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A-Pucikwar
[apq] Andaman and Nicobar Islands. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Puchikwar, Pucikwar. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.

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Adi
[adi] Arunachal Pradesh state: East, West, and Upper Siang districts, Upper Subansiri and Dibang Valley districts; Assam state: Assam valley north hills, between Bhutan and Buruli rivers. L1 users: 97,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 98,090. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abhor, Abor, Boga’er Luoba, Lhoba, Luoba. Autonym: Adi. Dialects: Ashing, Bokar (Boga’er Luoba), Bori, Karko, Komkar, Milang (Milan), Minyong, Padam, Pailibo, Pangi, Pasi, Ramo, Shimong, Tangam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe with several subgroups. ‘Adi’, hillman, is a cover term for eastern Tani languages. Traditional religion.

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Adi, Galo
[adl] Arunachal Pradesh state: west and east Siang, Dibang Valley (south), Lohit (east), Changlang (northeast), Upper Subansiri (west) districts; Assam state. L1 users: 30,000 (2007 M. Post). 62,000 (2001 census). A few older adult monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adi, Adi-Gallong, Adi-Galo, Gallong, Galong. Autonym: Galo. Dialects: Lare, Pugo, Karka. Lare is the main dialect and is accepted by all Galo. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Agariya
[agi] Chhattisgarh state: Bilaspur district; Madhya Pradesh state: Mandla and Rewa districts, Maikal hills; Uttar Pradesh state: Agra, Mathura, and Mirzapur districts. L1 users: 72,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agaria, Agharia, Agoria. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari. Comments: A Scheduled Caste in Uttar Pradesh. Chhattisgarhi [hne] L1 of tribe (Singh 1995b). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Ahirani
[ahr] Gujarat state; Maharashtra state: Aurangabad, Dhulia, Jalgaon, Nandurbar, and Nasik districts. L1 users: 1,870,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ahiri. Dialects: None known. Ahirani may be distinct from Khandesi [khn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Khandesi. Comments: Hindu.

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Ahom
[aho] Assam state. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Tai Ahom. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Former language of the Tai-Ahom king. Possibly 8,000,000 Assamese [asm] speakers claim to be of Ahom descent (1990 A. Diller).

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Aimol
[aim] Assam state; Manipur state: Bishnupur district, Kha-Aimol; Chandel district, Aimol Tampak, Chandonpokpi, Chingunghut, Khodamphai, Khomayai (Khunjai), Kumbirei, Ngairong Aimol, Satu, Soibong (Khudengthabi), and Unapal; Churachandpur district, Luichungbum (Louchulbung); Senapati district, Tuikhong. L1 users: 2,640 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Autonym: Aimol. Dialects: Langrong. Langrong may be a distinct language. Reportedly intelligible to Koireng [nkd]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Aiton
[aio] Assam state: Jorhat and Karbi Anglong districts, Ahomoni, Balipathar, Banlung, Barhula, Chakihula, Doboroni, Kaliyani, and Tengani villages. L1 users: 1,500 (Morey 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aitonia. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Phake [phk]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Aka-Bea
[abj] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: South Andaman Island except northeast coast, and north and east interiors; Rutland Island except south coast; small islands southeast of Rutland; Labyrinth Islands. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Aka-Beada, Aka-Biada, Bea, Beada, Biada, Bogijiab, Bojigniji, Bojigyab. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.

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Aka-Bo
[akm] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: east central coast of North Andaman Island, North Reef Island. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Ba, Bo. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern.

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Aka-Cari
[aci] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: North Andaman Island north coast, Landfall Island, other nearby small islands. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Cari, Chariar. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern.

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Aka-Jeru
[akj] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: interior and south North Andaman island, Sound island. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Jeru, Yerawa. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern.

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Aka-Kede
[akx] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: central and north central Middle Andaman Island. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kede. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.

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Aka-Kol
[aky] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: southeast Middle Andaman Island. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kol. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.

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Aka-Kora
[ack] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: northeast and north central coasts of North Andaman Island, Smith Island. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Kora. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Northern.

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Akar-Bale
[acl] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: Ritchie’s Archipelago, Havelock Island, Neill Island. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Bale, Balwa. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.

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Allar
[all] Kerala state: Malappuram district, Manjeri and Perinthalmanna sub-districts, Aminikadu, Mannarmala, and Tazhecode; Palakkad district, Mannarkkad and Ottappalam sub-districts. L1 users: 350 (Shashi and Shri 1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aalan, Alan, Alanmar, Alar, Allan, Chatans. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 61% with Malayalam [mal], 59% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Amri Karbi
[ajz] Assam state: Kamrup district, Basbistha, Chandubi, Jalukbari, Jorabat, Kahi Kusi, Khetri, Loharghat, Pandu, Panikhaith, Rani block, Sonapur, and south of Brahmaputra river; Meghalaya state: Ri-Bhoi district, Nongpoh area, Barni Hat and Umling. L1 users: 125,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amri. Autonym: Amri Karbi. Dialects: Lower Amri, Upper Amri. Reportedly unintelligible with Karbi [mjw]; intelligibility testing inconclusive regarding whether Guriaghuli area dialect is well understood in Meghalaya. Lexical similarity: 57%–68% with Karbi; 70%–86% between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karbi. Comments: Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Anal
[anm] Manipur state: Chandel district, Chakpikarong, Chandel, and Engnoupal sub-districts, on Chakpi river banks. L1 users: 23,200 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 23,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Namfau. Dialects: Laizo, Mulsom. Reportedly most similar to Lamgang [lmk] (Kuki Naga). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Declared themselves Nagas (ethnically) in 1963. Christian.

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Andaman Creole Hindi
[hca] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: Port Blair, 40 villages south of Port Blair. L1 users: 10,000 (Singh 1994a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Andaman Hindi. Dialects: None known. A creolization of Hindustani, Bengali [ben], and Malayalam [mal]. Classification: Creole, Hindi based. Comments: Spoken as L1 by mixed generations of communities. Contains elements of Indo-Aryan and Dravidian grammar. No literature exists in the creole. Standard Hindi literature is used.

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Andh
[anr] Madhya Pradesh state; Maharashtra state: Akola, Aurangabad, Buldana, Nanded, Parbhani, and Yevatmal districts; Telangana state: Adilabad, Hyderabad. L1 users: 100,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 420,000 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Andha, Andhi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Many speak Marathi [mar] as L1. Hindu.

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Angika
[anp] Bihar state: Banka, Bhagalpur, Katihar, and Purnia districts; Jharkhand state: Godda and Sahibganji districts. L1 users: 725,000 (IMA 1997). Total users in all countries: 745,330 (as L1: 743,600; as L2: 1,730). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Anga, Angikar, Chhika-Chhiki. Autonym: अंगिका‎ (Angika). Dialects: None known. 79% inherent intelligibility of Brahmin Maithili. Lexical similarity: 81% (Brahmin) to 87% (non-Brahmin) with Darbhanga Maithili. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu.

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Apatani
[apt] Arunachal Pradesh state: lower Subansiri district, Billa, Dutta, Hari, Hija, Hong, Michi Bamin, and Mudang-Tage villages in Ziro valley; Assam and Nagaland states. L1 users: 28,400 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 35,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Apa. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible with Nyishi [njz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Aranadan
[aaf] Kerala state: Kozhihkode district, Ernad sub-district; Malappuram district, Nilambur sub-district; Palakkad district; Karnataka and Tamil Nada states. L1 users: 200 (2001 census). Census did not include all people in interior settlements. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aranatan, Arnatas, Eranadans. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63%–69% with Malayalam [mal], 53%–55% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Assamese
[asm] Arunachal Pradesh state: Changlang and Lohit; Assam state; Meghalaya state: west Garo Hills; Nagaland state: Dimapur, Kohima, Mokokchung, Wokha, and Zunheboto; West Bengal state: Jalpaiguri and Koch Bihar. L1 users: 12,800,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 12,828,220. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Assam State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Asambe, Asami, Asamiya. Autonym: অসমীয়া‎ (Ôxômiya). Dialects: Jharwa (Pidgin), Mayang, Standard Assamese, Western Assamese (Kamrupi). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese.

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Asuri
[asr] Chhattisgarh state: Raigarh district, Jashpur area; Jharkhand state: Gumla, Lohardaga, southern Palamau, and northern Ranchi districts of Chotanagpur Plateau; Maharashtra state; Odisha state: Sambalpur district; West Bengal state. L1 users: 7,000 (Van Driem 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ashree, Assur, Asura, Maleta. Dialects: Brijia (Birjia, Koranti), Manjhi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Comments: Asur and Birjia are Scheduled Tribes. Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Atong
[aot] Meghalaya state: south Garo Hills district; possibly Assam state: south Kamrup district. L1 users: 4,600. Total users in all countries: 10,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: A’tong. Dialects: None known. Related to Koch [kdq] and Rabha [rah]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Koch. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Awadhi
[awa] Bihar state; Delhi; Madhya Pradesh state; Uttar Pradesh: Allahabad, Bahraich, Bara-Banki, Faizabad, Gonda, Kheri, Lucknow, Pratapgarh, Rae-Bareli, Sitapur, Sultanpur, and Unnao districts. L1 users: 2,530,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 3,077,400 (as L1: 3,032,000; as L2: 45,400). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abadi, Abohi, Ambodhi, Avadhi, Baiswari, Kojali, Kosali. Autonym: अवधी‎ (Awadhi). Dialects: Gangapari, Mirzapuri, Pardesi, Uttari. Dialects are generally mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: with Bhojpuri [bho], Rana Tharu [thr], Maithili [mai], Nepali [npi], Hindi [hin]. Also Sanskrit [san] borrowings. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, East Central. Comments: ‘Kosali’ is a name used for the Eastern Hindi group. Hindu, Muslim.

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Badaga
[bfq] Kerala state: Malappuram district; Tamil Nadu state: Nilgiris district, Kunda hills, 200 villages. L1 users: 135,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Badag, Badagu, Baduga, Badugu, Vadagu. Autonym: Badaga, ಬಡಗ‎ (Badaga). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada. Comments: Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Bagheli
[bfy] Chhattisgarh state: Bilaspur and Koriya districts; Madhya Pradesh state: Anuppur, Chhindwara, Dindori, Jabalpur, Mandla, Panna, Rewa, Satna, Shahdol, Sidhi, and Umaria districts; Uttar Pradesh state: Allahabad, Banda, Mirzapur, and Hamirpur districts. L1 users: 2,860,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagelkhandi, Bhugelkhud, Gangai, Godwani Kawathi, Kenat, Kevat Boli, Kevati, Kewani, Kewat, Kewati, Kewot, Kumhari, Mandal, Mannadi, Riwai. Autonym: बघेली‎ (Bagheli). Dialects: Godwani, Kumhari, Rewa. Godwani (refers to Bagheli-speaking Gonds), Kumhari (refers to Bagheli-speaking Kumhar). Though geographic and caste variation is found in Bagheli, no dialect is prevalent. Rewa area variety is considered standard. Lexical similarity: 79%–99% between all Bagheli varieties; 72%–91% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, East Central. Comments: Hindu.

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Bagri
[bgq] Punjab state: Fatehabad, Firozepur, Hanumangarh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Sriganganagar, and Sirsa districts. L1 users: 647,000 (2001 census). 162,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 882,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagari, Bagria, Bagris, Bahgri, Baorias. Autonym: बागड़ी‎ (Bagri). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81%–95% between all varietes of Bagri, 58%–63% with Eastern Punjabi [pan], 56%–69% with Hindi [hin], 56%–70% with Haryanvi [bgc], 51%–66% with Marwari [rwr], 58%–69% with Merwari [wry], 69%–76% with Shekhawati [swv], 47%–63% with Godwari [gdx], 63%–65% with Dhundari [dhd], 60%–66% with Mewati [wtm], 74% with Jandavra [jnd]. A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Caste. Traditional religion.

