] Maluku Province, possibly east Buru island, near Kayeli. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1974. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Maksela, Opselan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Buru.

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Molof
[msl] Papua Province, 9 villages. Around 100 km south of Jayapura city, west of Senggi town. 230 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Poule. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Stronger use in Molof than in Waley. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moma
[myl] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Kulawi subdistrict. Primarily Kulawi and Toro town areas. 5,500 (Barr et al 1979). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kulawi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly historically a variety of Kaili [lew], but strong lexical influences from Uma [ppk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Christian.

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Mombum
[mso] Papua Province. Island next to southeast coast of Kolopom island; west of Marauke city across Arafura Sea. 250 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Kemelom, Kemelomsch, Komolom. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Koneraw [kdw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mombum. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Momina
[mmb] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Samboka village: low hills just south of main ranges; headwaters area of Brazza and Einladen rivers. 200 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. May be the same language as Momuna [mqf]. Classification: Somahai.

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Momuna
[mqf] Papua Province, lowlands just south of main ranges, from south of Silimo east to south of Korupun-Sela [kpq] language area. 2,000 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Somage, Somahai, Sumohai. Dialects: None known. May be the same language as Momina [mmb]. Classification: Somahai. Comments: They have contact with Dani who are learning Momuna. Christian, traditional religion.

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Mongondow
[mog] Sulawesi Utara Province, Bolaang Mongondow, Bolaang Mongondow Timur, and Bolaang Mongondow Selatan regencies; north peninsula, both coasts; north side from Nanasi town west to Bijaj river; south side, southwest of Rototok almost to Kombot town. 230,000 (2000 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bolaang Mongondow, Bolang-Mogondo, Minahassa, Mongondou. Dialects: Lolayan, Dumoga, Passi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Moni
[mnz] Papua Province, central highlands, northeast Lake Paniai area. 20,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Djonggunu, Jonggunu, Migani. Dialects: Awembak (Awembiak). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mor
[mhz] Papua Barat Province, Nabire regency, Mor islands, east Cenderawasih bay near Nabire; also coastal area northeast of Ruwianui point. 700 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Austronesian Mor. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Mor. Comments: Different from Trans-New Guinea Mor [moq]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mor
[moq] Papua Barat Province, Fakfak regency, northwest Bomberai peninsula, Berau bay, inland area, southeast of Mariar, northeast toward Otawiri river. 30 (2012 H. Hammarström). 70 semi-speakers (2012 H. Hammarström). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Mor2. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mor. Comments: Distinct from Austronesian Mor [mhz]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Moraid
[msg] Papua Barat Province, West Bird’s Head inland, from Mata to Worbo generally. 1,000 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mori Atas
[mzq] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Mori Atas, Lembo, and Petasia subdistricts, 25 villages; southeast peninsula neck, southeast of Lake Paso; into Sulawesi Selatan Province, Nuha subdistrict. 14,000 (1988 D. Mead). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aikoa, Berg-Tomori, Boven-Mori, Upper Mori, West Mori. Dialects: Impo, Molio’a, Molongkuni, Ulu Uwoi, Tambee (Ajo, South Mori, Zuid-Mori). Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Bawah [xmz] and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior. Comments: Christian.

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Mori Bawah
[xmz] Sulawesi island, southeast peninsula neck, Lake Towuti area; Sulawesi Tengah Province, Petasia, Lembo, and Bungku Tengah subdistricts, 24 villages; also into Sulawesi Selatan Province, around Matano and Mahalone lakes. 14,000 (1988 D. Mead). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Beneden-Tomori, East Mori, Lower Mori, Nahina, Oost-Mori, Petasia. Dialects: Tinompo (Mokole, Soroako), Watu (Towatoe), Moiki (Tomoiki), Tiu (Tioe), Karunsi’e (Karonsie, Korongsi, Sinongko), Nuha (Soroako). Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Moronene
[mqn] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Bombana regency. Southeast mainland, Rumbia mountains area. Kabaena island, Tokotu’a village; on the mainland portion opposite Kabaena; Wita Ea village. Wita Ea dialect: Rumbia, Poleang, and Poleang Timur subdistricts. Also Kolaka regency, Watubangga subdistrict. 37,000 (2000 D. Andersen), increasing. Wita Ea 23,000, Tokotu’a 14,000. Includes about 3,500 living in cities. Second or third generations in cities no longer speak Moronene. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Maronene. Dialects: Wita Ea (Poleang, Rumbia), Tokotu’a (Kabaena). Lexical similarity: Wita Ea dialect 80% with Tokotu’a dialect; 68% with Menui dialect of Wawonii [wow], 66% with Kulisusu [vkl], 65% with Taloki [tlk], Koroni [xkq], Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 64% with Bungku [bkz], and 57% with Tolaki [lbw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, Southwest. Comments: Formerly a kingdom. Muslim.

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Morop
[iwo] Papua Province, Iwur river valley border area, Ok Iwur, east to Ok Denom. Dintere dialect: 22 villages; Dinmane dialect: Dewok; Upper Dintere dialect: Aurarin hamlet. 6,900 (2011 J. Elliot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iwoer, Iwur. Dialects: Dintere, Upper Dintere, Dinmane, Nemah/Nehayah. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland. Comments: Dintere most widespread dialect. Relationship between Nemah and Dintere is unclear and may constitute more than one language. Christian, traditional religion.

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Morori
[mok] Papua Province, south coast border area 20 km east of Merauke, east of Marind, west of Kanum. 50 (1998 M. Donohue). Ethnic population: 250 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Marori, Moaraeri, Moraori, Morari. Dialects: Menge dialect remembered as the language of ceremony, though the last Menge speaker died in 1997. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Moraori. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Moskona
[mtj] Papua Barat Province, southeast Bird’s Head, western Bituni Bay, west of Manikion language area; Sebjor river basin. 8,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Meninggo, Meningo, Meyah, Sabena. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 85% with Meyah [mej]. Also related to Manikion [mnx]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, East Bird’s Head, Meax. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mpur
[akc] Papua Barat Province, Manokwari regency: north coast of Bird’s Head, west of Manokwari city, and Kebar valley. 7,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amberbaken, Dekwambre, Ekware, Kebar. Dialects: Sirir, Ajiw. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Mualang
[mtd] Kalimantan Barat Province, Belitang Hilir, Belitang, and Belitang Hulu Sekadau subdistricts. Area along Ayak and Belitang rivers, about 320 km upstream from Pontianak. 40,000 (Tjia 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Mualang Ili’, Mualang Ulu. Reportedly similar to Iban [iba]; however only one-way intelligibility from Mualang to Iban. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: Christian.

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Muna
[mnb] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Muna regency, Muna and Tiworo islands; Buton Utara regency, northwest Buton island along Buntung strait, from Puntau north past Lebo; Buton regency, Siumpu and Kadatuang islands off of southwest coast; small community in Ambon city. 300,000 (2007 R. Van den Berg). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wuna. Dialects: Standard Muna (Northern Muna), Tiworo (Eastern Muna), Gu, Lakudo, Mawasangka, Kadatua, Siompu, Katobengke, Burukene, Laompo, Kapontori. Subvarieties of standard Muna are: Tungkuno, Kabawo, Lawa, Katobu, Tobea Besar; of Gulamas are: Gu, Mawasangka, Lakudo, Wale-Ale, Lawama, Kadatua, Lowu-Lowu, Kalia-Lia, Katobengke, Topa, Salaa, Lawela, Laompo, and Burukene. Lexical similarity: 71% with Pancana [pnp], 62% with Cia-Cia [cia], 52% with Wolio [wlo], 50% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Tukang Besi [khc] or [bhq], 45% with Kamaru [kgx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Munggui
[mth] Papua Province, north coast of Serui island, 1 village. 800 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Natabui. Dialects: None known. Probably the same language as Marau [mvr], reportedly 96% lexically similar (Price and Donohue 2009). Lexical similarity: 82% with Papuma [ppm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Murkim
[rmh] Papua Province, Pegunungan Bintang regency, Batom subdistrict, southeast of Yetfa [yet] language area, Mot and Milki villages. 290 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Possible genetic relationship to Lepki [lpe]. Classification: Unclassified.

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Murut, Selungai
[slg] Kalimantan Timur Province, Nunukan regency, east of Lumbis town; upper reaches of Sembakung river. 640 in Indonesia (2000). Total users in all countries: 1,240. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Murut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut.

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Murut, Sembakung
[sbr] Kalimantan Timur Province, Nunukan regency. Sembakung river mouth; west of Alang town. 3,180 in Indonesia (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong.

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Murut, Tagal
[mvv] Kalimantan Utara Province, Nunukan regency, northwest valley area east to Simalumung town. 2,000 in Indonesia. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Semambu, Semembu, Sumambu, Sumambuq, Sumambu-Tagal. Dialects: Rundum (Arundum), Tagal (North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut, Tagol), Sumambu (Semembu, Sumambuq), Tolokoson (Telekoson), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Pensiangan Murut (Lagunan Murut, Pentjangan, Taggal, Tagul), Alumbis (Loembis, Lumbis), Tawan, Tomani (Tumaniq), Maligan (Bol Murut, Bole Murut, Mauligan, Meligan). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut.

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Musi
[mui] Sumatera Selatan Province, widespread in northern 2 thirds of province; Musi river upstream to Bukit Barisan mountains, downstream to eastern coastal swamplands; into northeast Lampung Province; a few small border areas in Jambi and Bengkulu provinces. 3,105,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Much of the population from other language groups in South Sumatra Province learn enough Urban Palembang dialect to use it as a trade language. Alternate Names: Palembang, Palembangnese, Sekayu. Dialects: Pegagan, Musi Sekayu, Penukal, Kelingi, Palembang Lama, Meranjat, Penesak, Belide, Burai, Lematang Ilir, Coastal Malay, Rawas. A mutually-intelligible dialect chain stretching along the Musi River with 2 subgroups: Musi and Palembang. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Muslim.

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Muyu, North
[kti] Papua Province, south coast border area, north of South Muyu [kts] and east of Wambon [wms] language areas. 8,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kataut, Kati-Ninanti, Niinati, Ninatie, North Kati, North Moejoe, Yonggom, Yongkom, Yongom. Dialects: Kanggewot, Toemoetoe (Are). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland.

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Muyu, South
[kts] Papua Province, south coast, just north of Fly river border with Papua New Guinea. 4,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Digoel, Digul, Kati Metomka, Metomka, Moejoe, Ok Bari, South Kati, Yonggom, Yongkom, Yongom. Dialects: Metomka. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland.

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Nafri
[nxx] Papua Province, Jayapura area, southeast end of Yotafa bay, Nafri village. 1,630 (1975 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nage
[nxe] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; central Flores island, Ebu Lobo volcano north, west slopes, northeast of Ngad’a [nxg] language area. 50,000 (Forth 1993). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nagé, Nage-Keo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Naka’ela
[nae] Maluku Province, Seram Bagian Barat regency, southwest Seram, Kairatu village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Lisabata-Nuniali [lcs], 66% with Hulung [huk], 63% with Alune [alp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Amalumute, Northwest Seram, Ulat Inai. Comments: Formerly lived in mountains then moved down to Kairatu.

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Nakai
[nkj] Papua Province, east of upper Digul river, Awimbom village in the center of 5 other villages extending toward Ok Sibil northeast, and southwest toward Iwur [iwo]. 700 (1999 M. Donohue). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Na’ai, Nagai, Na’i. Dialects: They report Indonesian [ind] and Papuan Malay [pmy] difficult to understand. Probably 3 dialects, two of these may constitute a separate language called Nagi. Not the same as Larantuka Malay [lrt] (Nagi) in Nusa Tenggara. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Mountain. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nalca
[nlc] Papua Province, northeast of Korupun [kpq] language area and southeast of Nipsan [nps] language area, north slopes, east highlands area. 16,000 (2013 R. Doriot). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hmanggona, Hmonono, Kimjal, Kimyal, Naltje, Naltya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 59% with Kosarek Yale [kkl]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Distinct from Korupun (Kimyal) dialect of Korupun-Sela [kpq]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Namla
[naa] Papua Province, Keerom regency, Senggi subdistrict, Namla village. 30 (2005 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Possible genetic relationship to Tofanma [tlg]. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Christian.

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Napu
[npy] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Poso regency, Lore Utara subdistrict; Napu valley near Poso bend, Tomini bay: 10 villages. 6,100 (2000 R. Hanna), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pekurehua. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Behoa [bep]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern, Badaic. Comments: Christian.