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Balochi, Eastern
[bgp] Punjab state: Firozpur district. L1 users: 800 (2007). Possibly L2 speakers only. Ethnic population: 95,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balochi, Baloci, Baluci. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Non-indigenous. Distinct from Western Balochi [bgn] of Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iran, and Turkmenistan; and Southern Balochi [bcc] of Pakistan, Iran, Oman, and United Arab Emirates. Muslim.

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Balti
[bft] Jammu and Kashmir state. L1 users: 20,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 38,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baltistani, Bhoti of Baltistan, Byltae, Sbalt. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Muslim.

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Bantawa
[bap] Sikkim state: Lingdum, Rolep, and many other parts of the state; West Bengal state: Darjeeling. L1 users: 14,400 (2001 census). Few monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: An Yüng, Bantaba, Bantawa Dum, Bantawa Rai, Bantawa Yong, Bantawa Yüng, Bontawa, Kirat Khambu, Kirat Khambu Rai, Kirawa Yüng, Rai. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Bareli, Palya
[bpx] Madhya Pradesh state: Barwani district, Rajpur and Barwani sub-districts; Khargone district, Jhirniya sub-district; Maharashtra state: Jalgaon district, Yawal and Raver sub-districts; Dhule district, Shirpur sub-district. L1 users: 10,000 (2000 V. Varkey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bareli, Pali, Palodi. Dialects: Dialect center is Madhya Pradesh, Barwani District, Choutharya village of Rajpur tahsil. Lexical similarity 62%–66% with Pauri Bareli [bfb], 67%–73% with Rathwi Bareli [bgd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bareli, Pauri
[bfb] Maharashtra state: Nandurbar district, Dhadgaon, Shahada, and Taloda sub-districts; Dhule district, Shirpur sub-district; Madhya Pradesh state: Barwani district, Pansemal sub-district, Nivali and Pati blocks. L1 users: 638,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bareli, Barewali, Barli. Dialects: Pauri Bareli not intelligible with Rathwi Bareli [bgd] or Palya Bareli [bpx]. Dialect center in Maharashtra, Nandurbar district, Dhadgaon tahsil. Lexical similarity: 81%–88% with varieties of Pauri Bareli; 68%–79% with Rathwi Bareli [bgd]; 62%–66% with Palya Bareli [bpx]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bareli, Rathwi
[bgd] Madhya Pradesh state: Barwani district, Barwani, Sendhwa, and Rajpur sub-districts; Khargone district, Bhagawanpura, Jhirniya, and Bhikangaon sub-districts; Dewas district, Bagli sub-district; Khandwa district, Burhanpur sub-district; Dhar district, Dahi block; south Jhabua district, Rathia Bhilala; Maharashtra state: north Dhule district, Shirpur sub-district; Jalgaon district, Chopda, Raver, and Yawal sub-districts. L1 users: 101,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Barel, Barela, Paura, Pauri, Pawari, Pawri, Rathi, Rathia, Rathwi Pauri. Autonym: बरेली‎ (Bareli). Dialects: Pauri Bareli [bfb] and the Rathwi Pauri dialect not intelligible with Vasavi [vas] or Bhilori [noi]. Dialect center is Madhya Pradesh, Barwani District, Chiklia. Not intelligible with Palya Bareli [bpx] or Pauri Bareli. Understood by Rathia Bhilala of Nimad, Bhilala of Sondhwa block of Jhabua District and Bhils of south Dhar District. Lexical similarity: 81%–93% with Rathwi Bareli dialects; 67%–73% with Palya Bareli [bpx]; 68%–79% with Pauri Bareli [bfb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Bateri
[btv] Jammu and Kashmir state: Srinagar area. L1 users: 800. 200 families. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Bauria
[bge] Chandigarh, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh states; Delhi. L1 users: 27,200 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Babri, Badak, Baori, Basria, Bawari, Bawaria, Bhoria, Vaghri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Caste. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Bazigar
[bfr] Haryana state: Ambala, Kaithal, Karnal, and Kurukshetra; Punjab state: Fatehgarh Sahib district and Patiala; Uttar Pradesh state: Muzaffarnagar and Saharanpur. L1 users: 58,200 (1981 census). Ethnic population: 800,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu.

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Bellari
[brw] Karnataka state: Mysore district; Kerala state: Wayanad district; scattered in Tamil Nadu state. L1 users: 1,000 (Van Driem 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Tulu [tcy] and Koraga [kfd]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu. Comments: Bellara is a Scheduled Caste in Karnataka, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu. Speak a dialect of Kannada [kan] (Singh 1995b).

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Bengali
[ben] Assam state: Goalpara district; Bihar state; Jharkhand state: Dhanbad, Manbhum, Santal Parganas, and Singhbhum; Odisha state: Bales and Mayar; Tripura and West Bengal states. L1 users: 82,500,000 (2001 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in West Bengal, Tripura, Assam states (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Bangala, Bangla-Bhasa. Dialects: Barik, Bhatiari, Chirmar, Kachari-Bengali, Lohari-Malpaharia, Musselmani, Rajshahi, Samaria, Saraki, Siripuria (Kishanganjia). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Muslim, Hindu.

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Bhadrawahi
[bhd] Himachal Pradesh state: small border area; Jammu and Kashmir state: Doda district, Bhadarwah town and surrounding villages. L1 users: 53,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baderwali, Badrohi, Bahi, Bhadarwahi, Bhaderbhai Jamu, Bhaderwali Pahari, Bhadrava, Bhadri. Autonym: भद्रवाही‎ (Bhadrawahi). Dialects: Bhalesi, Padari (Padar). Lexical similarity: 45% with Pangwali [pgg]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Hindu.

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Bhalay
[bhx] Madhya Pradesh state; Maharashtra state: Amravati district. L1 users: 8,670 (1981 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Gowlan [goj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Unclassified. Comments: Bhalay probably an alternate spelling of Balahi (Balai), a Scheduled Caste found in Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Traditional religion.

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Bharia
[bha] Chhattisgarh state: Bilaspur, Durg, and Surguja districts; Madhya Pradesh state: Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Jabalpur, Mandla, Panna, Rewa, Sidhi, and Tikamgarh districts; Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal states. L1 users: 197,000 (1981 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhar, Bharat, Bhumia, Bhumiya, Paliha. Dialects: None known. They speak a variety of Hindi [hin] (Singh and Manoharan 1993). Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Bhatri
[bgw] Chhattisgarh state: Bastar district, Jagdalpur sub-district; Maharashtra state; Odisha state: Koraput district, Kotpad sub-district. L1 users: 217,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Basturia, Bhatra, Bhattra, Bhattri, Bhottada, Bhottara, Deshia. Dialects: Dialects understand each other at 88% or more. Reportedly similar to Halbi [hlb]. Lexical similarity: 70%–90% between dialects, 58% with Adivasi Oriya [ort]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Oriya. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Bhattiyali
[bht] Himachal Pradesh state: Chamba district, Bhattiyat and Sihunta sub-districts; Jammu and Kashmir state; Punjab state. L1 users: 102,000 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhateali, Bhatiali Pahari, Bhatiyali, Pahari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, Sikh.

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Bhilali
[bhi] Karnataka state; Madhya Pradesh state: Barwani (Rajpur), southern Dhar, southern Jhabua, and Khargone (Segaon) districts; Maharashtra state: Dhule district; Rajasthan state; a few in Gujarat state. L1 users: 681,000 (2001 census). 25,000–50,000 Parya Bhilali. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhilala, Bhili. Dialects: Parya Bhilali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Bhili
[bhb] Gujarat state: Dohad, Panch Mahals, and Sabarkantha districts; Madhya Pradesh state: Dhar, Indore, Jhabua, Khargone, and Ratlam districts; Rajasthan state: Banswara, Dungapur, and Udaipur districts. L1 users: 3,310,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bhagoria, Bhil, Bhilbari, Bhilboli, Bhilla, Bhilodi, Lengotia, Vil. Autonym: भीली‎ (Bhīlī). Dialects: Ahiri, Anarya (Pahadi), Bhilodi, Bhim, Charani, Habura, Konkani, Kotali (Kotvali, Kotwalia), Magra Ki Boli, Nahari (Baglani), Naikdi, Panchali, Patelia, Ranawat, Rani Bhil, Siyalgir, Valvi, Labani. Bhili of Ratlam District in Madhya Pradesh is inherently intelligible with Wagdi [wbr] and a connecting link between Gujarati [guj] and Rajasthani (Marwari) [mve]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: ‘Bhil’ is an ethnic designation (caste or tribe). Bhili is a Scheduled Tribe in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, and Tripura; Kotwalia is a Scheduled Tribe in Gujarat and Maharashtra. Dewali (Dehawali) is a cover term for Vasavi and Kotali, among others. Traditional religion.

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Bhojpuri
[bho] Assam state; Bihar state: Champaran, Saran, and Shahabad districts; Delhi; Jharkhand state: Palamau and Ranchi districts; Madhya Pradesh state; Uttar Pradesh state: Azamgarh, Ballia, Basti, Deoria, Ghazipur, Gorakhpur, Mirzapur, and Varanasi districts; West Bengal state. L1 users: 37,800,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 39,605,300 (as L1: 39,445,300; as L2: 160,000). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bajpuri, Bhojapuri, Bhozpuri, Deswali, Khotla, Piscimas, “Bihari” (pej.). Autonym: भोजपुरी‎ (Bhōjpurī). Dialects: Northern Standard Bhojpuri (Basti, Gorakhpuri, Sarawaria), Western Standard Bhojpuri (Benarsi, Purbi), Southern Standard Bhojpuri (Kharwari), Bhojpuri Tharu, Madhesi, Domra, Musahari. May be more than 1 language. Extent of dialect variation in India and Nepal not yet determined. The cover term “Bihari” (a pejorative alternate name for Bhojpuri) is also used for Maithili [mai], and Magahi [mag]. Bhojpuri Tharu dialect is spoken by Tharu caste in Nepal and India. Distinct from other Tharu languages. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Bhunjia
[bhu] Chhattisgarh state: Raipur district; Madhya Pradesh state: Hoshangabad district; Maharashtra state; Odisha state: Balasore (Baleshwar), Dhenkanal, Kalahandi, Keonjhar, Koraput, and Sambalpur districts, Sunabera Plateau area. L1 users: 6,790 (2000 USCWM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhumjiya, Bhunjiya, Bunjia. Dialects: A more divergent dialect of Halbi [hlb]. Lexical similarity: 68%–72% with Kamar [keq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Oriya. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Biete
[biu] Assam state: North Cachar Hills district; Manipur state; Meghalaya state: Jaintia hills district; Mizoram state: Aizawl district, Darlawn, New Vervek, and Ratu villages. L1 users: 19,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baite, Bete, Biate. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Hrangkhol [hra], and similar enough to Mizo [lus] and Hmar [hmr] that they can be read with comprehension. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Mizo. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. An ethnic subgroup of the Mizo. Not the same as the Biate dialect of Chin Thado [tcz] (Breton 1997). Christian.

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Bijori
[bix] Jharkhand state: Cowerdaga, and Ranchi districts; Madhya Pradesh and Odisha states; West Bengal state: Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts. L1 users: 25,000 (1998 GRN). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Binjhia, Birijia, Birjia, Brijia, Burja. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnic group called Birjia. Hindu, Christian.

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Bilaspuri
[kfs] Himachal Pradesh state: Bilaspur district; Punjab state: Rupnagar district. L1 users: 295,000 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bilaspuri Pahari, Kahluri, Kehloori Pahari, Kehluri, Pacchmi. Dialects: None known. 95% intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 94% of Kangri [xnr]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Kangri of Palampur, 86% with Mandeali, 84% with Chambeali [cdh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: ‘Kahluri’ is based on the old name for the princely state. Hindu.