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Narau
[nxu] Status: Unattested. Classification: Kaure, Kaure Proper. Comments: 2006 survey data indicates language may not exist and could possibly be merged with Kosare [kiq]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nasal
[nsy] Sumatra, Bengkulu Province, Kaur regency, Tanjung Betuah, Gedung Menung, and Tanjung Baru villages. Nasal river area. 3,000 (2008 K. Anderbeck). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not closely related to surrounding languages, but heavy loans from Lampung [ljp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Nasal. Comments: Muslim.

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Ndom
[nqm] Papua Province, Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) island. 1,200 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kimaghima [kig] and Riantana [ran]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nduga
[ndx] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Tiom, central highlands, south of high ranges, south of Western Dani, north of Asmat. Scattered. 10,000 (1985 M. Owen). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dauwa, Dawa, Ndauwa, Ndugwa, Pesecham, Pesechem, Pesegem. Dialects: Sinak Nduga, Hitadipa Nduga. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nedebang
[nec] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Banda sea; north central Pantar island, south, southwest of Kabir town. 1500 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balungada, Klamu, Nédebang. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Ngad’a
[nxg] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; south central Flores island, between Manggarai [mqy], Ende [end], and Li’o [ljl] language areas. 60,000 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Badjava, Bajava, Bajawa, Nad’a, Ngada, Nga’da, Ngadha, Rokka. Dialects: Central Ngada, Bajawa, South Ngada. Dialect diversity. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Ngad’a, Eastern
[nea] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; south central Flores, Kabupaten Ngada and Kecamatan Golewa between Ngad’a [nxg] and Nage [nxe] language areas, Sara Sedu, Taka Tunga, and Sanga Deto administrative villages; Desa Rowa, Kecamatan Boawae. 5,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southeast Ngada. Dialects: Minor dialect variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Ngaju
[nij] Kalimantan Tengah Province, including Kotawaringin Timur, Katingan, Kota Palangka Raya, Pulang Pisau, Kapuas, and Gunung Mas regencies; upper reaches or headwaters of Kapuas, Kahayan, Katingan, and Mentaya rivers. 890,000 (2003). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Widely used as LWC for trade in much of Kalimantan, from Barito to Sampit rivers. Used in many domains (church, school, village-level government, market, etc.). Alternate Names: Biadju, Dayak Ngaju, Ngadju, Ngaja, Ngaju Dayak, Southwest Barito. Dialects: Ba’amang (Bara-Bare, Sampit), Katingan Ngaju, Katingan Ngawa, Kahayan, Kahayan Kapuas, Mantangai (Oloh Mangtangai), Pulopetak. Lexical similarity: 75% with Bakumpai [bkr], 62% with Kohin [kkx], 50% with Ot Danum [otd], 35% with Banjar [bjn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, South.

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Ngalum
[szb] Papua Province, northeast of Nakai [nkj] language area, Ok Sibil, Ok Tsop, and perhaps Ok Bon valleys, main range border area north of Muyu [kts] (Yongkom) and Morop [iwo] language areas. 10,000 in Indonesia (1987 SIL). Total users in all countries: 18,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sibil. Dialects: Ngalum, Apmisibil, Sibil. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nggem
[nbq] Papua Province, north of Wamena, middle Hablifoeri river. 4,400 (2005). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Yali [yac] (Pass Valley), 62% with Walak [wlw], and 50% with Western Dani [dnw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nias
[nia] Sumatra island, Sumatera Utara Province; Nias, Batu islands off west coast; Northwest dialect: Alasa area, west in Sirombu and Mandrehe areas; Central dialect: Gomo area, south in Teluk Dalam and Batu islands. 770,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Batu, Nias Selatan. Dialects: North Nias (Gunung Sitoli), South Nias, West Nias, Northwest Nias, Central Nias. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Nias. Comments: North dialect (particularly Gunung Sitoli) has high prestige and is a lingua franca in Nias. The South dialect (particularly Teluk Dalam variety) has lower prestige, especially in northern Nias, and is considered by many Nias speakers from other areas as unrefined. Christian.

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Nila
[nil] Maluku Province, south central Seram island transmigration area; 6 villages (originally from Nila island in south central Maluku). No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Serua [srw]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua.

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Nimboran
[nir] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, about 26 villages due west of Lake Sentani. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Ethnic population: 3,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Nambrong. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40% with Kemtuik [kmt]. Classification: Nimboran.

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Ninggerum
[nxr] Papua Province, Boven Digoel regency, Papua New Guinea border area. 1,000 in Indonesia. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kasiwa, Kativa, Muyu, Ninggeroem, Ninggirum, Ninggrum, Orgwo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Lowland. Comments: 2002–2003 survey data indicates probably all live in Papua New Guinea, but have land on the Indonesia side where they temporarily migrate to gather food. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nipsan
[nps] Papua Province, Jayawijaya regency, Kurima subdistrict, just west of Hmanggona. 2,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Jale, Yale-Nipsan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kosarek Yale [kkl], 59% with Nalca [nlc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Distinct from Yali of Ninia [nlk], Yali of Angguruk [yli], and Yali of Pass Valley [yac]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nisa
[njs] Papua Province, east side of Geelvink bay inland, Danau Nisa area. 500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bonefa, Kerema. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Nuaulu, North
[nni] Maluku Province, 2 villages. Seram island, central north coast, inland from west shore, Saleman bay. 500 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with South Nuaulu [nxl], 64% with Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu. Comments: Distinct from Huaulu [hud].

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Nuaulu, South
[nxl] Maluku Province, Amahai district, 6 villages. Seram island, upland from south coast. 1,500 (1995 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Fatakai, Nuaulu, Patakai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with North Nuaulu [nni]; 50% with South Wemale [weo], Hulung [huk], and Naka’ela [nae]; 48% with Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu. Comments: Different from Huaulu [hud]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Nusa Laut
[nul] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, Lease islands, Nusa Laut island, Titawai village. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 2,230 (1989 SIL). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nusalaut. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Saparua [spr], 65% with Amahai [amq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Elpaputi. Comments: Christian.

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Obokuitai
[afz] Papua Province, Mamberamo Raya regency, Lakes plain just north of Rouffaer river near its confluence with the Mamberamo: Obogwi village. 120 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aliki, Ati, Obogwitai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 78% with Eritai [ert], 69% with Biritai [bqq]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: ’Ati’, language.

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Oirata
[oia] Southwest, Maluku Province, Maluku Barat Daya regency, southeast portion, Kisar island: east and west Oirata villages; some in Ambon city. 1,220 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Maaro. Dialects: None known. Not related to other languages on Oirata or to central Maluku languages. Not closely related to languages in East Timor. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar. Comments: Christian.

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Okolod
[kqv] Kalimantan Timur Province; along Sabah border, northwestern corner of province; east of Lumbis town, north of Lundayeh town. 3,390 in Indonesia (2000). Total users in all countries: 5,390. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolod, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod Murut. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Okolod variety in Sabah, 70% with Pensiangan Murut dialect of Tagal Murut [mvv], 34% with Lun Bawang [lnd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Onin
[oni] Papua Barat Province, Fakfak regency, north Bomberai peninsula; Berau bay south coast, west to Wetin point, then southwest to Wirtopin bay; second enclave, south coast facing Panjang island, west of Fak Fak city. 500 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Onim, Sepa. Dialects: Nikuda, Ogar, Patipi, Sepa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Onin Based Pidgin
[onx] Papua Barat Province, Fak Fak regency, Onin peninsula, highlands inland, Maruntiri area. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Pidgin, Onin based.

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Ormu
[orz] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, north coast area just west of Jayapura City, north of Sentani lake, Ormu Besar and Ormu Kecil villages. 500 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Orya
[ury] Papua Province, Sarmi and Jayapura regencies, Unurum-Guay, Bonggo, and Lereh subdistricts: Taja, Witi, and Wamho (formerly of Orya) villages. 1,600 (1985 P. Fields). 900 in Unurum-Guay, 100 in Bonggo subdistrict, 600 in Lereh subdistrict. No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Oria, Uria, Warpok, Warpu. Dialects: Barat (West Orya), Timur (East Orya), Yapsi-Taja. Slight dialect differences. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Orya. Comments: Uria is a misspelling used earlier. Glossonym: Warpok by the Nimboran. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Osing
[osi] Jawa Timur Province, Banyuwangi regency area, easternmost extent of Java island; facing Bali strait. 300,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banyuwangi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Muslim.

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Ot Danum
[otd] Kalimantan Tengah Province, remote area, upper reaches of south Kapuas river, large area south of Schwaner range, 7 villages; Kalimantan Barat Province, Melawi river watershed, east of Nanga Serawai; into Kalimantan Timur Province, Kutai Barat regency. 78,800 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dohoi, Malahoi, Uud Danum, Uut Danum. Dialects: Ot Balawan, Ot Banu’u, Ot Murung 1 (Murung 1, Punan Ratah), Ot Olang, Ot Tuhup, Sarawai (Melawi), Dohoi, Ulu Ai’ (Da’an), Sebaung, Kadorih, Kuhin. Lexical similarity: 70% with Siang [sya], 65% with Kohin [kkx], 60% with Katingan dialect of Ngaju [nij], 50% with Ngaju (main dialect) [nij]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North. Comments: Dohoi and Murung 1 dialects may be separate languages. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Padoe
[pdo] Sulawesi Selatan Province, east Luwu Utara regency, Nuha, Malili, and Mangkutana subdistricts, inland betwen Lake Mantana and Usu arm of north Bone bay: 9 villages.. 5,000 (1991 P. Vuorinen). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alalao, Mori, Pado-e, Padoé, South Mori. Dialects: Central Padoe, Western Padoe. 2 dialects. Lexical similarity: 73%–86% with Mori Atas [mzq], 75% with Mori Bawah [xmz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Pagu
[pgu] Maluku Utara Province, Halmahera Utara regency; lower Kao river and west, to interior foothills north of Kao bay. 3,310 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Pago, Pagoe. Dialects: Isam, Pagu, Toliwiku (Toliliko). Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Paku
[pku] Kalimantan Tengah Province, East Barito regency, south of Ampah town. 3,500 (2003), decreasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bakau. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Ma’anyan [mhy], 73% with Dusun Witu [duv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Central-South, South.

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Palu’e
[ple] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Palu’e island, north of central Flores island. North coast, Flores mainland, northwest of Maumere, Nangahure village. 10,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lu’a, Palue, Paluqe. Dialects: None known. Possible grouping with Ende [end] and Li’o [ljl] languages; marginal intelligibility of Li’o. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Pamona
[pmf] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Poso regency; Poso Kota, Poso Pesisir, Parigi, Lage, Pamona Utara, Pamona Selatan, Tojo, Ulubongko, Ampana Kota, Ampanatete, Una-Una, Mori Atas, Petasia, Bungku Utara, and Bungku Tengah subdistricts; Sulawesi Selatan Province, Luwu Utara district, Mangkutana, north Wotu, and Bone-Bone subdistricts; total 193 villages. 137,000 (Lauder et al 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baree, Bare’e, Poso. Dialects: Pamona, Laiwonu (Iba), Rapangkaka (Aria), Tomoni, Tobau (Bare’e, Tobalo, Tobao), Tokondindi, Topada, Taa (Topotaa, Wana). Laiwonu and Rapangkaka dialects may be separate languages. Lexical similarity: 76% (Taa)–90% among dialects, except for Tombelala [ttp], which has 66%–76% with other Bungku Tengah dialects, and is considered a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona. Comments: Pamona speakers in Bungku Utara recognize 5 ethnic groups with minor dialect differences: Pusangke, Kajumorangka, Tokasiala, Burangas, and Topotaa. The first 4 are interior mountain dwellers; the Topotaa are coastal. Bungku Tengah recognize 5 varieties: Topotaa (same as Taa), Tobau, Tokondindi, and Topada. Christian.

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Panasuan
[psn] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Luwu Utara regency, northwest, area north of Karema river; Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamuju regency, Kalumpang and Seko subdistricts, 2 villages. 800 (2004 SIL). Ethnic population: 800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: To Pamosean, To Panasean. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Seko Tengah [sko], 63% with Seko Padang [skx], 72% with Budong-Budong [bdx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko, Panasuan. Comments: Christian.

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Pancana
[pnp] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, central Buton island, both east and west coasts. 6,000 (2005 D. Andersen). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pantjana. Dialects: Kapontori (Akido), Kalende (Lawele), Labuandiri. Dialect names are also place names. May be more than 1 language. Lexical similarity: 71% with Muna [mnb], 57% with Cia-Cia [cia]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Nuclear Muna-Buton, Munan, Munic, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Pannei
[pnc] Sulawesi Barat Province, Polewali Mandar regency, Wonomulyo subdistrict. 9,000 (1983). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tapango. Dialects: Tapango, Bulo. Lexical similarity: 87%–93% between the Bulo dialect and other varieties, 75%–80% with dialects of Ulumanda’ [ulm], Bambam [ptu], and Aralle-Tabulahan [atq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Muslim.

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Pantar, Western
[lev] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, west Pantar island. 10,000. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lamma, Lamma’, Lemma, Mauta, Pantar Barat. Dialects: Lamma’, Tubbe, Mauta. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Papasena
[pas] Papua Province, Lakes plain area, lower Idenburg river just east of Rouffaer river juncture. 400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 23% with Sikaritai [tty]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Papuma
[ppm] Papua Province, Kepulauan Yapen regency, Serui island south coast, northeast of Ansus island: Papuma village. 600 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Munggui [mth], Marau [mvr], and Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Patani
[ptn] Maluku Utara Province, 9 villages. Halmahera island, narrow tip, southeast peninsula, west along the coast. 10,600 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast. Comments: Different from Pattani Malay [mfa]. Muslim.

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Paulohi
[plh] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, west Seram, south central Seram island, Elpaputih bay west shore, 2 villages: Kecamatan, Amahai. 50 (1982). Very few left (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Solehua. Comments: Experienced a severe earthquake and tidal wave in 2009.

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Pekal
[pel] Sumatra island, Sumatera Selatan and Bengkulu provinces; west coast, near northern provincial border; northeast of Ipuh town to Tembesi river, to near Argamakmur town south. 30,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Minangkabau [min] with Rejang influences [rej]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: See themselves as Malay culturally and linguistically, not Minangkabau [min], though Pekal has Minangkabau influences. Neither Minangkabau nor Malay readily understand Pekal, due to lexical and phonological distinctiveness. Muslim.

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Pendau
[ums] Sulawesi Tengah Province, centered in Balaesang district, Walandano, Sibayu, and other villages. Scattered settlements as far north as Dampal Utara district. 4,500 (Quick 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ndaoe, Ndau, “Umalasa” (pej.). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: “Umalasa” is a Bugis [bug] exonym meaning ‘the sick ones’ with negative connotations. Muslim, Christian.

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Perai
[wet] Maluku Province, Maluku Barat Daya regency; southwestern area, Wetar island northeast coast, north of Timor, Uhak and Moning villages. 280 (Hinton 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tutunohan. Dialects: Moning, Uhak. Lexical similarity: 93% among dialects, 79% with Aputai [apx], 76% with Tugun [tzn], 67% with Ili’uun [ilu], 51% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar. Comments: Intermarry with the Kisar [kje]. Christian.

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Petjo
[pey] Java island, DKI Jakarta, urban area, Special Capital Region. There are some L1 speakers (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Peco’, Pecok, Petjoh. Dialects: None known. Influences from Dutch [nld], Javanese [jav], and Betawi [bew]. Classification: Creole, Dutch based. Comments: Predominantly Malay and Dutch [nld] vocabulary, with Malay and Sundanese elements.

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Pom
[pmo] Papua Province, Kepulauan Yapen regency, northwest Serui island, from Pon bay west to Woko point, Pom, Serewen, and Mias Endi villages; small enclave, easternmost Num island. 2,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ponosakan
[pns] Sulawesi Utara Province; north peninsula, south coast, Belang town area. 3,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ponasakan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Mongondow [mog], 66% with Lolak [llq]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Mongondowic. Comments: Muslim.

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Punan Aput
[pud] Kalimantan Utara Province, Malinau regency; south of Kayan river, northwest of Mount Menyapa. 370 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aput. Dialects: None known. Allegedly unintelligible of other Penan languages (Soriente 2003). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’.

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Punan Merah
[puf] Kalimantan Timur Province, Kutai Barat regency; Mahakam river, east of Ujohhilang town. 140 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Muller-Schwaner ‘Punan’. Comments: Distinct from Punan Merap [puc].

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Punan Merap
[puc] Kalimantan Utara Province, Malinau regency; upper Malinau river, east of Longkemuat town. 200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau. Comments: Distinct from Punan Merah [puf].

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Punan Tubu
[puj] Kalimantan Timur Province; Malinau, Mentarang, and Sembakung river areas. 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Punan Tubu. Comments: Not a Kenyah language (2003 A. Soriente). Penan is generic, nonagricultural peoples (Blust 1974). There are no Penan languages as a distinguishable subgroup.

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Puragi
[pru] Papua Barat Province, Sorong Selatan regency: southwest Bird’s Head along Maccluer Gulf, Matamani river area, inland. 700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mogao. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, South Bird’s Head Proper, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Putoh
[put] Kalimantan Utara Province, Malinau and Nunukan regencies; area on both sides of Mentarang river; Longberang, Mensalong, and Bangalan town areas. 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Putuk. Dialects: Pa Kembaloh, Abai. May be the same as Lun Bawang [lnd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic.

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Rahambuu
[raz] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Kolaka Utara Regency, Pakue subdistrict; west coast, upper Bone bay, Batunong north to Sulawesi Selatan Province border; small enclave in Sulawesi Selatan Province. 5,000 (Mead 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lellewao, Lellewau, Noihe, Wiaoe, Wiau. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 87% between dialects, 75% with Kodeoha [vko], 70% with Tolaki [lbw], Mekongga dialect of Tolaki [lbw], and Waru [wru]; 54% with Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Rajong
[rjg] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; 2 enclaves on Central Flores island: area near Mount Watuweri; also, south of northern Kepo’ [kuk] language area. 6,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Razong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Rampi
[lje] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Luwu Utara regency, Rampi district, 6 isolated mountain villages; also scattered in Sabbang, Limbong, Wotu, and Mangkutana districts; into Sulawesi Tengah Province, border area southwest of Lake Poso. 10,000 (2006). 2,300 in South Sulawesi, 5,700 in Central Sulawesi. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ha’uwa, Leboni, Rampi-Leboni. Dialects: Rampi (Lambu), Rato. Leboni is prestige dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Rasawa
[rac] Papua Province, Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah subdistrict, east coast, Cenderawasih bay, Rombak river mouth: 2 villages. 200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ratahan
[rth] Sulawesi Utara Province, Minahasa regency; northeast section of peninsula, southwest of Lake Tondano to northeast coast, Tomini bay. 500 (Himmelmann and Wolff 1999), decreasing. Ethnic population: 30,000 (1989). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Bentenan, Pasan, Toratan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Rejang
[rej] Sumatra, north Bengkulu Province, southwest highlands; areas near Arga Makmur, Muara Aman, Curup, and Kapahiang towns; far west, Sumatera Selatan Province, Musi Rawas Ulu. 350,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Djang, Jang, Redjang. Dialects: Lebong, Kepahiang (Kebanagung), Pasisir, Musi (Curup), Rawas. Lebong recognized as central dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Rejang. Comments: 85% live in remote rural areas. Different from Rejang-Baram group of languages on Borneo. Musi and Rawas dialects (named after rivers they are on) not to be confused with Malay varieties of the same name. Muslim.

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Rembong
[reb] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; north central Flores island, between eastern Manggarai [mqy] and Riung [riu] language areas. 5,000 (2010 C. Grimes). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Rembong, Wangka, Namu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Reta
[ret] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, Alor regency, south Pura and south Ternate (Alor) islands. 800 Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Retta. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible of languages on north Pura. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Riantana
[ran] Papua Province, Frederik Hendrik island. 1,100 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimaam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kolopom. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ribun
[rir] Kalimantan Barat Province, Kapuas Hulu regency, Tayan Hulu subdistrict. Landak river area west of Kembayan town. 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ribun, Bekidoh. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern.

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Rikou
[rgu] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; East Rote island, Rikou, Landu, and Oe Pao domains. 12,000 (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Rote, Ringgou, Rote, Rote Timur, Roti, Rotinese. Dialects: Rikou, Landu, Oe Pao (Oepao). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: ‘Ringgou’ is the pronunciation in some other Rote languages. Ethnic autonym: Rikou. Christian.

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Riung
[riu] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; north central Flores island, Kabupaten Ngada, Kecamatan Riung. 14,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Far Eastern Manggarai. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Manggarai [mqy], but marginal intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Roma
[rmm] Maluku Province, southwestern area, Jerusu village. Roma island east of Wetar island. 1,700 (1991 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Romang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Kisar-Roma. Comments: Christian.

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Rongga
[ror] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; south central Flores island, between Manggarai [mqy] and Ngad’a [nxg], and south of Wae Rana [wrx] language areas. 4,000 (2005 W. Arka). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Roon
[rnn] Papua Barat Province, Roon island west of Cenderawasih bay, north of Wandamen peninsula. 1,100 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ron. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sa’ban
[snv] Kalimantan Utara Province, Nunukan regency; east of Sarawak border, south of Benuang town. 850 in Indonesia (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Merau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic.

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Sahu
[saj] Maluku Utara Province, southwestern coast, north Halmahera island, Jailolo town area, north of Ternate and Tidore islands. 7,500 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). 3,500 in Tala’i, 4,000 in Pa’disua. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sahu’u, Sau, Sa’u. Dialects: Pa’disua (Palisua), Tala’i. Reportedly similar to Waioli [wli] and Gamkonora [gak]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Sajau Basap
[sjb] Kalimantan Timur Province, Berau, and Bulungan regencies; northeast of Muaramalinau town. 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sajau, Sujau. Dialects: Punan Sajau, Punan Basap, Punan Batu 2. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau.

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Salas
[sgu] Maluku Province, Seram Bagian Timur regency, northeast coastal area, Seram island, Gunung village. 50 (1989 SIL). Likely less than the 50 reported in 1989 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Lenkaitahe, Liambata, Salas Gunung. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48%–58% with Liana-Seti [ste], 46%–50% with Benggoi [bgy], 35%–46% with Sou Upaa [wha]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Christian.

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Saleman
[sau] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, north central Seram island, Saleman bay; 3 enclaves, northeast bay west of Wanai town; south, Opin area; west coast of bay, south of Nanaa point. 4,800 (1989 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hatue, Sawai, Seleman, Wahai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni], 48% with South Nuaulu [nxl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Sawai-Nuaulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Saluan
[loe] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Banggai regency, north shore, Tomini bay, Balingara town east to Mount Balantak area, south shore, from Lamala bay southwest along Peleng strait to Mantawa town, inland up to central highlands; Tojo Una-Una regency, Togian islands, Walbabhi island: Batui, Kintom, Luwuk, East Luwuk, Boalemo, Pagimana, Bunta, and Nuhon subdistricts, 136 villages. 76,000 (1978). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Coastal Saluan, Loinang, Loindang, Madi, Mondono. Dialects: Loinang (Baloa’, Kohumama’, Lingketeng), Luwuk, Kintom-Pagimana-Boalemo. Lexical similarity: 74% with Batui [zbt], 53% with Bobongko [bgb], 62% with Andio [bzb], 51% with Balantak [blz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Saluan-Banggai, Western, Saluanic. Comments: Users prefer Saluan over Loinang. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Samarokena
[tmj] Papua Province, Mamberamo Raya and Sarmi regencies, north coast inland just east of Apauwar river, west of Sarmi: Karfasia, Samarkena, Maseb, and Tamaya villages. 400 (1982 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Karfasia, Samarkena, Tamaja, Tamaya. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, West Coast. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sanggau
[scg] Kalimantan Barat Province, Sanggau regency. Kapuas river, both sides, west, south of Sanggau town. 45,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dosan, Mayau, Sanggau. Very heterogenous dialects, probably more than 1 language in this group. Not all Sanggau isolects mutually intelligible. Koman and Semerawai could be in this group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak.