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Birhor
[biy] Chhattisgarh state: Raigarh district; Jharkhand state: southern Hazaribag, southern Palamau, Ranchi, and Singhbhum districts; Maharashtra state; Odisha state: Kalahandi, Keonjhar, Mayurbhanj, Sambalpur, and Sundargarh districts; West Bengal state: Puruliya district. L1 users: 2,000 (Van Driem 2007). Nomadic habits make assessment difficult. Some estimates as low as 1,000 (Parkin 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bihor, Birhar, Birhore, Birhul, Mankidi, Mankidia, Mankiria. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 55%–72% with Santhali [sat], Ho [hoc], Mundari [unr], and Munda [unx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditionally nomadic. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Bishnupriya
[bpy] Assam state: Cachar, Hailakandi, and Karimganj districts; north Tripura state. L1 users: 77,500 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 117,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bishnupria Manipuri, Bishnupriya Manipuri, Bishnupuriya, Bisna Puriya. Dialects: Madai Gang (Leimanai), Rajar Gang (Ningthaunai). Though once regarded as a Bengali-Meitei creole, it retains pre-Bengali features (Masica 1991). Lexical similarity: 81%–85% between dialects in Bangladesh, 41%–45% with Bengali [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Reported to also live in three villages in Myanmar but these villages cannot be identified. Hindu.

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Bodo Parja
[bdv] Andhra Pradesh state; Odisha state: Koraput district. L1 users: 50,000 (2001 IBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bodo Paraja, Harja, Jhaliya, Jharia, Jhodia Parja, Parajhi, Parja, Parjhi, Parji, Paroja, Poroja, Sodia Parja. Dialects: None known. Phonology and grammar show Indo-European relationship, not related to Dravidian Duruwa Parji. 86%–96% intelligibility between Bodo and Jhodia caste varieties. Lexical similarity: 76%–86% with Bodo and Jhodia caste varieties, 70%–89% with Desia. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Oriya. Comments: Paroja is a Scheduled Tribe; the name comes from Sanskrit [san] subjects. It is used for a variety of ethnic groups from different language families. Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Bondo
[bfw] Odisha state: Malkangiri district, Khoirput sub-district, Bondo Hills. L1 users: 9,000 (2002 SIL). 5,570 Upper Bondo and 3,500 Lower Bondo. Few Lower Bondo are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhonda Bhasha, Bonda, Bondo-Poraja, Nanqa Poroja, Poraja Katha, Remo, Remosum. Dialects: Upper Bondo, Lower Bondo. Bhuksa dialect sometimes mentioned as a dialect of Kanauji [bjj]. Lexical similarity: 70%–94% with other Bondo varieties, 45%–51% with Gutob Gadaba [gbj], 22%–32% with Upper Gata’ [gaq] (Didayi). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta’, Gutob-Remo. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Boro
[brx] Assam state: mainly Darrang, Goalpara, Kamrup, Lakhimpur, Nagaon, and Sibsagar districts; Manipur state: Chandel (Tengnoupal) district; Meghalaya state: West Garo Hills district, Tikrikilla sub-district, 7 villages; East Khasi Hills district; West Bengal state: Cooch-Behar, Darjeeling, and Jalpaiguri districts. L1 users: 1,330,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 1,334,380. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Assam (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347). Alternate Names: Bara, Bodi, Bodo, Boroni, Kachari, Mech, Meche, Mechi, Meci. Autonym: बोडो‎ (boḍo), बोडो भाषा‎ (boḍo bʰāṣā). Dialects: Chote, Mech. West Bengal dialect reportedly different from Assam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Boro-Tiwa, Boro. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Braj Bhasha
[bra] Bihar state; Delhi; Haryana state: Gurgaon district; Madhya Pradesh state; Rajasthan state: Bharatpur and Sawai Madhopur districts; Uttar Pradesh state: Agra region. L1 users: 574,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Antarbedi, Antarvedi, Bijbhasha, Braj, Braj Bhakha, Bri, Brij Bhasha, Briju, Bruj. Dialects: Braj Bhasha, Antarbedi, Bhuksa, Sikarwari, Jadobafi, Dangi. Bhuksa is sometimes mentioned as a dialect of Kanauji [bjj]. Braj Bhasha is usually considered a dialect of Hindi [hin], and was the predominant literary language before the switch to Hindi in the 19th century. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Brokskat
[bkk] Jammu and Kashmir state: Kargil and Ladakh districts along Indus river; Garkhon area, including Batalik, Chulichan, Dah, Darchiks, and Gurgurdo villages. L1 users: 10,000 (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brokpa, Brokpa of Dah-Hanu, Dokskat, Kyango, Minaro. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Broq-pa is a Scheduled Tribe. A very divergent variety of Shina [scl]. It is the oldest surviving member of the ancient Dardic language. Buddhist, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bugun
[bgg] Arunachal Pradesh state: West Kameng district, Nafra and Singchung sub-districts, Bichom, Diching, Dikiang, Lichini, Mangopom, Namphri, New Kaspi, Ramu, Sachita, Singchung, Situ, and Wangho villages; in mountains on both sides of Rupa river, interspersed among the Aka. L1 users: 900 (2001 Asia Harvest). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kho, Khoa, Khowa. Autonym: Bugun. Dialects: None known. May be mutually intelligible with Puroik [suv] (Chowdhury 1996); Burling (2003) groups it with Puroik and Sherdukpen [sdp] and possibly also with Lish [lsh] and Sartang [onp]. Lexical similarity: low with all neighboring languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa. Comments: Spoken by the Khoa (Khowa) ethnic group. They are culturally like the Hruso, but speak a different language. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Buksa
[tkb] Uttar Pradesh state; Uttarakhand state: southwest Nainital district, Kichha and Kashipur sub-districts, 130 villages, from Keneshpur to Ramnagar; some in Bijnor and Garhwal districts. L1 users: 43,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. 95% intelligibility with Rana Tharu [thr]. Lexical similarity: 58%–79% with western Tharu varieties, 58% with Madhya Ksetriya Tharu [the], 83% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bundeli
[bns] Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat states; Madhya Pradesh state: Balaghat, Bhind, Chhatarpur, Chhindwara, Datia, Guna, Gwalior, Hoshangabad, Morena, Narsinghpur, Panna, Sagar, Satna, Sehore, Seoni, Shivpuri and Tikamgarh districts; Maharashtra state: Bhandara, and Nagpur districts; Rajasthan state; Uttar Pradesh state: Banda, Hamirpur, Jalaun, Jhansi, and Lalitpur districts. L1 users: 3,070,000 (2001 census). Population estimates range up to 20,000,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bondili, Bundelkhandi. Autonym: बुन्देली‎ (Bundeli). Dialects: Standard Bundeli, Lodhanti (Rathora), Khatola, Banaphari, Kundri, Nibhatta, Tirhari, Bhadauri (Towargarhi), Gaoli, Kirari, Raghobansi, Nagpuri Hindi, Chhindwara Bundeli. Chhatapur dialect is widely understood. Other dialects are standard Braj of Mathura, Aligarh, western Agra; standard Braj of Bulandshahr; standard Braj of eastern Agra, southern Morena, southern Bharatpur; Braj merging into Kanauji in Etah, Mainpuri, Budaun, and Bareilly; Braj merging into the Bhadauri subdialect in northern Morena; Braj merging into Jaipuri (Rajasthani) in northern Bharatpur and Sawai Uradhopur; Bhuksa in southern Nainital (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928). Lexical similarity: 41% with Nagpuri Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Bundeli. Comments: Hindu, Buddhist.

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Byangsi
[bee] Uttarakhand state: Pithoragarh district, Darchula and Munsyari sub-districts, Garbyang, Gunji, Nabi, Napalchyu, and Rongkang villages; in Kuthi Yangti river valley in the Himalayas on Nepal and Tibet borders; Byangs Patti from Budi south to Kuti village north. L1 users: 2,830 (2000). No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 3,380 (as L1: 3,310; as L2: 70). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bhotia, Byangkho Lwo, Byangkhopa, Byanshi, Byansi, Jaba, Rang, Rang Lo, Saukas, Shaukas. Dialects: Pangjungkho Boli, Yerjungkhu Boli, Kuti. Dialects of Byangs, Chaudangs and Darma valleys are unintelligible to each other (Sharma 1994). Those in Kuti (India) and Tinkar (Nepal) are closely related and quite different from those in other Byangsi villages. Tinkar variety differs from Byangsi, Chaudangsi [cdn], and Darmiya [drd] in forms of agreement affixes and basic vocabulary. Minor dialect differences correspond to geographical divisions (Sharma 2001). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora. Comments: Cultural center seems to be India. Ranglo or Rang often used as a cover term for Byangs, Chaudangs, Darmiya and Rongpo. Some borrowing from Indo-Aryan. Hindu.

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Chakma
[ccp] Arunachal Pradesh state: Changlang district, Miao sub-district, Lohit district, Chowkham sub-district, Tirap district; Assam state: Anglong, Cachar, Karbi, and North Cachar districts; Mizoram state: southwest along Karnafuli river; Tripura state: North Tripura district, Kailashahar sub-district; South Tripura district; Manipur and West Bengal states. L1 users: 176,000 (2001 census). Other estimates less than 100,000 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chakama, Takam, Tsakma. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Distinct from Chak [ckh]. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Chamari
[cdg] Madhya Pradesh and Maharastra states; Uttar Pradesh state: Lucknow. L1 users: 406,000 (2001 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chamar, Chambhar Boli, Chambhari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Comments: Chamar is a caste name for skin and hide workers. Speakers throughout India (Singh 1995b). Traditional religion.

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Chambeali
[cdh] Himachal Pradesh state: Chamba district, Chamba sub-district; Jammu and Kashmir state. L1 users: 130,000 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cameali, Chamaya, Chambiali, Chambiyali, Chamiyali Pahari, Chamya. Dialects: Bansbali, Bansyari, Gadi Chameali. 91% intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 87% of Kangri [xnr]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Palampuri Kangri [xnr], 86% with Bhattiyali [bht], 84% with Bilaspuri [kfs], 83% with Mandeali [mjl], 79% with Gaddi [gbk], 78% with Churahi [cdj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Hindu.

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Chamling
[rab] Sikkim state: South district; West Bengal state: Darjeeling, Regu and other parts of the state. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Camling. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Changthang
[cna] Jammu and Kashmir state: Tibet border area, Changthang region east and southeast of Leh. L1 users: 10,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Byangskat, Byanskat, Champas, Changs-Skat, Changtang, Changtang Ladakhi, Rong, Rupshu, Stotpa, Upper Ladakhi. Dialects: 58%–85% intelligibility with Leh dialect of Ladakhi [lbj] with high standard deviation indicating some acquired intelligibility; 94%–95% intelligibility with Stod Bhoti [sbu] from Darcha village. Identify more with Leh Ladakhi culture than with Stod Bhoti despite lack of intelligibility. Related to Rangkas [rgk], Darmiya [drd], Byangsi [bee]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western. Comments: Champa is a Scheduled Tribe. Buddhist.

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Chaudangsi
[cdn] Uttarakhand state: Pithoragarh district, Darchula and Munsyari sub-districts, Chilla, Gala, Monggong, Panggu, Rimzhim, Rongto, Rung, Sirdang, Sirkha, Song, Sosa, Syang Khola, Tangkul, Waiku, and Zipti villages; Patti Chaudangs, Kali river west bank facing Nepal border along Mahakali valley. L1 users: 1,830 (2000 USCWM). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bangba Lo, Bangba-Lwo, Bangbani, Chanpa Lo, Chaudans Lo, Saukas, Shaukas, Tsaudangsi. Dialects: None known. Related to Rangkas [rgk], Darmiya [drd], and Byangsi [bee] (Sharma 1989), unintelligible with Darmiya and Byangsi (Sharma 1994). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora. Comments: Ranglo or Rang often used as a cover term for Byangs, Chaudangs, Darmiya, and Rongpo. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Chaura
[crv] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: Nicobar Islands, Chaura island. L1 users: 5,910 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chowra, Tutet. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chenchu
[cde] Karnataka and Odisha states; Telangana state: mostly Kurnool district, Nallamalla hills. L1 users: 26,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chenchucoolam, Chenchwar, Chensulu, Chenswar, Choncharu. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Chetti, Wayanad
[ctt] Karnataka state: Bavali; Kerala state: Wayanad district, Appapara, Chekadi, Kattikkulam, Panavalli, Pulpalli, Thirunelli, and Tholpetti villages; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore, Nilgiri and Periyar districts. L1 users: 5,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chetti, Chetty. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 62%–76% with Gowder, 65% with Jennu Kurumba [xuj], 52% with Kannada [kan]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Unclassified. Comments: ‘Chetti’, trader, also loosely employed as a caste name (Thurston and Rangachari 1909). 10 groups of Chetti identified in Tamil Nadu.