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Sangir
[sxn] Sulawesi Utara Province; northwest of east end of peninsula, Great Sangir island. 200,000 in Indonesia (Maryott 1993), increasing. 50,000 Siau, 10,000 Tagulandang. Total users in all countries: 255,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sangi, Sangih, Sangihé, Sangirese. Dialects: Siau (Sjauw), Manganitu (Tamako), Tabukang (Tabukan), Taruna (Tahuna), Tagulandang (Tahulandang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Saparua
[spr] Maluku Province, Kulur, Iha, Siri-Sori, Iha, Kulur, Latu, Hualoy, Tomalehu, and Kairatu villages. Saparua, nearby Seram islands. 10,200 (1989 SIL). 4,520 in Iha. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Kulur, Iha-Saparua, Iha-Seram, Siri-Sori. Each village has its own dialect. Lexical similarity: 86%–89% among dialects; 82%–84% with Latu [ltu], 69% with Amahai [amq], 67% with Kamarian [kzk], 68%–71% with Haruku [hrk], 65% with Kaibobo [kzb], 62%–66% with Tulehu [tlu], 49% with Luhu [lcq], 54% with Naka’ela [nae]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Uliase, Hatuhaha, Saparua. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Saponi
[spi] Papua Province, interior Waropen regency, Waropen Bawah subdistrict, Botawa village. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Lakes Plain, Rasawa-Saponi.

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Sarudu
[sdu] Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamuju Utara regency, south Pasangkayu subdistrict, north coast Makassar strait; 1 enclave near mouth, Lariang river, another south, between Kaliee and Moro. 4,000 (Grimes and Grimes 1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Doda’. Dialects: Nunu’, Kulu (Lariang). Lexical similarity: 75% with Uma [ppk], 80% with Benggaulu dialect of Uma [ppk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern. Comments: Contact with Bugis [bug] and Kaili Ledo [lew] speakers. Muslim.

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Sasak
[sas] Nusa Tenggara Barat Province, Lombok island. 2,100,000 (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lombok. Dialects: Kuto-Kute (North Sasak), Ngeto-Ngete (Northeast Sasak), Meno-Mene (Central Sasak), Ngeno-Ngene (Central East Sasak, Central West Sasak), Mriak-Mriku (Central South Sasak). Complex dialect network. Some varieties have low mutual intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa, Sasak-Sumbawa. Comments: Subgroups: Waktu Lima, Waktu Telu. Most Waktu Telu own farms; most Waktu Lima are landless, travel more, and have diverse occupations. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sauri
[srt] Papua Province, Waropen regency, east side of Cenderawasih bay, Sauri-Sirami village, near Sirami river. 100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Barapasi [brp], 60% with Demisa [dei], 76% with Kofei [kpi], 63% with Tefaro [tfo]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sause
[sao] Papua Province, southwest of Sentani, northwest of Lereh, Ures, Mubararon, Sause-Bokoko, Witti-Yadow, Lidya, and Puaral villages. 250 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seuce. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Sause. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sawai
[szw] Maluku Utara Province, Halmahera Tengah and Halmahera Selatan regencies, Gane Timur and Weda districts;13 villages. Halmahera island, southeast peninsula, Weda bay, both coasts: 13 villages. 12,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Weda, Weda-Sawai, Were. Dialects: Weda, Sawai, Kobe, Faya-Mafa, Messa-Dote. Lexical similarity: 64% with North Nuaulu [nni]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, South Halmahera, Southeast. Comments: Different from Saleman [sau]. Muslim, Christian.

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Saweru
[swr] Papua Province, Serui Waropen regency, Yapen Selatan subdistrict, central Serui island, an island south of Yapen island near Serui. 300 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sarwar Use. Classification: West Papuan, Yapen. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sawi
[saw] Papua Province, Asmat Regency, Pantai Kasuari and Fayit subdistricts, near south coastal lowland, between Kronkel and Ayip rivers and upper Fayit river area, Kamur, Esebor, Wiagas, Minahai, and Comoro villages. 3,500 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Aejauroh, Sawuy. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Sawi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sawila
[swt] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; southeast Alor island, between Kula [tpg] and Wersing [kvw] language areas. 3,000 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tanglapui. Dialects: Sawila, Lona, Salimana, Lalamana, Sileba. Marginal intelligibility but reportedly structurally similar to Kula [tpg]; distinct historical ethnic identities. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Tanglapui. Comments: Many current village locations are the result of recent migrations from older locations. Christian, traditional religion.

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Seberuang
[sbx] Kalimantan Barat Province. Kapuas river area from Nanga Silat town to Selimbau town, on Belimbing, Lebang, Belitang, Seauk, Tempunak, Selimbau, and Silat rivers. 37,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Quite similar to Desa, a dialect of Iban [iba] (2004 M. Connor). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sedoa
[tvw] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Lore Utara subdistrict, Sedoa village; Poso Pesisir subdistrict, parts of Tambarona and Pinedapa villages. 900 (2009 S. Shore). 900 in Sedoa village; 3,000 ethnic Sedoa also live outside the area, but most do not speak Sedoa. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baria, Tawaelia, Tawailia, Topobaria. Dialects: Not a dialect of nearby Napu [npy] or of Kaili languages. Most closely related to Moma [myl] in Palolo Valley. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Christian.

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Segai
[sge] Kalimantan Timur Province, Berau regency. Kelai river area around Longlaai town. 2,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ga’ay, Menggae, Segayi. Dialects: Kelai, Segah. Called Segayi by the Berau, Ga’ay by the Kenyah and Kayan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Modang.

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Seget
[sbg] Papua Barat Province, west Bird’s Head southwest of Sorong, Walian, Sailolof, Segum, and Seget villages. 1,200 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Seit-Kaitetu
[hik] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, Piru bay, Ambon island, north coast: Seit and Kaitetu villages. 10,200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hila-Kaitetu. Dialects: Seit (Seith), Kaitetu. Lexical similarity: 85% between Kaitetu and Seit dialects. Lexical similarity: 78%–82% with Asilulu [asl], 67%–74% with Tulehu [tlu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, West, Asilulu. Comments: Muslim.

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Sekak
[lce] Sumatra, Riau Province, Bengkalis, Kepulauan Meranti, and Pelawan regencies, offshore islands Rangsang, Mendol, and Bengkalis, 4 areas; Kepulauan Bangka Belitung Province, Bangka Barat, Banka Tenga, and Bangka Selantan regencies, 2 coastal enclaves northern and southeast Bangka island; Belitung regency, western Belitung, Lepar, Liat, Mendanau, and other islands; Kepulauan Riau Province, Karimun regency, Kundar island, and Kota Batam regency, south and southwest of Singapore, Batam and Kapalajernih islands; possible scattered populations on mainland. 420 (2000), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lonchong, Loncong, Lontjong, Orang Laut, Orang Sawang, Sawang, Seka, Sekah. Dialects: Lexically and phonologically distinct from the Belitung dialect of Malay [zlm] and other Sea Tribe varieties. Lexically most similar to Bintan Orang Laut Malay [zlm] dialect. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Southernmost of dozens of Malayic-speaking Orang Laut, sea tribe, groups ranging from the waters of Thailand through the Riau archipelago and Bangka and Belitung. Traditional religion.

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Sekar
[skz] Papua Barat Province, Fakfak regency, northwest Bomberai peninsula coast, Kokas area and Ogar island offshore. 450 (Voegelin and Voegelin 1977). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Seka. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: highest with Arguni [agf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Seko Padang
[skx] Sulawesi Selatan Province, North Luwu regency, northeast Limbong subdistrict. Northwestern corner of province. Also, Central Sulawesi Province, Palolo valley. 5,000 (1985 SIL). 2,300 in the Seko area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Seko, Sua Tu Padang, Wono. Dialects: Lodang, Hono’ (Wono). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko. Comments: Many primary schools. Christian, Muslim.

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Seko Tengah
[sko] Sulawesi Selatan Province, northern section, west Limbong subdistrict; area along Betue river. 2,500 (Laskowske and Laskowske 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pewanean, Pewaneang, Pohoneang, Seko. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Seko Padang [skx], 67% with Panasuan [psn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Seko. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Selaru
[slu] Maluku Province, southeast area, Maluku Tenggara Barat regency, Tanimbar island group; Selaru island off southwest tip of main island Yamdena, Yamdena island itself, Nuswotar island off Yamdena west coast: at least 6 villages. Some in Saumlake, Ambon towns. 8,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Salaru. Dialects: Kandar. Slight dialect differences. Not closely related to nearby languages. Lexical similarity: 56% with Seluwasan [sws]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Selayar
[sly] Sulawesi Selatan Province; Selayar island. 128,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Salajar, Salayar, Salayer, Saleier, Siladja, Silajara. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Makassar [mak]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Makassar. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Seluwasan
[sws] Southern area, Maluku Province, Maluku Tenggara Barat regency; Tanimbar island group, Yamdena island, southwest coast: Wermatang, Batu Putih, Marantutu, and Makatian villages. 2,840 (Florey 2005). 740 in Makatian, 2,100 in Seluwasan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Selvasa, Selwasa. Dialects: Seluwasan, Makatian. Makatian dialect quite different from others. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Southern. Comments: Christian.

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Semandang
[sdm] Kalimantan Barat Province, Ketapang regency. Kualan and Semandang river areas. 20,000 (2004 M. Connor). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kualan-Semandang. Dialects: Semandang, Gerai, Beginci, Bihak, Komi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Semimi
[etz] Papua Barat Province, Kaimana regency, Bomberai peninsula from Tarera bay west and north, southwest end at Triton bay and interior to northwest near Lacmora and Aiwasa lakes; Papua Timur Province, Nabire regency, far west, border area west of Lake Jamur. 1,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Etna Bay, Muri, Wesrau. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Mairasi [zrs], 63% with Mer [mnu]. Classification: Mairasi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sempan
[xse] Papua Province, middle south coast, between Kokonao and Agats, east of Kamoro [kgq] and west of Asmat language areas. 1,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nararapi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Kamoro [kgq]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Asmat-Kamoro, Sempan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sentani
[set] Papua Province, Lake Sentani area, about 30 villages. Scattered in Papua and other parts of Indonesia. 30,000 (1996 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Buyaka. Dialects: East Sentani, West Sentani, Central Sentani. Lexical similarity: 30% with Tabla [tnm]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sepa
[spb] Maluku Province, Sepa village. Seram island, several enclaves along southwest coast between Elapaputih and Teluti bays. 2,600 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tamilouw. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69%–78% with Sou Nama [tlt], 50% with Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East.

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Serili
[sve] South, Maluku Province, Babar island group southeast, Marsela island, northeast tip. Papilewan town. 330 (1980 N. de Jonge). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Masela-South Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Serua
[srw] Central Maluku Province, south central Seram island, transmigration area; 4 villages. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nila [nil]. Not intelligible with Teun [tve]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Nila-Serua. Comments: Government had moved them from Serua Island, south central Maluku, to Seram due to volcanic activity on their island.

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Serui-Laut
[seu] Papua Province, Kepulauan Yapen regency, south coast Serui island, area around Serui town, second enclave west past Panduan point, also, Nau island in Sareba bay south of Serui: 5 villages. 1,200 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arui. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Ansus [and], 77% with Ambai [amk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian.

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Siang
[sya] Kalimantan Tengah Province, Murung Raya regency. Northern bend area, Barito river, north along tributary. 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ot Siang. Dialects: Siang, Murung 2. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, West, North.

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Sika
[ski] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; east Flores island, between Li’o [ljl] and Lamaholot [slp] language areas. 175,000 (Lewis and Grimes 1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Krowe, Maumere, Sara Sikka, Sikka, Sikkanese. Dialects: Sara Krowe (Central Sikka), Sikka Natar (Kangaé, South Coast Sikka), Tana Ai. Wide linguistic and cultural variation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Sikaritai
[tty] Papua Province, Lakes plain area, Idenburg and Rouffaer river junctions north, Mamberamo river, Sikari, Haya, and Iri villages. 2,000 (2015 C. Wanarahardja). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aikwakai, Araikurioko, Ati, Sikari, Tori, Tori Aikwakai. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Eritai [ert]. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sikule
[skh] Sumatra, Aceh Province. Simeulue archipelago; central portion, Simeulue island. 20000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sichule, Sikhule, Wali Banuah. Dialects: Lekon, Tapah. Reportedly similar to Nias [nia]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands, Nias.

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Silimo
[wul] Papua Province, central highlands south of the range immediately west of Baliem River, Amo and Kiniage valleys. 5,000 (1987 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Paiyage, South Ngalik, Usak, Wulik. Dialects: Lower Samenage. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Simeulue
[smr] Sumatra, Aceh Province. West and east ends of Simeulue island; Babi and Banjak islands. 30000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Long Bano, Simalur, Simeuloë, Simulul. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northwest Sumatra-Barrier Islands. Comments: Muslim.