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Chhattisgarhi
[hne] Chhattisgarh state: north central; Jharkhand state: Simdega; Madhya Pradesh state: Anuppur and Shahdol (Baigani dialect) districts; Maharashtra state: border areas; Odisha state: Sundargarh. L1 users: 13,300,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Khaltahi, Laria. Dialects: Sadri Korwa, Baigani (Baiga, Bega, Bhumia, Gowro), Binjhwari, Kalanga, Bhulia, Chhattisgarhi Proper, Kavardi, Khairagarhi. Sadri Korwa spoken by Korwa people in Jashpur tahsil of Raigarh District; Baigani in Balaghat, Raipur, and Bilaspur districts of Chhattisgarh, and Sambalpur District of Odisha; Binjhwari in Raipur and Raigarh districts of Chhattisgarh; Kalanga and Bhulia dialects are spoken in Patna District of Bihar; Chhattisgarhi Proper in Raipur, Durg, Bilaspur, and other districts of Chhattisgarh. Lexical similarity: 66%–69% with Kamar [keq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, East Central. Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu, Muslim.

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Chin, Bawm
[bgr] Assam state; Mizoram state: Aizawl, Chhimtuipui, and Lunglei districts; Tripura state. L1 users: 4,440 (2004). Total users in all countries: 15,140. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bawm, Bawn, Bawng, Bom. Dialects: None known. Linguistically and ethnically a subgroup of the Laizou (Anal) [anm] (Matisoff et al 1996:8). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Lai. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Chin, Falam
[cfm] Assam state: Karimganj district, a few villages in Cachar and North Hills districts; Mizoram, Tripura, and West Bengal states. L1 users: 38,300 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Fallam, Halam Chin, Hallam, Tipura. Dialects: Chorei, Chari Chong, Halam, Kaipang, Kalai (Koloi), Mursum (Molsom), Rupini, Tapong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Lai. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnically Halam. A Scheduled Tribe. Many ethnic Halam speak Kok Borok [trp] as L1. Halam is a generic term under which 9 subgroups, each with a distinct dialect, are grouped together: (Sakachep [sch], Chorei, Rupini, Ranglong [rnl], Marcephang (Khochung–dialect of [cfm]), Molsom, Keipang (dialect of [cfm]), Bondcher (dialect of [cfm]), Rangkhol [hra]). Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Chin, Hakha
[cnh] Assam and Meghalaya states; Mizoram state: Aizawi district, Champhai subdistrict, southernmost tip; Chhimtuipui district, 41 villages. L1 users: 25,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Baungshe, Haka Chin, Lai, Lai Hawlh, Lai Pawi, “Haka” (pej.). Dialects: Klangklang (Thlantlang), Zokhua. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Lai. Comments: Lai Pawi is a Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Chin, Khumi
[cnk] Mizoram state. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kami, Khami, Khumi, Khuni, Kumi, “Khweymi” (pej.). Dialects: Khami, Khimi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern. Comments: Called Khami Chin in India. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chin, Mara
[mrh] Mizoram state: Chhimtuipui district. 60 villages. L1 users: 34,800 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 54,800. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lakher, Maram, Mira, Zao. Autonym: Mara. Dialects: Tlongsai (Tlosai-Siaha), Hlawthai. Reportedly similar to Shendu [shl]. Affiliated with Lai (Hakha Chin) [cnh]. Tlosai-Siaha dialect is lingua franca of all Mara (Singh 1994b, Singh 1995a). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Maraic, Mara. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Subgroup of Mizo (Lushai). Christian.

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Chin, Matu
[hlt] Mizoram state. L1 users: 10,000 (2012). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Matupi, Nga La. Dialects: Haltu, Thui Phum. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern, Cho-Asho, Cho. Comments: Christian.

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Chin, Paite
[pck] Assam state; Manipur state: Churachandpur district, Khuga valley, Copur Bazar; Mizoram state: Aizawl district, Champhai sub-district, 20 villages; Tripura state. L1 users: 64,100 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Haithe, Paite, Paithe, Parte, Vuite, Zomi, Zoukam. Autonym: Paite Chin. Dialects: Bukpi (Bukpui), Dapzal (Dapzar), Dim, Dimpi, Lamzang, Lousau, Saizang, Sihzang, Telzang (Teizang), Tuichiap. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Thado. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Paites in Mizoram speak Mizo (Go 1996). Most speak Teizang and Dapzal dialects (Singh 1995b). Zomi is a collective ethnic autonym generally used by Tedim Chin of Myanmar, Paite, and Vaiphei of Manipur. Christian.

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Chin, Tedim
[ctd] Assam, Manipur (south), and Mizoram (north) states. L1 users: 155,000 (1990). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tedim, Tiddim. Dialects: Sokte, Kamhau (Kamhao, Kamhow). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Thado. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Chin, Thado
[tcz] Assam state; Manipur state: Chandel, Churachandpur, Senapati, and Tamenglong districts; Mizoram state: northeast; Nagaland state: Kohima district; Tripura state. L1 users: 243,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 269,200. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kuki, Kuki-Thado, Thaadou Kuki, Thado-Pao, Thado-Ubiphei, Thadou. Dialects: Changsen, Jangshen, Kaokeep, Khongzai, Kipgen, Langiung, Sairang, Thangngen, Hawkip, Shithlou, Singson (Shingsol). Several varieties, but high mutual intelligibility among dialects. Related to Kamhau (Tedim Chin [ctd] dialect), Ralte [ral], Paite Chin [pck], Zou [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Thado. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Some listed dialects are separate languages. Christian.

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Chin, Zyphe
[zyp] Mizoram state: Saiha district, Iana and Siata villages. L1 users: 3,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Vawngtu, Zophei, Zoptei, Zyphe. Dialects: Lower Zyphe, Upper Zyphe. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Maraic.

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Chinali
[cih] Himachal Pradesh state: Lahul and Pattan valleys, and Gushal village. L1 users: 750 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chana, Channali, Chinal, Dagi, Harijan, Shipi. Dialects: None known. Closely related to Sanskrit [san]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Spoken by the Chinal caste. Many are well educated. Hindu.

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Chiru
[cdf] Assam state: Cachar district, a village near Jirbom; Manipur state: Bishnupur district; Churachandpur district, Charoi Khullen village; Tamenglong district, Bungte, Dolang, Dolang Khunou, Kangchup, Lamdangmei, Nungshai, Sadu, Senapati, Thangzing, and Uram villages; Thoubal district, Vaithou; Nagaland state. Scattered. L1 users: 7,000 (2000 A. Khorong). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chhori. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Chin Mizo [lus]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Chodri
[cdi] Gujarat state: Surat and Tapi districts. L1 users: 209,000 (2001 census). More speakers in Tapi district. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bhil, Chaudhari, Chaudri, Chodhari, Choudhara, Choudhary, Chowdhary. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Chug
[cvg] Arunachal Pradesh state: West Kameng district, Chug village. L1 users: 850 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chug Monpa, Chugpa, Monpa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Lish [lsh]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa. Comments: ’Monpa’ (Moinba), man of the lower country, refers to several ethnically related peoples which may not be related linguistically. Buddhist.

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Churahi
[cdj] Himachal Pradesh state: Chamba district, Chaurah and Saluni sub-district, Bhalai; Jammu and Kashmir state: Doda and Kathua districts. L1 users: 111,000 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaurahi, Churahi Pahari, Churai Pahari. Dialects: None known. 90% intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 83% of Kangri [xnr], 85% of Chambeali [cdh]. Lexical similarity: 78% with Chambeali [cdh] (most similar), 70% with Palampuri Kangri [xnr] and Bhattiyali [bht], 67%–69% with Gaddi [gbk], 65% with Mandeali [mjl] and Bilaspuri [kfs], 64% with Pangi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Hindu.

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Darlong
[dln] Assam state: Cachar district; Tripura state: North Tripura district, Kailashahar and Kamalpur sub-districts. L1 users: 6,000 (1998 T. Darlong). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dalong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Christian.

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Darmiya
[drd] Uttarakhand state: Pithoragarh district, Darchula and Munsyari sub-district, Baling, Baun, Bongling, Dar, Datu, Dhakar, Dugtu, Gwo, Marchha, Nanglin, Philam, Saung, Selachal, Sipoo, and Sobla villages; in Dhauli valley, from Tawaghat near Dharchula south to Sipoo north along Dhauli river. L1 users: 1,750 (2006 C. Willis). Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Darimiya, Darma, Darma Lwo, Darma-Lwo, Darmani, Saukas, Shaukas. Dialects: None known. Related to Rangkas [rgk], Chaudangsi [cdn] and Byangsi [bee]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora. Comments: Ranglo or Rang often used for Byangs, Chaudangs, Darmiya, and Rongpo. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Deccan
[dcc] Gujarat state; Madhya Pradesh state: Raisen and Sehore districts; Maharashtra state: Belgaum, Bijapur, and Karnataka districts on Deccan Plateau. L1 users: 12,800,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dakini, Deccani, Desi. Dialects: Kalvadi (Dharwar), Bijapuri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Unclassified. Comments: May be the same as Dakhini dialect of Urdu [urd]. Muslim.

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Degaru
[dgu] Jharkhand state: Dumka, Jamtara; West Bengal state: Birbhum. L1 users: 10,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dhekaru. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Deori
[der] Assam state: Demaji, Lakhimpur, Jorhat, and Tinsukia districts; Arunachal Pradesh state: Lohit district. L1 users: 28,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chutiya, Dari, Deuri, Dewri, Drori. Dialects: May constitute its own subgroup under Bodo-Garo. Reportedly not similar to other languages. Dialect of Lakhimpur District is regarded as purest. Lexical similarity: 77%–93% with Deori varieties, 11%–16% with Bodo [brx]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. ‘Deori’, the temple guard. Deori Chutiya is 1 of 4 Chutiya subgroups. Do not call themselves Chutiya. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Desiya
[dso] Chhattisgarh state: Bastar district; Odisha state: Koraput district, Lamtaput sub-district; Nabarangapur district. L1 users: 50,000 (2003 Asha Kiran Society). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Deshia, Desia, Desiya Oriya, Koraput Oriya. Dialects: Intelligible with Adivasi Oriya [ort] but uses different scripts. Lexical similarity: 80%–85% with Adivasi Oriya [ort] dialects in Andhra Pradesh. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Oriya. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Dhanki
[dhn] Gujarat state: Dangs district; Maharashtra state: Jalgaon district; Karnataka and Rajasthan states. L1 users: 139,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dangi, Dangri, Dangs Bhil, Dhanka, Kakachhu-Ki Boli, Tadavi, Tadvi Bhil. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Khandesi [khn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Khandesi. Comments: Dhankia and Tadvi Bhil are Scheduled Tribes. Dhanka of Rajasthan reportedly speak Hindi as L1; Dhanka of Maharashtra use Gujarati as L1; Tadvi Bhil reportedly use Bhili [bhb] as L1. Traditional religion.

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Dhatki
[mki] Rajasthan state: west. L1 users: 16,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Non-indigenous. A Scheduled Tribe. Muslim, Hindu.