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Skou
[skv] Papua Province, east of Jayapura, north coast border area, Tami river mouth, Sko-Yambe, Sko-Mabu, and Sko-Sai villages. 700 (1999 M. Donohue). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sekol, Sekou, Sko, Skouw, Skow, Sukou, Te Mawo, Tumawo. Classification: Skou, Skou-Serra-Piore, Nuclear Skou, Skou. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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So’a
[ssq] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; central Flores island, central Kabupaten Ngada, between Ngad’a [nxg] and Riung [riu] language areas. 10,000 (1994). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Soa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ngad’a [nxg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata. Comments: Christian.

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Sobei
[sob] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Sarmi subdistrict, north coast area east of Sarmi. 1,000 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,850 (2000 D. Tryon). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Biga, Imasi, Liki. Dialects: None known. Reportedly comprehension of Liki [lio]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Government schools through entire area. Increasing intermarriage with other groups. Christian.

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Sou Nama
[tlt] Maluku Province. South Seram island, Teluti bay. 17,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Silen, Taluti, Tehoru, Teluti, Tihoru, Wolu. Dialects: West Sou Nama (Haya, Tehoru, Tehua, Wolu), Laha Serani. Lexical similarity: 74%–89% among dialects, 69%–78% with Sepa [spb], 50% with Yalahatan [jal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Sou Upaa
[wha] Maluku Province, 30 villages. Seram island, north, Mansuela mountain area; south, area along Teluti bay. 7,000 (1989 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Manusela, Wahai, Wahinama. Dialects: Kanikeh, Hatuolu, Maneo, South Sou Upaa. Lexical similarity: 66%–74% between the Kanikeh dialect and other varieties, 67%–75% with Hatuolo, 64%–86% with Maneo, 66%–86% with Maneoratu, 67%–80% with South Sou Upaa; 64%–72% with Huaulu [hud], 42%–61% with Liana Seti [ste], 45% with Saleman [sau]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Manusela-Seti. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Sowanda
[sow] Papua Province, Keerom regency, south of Jayapura, northeast border area, east of Senggi. 210 in Indonesia (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waina, Waina-Sowanda, Wanja, Wanya, Wina. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sowari
[dmy] Papua Province, north coast west of Tanahmerah bay, Muris Besar, Muris Kecil, Ambora, and Yougafsa villages. 1,300 (2000), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Demta, Muris. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Demta. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Suabo
[szp] Papua Barat Province, south Bird’s Head, southeast of Suabo river, along Maccluer bay, 15 villages. 1,100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iagu, Inanwatan, Mirabo, Suabau. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Duriankere [dbn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Inanwatan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Sula
[szn] Maluku Utara Province; Sula islands; Sulabesi island, widespread, scattered on Mangole island, east and west ends, north coast, Buru island, northeast coast. 20,000 (1983 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sanana. Dialects: Fagudu, Falahu, Facei (Facé). Reportedly similar to Mangole [mqc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula. Comments: Muslim.

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Sumbawa
[smw] Nusa Tenggara Barat Province. Sumbawa island, west of the isthmus, Moyo island off northern coast. 300,000 (1989). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Semawa, Sumbawarese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bali-Sasak-Sumbawa, Sasak-Sumbawa.

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Sunda
[sun] Java island, Jawa Barat and Banten provinces; western third of the island, though generally inland from north shore; across border, Jawa Tengah Province, Cilacap regency. 34,000,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in western Java. Alternate Names: Priangan, Sundanese. Dialects: Bogor (Krawang), Pringan, Cirebon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sundanese. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sunum
[ymn] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, coastal area and an island off north coast, east of Tor river. 560 (2005 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Yamna. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Suwawa
[swu] Maluku sea, Sulawesi Utara Province, Bolaang Mongondow Utara, Bolaang Mongondow, and Bolaang Mongondow Selantan regencies; southwest corner of province, Pinogu area inland; Gorontalo Province, Bone Bolango regency, Bunda river valley, east of Gorontalo city. 5,000 (2012 Y. Kitada). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bonda, Bone, Bunda, Bune, Suvava, Toewawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Gorontalo-Mongondow, Gorontalic. Comments: Separate language from Gorontalo [gor]. Muslim.

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Tabaru
[tby] Maluku Utara Province, Ibu, Jailolo, and Oba districts. North Halmahera island. 15,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tobaru. Dialects: Adu, Nyeku. Northern dialect is the main one. Dialects mutually inherently intelligible. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Christian.

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Tabla
[tnm] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Bukia, Depapre, and Wari towns, on north coast east and west of Tanahmerah bay: 13 villages. 3,750 (1990 UBS). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jakari, Tabi, Tanah Merah, Tanahmerah 2, Tepera. Dialects: Yokari, Tepera, Yewena-Yongsu. Yokari dialect understood by other dialects at 80% to 95%, others have 95%–100% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 30% with Sentani [set]. Classification: East Bird’s Head-Sentani, Sentani, Sentani Proper. Comments: Distinct from Tanahmerah [tcm] (Sumeri) of Bomberai Peninsula. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tae’
[rob] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Luwu and North Luwu regencies. Main area along the northwest coast; Bone bay; west in Bastem subdistrict, along Rongkong river valley past Salutallang village; Seko Lemo subdialect spoken in its own enclave in Uro valley, northwest of Sallutallang; enclave of Rongkong speakers in East Luwu regency, Nuha subdistrict near Soroako. 340,000 (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: East Toraja, Luwu’, Luwu-Rongkong, Rongkong, Rongkong-Luwu, Tae’ Tae’, Taeq, “Toala’", Toraja Timur, Toware. Dialects: Rongkong, Northeast Luwu (Bone-Bone, Masamba), South Luwu, Bua. Dialect chain throughout Tae’ area east into Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Lexical similarity: 82% or greater among dialects, 82% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Different from Toraja-Sa’dan (Tae’) [sda]. Different from the Bugis-Luwu dialect of Bugis [bug]. Different from the Bugis-speaking “Toala” identified by P. and F. Sarasin (1903). “Toala’" is a pejorative Bugis exonym meaning forest people. Rongkong dialect has Seko Lemo, Rongkong Atas (Rongkong-Kanandede) and Rongkong Bawah (Sabbang) subdialects. Bua dialect has Bajo (Palili’) and Bastem (“Toala’”) subdialects. Muslim.

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Taikat
[aos] Papua Province, due south of Jayapura, northeast border area. 500 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arso, Tajkat. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Awyi [auw]. Classification: Border, Taikat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Taje
[pee] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Parigi Moutong regency, Parigi Tengah and Ampibabo subdistricts, Tomini bay. 350 (Himmelmann 2001), decreasing. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andje, Lole, Petapa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: Different from the Lole dialect of Kaili Unde [unz]. Muslim.

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Tajio
[tdj] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Ampibabo, Tinombo, and Sindue subdistricts, 21 villages. Western shore, Tomini bay. 12,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Adjio, Kasimbar, Ta’adjio, Tadjio. Dialects: Northern Tajio, Central Tajio, Western Tajio. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Southern. Comments: Kasimbar is the main town. Muslim.

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Talaud
[tld] Sulawesi Utara Province; Talaud islands, northeast of Sangir islands. 82,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Talaur, Talaut, Talodda. Dialects: Kaburuang, South Karakelong (Karakelang, Karakelong), Nenusa-Maingas, Essang, Arangka’a, Dapalan (Riung), Awit, Beo, Lirang (Salebabu, Salibabu). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Taliabu
[tlv] Maluku Utara Province; Sula island group; Taliabu island, northwest coast; some on Mangole island. 4,520 (2000). 500–1,500 in Mangei. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taliabo. Dialects: Padang (Samada), Mananga, Mangei (Mang, Mange, Mange’e, Sobojo, Soboyo). Dialects 90% or more lexically similar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, Sula, Taliabo. Comments: Talo, Seho, Biha, and Bono (Mbono) are place names. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Taloki
[tlk] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, northwest coast, Buton island, Buton Utara regency; Wakorumba and Kapontori subdistricts, Maligano and Wakalambe villages. 550 (2005 R. Van den Berg). 400 in Maligano, 150 in Wakalambe. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Talloki, Taluki. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 77% with Kulisusu [vkl]; 75% with Koroni [xkq]; 66% with Wawonii [wow], Bungku [bkz], and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz]; 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast, Kulisusu. Comments: Muslim.

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Talondo’
[tln] Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamuju regency, Bonehau subdistrict, part of Bonehau village. 1,200 (2011 A. Tadollo), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Talondo Kondo. Dialects: None known. May be in the Seko subgroup (Padang [skx] or Tengah [sko]). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kalumpang [kli]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Tamagario
[tcg] Papua Province, south coast area, south and east of Kayagar [kyt] and west of Yaqay [jaq] language areas. 3,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buru, Tamaraw, Wagow, Wiyagar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kayagar [kyt], also related to Atohwaim [aqm]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Kayagar. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Taman
[tmn] Kalimantan Barat Province, Kapuas Hulu regency. Upper Kapuas river; upriver from Putussibau town. South of Mount Lawit. 30,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dayak Taman, Taman Dayak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis, Tamanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tanahmerah
[tcm] Papua Barat Province, Teluk Bintuni regency, north Bomberai peninsula, Bintuni bay, Gondu and Bapai rivers. 500 (1978 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sumeri, Sumerine. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Tanah Merah. Comments: Distinct from Tanahmerah (Tabla) of Sentani [set] branch. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tandia
[tni] Papua Province, Nabire regency, Bird’s Head neck area just south of Wandamen peninsula and Wohsimi river; possibly in Papua Barat province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Tandia. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tangko
[tkx] Papua Province, west of Nakai [nkj] language area, Kawemaot village. 100 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Tangko. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tarangan, East
[tre] Maluku Province, southeastern portion, south Aru islands, Tarangan island east coast, and villages in Maikor strait (Sungai Maikor). 12 villages. 6,110 (2011 SIL). Population counted in the 12 villages only. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: East Trangan, Tarangan Timur. Dialects: North East Tarangan, South East Tarangan. Lexical similarity: 71% with West Tarangan [txn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Tarangan, West
[txn] Maluku Province, southeastern area, south Aru islands, Tarangan island west coast. 7,910 (2011 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tarangan Barat, West Trangan. Dialects: Southwestern Tarangan, North Central Tarangan. 2 sharply distinct dialect groups with minor variation within them. Lexical similarity: 70% with East Tarangan [tre] and Manombai [woo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Largest language group in Aru Islands. Christian, Muslim.

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Tarpia
[tpf] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Demta subdistrict, north coast, west of Tanahmerah bay, Tarfia village. 630 (2006 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Sufrai, Tarfia. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kaptiau [kbi] and Bonggo [bpg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Christian.

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Tause
[tad] Papua Province, Mamberamo Raya and Waropen regencies, 3 enclaves stretching northwest of Splitsingbivak on the Rouffaer river. 300 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Darha, Doa. Dialects: Tause, Weirate, Deirate. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, West. Comments: First contact with outside world in 1982. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tausug
[tsg] Kalimantan Utara Province, scattered coastal settlements; immigrants from Sulu Archipelago in the Philippines. 12,000 in Indonesia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Joloano Sulu, Jolohano, Moro Joloano, Sinug Tausug, Sooloo, Sulu, Suluk, Taosug, Tausog, Taw Sug. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Tawoyan
[twy] Eastern area, Kalimantan Tengah Province, east of Barito river, area around Palori town; border area, southeast Kalimantan Timur Province. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tabojan, Tabojan Tongka, Taboyan, Tabuyan, Tawoyan Dayak, Tewoyan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Lawangan [lbx], 52% with Dusun Deyah [dun]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, North.

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Tebi
[dmu] Papua Province, Keerom regency, border area south of Arso town, northeast of Idenburg river, Dubu, Jembatan Web, and Affi villages. 220 (2005 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dubu. Classification: Pauwasi, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tefaro
[tfo] Papua Province, east side of Cenderawasih bay, Tefaro and Demba villages. 100 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Demba. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Barapasi [brp], 63% with Sauri [srt], 70% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tehit
[kps] Papua Barat Province, southwest Bird’s Head, Sorong regency, most of Teminabuan subdistrict, half of Sawiat subdistrict, about 31 villages. 10,000 (2000 R. Hesse). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaibus, Tahit, Tehid, Teminabuan. Dialects: Tehit Jit, Mbol Fle, Saifi, Imyan, Sfa Riere, Fkar, Sawiat Salmeit. Lexical similarity: 60% with Kalabra. Classification: West Papuan, West Bird’s Head. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Teiwa
[twe] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province, 6 villages. Central Pantar island. 4,000 (Klamer and Klamer 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tewa. Dialects: Deing, Madar, Lebang. Deing (Diang) may be a separate language. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar.