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Dhimal
[dhi] Jharkhand state: Bokaro district; West Bengal state: Puruliya district, 16 villages. L1 users: 450 (2000 K. Cooper). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Eastern Dhimal. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Dhimalish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dhodia
[dho] Gujarat state: Surat and Valsad districts, Dadra, Daman and Diu union territory, and Nagar Haveli; Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, and Rajasthan states. L1 users: 169,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dhobi, Dhore, Dhori, Dhowari, Doria. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Dhundari
[dhd] Rajasthan state: Dausa, Jaipur, and Tonk districts; possibly in Ajmer, Bundi, Jhalawar, northern Karauli, Kishangarh, Kota, and Sawai Madhopur districts. L1 users: 1,870,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhundari-Marwari, Jaipuri. Dialects: 54% intelligibility of Marwari [rwr]; 86% of Shekhawati [swv]. Lexical similarity: 75%–89% with dialects; 62%–70% with Merwari [wry], 65%–81% with Shekhawati [swv], 46%–66% with Godwari [gdx], 56%–64% with Mewari [mtr], 64%–73% with Haroti [hoj], 62%–67% with Mewati [wtm], 59% with Hindi [hin]. A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Digaro-Mishmi
[mhu] Arunachal Pradesh state: Lohit district, Changlagam, Goiliang, and Hayuliang circles, Dibang Valley district; Assam state. L1 users: 34,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 34,850. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Darang Deng, Digaro, Digaru, Mishmi, Taaon, Taraon, Taying. Dialects: None known. May not be in the Tani group, but is related. Lexical similarity: 25% with Idu-Mishmi [clk], 10% with Miju-Mishmi [mxj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Digarish. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Dimasa
[dis] Assam state: north Cachar district and Cachar hills; Karbi Anglong and Nagaon districts; Nagaland state: Haflong district; Meghalaya and Mizoram states. L1 users: 112,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dimasa Kachari, Hills Kachari. Autonym: Grau Dima, Magrau. Dialects: Hasao, Hawar, Dembra, Dijuwa, Humri, Semsa, Walgong. Related to Kachari [xac]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Dimasa-Kokborok. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Some ethnic Dimasa speak other languages as L1: Mikir Karbi [mjw], Bengali [ben], and Assamese [asm]. Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Dogri
[dgo] Jammu and Kashmir state: Kathua, Poonch, Reasi, and Udhampur districts; Himachal Pradesh state: Chamba and Kangra districts; Punjab state: Gurdaspur district. L1 users: 2,280,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Jammu and Kashmir (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347). Alternate Names: Dhogaryali, Dogari, Dogri Jammu, Dogri Pahari, Dogri-Kangri, Dongari, Hindi Dogri, Tokkaru. Dialects: Dogri speakers understand each other well. Some reported difficulty understanding Kangri [xnr]. Department of Dogri at Jammu University designated Samba as the standard dialect and published textbooks based on this variety. Lexical similarity: 78% between dialects; excluding the most divergent site, others more than 86%. A member of macrolanguage Dogri [doi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Dogri formerly considered a Punjabi dialect, but now promoted as a written language in India. Dhogri is a Scheduled Caste in Himachal Pradesh and Punjab who speak Chambeali [cdh] in Himachal and Dogri in Punjab (Singh 1995b). Hindu, Muslim.

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Dogri
[doi] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 3,980,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Dogri [dgo], Kangri [xnr].

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Domari
[rmt] Bihar state: Champaran and Saran districts; Assam, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal states. L1 users: 220 (2015). Ethnic population: 202,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dom, Domra Magu Hiya. Dialects: Domaki, Wogri-Boli. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. Efforts made to hide meaning of words from outsiders. Similar to Bhojpuri [bho]. Hindu.

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Dotyali
[dty] Maharastra, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand states. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, Eastern Pahari. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dubli
[dub] Gujarat state: Bharuch (Broach), Surat, Vadodara, and Valsad districts; Maharashtra state: Thane district, Dahanu and Talasari cities’ areas, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu enclaves; Karnataka and Rajasthan states. L1 users: 252,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 791,000 (2007). Over half the ethnic group uses Gujarati [guj] (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dubala, Dubla, Rathod, Talavia. Dialects: Dubli of Bharuch District is intelligible with Dungri dialect of Vasavi [vas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Dungra Bhil
[duh] Gujarat state: Vadodara district, Chotaudeyapur and Naswadi sub-districts; Madhya Pradesh state: Jhabua district, Alirajpur sub-district; Maharashtra state: Dedgam sub-district; slopes of Vindhya Satpura mountains. 200 villages. L1 users: 100,000 (2000 IICCC). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. 84%–89% intelligibility with Bhilori [noi] of Maharashtra. Lexical similarity: 75%–85% between subgroups, 71%–87% with Bhilori and Noiri Bhili, less than 53% with Garasia [gas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Gujarat. A Bhil subgroup. Dungra Bhil sometimes used as alternate name for Adivasi Garasia [gas] and Rajput Garasia [gra] but probably refers to more than 1 group living in the hills. ‘Dungra’, hill. Hindu.

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Duruwa
[pci] Chhattisgarh state: Bastar district, southeast Jagdalpur sub-district; Odisha state: Koraput district. L1 users: 51,200 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1986). 65% in Bastar, 35% in Koraput. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dhruva, Dhurwa, Durva, Paraja, Parajhi, Parjhi, Parji, Tagara, Thakara, Tugara. Dialects: Tiriya, Nethanar, Dharba, Kukanar. Nethanar dialect is central. Lexical similarity: 90%–96% with dialects, 70%–82% with Halbi [hlb]. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Dzongkha
[dzo] West Bengal state: Darjeeling and Kalimpong, just inside the Indo-Bhutan border; Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Manipur, Meghalaya, Nagaland, and Sikkim states. L1 users: 11,000 (2007). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Drukpa, Hloka, Lhoskad. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern. Comments: Buddhist.

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English
[eng] 200,350,000 in India, all users. L1 users: 350,000 (Crystal 2003a). L2 users: 200,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1950, Constitution, Articles 343 and 348(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous. Neither British nor American English but a distinct Indian dialect with its own unique vocabulary and style.

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Eravallan
[era] Kerala state: Palakkad district, Chittoor sub-district; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore district. L1 users: 5,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 5,440 (2001 census). 3,890 in Kerala and 1,560 in Tamil Nadu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambuvilluvedar, Villu Vedan, Vilvedan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 91% between Eravallan of Coimbatore and of Palakkad, 70%–74% with Tamil [tam], 59%–77% with Irula [iru], 77%–86% with Malasar [ymr]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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French
[fra] Puducherry Union Territory. L1 users: 10,000 (2008). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in Puducherry Union Territory (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347 inclusive), unscheduled language. Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gadaba, Bodo
[gbj] Andhra Pradesh state: Visakhapatnam district; Odisha state: Koraput district, Lamtaput sub-district, 40 villages; Malkangiri district, Khoirput sub-district. L1 users: 8,000 (2000 IICCC). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boi Gadaba, Gadba, Gadwa, Godwa, Gudwa, Gutob, Gutop. Dialects: Birong Raji, Kinda Raji, Lamtaput, Koraput. Dialects mutually intelligible. Speakers in Lamtaput block have 89%–94% intelligibility in Tikrapada and Audipoda villages. Intelligibility of the Hanumal village variety is less. Lexical similarity: 69%–89% among 7 varieties in Odisha, 90% between listed dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta’, Gutob-Remo. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Some ethnic Gadaba in Madhya Pradesh speak Bhatri [bgw] as L1. Different from Dravidian Mudhili Gadaba [gau] and Pottangi Ollar Gadaba [gdb]. Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Gadaba, Mudhili
[gau] Andhra Pradesh state: Vizianagaram district, Salur and Pachipenta sub-districts; Srikakulam and Vishakhapatnam districts. L1 users: 8,000 (2000 IICCC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gadaba, Gol Gadaba, Kondekar, Kondko. Dialects: 93%–98% intelligibility among dialects. Lexical similarity: 84%–94% between dialects. Different from Dravidian Mudhili Gadaba [gau] and Pottangi Ollar Gadaba [gdb]. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Gadaba, Pottangi Ollar
[gdb] Odisha state: Koraput district, Nandapur and Pottangi sub-districts. L1 users: 15,000 (2002 M. Kurian). 4,000–7,000 in Koraput District, Pottangi block (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Allar, Gadaba, Gadba, Hallari, Hollar Gadbas, Konekor, Konekor Gadaba, Mundli, Ollar Gadaba, Ollari, Ollaro, San Gadaba, Sano. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69%–80% with 4 varieties in Odisha; 42%–47% with 1 variety in Andhra Pradesh; 52%–62% with Mudhili Gadaba [gau] in Andhra Pradesh. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Parji-Gadaba. Comments: Gabada is a Scheduled Tribe. Different from Gadaba [gbj] in Munda family, also spoken in Koraput. Traditional religion.

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Gaddi
[gbk] Himachal Pradesh state: Chamba district, Brahmaur sub-district; Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh states; Delhi. L1 users: 110,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bharmauri Bhadi, Gaddyali, Gadi, Gadiali, Pahari Bharmauri, Panchi Brahmauri Rajput. Dialects: Bharmauri, Macleod Ganj. 93% intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 97% of Kangri [xnr], 83% of Chambeali [cdh]. Lexical similarity: 74%–80% with Palamuri Kangri [xnr], 79% with Chambeali [cdh], 67%–73% with Mandeali [mjl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Gaddi is generic for all indigenous populations of Bharmaur area of Chamba District. Hindu.

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Gahri
[bfu] Himachal Pradesh state: Barbog, Biling, Gumrang, Guskyar, Kardang, Kyelang, Paspara, Pyukar, and Styering, and Yurnad villages; Gahr Valley along Bhaga river from confluence with the Chandra and upstream. L1 users: 4,000 (1997). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boonan, Bunan, Erankad, Ghara, Keylong Boli, Lahuli, Lahuli of Bunan, Poonan, Punan. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 39% with Sunam [ssk], 26%–39% with varieties of Chamba Lahuli (Pattani) [lae], 37% with Tinani [lbf], 26%–34% with some varieties of Central Tibetan [bod], 34% with Jangshung [jna] and Shumcho [scu], 31% with Kinnaur Bhoti [nes], 30% with Chitkuli [cik] and Nesang (Tukpa) [tpq], 24% with Lhasa dialect of Central Tibetan [bod], 23% with Kanauri [kfk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: Bodh caste, but speak a different language from Bodhs of Mayar, Khoksar, and Stod valleys. They consider themselves different from Bodhs of the north, whom they call Tibetans. Buddhist.