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Tela-Masbuar
[tvm] Banda sea, Maluku Province, Maluku Barat Daya regency, southwest Babar island northwest of Amplawas: Tela and Masbuar villages.. 1,050 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Masbuar-Tela, Tela’a. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Babar, South, Southwest Babar. Comments: Christian.

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Tengger
[tes] Jawa Timur Province, south of Pasuran regency, near Mount Bromo. 80,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tenggerese. Dialects: None known. May be marginally intelligible with Javanese [jav]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Ethnically distinct from Javanese. Hindu.

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Teor
[tev] Maluku Province. Watubela archipelago, Teor and Ut islands. 1,100 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tio’or. Dialects: Gaur Kristen, Ut. Self-report to understand Kur [kuv]. Lexical similarity: 79% with Gaur Kristen and Ut, 71%–83% with Kur [kuv], 41% with Watubela [wah], 38% with Geser [ges]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Teor-Kur. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Tereweng
[twg] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; 2 villages on Tereweng island off southeast coast of Pantar island, and one village on Pantar. 800 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar, Alor-Pantar, Pantar. Comments: Distinct ethnic identity from Blagar.

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Termanu
[twu] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Termanu, Keka, Talae, Korbafo, and Bokai domains. Central Rote island. 30,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Rote, Pa’da, Rote, Rote Tengah, Roti, Rotinese. Dialects: Pa’da (Termanu), Pa’da Kona (Keka-Talae, Southern Termanu), Korbafo (Korbaffo), Bokai. Reportedly seems more similar to Lole [llg] than to other varieties on Rote. Korbafo and Bokai may need to be separated for sociolinguistic reasons. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian.

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Ternate
[tft] Maluku Utara Province, Kota Ternate regency, Hiri and Ternate islands; Halmahera Selatan regency, Kayoa islands on north end of Lapan bay, islands between Bacan and Kasiruta islands; southernmost point, Halmahera island southeast of Gana bay, Damar and Yoronge islands off of cape Lihobo; some communities on western north coast. 42,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). L2 users: 20,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tidore [tvo]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Ternate-Tidore. Comments: Muslim.

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Ternateño
[tmg] Maluku Utara Province, Kota Ternate city, Ternate island. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ternatenyo. Dialects: Spanish [spa] relexification. Historical relationship with Chavacano and dialects, still spoken in the Philippines. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Tetun
[tet] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; central Timor island, bi-coastal. 400,000 in Indonesia (2011). Total users in all countries: 463,500. Status: 5 (Developing). De facto language of provincial identity in portions of Timor Island, East Nusa Tenggara province. Alternate Names: Belo, Belu, Fehan, Teto, Tettum, Tetu, Tetum, Tetun Belu, Tetung. Dialects: Eastern Tetun (Lakluta, Natarbora, Soibada, Tetun Loos, Tetun Los, Tetun Terik), Southern Tetun (Belu Selatan, Fehan, Lia Fehan, Plains Tetun, South Belu, South Tetun, Tasi Mane), Northern Tetun (Belu Utara, Foho, Hill Tetun, Lia Foho, North Belu, Tasi Feto, Tetun Terik, Tetun Therik). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor. Comments: Different language from Tetun Dili [tdt]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Te’un
[tve] Maluku Province, central portion, south central Seram island location area; 4 villages. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Teun-Nila-Serua, Teun. Comments: Government moved them from Teun Island, south central Maluku, due to volcanic activity on their island.

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Tidore
[tvo] Maluku Utara Province; Tidore island. Ternate, Mare, and northern Moti islands. Also Halmahera island, west coast areas, facing in turn Tidore, Moti, and Kayaa islands. 26,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). L2 users: 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ternate [tft]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Ternate-Tidore. Comments: Muslim.

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Tidung, Southern
[itd] Kalimantan Utara province: Tarakan, Nunukan, Malinau, Pembeliangan, Mensalong, Tideng Pale, and Atap towns. 27,000 in Indonesia (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camucones, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong. Dialects: Nonukan (Nunukan), Penchangan, Sedalir (Sadalir, Salalir, Saralir, Selalir), Sesayap (Sesajap), Sibuku, Tarakan (Terakan), Tidung. There is also no inherent intelligibility between Northern Tidung [ntd] and Southern Tidung according to speakers of varieties of both languages. Lexical similarity: 65% with Northern Tidung [ntd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong.

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Tii
[txq] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Rote island, southwest. East of Dela-Oenale [row], west of Lole [llg], and south of Dengka [dnk] language areas. 20,000 (2002 UKAW). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rote, Rote Barat, Roti, Rotinese, Thie, Ti, Western Rote. Dialects: Minor variation, third singular verb prefix, na-fa’da, varies with, i-fa’da. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Rote. Comments: Christian.

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Tobati
[tti] Papua Province, Jayapura bay, near Jayapura, Tobati, Enggros, Entrop, Kota Raja, and Tanah Hitam villages. 100 (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Enggros, Humboldt Jotafa, Jayapura, Jotafa, Tobwadic, Yautefa, Yotafa. Dialects: None known. Formerly classified as Papuan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Jayapura Bay. Comments: Christian.

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Tobelo
[tlb] Maluku Utara Province, Tubelo, Kao, and Jailolo districts, North Halmahera; Maba and Wasile districts, Central Halmahera. Halmahera island, west coast, contiguous area surrounding Kao bay, inland. Morotai island, east coast central. Communities on Patani, Weda, Gane, Bacan, Obi, Ambon, and Raja Ampat islands. Papua Province, Sorong area. 27,700 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Dodinga, Boëng, Tobelo (Heleworuru). Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Taught in middle school in Tobelo town. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tofanma
[tlg] Papua Province, south Jayapura border area, Keerom regency, Senggi subdistrict, Tofanma Satu, Tofanma Dua, and most of Namla villages. 250 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tofamna. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tolaki
[lbw] South Sulawesi Tenggara Province, North Konawe, Konawe, South Konawe, Kolaka, and North Kolaka regencies, Mekongga district, west coast; broad area from Point Kolono, southeast peninsula, extending northwest across plains up to highlands; along west coast, past Klaka town towards Bone bay narrows. 331,000 (2000 census). 298,000 Tolaki (Konawe), 33,000 Mekongga and 200 Wiwirano. Asera and Laiwui not separately listed, but less than 1,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Laki, Lolaki, Tokia, Tololaki, To’olaki. Dialects: Wiwirano (Nohina), Asera (Asera Wanua, Noie), Konawe (Kendari, Kioki, Tambuoki), Mekongga (Bingkokak, Kolaka, Konio, Norio, Tamboki), Laiwui. Lexical similarity: 88% with Asera, 84% with Konawe, 85% with Mekongga, 81% with Laiwui, 78% with Waru, 70% with Rahambuu and Kodeoha, 54% with the Mori and Bungku groups. Mekongga has 86% with Konawe, 80% with Laiwui. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast. Comments: Language names based on negative forms are no longer in use. Muslim.

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Tomadino
[tdi] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, Sakita village. On east coast, Tolo bay, near Bungku town. 600 (Mead 1999). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Bahonsuai [bsu], 68% with Mori Atas [mzq], Mori Bawah [xmz], and Padoe [pdo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, Interior. Comments: Muslim.

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Tombelala
[ttp] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Morowali regency, Bungku Tengah subdistrict, on west coast, Tolo bay, south of Bungku town: 4 villages.. 1,100 (Mead and Mead 1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baria, Belala, Mbelala. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66%–76% with Pamona [pmf] varieties and 38% with Bungku [bkz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Pamona. Comments: Consider themselves Pamona. Muslim.

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Tombulu
[tom] Sulawesi Utara Province, Minahasa regency and Kota Tomohon city; Celebes sea, northeast coast, near Manado city. 60,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Minahasa, Minhasa, Tombalu, Tombula, Tombulu’, Toumbulu. Dialects: Taratara, Tomohon. Reportedly most similar to Tondano [tdn] and Tonsea [txs]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North, Northeast. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tomini
[txm] Suluwesi island, northwest coast, Tomini bay, Sulawesi Tengah Province, Parigi Moutong and Toli-Toli regencies; into southwest Gorontalo Province, Pohuwato regency, east to Mautang area: 42 villages.. 30,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mouton, Moutong, Tiadje, Tialo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tomini, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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Tondano
[tdn] Sulawesi Utara Province, Minahasa and Minahasa Utara regencies, north peninsula, Lake Tondano area southeast and east. 92,000 in Indonesia (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tolou, Tolour, Tondanou, Toulour. Dialects: Tondano, Kakas (Ka’kas), Remboken. Reportedly most similar to Tombulu [tom] and Tonsea [txs]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North, Northeast. Comments: Christian.

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Tonsawang
[tnw] Sulawesi Utara Province, Minahasa, Minahasa Selatan, and Minahasa Tenggara regencies; landlocked highland area southwest of Lake Tondano, north area near Ronoketang town, south area between Tumani and Kotamobagu. 20,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tombatu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan. Comments: Christian.

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Tonsea
[txs] Sulawesi Utara Province, northeasternmost tip, Minahasa Utara regency, Kota Manado and Kota Bitung cities. 90,000 (1989), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tonsea’. Dialects: Maumbi, Airmadidi, Likupang, Kauditan, Kalabat Atas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North, Northeast. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tontemboan
[tnt] Minahasa peninsula, Sulawesi Utara Province, mostly Minahasa Selatan regency, Amurang bay inland; also into Minahasa and Minahasa Tenggara regencies, Lake Tondano southeast strip to coast. 150,000 (1990 J. Merrifield). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pakewa, Tompakewa, Tountemboan. Dialects: Tompaso (Makelai, Makela’i-Maotow), Sonder (Matanai, Matana’i-Maore’). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Minahasan, North. Comments: Christian.

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Topoiyo
[toy] Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamuju regency, Budong-Budong subdistrict, inland along Budong-Budong river. 450 (Yamaguchi and Nakashima 2001), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 66% with Sarudu [sdu] and Da’a [kzf], 56% with Ledo [lew], 54% with the Parigi dialect of Kaili [lew]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Northern, Kaili. Comments: Recent settlers from elsewhere and rubber plantation development brought new language contacts. Muslim.

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Toraja-Sa’dan
[sda] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Tana Toraja and Luwu regencies; border areas, Sulawesi Barat Province, Mamasa regency; possibly in Makassar city, west coast. 750,000 in Indonesia (2000 census), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sada, Sadan, Sa’dan, Sadang, Sa’dansche, South Toraja, Tae’, Taeq, Toradja, Toraja. Dialects: Makale (Tallulembangna), Rantepao (Kesu’), Toraja Barat (Mappa-Pana, West Toraja). Rantepao is prestige dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Toraja-Sa’dan. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Totoli
[txe] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Toli-Toli regency, Tolitoli Utara, Galang, Baolan, and Dondo subdistricts; northernmost portion of province, west coast, Dondo bay; Kabetan island, area southwest of Point Arus: 29 villages. 25,000 (Himmelmann 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gage, Tolitoli, Tontoli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Tomini-Tolitoli, Tolitoli. Comments: Muslim.

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Towei
[ttn] Papua Province, Pegunungan Bintang regency, border area south of Jayapura, Towe Hitam village. 120 (1975 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Towe. Classification: Pauwasi, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Trimuris
[tip] Papua Province, Jayapura regency, Mamberamo Tengah subdistrict, Mamberamo river east bank, between Kauwera [xau] and Bagusa [bqb] language areas. 300 (1999 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Low intelligibility of Kwerba [kwe]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kauwera [xau] and 60% with Kwerba [kwe]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Greater Kwerba, Kwerba, Nuclear. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tsaukambo
[kvz] Papua Province, west side of upper Digul river, north of Wanggom, south of Komyandaret. 780 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kotogüt, Tsakwambo, Tsokwambo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Komyandaret [kzv]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Ok, Ngalum. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tugun
[tzn] Maluku Province, southwestern area, Mahuan, Masapun, Tomliapat, Ilpokil, Kahailin, Ilway, and Arwala villages. Wetar island west of Barat Daya archipelago; southeast end of island. 1,200 (1990 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahuan, Tutunohan. Dialects: Mahuan, Masapua, Tomliapat, Ilpokil, Kahailin Ilway, Arwala. Lexical similarity: 92%–97% among dialects, 76% with Perai [wet], 74% with Aputai [apx], 73% with Ili’uun [ilu], 52% with Galolen [gal]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Southwest Maluku, Wetar. Comments: Christian.