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Gamit
[gbl] Gujarat state: Surat district; some in Bharuch, Dangs, and Valsad districts; Maharashtra state: Nandurbar district; some in Dhule district. L1 users: 284,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gamati, Gameti, Gamith, Gamta, Gamti, Gavit. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mawchi [mke]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Gangte
[gnb] Manipur state: south Churachandpur district, 37 villages; Assam and Meghalaya states. L1 users: 14,500 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gante. Dialects: None known. Related to Thado Chin [tcz]. Differs little from Vaiphei [vap], Paite [pck], or Zou [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Sizang. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Garasia, Adiwasi
[gas] Gujarat state: Banaskantha district, Danta sub-district; Sabarkantha district, Poshina sub-district; Rajasthan state: Jalor district. L1 users: 100,000 (1988 V. Patel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Adiwasi Girasia, Adiwasi Gujarati, Girasia. Dialects: Understand Rajput Garasia [gra] well. Lexical similarity: 89%–96% between dialects, 75%–93% with dialects of Rajput Garasia; 79%–92% with dialects of Patelia [bhb]; 79%–93% with Wagdi [wbr]; 76%–87% with Marwari [rwr] dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: Speakers are Bhils. Dungra Bhil is sometimes used as an alternate name for Adiwasi Garasia and Rajput Garasia [gra] but probably refers to more than 1 group living in the hills (Dungra means hill). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Garasia, Rajput
[gra] Gujarat state: Banaskantha district; Rajasthan state: Pali, Sirchi, and Udaipur districts. L1 users: 100,000 (1999 IEM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhungri Garasia, Dungari Garasia, Dungri Grasia, Girasia, Grasia, Nyar, Rajput Garasia. Dialects: Rajput Garasia do not understand Adiwasi Garasia [gas] but intelligibility is high the other way. Lexical similarity: 94%–99% with Gujarati [guj] and Rajasthani [mve] dialects, 75%–93% with Adiwasi Garasia [gas] dialects; 76%–84% with Patelia [bhb] dialects; 79%–86% with Wagdi [wbr]; 67%–84% with Marwari [rwr] dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Rajasthan, Warrior Caste. Distinct from Dungra Bhil [duh], which is sometimes used as an alternate name for Adiwasi Garasia [gas] and Rajput Garasia but probably refers to more than 1 group living in the hills (Dungra means hill). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Garhwali
[gbm] Himachal Pradesh state; Uttarakhand state: Chamoli, Dehra Dun, Pauri Garhwal, Rudraprayag, Tehri Garhwal, and Uttarkashi districts. L1 users: 2,920,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gadhavali, Gadhawala, Gadwahi, Gashwali, Girwali, Godauli, Gorwali, Gurvali, Pahari Garhwali. Dialects: Srinagari, Tehri (Gangapariya), Badhani, Dessaulya, Lohbya, Majh-Kumaiya, Bhattiani, Nagpuriya, Rathi, Salani (Pauri), Ravai, Parvati, Jaunpuri, Gangadi (Uttarkashi), Chandpuri. Jaunsari [jns] is sometimes referred to as a dialect of Garhwali, but most say they cannot understand it. Parvati dialect also reportedly not mutually intelligible; Srinagari is literary standard; Pauri generally regarded as the sweetest; Srinagari and Pauri are very similar. Lexical similarity: 53%–84% among dialects; 54%–69% with Hindi [hin], 55%–66% with Kumaoni [kfy]. The divergent dialect varieties of Bangani, Parvati, and Ravai are no more similar to Western Pahari varieties than to Garhwali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Garhwali. Comments: Jaunpuri and Ravai dialects are culturally similar to Jaunsari and distinct from Garhwali. Castes are Brahmin, Rajput, Harijan. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Garo
[grt] Assam state: Goalpara, Kamrup, and Karbi Anglong districts; Meghalaya state: Garo Hills district; Nagaland state: Kohima district; Tripura state: south Tripura district, Udaipur sub-district; north Tripura district, Kailasahar and Kamalpur sub-districts; west Tripura district, Sadar sub-district; West Bengal state: Jalpaiguri and Koch Bihar districts. L1 users: 889,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 1,009,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Meghalaya State (1950, Constitution, Articles 347), unscheduled language. Alternate Names: Garrow, Mandi. Autonym: Mande. Dialects: A’beng (A’bengya, Am’beng), A’chick (A’chik, A’we, Chisak, Dual, Matchi), Dacca, Ganching, Kamrup. A’chick is the standardized dialect in India. A’beng dialect used in Bangladesh, but is not mutually intelligible. Reportedly most similar to Koch [kdq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Gata’
[gaq] Andhra Pradesh state: east Godavari district; Odisha state: Koraput and Malkangiri districts, Kudumulgumma and Chitrakonda sub-districts south of Bondo Hills; some in Khairput sub-district. 47 villages. L1 users: 3,060 (1991 census). Ethnic population: 7,370 (2001 census). In Odisha. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Didayi, Didei, Dire, Gataq, Geta’, Getaq, Gta Asa, Gta’. Dialects: Plains Geta’, Hill Geta’. Ruhlen treats Plains Geta’ and Hill Geta’ as separate languages. Lexical similarity: 68%–93% among dialects, 27%–37% with Bondo [bfw] varieties, 22%–28% with Gadaba Gutob [gbj] dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Gutob-Remo-Geta’, Geta’. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Godwari
[gdx] Gujarat state: Banas Kantha and north Sabar Kantha; Rajasthan state: Jhalor, Pali, and Sirohi districts. L1 users: 3,000,000 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Balvi, Khuni, Madahaddi, Sirohi. 88%–92% intelligibility of Marwari [rwr]. Lexical similarity: 70% between dialects; 62%–75% with Merwari [wry], 45%–69% with Shekhawati [swv], 51%–73% with Mewari [mtr], 46%–66% with Dhundari [dhd], 44%–67% with Haroti [hoj], 62%–74% with Marwari [rwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Hindu.

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Gondi
[gon] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 2,400,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Adilabad Gondi [wsg], Aheri Gondi [esg], Northern Gondi [gno].

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Gondi, Adilabad
[wsg] Maharashtra state: south Chandrapur, Nanded, and Yavatmal districts; Telangana state: Adilabad, north Karimnagar, and Warrangal districts. L1 users: 300,000 (2015). M. Penny. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gunjala Gondi, Koyang, Nirmal, Raj Gond, Telugu Gondi. Dialects: Utnoor Gondi, Rajura. Intelligibility of Northern Gondi [gno] 49%–58%. A member of macrolanguage Gondi [gon]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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Gondi, Aheri
[esg] Maharashtra state: Gadchiroli district; Telangana state: Adilabad district. L1 users: 150,000 (2015 B. Kurian). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Koyam, Raj Gond. Dialects: Sironcha, Etapally Gondi, Bhamragarh. Sironcha dialect understood best by the others, with 73%–98% intelligibility. 49%–58% intelligibility of Northern Gondi [gno]. Lexical similarity: 34%–43% with Adilabad Gondi [wsg]. A member of macrolanguage Gondi [gon]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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Gondi, Northern
[gno] Madhya Pradesh state: Balaghat, Betul, Chhindwara, Mandla, and Seoni districts; Maharashtra state: Amravati, Bhandara, Nagpur, Wardha, and Yavatmal districts. L1 users: 1,950,000 (1997 BSI). 2,630,000 all Gondi. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gaudi, Ghond, Godi, Gondi, Gondiva, Gondu, Gondwadi, Goondile, Goudi, Goudwal. Dialects: Betul, Chhindwara, Mandla, Seoni, Amravati, Bhandara, Nagpur, Yavatmal. Inherent intelligibility between dialects 94%–97%. Speakers tested in other dialects understood Amravati 94%–97%; Betul 83%–96%, and Seoni 82%–97%. 58%–78% intelligibility of Adilabad Gondi [wsg] and Aheri Gondi [esg]. Different from Muria [hlb], Maria [mrr] of Garhchiroli, Dandami Maria [daq], and Koya [kff]. Lexical similarity: 58%–90% among dialects. A member of macrolanguage Gondi [gon]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Gowlan
[goj] Madhya Pradesh state: Hoshangabad district; Maharashtra state: Amravati district, and among Korku [kfq] people; some in north Karnataka state. L1 users: 20,200 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dialects in Maharashtra and Karnataka reportedly different. May be more similar to Hindi [hin] (Central zone) than to Marathi [mar] (Southern zone). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Unclassified. Comments: Surrounded by Korku. Belong to Gowli caste. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gowli
[gok] Madhya Pradesh state; Maharashtra state: Amravati district. L1 users: 35,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nand. Dialects: Nand, Ranya, Lingaayat, Khamla. Nand subdialects have 93% or higher intelligibility with Khamla dialect. Dialect used in Madhya Pradesh appears more similar to Marathi [mar] (Southern zone) than to Hindi [hin] (Central zone). Lexical similarity: 84%–92% between the Ranya and Nand dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Comments: Speakers belong to Gowli caste. 1 and a half subgroups; Nand Gowli the highest, Musalman (the half tribe) the lowest. Surrounded by Korku [kfq]. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Great Andamanese, Mixed
[gac] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: Strait island, about 100 km northeast of Port Blair. L1 users: 7 (2009 A. Abbi). The last fluent speaker died in 2009 (2009 A. Abbi). Ethnic population: 55. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Andamese, Jeru. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese. Comments: Mixed Greater Andamanese is used only as a code language in front of outsiders.The seven existing speakers use it occasionally among themselves in day-to-day speech. Other languages in the Central Andamanese group have no remaining speakers. Great Andamanese is a Scheduled Tribe.

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Groma
[gro] Sikkim state: North Sikkim district, Chumbi valley. L1 users: 14,000 (2007 Asia Harvest). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tromowa. Dialects: Upper Groma, Lower Groma. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern.

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Gujarati
[guj] Gujarat state: both shores of Gulf of Khambhat; Maharashtra state: Nandubar and Nashil districts; Rajasthan state: Jalor and Sirohi districts; Daman and Diu Union Territory. L1 users: 45,700,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 46,857,670. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in West Bengal State; union territories Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Gujerathi, Gujerati, Gujrathi. Autonym: ગુજરાત‎ (Gujarātī). Dialects: Standard Gujarati (Mumbai Gujarati, Nagari, Patnuli, Saurashtra Standard), Gamadia (Ahmedabad Gamadia, Anawla, Brathela, Charotari, Eastern Broach Gujarati, Gramya, Patani, Patidari, Surati, Vadodari), Parsi, Kathiyawadi (Bhawnagari, Gohilwadi, Holadi, Jhalawadi, Sorathi), Kharwa, Kakari, Tarimuki (Ghisadi). Memoni ethnic group reportedly speak a Kacchi [kfr] variety. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Gujari
[gju] Jammu and Kashmir state: Anantnag district, Doru, Kukernag, and Pahalgam sub-districts; Baramulla district, Uri sub-district; Ganderbal district, Kangan sub-district; Kulgam district; Kupwara district, Handwara, Karnah, and Kupwara sub-districts; Pulwama district, Tral sub-district; Shopian district. L1 users: 690,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,600,000 (2002). In Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Punjab, Delhi. Total users in all countries: 992,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gogri, Gojari, Gojri, Gujar, Gujer, Gujjari, Gujuri, Gurjar, Hindki, Kashmir Gujuri, Parimu, Rajasthani Gujuri. Dialects: Ajiri of Hazara. Poonchi [phr] may be understood by others and form the basis for a standard dialect. In Pakistan, Eastern Gujari appears more similar to Northern Hindko [hno] or Pahari-Potwari [phr]. Western Gujari appear to understand the Eastern dialect better than vice versa. Comparison with India varieties is needed. Lexical similarity: 60% between Uttar Pradesh and Pakistan, 76% with Poonchi. A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Muslim, Hindu.

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Gurung
[gvr] Sikkim state: South district; West Bengal state: Darjeeling district. L1 users: 33,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 112,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gurung Kura, Tamu Kyi, Western Gurung. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Hajong
[haj] Assam state: Goalpara, and Nagaon districts; Meghalaya state: West Garo Hills district, west side; West and East Khasi hills districts; Arunachal Pradesh and West Bengal states. L1 users: 63,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 71,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haijong, Hazong. Dialects: Banai, Dalu. No prestige or standard dialect recognized. Intelligible with Hajong of Bangladesh. Lexical similarity: 82%–91% between Banai dialect of Koch [kdq] and mainstream Hajong varieties, 74%–77% between Dalu dialect and mainstream Hajong varieties, 79% between Banai dialect of Koch [kdq] and Dalu, 54%–64% with Assamese [asm], 63%–67% with Bengali [ben], 74%–85% with Hajong of Bangladesh. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Jharua may be an alternate name. Though linguistically different, the Banai affiliate themselves with the Koch. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Halbi
[hlb] Andhra Pradesh state; Chhattisgarh state: Bastar district plains; Madhya Pradesh state: Balaghat district; Maharashtra state: Gondia district; Odisha state: Koraput district. 793,000, all users. L1 users: 593,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 200,000 (2001 C. Thomas). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bastari, Halabi, Halba, Halvas, Halvi, Mahari, Mehari. Dialects: Adkuri, Bastari, Bhunjia, Chandari, Gachikolo, Govari of Balaghat, Kawari, Kunbi, Mahari (Mahara, Mehari), Muri (Muria), Sundi. Bhunjia and Kawari dialects considered more divergent dialects. Reportedly a creole language. Grierson and Konow called it a dialect of Marathi [mar] for convenience, but noted similarities to Bhatri [bgw], a dialect of Odia [ory] (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Haroti
[hoj] Madhya Pradesh state: Neemuch district, 3 other border areas; Rajasthan state: Baran, Bundi, Jhalawar, and Kota districts. L1 users: 2,460,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hadauti, Hadothi, Hadoti, Harauti. Dialects: 45% intelligibility with standard Marwari [rwr], 57%–67% with Merwari [wry], 58%–66% with Shekhawati [swv], 44%–67% with Godwari [gdx], 61%–71% with Mewari [mtr], 64%–73% with Dhundari [dhd], 52%–70% with Mewati [wtm], 55%–62% with Bagri [bgq], 83%–99% between dialects including varieties of Mina [myi], 63%–77% with Hindi [hin]. A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu, Jain, Muslim.

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Haryanvi
[bgc] Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh states; Delhi. L1 users: 8,000,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 16,000,000 (1992 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangaru, Banger, Bangri, Bangru, Chamarwa, Desari, Hariani, Hariyani, Haryani, Jatu. Autonym: हरियाणवी‎ (Hariyāṇvī), हिंदी‎ (Hindi). Dialects: Bangaru Proper, Deswali, Khadar. Good intelligibility among dialects, but Haryanvi is not intelligible with Hindi [hin]. Reportedly most similar to Braj Bhasha [bra]. Lexical similarity: 92% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Comments: Khadar used by speakers in Jind to refer to the speech of Rohtak and Sonipat. Hindu, Muslim.

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Hindi
[hin] Widespread in north India: northern Bihar, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand states; Delhi. 378,000,000 in India, all users. L1 users: 258,000,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 120,000,000 (Wiesenfeld 1999). Total users in all countries: 381,359,750 (as L1: 260,129,750; as L2: 121,230,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1950, Constitution, Article 343), also statutory provincial language in Bihar State and 12 other jurisdictions. Alternate Names: Modern Standard Hindi. Autonym: मानक हिन्दी‎ (Mānak Hindī), हिन्दी‎ (Hindī). Dialects: Khari Boli (Dehlavi, Kauravi, Khadi Boli, Khari, Khariboli, Vernacular Hindustani). Formal vocabulary borrowed from Sanskrit, de-Persianized, de-Arabicized. Literary Hindi, or Hindi-Urdu, has 4 varieties: Hindi (High Hindi, Nagari Hindi, Literary Hindi, standard Hindi); Urdu [urd]; Dakhini; Rekhta. Hindustani, though not listed separately in India, refers here to the unofficial lingua franca of northwest India. Has a lexical mixture in varying proportions of Hindi (vocabulary derived from Sanskrit) and Urdu (vocabulary derived from Persian or Arabic). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani. Comments: Hindi, Hindustani, Urdu could be considered co-dialects, but have important sociolinguistic differences. Hindu.

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Hinduri
[hii] Himachal Pradesh state: Solan district, Nalagarh, Ramshahr, and surrounding villages. L1 users: 29,700 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Handuri. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Bilaspuri [kfs]. Lexical similarity: 67% with Baghliani dialect of Mahasu Pahari [bfz] spoken in Arki, 60% with Lower Mahasui dialect of Pahari [bfz], 56% with Upper Mahasui dialect of Pahari [bfz] and Sirmauri [srx], 64% with Hindi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Hindu.

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Hmar
[hmr] Assam state: Cachar district; Manipur state: south, Churachandpur, Tipaimukh, 35 villages; Mizoram state: Aizawl district; Tripura state. L1 users: 83,400 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Hamar, Hmari, Mhar. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Zou [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Mizo. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnic Hmar living in Mizoram speak Mizo [lus] as L1. Christian.

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Ho
[hoc] Jharkhand state: Purbi Singhbhum district, Kolhan, Seraikella; East Singhbhum district, Dhalbhum sub-district; Odisha state: Koenjhar and Mayurbhanj districts; West Bengal state. L1 users: 1,040,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bihar Ho, Lanka Kol. Dialects: Lohara, Chaibasa-Thakurmunda. Most understand Chaibasa and Thakurmunda dialects well; 90%–92% comprehend narrative discourse. Kherwari (Khanwar, Kharar, Kharoali, Kharwari) is group name for Ho, Mundari [unr], Munda [unx], and Santhali [sat], closely related languages, and other smaller languages or dialects. Lexical similarity: 85% between most dialects, except for 3 on Ho area east and south edges. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Different from Ho (Hani [hni]) of Myanmar, China, Viet Nam, Laos. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Holiya
[hoy] Madhya Pradesh state: Balaghat and Seoni districts; Karnataka and Maharashtra states. L1 users: 500 (2002 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gohllaru, Golari-Kannada, Holar, Holari, Hole, Holian, Holu. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada. Comments: A Scheduled Caste in Madhya Pradesh. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Hrangkhol
[hra] Assam, Manipur, Mizoram, and Tripura states. L1 users: 18,700 (2000), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hrangkol, Rangkhol. Dialects: Hadem. Reportedly most similar to Biete [biu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Mizo. Comments: Christian, Hindu, traditional religion.

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Hruso
[hru] Arunachal Pradesh state: West Kameng district, Thrizino sub-district, Balipho, Bhalukpong, Buragaon, Dijungonia, Gijiri, Gohainthan, Husigaon, Jamiri, Karangonia, Khuppi, Palizi, Polatari, Raghupam, Raindogonia, Tania, Tulu, and Yayom villages; East Kameng district, Seppa sub-district, Pisang village. L1 users: 3,000 (Van Driem 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aka, Angka, Angkae, Gusso, Hrusso, Tenae. Dialects: Hruso, Levai (Bangru). No apparent wider affiliation within Tibeto-Burman. Varieties sometimes grouped under Tibeto-Burman as Hruish. Levai is similar to Miji [sjl] and may be a distinct language. Lexical similarity: 9% between Koro [jkr] and the Hruso dialect [hru]. Both are highly dissimilar to neighboring languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Hrusish. Comments: ’Aka’, painted. Has 2 ethnic groups (Kavatsun and Kutsun) and an additional subdivision called Miri-Akas on the other side of Kaya River (known as Khrome) who speak Mising [mrg], not Hruso. Probably not the same as Plains Miri or Hill Miri (Mising) [mrg] (Sinha 1962). Aka in East Kameng District are called Koro Aka [jkr], distinct from Hruso Aka in West Kameng. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Idu-Mishmi
[clk] Arunachal Pradesh state: Dibang Valley district; Assam and West Bengal states. L1 users: 11,000 (2001 census). 2,200 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 11,080. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ida, Idu, Midhi, Midu, Nedu, Yidu Luoba, “Chulikata” (pej.), “Chulikotta” (pej.), “Sulikota” (pej.). Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Digaro-Mishmi [mhu]. Different from Adi [adi]. May be a dialect of Mising [mrg]. Lexical similarity: 7% with the Miju-Mishmi dialect of Miju-Mishmi [mxj], 25% with Digaro-Mishmi [mhu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Digarish. Comments: Mishmi Idu is a Scheduled Tribe. May not be in the Tani group, but is related. Buddhist, Hindu.

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Indian Sign Language
[ins] Scattered. L1 users: 5,930,000 (2014 IMB). Possibly over 10 million profoundly deaf, assuming approximately 1% of the general population (over 1.21 billion according to the 2011 census), which is a typical range for developing countries. Total users in all countries: 8,530,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: IPSL, ISL, Indo-Pakistani Sign Language, Urban Indian Sign Language. Dialects: Bangalore-Chennai-Hyderabad Sign Language, Mumbai-Delhi Sign Language. Most sign language varieties in south Asia appear to be related, but there is considerable variation, which has only been partially assessed. Some scholars regard most varieties in India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and possibly Nepal as dialects of one language called Indo-Pakistani Sign Language (IPSL), while others feel at least some varieties should be recognized as separate languages. The ISO standard currently (as of 2017) distinguishes ISL from Pakistan Sign Language [pks], West Bengal Sign Language (Kolkata Sign Language) [wbs], and Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]. Some influence from British Sign Language [bfi] in the fingerspelling system and a few other signs developed indigenously in India. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 2% or less of deaf children attend deaf schools. Deaf schools mainly do not use ISL, but vocational programs often do. Nearly all educated Deaf are bilingual in a spoken language of wider communication to some degree, and ISL serves as a signed language of wider communication among Deaf in India, esp. in cities. Starting 2001, interpreter training in Mumbai by the Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for Hearing Handicapped.

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Indo-Portuguese
[idb] Kerala state: Kannur; Maharashtra state: Korlai near Mumbai; Daman and Diu Union Territory. L1 users: 4,940 (Cardoso 2006). Relatively few monolinguals, even in Korlai (Cardoso 2006). Total users in all countries: 7,160. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Cochin (Kochi), Diu, Cannanore. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based. Comments: The term Indo-Portuguese does not stand for 1 language but rather a number of Portuguese-lexified creoles scattered across South Asia (Cardoso 2006). Christian.

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Irula
[iru] Kerala state: Palakkad district, Attapady and Walayar sub-districts; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Periyar districts; Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states. L1 users: 200,000 (2003 E. Udayakumar). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erukala, Irava, Irulan, Irular, Irular Mozhi, Irulavan, Iruliga, Iruligar, Kad Chensu, Korava. Dialects: Mele Nadu Irula (Malanadu, Southern Irula), Northern Irula (Kasaba, Kasava, Kasuba), Vette Kada Irula (Irula Pallar, Vettakada), Irula Urali, Attapady Irula, Walayar Irula (Urali Irula). Dialects: Vette Kada 73% intelligibility of Mele Nadu; Northern Irula 83% of Mele Nadu; no intelligibility of Tamil [tam] (1993 Irula survey); Vette Kada 94% of Attapady; Walayar 84% of Attapady. (2004 Palakkad survey). Lexical similarity: 78%–86% between Mele Nadu dialect varieties, 67%–70% with Northern Irula, 64%–66% with Vette Kada, 47%–50% with Tamil [tam]. Attapady has 73%–75% with Mele Nadu and 85%–89% with Vette Kada. Walayar has 74%–79% with Attapady, 76% with Vette Kada, and 69% with Mele Nadu. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Some people called Irula speak Tamil [tam] as mother tongue. Urali Irula (Periyar) is separate from both Betta Kurumba Urali [xub] and Urali [url] in Idukki District, Kerala. Two Urali Irula dialects in Periyar and Palakkad. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Jad
[jda] Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur district; Uttarakhand state: Uttarkashi district, Harsil subdistrict, Jadang and Nilang villages in Jad Ganga gorges. L1 users: 300 (Breton 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhotia, Dzad, Rongba. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Spiti Bhoti [spt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Western. Comments: Some borrowing of vocabulary from Hindi [hin] and Garhwali [gbm]. Buddhist.

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Jangshung
[jna] Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur district, Morang sub-district, Asrang, Jangi, and Lippa villages. L1 users: 1,990 (1998 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Kinnauri, Jangiam, Jangrami, Thebarskad, Thebor, Thebör Skadd, Zangram, Zhang-Zhung. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Shumcho [scu], 65% with Sunam [ssk], 51% with Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik], 49% with Pahari Kinnauri [kjo]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Jarawa
[anq] Andaman and Nicobar Islands Union Territory: interior and south central Rutland Island; central and south interiors of South Andaman Island; Middle Andaman Island, west coast, 70 square km reserve. L1 users: 250 (Abbi 2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Different from Önge [oon] and Sentinel [std]. Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese. Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion.

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Jaunsari
[jns] Himachal Pradesh state: Shimla district; Uttar Pradesh state: Saharanpur district; Uttarakhand state: Dehra Dun district, Kalsi, Tiuni, and Chakrata sub-district, Jaunsar-Bawar area. L1 users: 100,000 (2001 USCWM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jansauri, Jaunsauri, Pahari. Dialects: Jaunsari, Jaunsari-Bawari. 97% intelligibility between dialects. Perceived by some as a Garhwali [gbm] dialect; but users perceive Garhwali as distinct and report lack of intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 70%–77% between dialects, 63%–70% with Garhwali dialects [gbm], 64% with Kumaoni [kfy], 66% with Hindi [hin], 51%–64% with Sirmauri [srx]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Juang
[jun] Odisha state: north Angul, east Dhenkanal, south Keonjhar districts. L1 users: 23,700 (2001 census). No monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Juango, Patra-Saara, Patua, Puttooas. Dialects: Keonjhar-Pal. Not closely related to other languages. Lexical similarity: 20%–22% with Kharia [khr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Juray
[juy] Odisha state. L1 users: 801,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Sora [srb]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kacchi
[kfr] Gujarat state: Rann of Kutch area; Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh states. L1 users: 823,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 873,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuchi, Cutch, Kachchhi, Kachchi, Kachi, Katch, Katchi, Kautchy, Kutchchi, Kutchie. Dialects: Jadeji. Reportedly similar to Sindhi [snd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Kachari
[xac] Assam state: north Cachar district, Cachar hills; Nagaland state: Kohima district; Dimapur district, Dhansiri sub-district. 16 villages. L1 users: 59,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cachari, Plains Kachari. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Boro-Tiwa, Boro. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe.