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Tugutil
[tuj] Maluku Utara Province, Tobelo, Kao, Wasile, and Maba districts, Miaf, Bebseli, and Marasibno villages; North Halmahera island, inland around Kusuri, inland in Tobelo district, Taboulamo area in Kao district, the pass between Lolobata and Buli in Wasilei district, Dodaga, Tutuling, Akelamo, and Mabulan rivers in Maba district. A few on Lili, Waisango, and Afu rivers. 2,590 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Teluk Lili, Kusuri. Possibly several dialects separated by large distances. Inadequate intelligibility with Tobelo [tlb] variety. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Galela-Loloda. Comments: Forest people who have contact with village people when selling copra and purchasing supplies. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tukang Besi North
[khc] Sulawesi Tenggara Province,Tukang Besi archipelago north, Kaledupa and Wangiwangi islands; also, Runduma islands, to east. Maluku, Bacan, Taliabu, Mongole, Buru, Sulabesi, Seram, and Ambon islands. Also, Baubau and Sumbawa cities. 120,000 in Indonesia (1995 SIL). 60,000 in Maluku. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buton, Wakatobi. Dialects: Kaledupa (Kahedupa), Wanci (Wangi- Wangi, Wanje, Wanji, Wantji). Lexical similarity: 80% with Kaledupa and Wanci, and may be separate languages. 70%–75% with Tukang Besi South [bhq], 48% with Lasalimu [llm], 47% with Cia-Cia [cia], 40% with Kamaru [kgx], an average of 35% with other nearby languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate. Comments: Most in Nusa Tenggara and Maluku are mixed with Tukang Besi South. Muslim.

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Tukang Besi South
[bhq] Sulawesi Tenggara Province; Tukang Besi archipelago, south islands; northern Binongko and Tomea islands; South Sulawesi Province, Selayar regency, Madu, Kalaotoa, Bonerate, and Karompa islands. Maluku, Taliabu, Mongole, Sulabesi, Buru, Seram, Ambon, and Alor islands. Settlements throughout western Papua Province. 130,000 (1995 SIL), increasing. 100,000 in Maluku. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buton, Tukang-Besi, Wakatobi. Dialects: Binongko, Bonerate, Tomea (Tomia). Lexical similarity: 70%–75% with Tukang Besi North [khc], 48% with Cia-Cia [cia], 49% with Lasalimu [llm], average of 35% with other nearby languages. Lexical similarity 85% with Binongko and Tomea, 81% with Bonerate, 79% with Tomea and Bonerate. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Muna-Buton, Tukangbesi-Bonerate. Comments: Muslim.

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Tulehu
[tlu] Maluku Province, Maluku Tengah regency, Ambon island, northeast coast across from Haruku island: 4 villages. 18,800 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Northeast Ambon, Sou Amana Teru. Dialects: Tulehu, Liang, Tengah-Tengah, Tial. Each dialect is in a separate village. Eastern end of Ambon dialect chain. Lexical similarity: 84%–90% among dialects, 74%–82% with Hitu [htu], 72%–76% with Haruku [hrk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Piru Bay, East, Seram Straits, Ambon. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Tunggare
[trt] North central Papua Province, Nabire regency, south Cendrawasih bay, from Nabire town northeast past Ruwiami point. 500 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tarunggare, Turunggare. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Bauzi [bvz], 75% with Burate [bti], 65% with Demisa [dei], 70% with Tefaro [tfo], 69% with Woria [wor]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: May be better considered a dialect of Burate [bti]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Tunjung
[tjg] Kalimantan Timur Province, Kutai Barat and Kutai Kartanegara regencies, area between Adas, Dempar, and Melak towns, then down the Mahakam rivers, east around Djempang lake, area south of Muntaiwan town; Kalimantan Tengah Province, North Barito regency, border area. 50,000 (Nikolic´ 2008). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tunjung Dayak. Dialects: Tunjung (Tunjung Tengah), Tunjung Londong, Tunjung Linggang, Pahu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Barito-Mahakam.

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Uab Meto
[aoz] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; most of west Timor island. 700,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atoni, “Dawan” (pej.), Meto, Orang Gunung, “Rawan” (pej.), Timol, Timor, “Timor Dawan” (pej.), Timoreesch, Timoreezen, Timorese, Uab Atoni Pah Meto, Uab Pah Meto. Dialects: Amfoan-Fatule’u-Amabi (Amabi, Amfoan, Amfuang, Fatule’u), Amanuban-Amanatun (Amanatun, Amanuban, Amanubang), Mollo-Miomafo (Miomafo, Mollo), Biboki-Insana (Biboki, Insanao), Kusa-Manlea (Kusa, Manea, Manlea). Much dialect variation. Ethnological and linguistic differences in nearly every valley. Same language chain as Amarasi [aaz] and Baikeno [bkx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Timor-Babar, Nuclear Timor, Uab Meto. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ujir
[udj] Southeast portion, Maluku Province, Kepulauan-Aru regency; northwest Aru islands, Udjir and Wokam islands, west peninsula tip. 1,030 (2011 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Udjir. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Kola [kvv] in north Aru, and slightly less with Kola on the west coast of Kola Island. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Aru. Comments: Muslim.

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Ulumanda’
[ulm] Sulawesi Barat Province, Majene, Mamuju, and Polewali-Mandar regencies. Mostly interior area north of Majene town. 30,000 (1986 SIL). 18,000 in Polmas and Majene. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Awo-Sumakuyu, Botteng-Tappalang, Kado, Oeloemanda, Tubbi, Ulumandak, Ulunda. Dialects: Sondoang, Tappalang, Botteng. About 6 dialects. Lexical similarity: 75%–80% with dialect of Bambam [ptu], Aralle-Tabulahan [atq], and Pannei [pnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Northern, Pitu Ulunna Salu. Comments: Muslim.

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Uma
[ppk] Sulawesi Tengah Province, Donggala regency, South Kulawi and Pipikoro subdistricts, 32 villages; along Lariang river and tributaries; Sulawesi Selatan Province, North Luwu regency, in enclave within the Seko Padang language area, south Pasangkayu regency, Mamuju subdistrict; Gimpu and Palolo valleys, other areas north of Palu; small area in Sulawesi Barat Province, near west bank, Lariang river. 20,000 (1990 M. Martens), increasing. 15,000 in the region, 5,000 outside (1990 SIL), 500 in Benggaulu. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koro, Oema, Pipikoro. Dialects: Winatu (Northern Uma), Tobaku (Dompa, Ompa, Western Uma), Tolee’ (Eastern Uma), Kantewu (Central Uma), Southern Uma (Aria), Benggaulu (Bingkolu), Bana. Literature exists in Kantewu dialect, but many would prefer to read their own dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Kaili-Pamona, Southern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Uma’ Lasan
[xky] Kalimantan Timur Province, Malinau regency, Long Pujungan, Long Jelet Mesahan, and Long Pejalin (Uma Alim dialect) villages. 1,500 in Indonesia (Soriente 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Western Kenyah. Dialects: Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Lasan, Uma’ Baka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan. Comments: Christian.

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Uma’ Lung
[ulu] Kalimantan Utara Province, Malinau regency, middle Malinau river, Pimping, Long Setulang, Batu Kajang, Long Uli, and Long Belua villages; Bulungan regency, smaller enclave west of Kayan delta. 3,000 (Soriente 2006), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Oma Longh. Dialects: None known. Marginally intelligible of Uma Lasan [xky]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan.

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Una
[mtg] Papua Province, east highlands on south slopes of main ranges east of Sela valley, west of Ngalum, Bidabuh, east Weip valley, Yay valley, around Langda, Bomela, and Sumtamon. 5,600 (2006 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Goliath, Langda, Mount Goliath, Oranje-Gebergte. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Eipomek [eip], 69% with Ketengban [xte]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Uruangnirin
[urn] Papua Barat Province, Fak-Fak regency, Tuburuasa and Faur islands between Karas island and southwest Bomberai peninsula mainland, some possible on Karas island itself. 400 (1983 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Faur, Tubiruasa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, North Bomberai. Comments: Blust (1991) says this appears to be Central Malayo-Polynesian. Christian, traditional religion.

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Usku
[ulf] Papua Province, Keerom regency, south of Jayapura, Usku village, west of Sobger river. 110 (2004 SIL). Population estimates range from 20 to 160 (Wurm 2007). Few monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Afra. Dialects: None known. Not closely related to any other language. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Afra may be the name preferred by the people.

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Viid
[snu] Papua Province, border area south of Jayapura, Senggi village. 250 (2005 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Senggi. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Vitou
[vto] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Pantai Timur subdistrict, Takar village inland. 630 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Takar. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Betaf [bfe]. Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wabo
[wbb] Papua Province, Kepulauan Yapen regency, Serui island, north and south coast, easternmost point: 6 villages. 1,500 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Nusari, Woriasi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71% with Kurudu [kjr], 46% with Western Serui [seu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, East. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wae Rana
[wrx] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; south central Flores island, 2 separate enclaves between Manggarai [mqy] and Ngad’a [nxg] language areas. 3,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Waerana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Bima-Lembata.

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Waigeo
[wgo] Papua Barat Province, north central Waigeo island off western Bird’s Head, Raja Ampat regency, Waigeo Selatan subdistrict, Warsanbin, Selegop, Waifoi, Go, Kabilol, Kabare, and Nyandesawai villages. 300 (1978 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ambel, Amber, Amberi, Waigiu. Dialects: Metnyo, Metsam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Waioli
[wli] Maluku Utara Province; northwest Halmahera island, Coastal area, from Sasu town, inland to highland interior. 3,000 (Voorhoeve and Visser 1987). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wajoli, Wayoli. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Gamkonora [gak]. Classification: West Papuan, North Halmahera, Sahu. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Walak
[wlw] Papua Province, Ilugwa, Wodo, Bugi, Mogonik, and Wurigelebut villages. 20,000 (2007 P. Seow). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lower Pyramid, Wodo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Dani Proper. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wambon
[wms] Papua Province, south coast area north of Mandobo language area. 3,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kenon, Kenyam. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wandamen
[wad] Papua Barat Province, Wasior, Manokwari, west Cenderawasih bay along Wandamen bay extending to east end of Bintuni bay. 5,000 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bentoeni, Bentuni, Bintuni, Wamesa, Wandamen-Windesi, Windesi, Windessi. Dialects: Windesi, Bintuni, Wamesa (Ubu), Wasior, Ambumi, Dasener, Aibondeni, Steenkool, Waruritinao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian.

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Wanggom
[wng] Papua Province, upper Digul river area. East of Kombai [tyn] and west of Wambon [wms] language areas. 1,180 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wanggo, Wangom. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kombai [tyn]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Ok-Awyu, Awyu-Dumut, Dumut.

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Wano
[wno] Papua Province, central highlands area, Puncak and Puncak Jaya regencies, between Van Daalen river to north and upper Rouffaer river basin. 1,000 (2011), decreasing. L2 users: 0. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Waano. Dialects: East Wano, Central Wano, West Wano. Reportedly similar to Nggem [nbq], and Walak [wlw]. Lexical similarity: 65% with Western Dani [dnw]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Wano. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wanukaka
[wnk] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; west Sumba island, southwest coast, southeast of Waikabubak city. 10,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wanokaka. Dialects: Wanukaka, Rua. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba.

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Warembori
[wsa] North coast, Maberamo Raya regency, Mamberamo river mouth and west to Manini point: Poiwai, Warembori, Tamakuri, and Bonoi villages. 600 (1998 SIL). L2 users: 20. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Waremboivoro, Warenbori. Dialects: Bonoi Buroro. Lexical similarity: 33% with Yoke [yki]. 30% Austronesian vocabulary. Classification: Lower Mamberamo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wares
[wai] North coast, Papua Province, Sarmi regency, inland area, headwaters of Biri river, south side, Maweswares village. 200 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Tor-Kwerba, Orya-Tor, Tor. Comments: 2005 survey data indicates language may not exist or speakers have moved. Maweswres village now inhabited by Mawes [mgk] speakers. Christian, traditional religion.

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Waris
[wrs] Papua Province, northeastern area, Keerom regency, Waris subdistrict, south of Jayapura. 1,500 in Indonesia. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walsa. Classification: Border, Waris. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Waritai
[wbe] Papua Province, Tolikara regency, south of the confluence of Mamberama, Rouffaer, and Idenburg rivers; area around Taiyeve. 150 (Wurm 2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wari, Weretai. Classification: Lakes Plain, Tariku, East. Comments: Different from Waris [wrs] or Wares [wai]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Warkay-Bipim
[bgv] Papua Province, Asmat regency, south coast area, 2 small enclaves south of Eilanden river: one near Otsianep, the other to northeast near Bapiem: 3 villages. 300 (1993 R. Doriot). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bipim, Bipim As-So. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Yaqay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Waropen
[wrp] Papua Province, Mamberamo Raya and Waropen regencies, separate areas, Ambumi dialect: south of Waropen bay, second area to southwest, past Ranbausawa point to Rombak river mouth. 6,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aropen, Wonti, Worpen. Dialects: Waropen Kai, Napan, Ambumi. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Waropen. Comments: Christian.

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Waru
[wru] Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Konawe Utara regency, Asera subdistrict, interior area; north of confluence of Solo and Lindu rivers: Mopute village. 350 (Mead 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mapute, Mopute. Dialects: Waru, Lalomerui. Lexical similarity: 86% with the Waru and Lalomerui dialects, 79% with Mekongga and other Tolaki [lbw] dialects, 70% with Rahambuu [raz] and Kodeoha [vko], 54% with the Mori [mzq] or [xmz] and Bungku [bkz] groups. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Western, West Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Watubela
[wah] Maluku Province, east central area, Watubela islands, north of Kur island. 4,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esiriun, Kasiui, Kasui, Kesui, Matabello, Snabi Watubela, Wesi. Dialects: Tamher Timur, Sulmelang. Lexical similarity: 77% between dialects, 51%–61% with Geser-Gorom [ges], 41% with Teor [tev] and Kur [kuv], 37% with Bobot [bty], 34% with Masiwang [bnf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Banda-Geser, Geser-Gorom. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Wauyai
[wuy] Papua Barat Province, Raja Ampat regency, island south of Waigeo island, southeast coast, Wauyai village. 300 (Remijsen 2001). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Raja Ampat. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wawonii
[wow] Banda Sea, Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Wawonii and Menui islands near Kendari port. 30,000 (2004 D. Andersen), increasing. 22,500 Wawonii, 7,500 Menui. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wowonii. Dialects: Wawonii, Menui (Manoei). Lexical similarity: 75% with Bungku [bkz] and Tulambatu dialect of Bungku [bkz], 66% with Taloki [lbw], Kulisusu [vkl], and Koroni [xkq], 65% with Moronene [mqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Eastern, Southeastern, Bungku-Tolaki, Eastern, East Coast. Comments: Muslim.

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Wejewa
[wew] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; west Sumba island, interior. 55,000 (2011). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Veveva, Waidjewa, Wajewa, West Sumbanese, Wewewa, Wewjewa, Weyewa. Dialects: Weyewa, Lauli (Loli), Tana Righu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Sumba-Hawu, Sumba. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Wemale
[weo] Maluku Province, at least 14 villages. Seram island north coast, from Taniwel to Walakone towns; southwest Seram, northeast of Kairatu town. 6,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Honitetu, Oemale, Tala. Dialects: West Wemale, West-Central Wemale, East Wemale, South Wemale. Lexical similarity: 84% with east and west dialects, 70% with South Wemale dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers, Wemale. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Wersing
[kvw] Nusa Tenggara Timur Province; Alor island. East coast area, southeast coast, Pietoko and Pureman, 2 enclaves on central north coast. 3,700 (Grimes et al 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolana, Kolana-Wersin, Warsina, Wersin. Dialects: Kolana, Maneta, Langkuru (Mademang, Pureman). Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Timor-Alor-Pantar. Comments: Cultural and historical relationship with Liquisa area in East Timor. Christian, traditional religion.

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Woi
[wbw] Papua Province, west Serui island, Wooi and Wainap villages. 1,800 (2012 Y. Sawaki). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wo’oi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77% with Pom [pmo], Marau [mvr], and Ansus [and]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yapen, Central-Western. Comments: Christian.

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Wolani
[wod] Papua Province, west central highlands, Kemandoga and Mbiyandogo rivers, north of Ekari [ekg] language area, northeast of Lake Paniai, north of Wissel Lakes and northwest of Moni [mnz] language area. 5,000 (1992 UBS). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Woda, Woda-Mo, Wodani. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Wissel Lakes. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Wolio
[wlo] Buton island, Sulawesi Tenggara Province, Kota Bau-Bau city; southwest coast towards Buntung strait; adjacent areas in Buton regency, northeast and east. 65,000 in Indonesia (2004 D. Andersen). Population does not include those in other provinces. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baubau. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 61% with Cia-Cia [cia]; 60% with Masiri dialect of Cia-Cia and Lantoi dialect of Kaimbulawa [zka]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio, Wolio-Kamaru. Comments: ‘Buton’ usually used generically inside Southeast Sulawesi to refer to Wolio; outside Southeast Sulawesi it refers to people from Southeast Sulawesi, or is sometimes confused with Bajau people as sailors. Muslim.

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Woria
[wor] Papua Province, Waropen regency, from mouth of Sanoringga river to interior, northeast towards Rombak river, Botawa village. 5 (2000 R. Doriot). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 64% with Barapasi [brp], 64% with Demisa [dei], 63% with Kofei [kpi], 69% with Tunggare [trt]. Classification: East Geelvink Bay. Comments: Botawa is a Demisa and Waropen [wrp]-speaking village.

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Wotu
[wtw] Sulawesi Selatan Province, Luwu Timur regency, Wotu subdistrict, Lampenai, and Bawalipu villages, northern end of Bone bay; coast near mouth of Kalaena river between Wotu and Angkona villages. 500 (2009 Masruddin and Wahibah), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000 (2009). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Wadu. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58% with Wolio [wlo], 53% with Laiyolo [lji], average 43% with South Sulawesi Group, 43% with Kaili-Pamona Subgroup, 41% with Seko Padang [skx], 39% with Tae’ Luwu [rob], 36%–43% with Bungku-Tolaki Subgroup, 37% with Toraja-Sa’dan [sda], 33% with Bugis [bug], 31% with Rampi [lje], 25% with Lemolang [ley]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Celebic, Wotu-Wolio. Comments: Muslim.

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Yahadian
[ner] Papua Barat Province, Sorong Selatan regency, south Bird’s Head, along Maccluer bay between lower Mintamani and Sekak rivers. 500 (1991 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jahadian, Nerigo, Yabin Yahadian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60% with Konda [knd]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, South Bird’s Head, Konda-Yahadian. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yalahatan
[jal] Maluku Province, Makulu Tengah regency, south central Seram island, coastal area west of Teluti bay. 1,700 (2004 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Atamanu, Awaiya, Jahalatan, Jahalatane. Dialects: Slight dialect differences reported between the 2 villages. Lexical similarity: 50%–52% with Sepa [spb], 49%–50% with Sou Nama [tlt]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Central Maluku, East, Seram, Nunusaku, Three Rivers. Comments: The name Atamanu is not currently known.

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Yale, Kosarek
[kkl] Papua Province, eastern highlands, just east of Yali of Ninia, northwest of Nipsan, east of Dani, north of Yali [yli] of Angguruk. 2,300 (1993 R. Doriot). No monolinguals. Nearly 100% are monolingual. Ethnic population: 2,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: In-lom, Kosarek, Wanam, Yale-Kosarek. Dialects: Kosarek, Gilika (Kilika), Tiple. Lexical similarity: 78% with Nipsan [nps], 59% with Nalca [nlc]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Mek, Eastern. Comments: The name In-lom refers to only half the group. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yali, Angguruk
[yli] Papua Province, central highlands area northwest of Nalca [nlc] and east of Grand Valley Dani language areas. 15,000 (1991 J. Wilson). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angguruk, Northern Yali, Yalimo. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yali, Ninia
[nlk] Papua Province, central highlands area south of Angguruk, east of Soba, west of Korupun, Ninia, Holuwon, and Lolat villages; Elelim, transmigrated by government in 1989 following earthquake. More than 50 villages. 10,500 (1999 J. Wilson). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jalè, Jaly, Ninia, North Ngalik, Southern Yali, Yali Selatan. Dialects: None known. Different from Yali of Pass Valley [yac], Yali of Angguruk [yli], and Hupla [hap]. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yali, Pass Valley
[yac] Papua Province, central highlands, east of Angguruk and northwest of Naltya, Jayawijaya, Kurulu, and Kurima regencies. 5,000 (1988 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abendago, North Ngalik, Pass Valley, Western Yali, Yaly. Dialects: Pass Valley, Landikma, Apahapsili. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, West, Dani, Ngalik. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yamdena
[jmd] Maluku Province, southeast area, 35 villages. Tannembar islands; east coast Yamdena island, down to north tip of Selaru island. Latdalam village, southwest Yamdena. 25,000 (1991 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 35,000 (1991 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jamden, Jamdena, Tanemprar lirin. Dialects: North Yamdena (Nus Das), South Yamdena (Nus Bab). A chain of related varieties from north to south with 90% lexical similarity between extremes, but with morphological and phonological differences. Southern dialect thought more prestigious. Lexical similarity: 90% among the north and south dialects, 47% with Fordata [frd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Southeast Maluku, Kei-Tanimbar, Yamdena. Comments: Christian.

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Yaqay
[jaq] Papua Province, Mappi regency, south coast along Obaa river north to Gandaimu area. 10,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jakai, Jaqai, Mapi, Sohur, Yaqai. Dialects: Oba-Miwamon, Nambiomon-Mabur, Bapai. Classification: Trans-New Guinea, Marind, Yaqay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yarsun
[yrs] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, Bonggo subdistrict, Yarsun island off north coast, east of Biri river. 200 (1991 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Western Oceanic, North New Guinea, Sarmi-Jayapura Bay, Sarmi. Comments: Yarsun may not exist or speakers may have moved (2005 SIL). Christian, traditional religion.

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Yaur
[jau] Papua Province, Nabire regency, lower west end of Cenderawasih bay, from Manggua point south to Wororomi, turning southeast. 350 (1978 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jaur. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yaur. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yawa
[yva] Papua Province, Yapen island: 8 north coast villages, 2 interior villages, and 18 south coast villages, all in the central portion of the island. 10,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mantembu, Mora, Turu, Unat, Yapanani, Yava, Yawa Unat. Dialects: Central Yawa (Mora), West Yawa, South Yawa, North Yawa, East Yawa. Classification: West Papuan, Yapen. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yei
[jei] Papua Province, Merauke regency, south coast border area, east of Moeting town along Maro river: 6 villages. 2,390 (2001 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Je, Jei, Yei-Nan, Yey. Dialects: Upper Yei, Lower Yei. Dialects mutually inherently intelligible only with difficulty. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Morehead-Upper Maro, Yey. Comments: Different cultural group from Marind. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yelmek
[jel] Papua Province, Merauke regency, south coast area, east side of Marianne strait between Kolopom (Frederik Hendrik) island and mainland. 400 (1978 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jab, Jabsch, Jelmek, Jelmik. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Maklew [mgf]. Classification: South-Central Papuan, Yelmek-Maklew. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yeresiam
[ire] Papua Province, Nabire regency, south Cenderawasih bay, west of Nabire and around Yamur lake; into Papua Barat Province, Kaimana regency, area north of Omba river. 70 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Beduba, Iresim. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Iresim. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Yeretuar
[gop] Papua Province, Nabire regency, lower Kwatisore bay, between 2 peninsulas; into Papua Barat Province, Teluk Wondama regency, southern end, Wandamen peninsula. 350 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Goni, Umar, Umari. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, South Halmahera-West New Guinea, West New Guinea, Cenderawasih Bay, Yeretuar. Comments: Distinct from Kamoro [kgq]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yetfa
[yet] Papua Province, Pegunungan Bintang regency, Okbibab subdistrict, border area east and north of Sobger river, south of Ji mountain. 1,000 (1996). L2 users: 400 (2013 M. Donohue). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Trade language in the area, extending to Papua New Guinea border. Alternate Names: Biaksi, Biksi, Inisine. Dialects: None known. Yetfa and Biksi are 2 ethnic groups, speaking the same language. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Yoke
[yki] Papua Province, Sarmi regency, northeast of Rombebai lake, east of Mamberamo river: Mantarbori village.. 200 (1998 M. Donohue). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bitovondo, Jauke, Pauwi, Yauke, Yoki. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 33% with Warembori [wsa]. Classification: Lower Mamberamo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Zorop
[wfg] Northeast, Papua Province, Keerom regency, border area south of Jayapura, Warlef village, Yabanda Satu. 230 (2005 SIL). No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Jafi, Jafi Wagarindem, Wagarindem, Wargarindem, Warlef, Yaffi, Yafi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 25% with Emem [enr]. Classification: Pauwasi, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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