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Kadar
[kej] Kerala state: Thrissur district; Palakkad district, Chittoor sub-district; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore district. L1 users: 1,960 (2004 survey), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kada. Dialects: None known. Phonology related to Tamil [tam] and vocabulary related to Malayalam [mal] (Menon 1996). Lexical similarity: 56%–62% with Tamil [tam], 62%–65% with Malayalam [mal], 67% with Mala Malasar [ima], 61%–63 % with Kanikkaran [kev]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. 3 groups named Kadar in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. The Kadar who use the Kadar language live primarily Palakkad and Thrissur hills, and Coimbatore. A second group lives in Wayanad District and use Malayalam [mal]. A third Kadar (Kadir) group is in Tamil Nadu, Triuchirapalli and Tanjavur districts. They have nothing in common with Western Ghats Kadar. Seen as less developed than other tribes of Chittoor. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kaikadi
[kep] Madhya Pradesh state: Betul district; Maharashtra state: Amravati district. L1 users: 23,700 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaikadia, Kaikai, Kokadi. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: Nomadic. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kalanadi
[wkl] Kerala state: Wayanad district, southwest. L1 users: 750 (2004 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75% with Malayalam [mal], 74% with Paniya [pcg], 72%–75% with Wayanad Kurichiya [kfh], 79%–83% with Mullu Kurumba [kpb], 88% with Pathiya [pty], 81% with Kunduvadi [wku]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern. Comments: Common cultural origin with Kunduvadiyar and Pathiyar. Hindu.

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Kamar
[keq] Chhattisgarh state: Raipur district; Madhya Pradesh state: Rewa district; Maharashtra state. L1 users: 40,000 (2003 BI). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68%–72% with Bhunjia [bhu], 66%–69% with Chhattisgarhi [hne], 68% with Oriya [ory], 61% with Hindi [hin], 27% with Telugu [tel]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, East Central. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. No relationship between the Kamar caste of iron workers in Bengal and Chota Nagpur and this ethnic group. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kamta
[rkt] West Bengal state: Darjeeling, Koch Bihar, Jalpaiguri, and Uttar Dinajpur districts; Assam state: Dhubri and Kokrajhar districts. L1 users: 5,000,000 (2007 M. Toulmin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goalparia, Kamtapuri, Koch Rajbanshi, Rajbangsi, Rajbanshi, Rajbansi, Rajbongshi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Strong language movement and Kamta has been become a symbol of community political aspirations. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kanashi
[xns] Himachal Pradesh state: Kullu district, Kullu sub-district, Bios valley glen, Malana (Malani) village area. L1 users: 1,400 (Chauhan 2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kanasi, Malani. Dialects: None known. No intelligibility with any Tibeto-Burman languages of Lahul-Spiti and Kinnaur (Chauhan). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: Surrounded by Indo-Aryan languages. Malana village has the oldest surviving democracy in the world. They practice their own parliamentary form of government. Hindu.

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Kanauji
[bjj] Uttar Pradesh state: Auraiya, Etawah, Farrukhabad, Hardoi, Kanpur, Pilibhit, Mainpuri, and Shahjahanpur districts. L1 users: 9,500,000 (2001 USCWM). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bhakha, Braj, Braj Kanauji, Dehati, Kannauji. Autonym: देहाती‎ (Dehati), हिन्दी‎ (Hindi). Dialects: Kanauji Proper, Tirhari, Transitional Kanauji. Transitional Kanauji dialect is between Kanauji and Awadhi [awa]. Grierson and Konow call it a form of Braj Bhasha [bra]. The variety spoken in Kannauj and Farrukhabad is considered the pure form (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928). Lexical similarity: 84%–97% between all varieties of Kanauji, 72%–76% with Bundeli [bns], 70%–78% with Braj Bhasha [bra], 83%–94% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Comments: Kanauji may be only a name given by scholars. Language not commonly referred to as Kanauji. Very low identity. Regard their language as a variety of Hindi [hin]. However, a small local group is interested in promoting Kanauji before it dies out. Hindu, Christian.

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Kangri
[xnr] Himachal Pradesh state: Hamirpur, Kangra, and Una districts; Punjab state: Gurdaspur and Hoshiarpur districts. L1 users: 1,700,000 (1996 C. Gibson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kangra-Dogri, Pahari, Pahari Kangri. Dialects: Hamirpuri, Palampuri. Lexical similarity: Palampuri dialect; 90% with Bilaspuri [kfs] and Chambeali [cdh], 89% with Mandeali [mjl], 83% with Bhattiyali [bht], 80% with the MacLeod Ganj dialect of Gaddi [gbk]. A member of macrolanguage Dogri [doi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Hindu.

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Kanikkaran
[kev] Kerala state: Ernakulam, Koliam, Kozhikode, and Trivandrum districts, Nedumangadu and Neyyattinkara sub-districts; Tamil Nadu state: Kanniyakumari and Tirunelveli districts. L1 users: 19,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 19,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kanikkar, Kannikan, Kannikaran, Kannikharan, Malampashi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71%–80% between Kanikkaran varieties in Kerala, 67%–71% between Kanikkaran in Kerala and Tamil Nadu, 66%–75% with Malayalam [mal], 59%–65% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kanjari
[kft] Uttar Pradesh state: Aligarh, Etawah, Farrukhabad, Kheri, and Sitapur districts; Rajasthan state: Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Bundi and Tonk districts; Bihar state: Madubani, Purnea and Saharsa districts; Maharashtra state: Pune, Satara, Kolhapur, Sangli, Thane, Bombay, Nasik districts; Madhya Pradesh state: Pune, Satara, Kolhapur, Sangli, Thane, Bombay, Nasik districts; New Delhi. 206,000 (2011 census), all users. L1 users: 91,200 (1995). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kagari, Kangar Bhat, Kangri, Kanjri. Dialects: Kuchbandhi. May be in the Punjabi group. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Sometimes called a language of Roma who reportedly use certain linguistic means of disguising their language to make it unintelligible to outsiders. A Scheduled Caste who speak a dialect of Hindi [hin] in Uttar Pradesh, a dialect of Mewari [mtr] in Rajasthan, and Hindi in Bihar and Madhya Pradesh (Singh 1995b).

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Kannada
[kan] Mainly Goa and Karnataka states; Andhra Pradesh state: Anantapur; Maharashtra state: Latur district; Tamil Nadu and Kerala states; small border areas of last 4 states. 46,700,000 in India, all users. L1 users: 37,700,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 9,000,000. Total users in all countries: 46,739,040 (as L1: 37,739,040; as L2: 9,000,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Karnataka (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Banglori, Canarese, Havyaka, Kanarese, “Madrassi” (pej.). Autonym: ಕನ್ನಡ‎ (Kannaḍa). Dialects: Bellary, Bijapur, Gulbarga, Kumta, Aine Kuruba, Jeinu Kuruba, Nanjangud. About 20 dialects; Badaga [bfq] may be one. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Karbi
[mjw] Arunachal Pradesh state: Papumpare district, Balijan sub-district; Assam state: Cachar, Darrang, Karbi Anglong, Lakhimpur, Marigaon, Nagaon, and Sonitpur districts in Mikir and Rengma hills; Meghalaya state: Jaintia district; Nagaland state: Dimapur area foothills. L1 users: 420,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arleng Alam, Karbi Karbak, Manchati, Nihang, Puta, “Mikir” (pej.), “Mikiri” (pej.). Dialects: Chingthang (Jynthong), Mirlong, Rong Kethang (Rengkhang, Rongkhang). Lexical similarity: 82%–96% between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Karbi. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kashmiri
[kas] Himachal Pradesh state: Chamba and Lahul Spiti districts in Kashmir valley; Jammu and Kashmir state: Anantag, Badgam, Bandipore, eastern Baramula and Kupwara, Doda, Ganderbal, Kargil, Kishtwar, Kulgam, west Leh, Ranban, and Shupian districts. L1 users: 5,360,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 5,484,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Jammu and Kashmir (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347). Alternate Names: Cashmeeree, Cashmiri, Kacmiri, Kaschemiri, Keshur, Koshur. Dialects: Bakawali, Bunjwali, Standard Kashmiri, Kishtwari (Kashtawari, Kashtwari, Kathiawari, Kistwali), Miraski, Poguli, Rambani, Riasi, Shah-Mansuri, Siraji of Doda, Siraji-Kashmiri, Zayoli, Zirak-Boli. Transitional dialects to Punjabi [pan]. Kashtawari dialect is standard, other dialects are influenced by Dogri [dgo]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kashmiri. Comments: Muslim, Hindu, Sikh.

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Katkari
[kfu] Gujarat state: Bharuch, Dang, Surat, and Sabarkantha districts; Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Amboli and Dapada Panchayat areas; Maharashtra state: Raigad and Thane districts, Sahayadri Range foothills; Rajasthan state: Jhadol, Mubusha, Onga, and Samicha Parebati police station areas. L1 users: 12,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 294,000. Kathodi. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katakari, Katari, Kathodi, Katvadi. Dialects: Northern Katkari, Central Katkari, Southern Katkari. Referred to as a dialect of Marathi [mar]. 89%–96% intelligibility between dialects. Lexical similarity: 67%–75% with Marathi [mar], 77%–90% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Konkani. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. L1 in Maharashtra is Marathi [mar], in Dadra and Nagar Haveli is Kukna [kex], in Gujarat is a variety of Marathi [mar], in Rajasthan is Kathodi, a variety of Marathi [mar] (Singh 1994b:475–479). Hindu, traditional religion.

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Khaling
[klr] Sikkim state: West and South districts, scattered; West Bengal state: Darjeeling district. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khael Baat, Khael Bra, Khael Braa, Khalinge Rai. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Khamba
[kbg] Arunachal Pradesh state: West Siang district, Singa sub-district, Mankota, Nuykkang, Nyering, Tashigong, and Yortung villages in Yang Sang Chu valley. L1 users: 1,330 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khamba Khaadi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Buddhist.

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Khamti
[kht] Arunachal Pradesh state: Siang district, Namsai subdistrict, Barpathar, Chakham, Kheram, M. Pong, Man Khao, Memong, and Mime villages; Lohit district, Inten, Mahang, Mamareng, Nanam, Nathaw, and Ningro villages; Assam state: Lakimpur district, Barigaon, Barkhamti, Barpathar, Deotola, Sribhuyan, Tipling, and Tunijan villages; Dibrugarh district. L1 users: 5,000 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hkamti, Kham-Tai, Khampti, Khamti Shan, Khantis, Tai Kham Ti. Dialects: Assam Khamti, North Burma Khamti, Sinkaling Khamti. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. A Scheduled Tribe. Buddhist.

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Khamyang
[ksu] Assam state: Tinsukia district, Pawaimukh village. L1 users: 50 (2003 S. Morey). Ethnic population: 800. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Khamiyang, Khamjang, Shyam, Tai Khamyang, Tai Nora. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Phake [phk] of Assam and Shan [shn] of Myanmar. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Close affinity to the Khampti of Arunachal. Several thousand Assamese may use their ethnic group name. Buddhist.

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Khandesi
[khn] Gujarat state; Maharashtra state: Dhule district, Sakri sub-district; Nasik district, Satna sub-district; Nandurbar district, Nandurbar, and Shahada sub-districts. L1 users: 21,900 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dhed Gujari, Khandeshi, Khandeshi Bhili, Khandish, Maharashtra Bhil. Dialects: Dangri, Kunbi (Kunbau), Rangari, Khandesi, Kotali Bhil. All varieties of Khandesi tested at 90% or higher intelligibility with each other. A group of Kukna in Dhule District speak Khandesi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Khandesi. Comments: See also Dhanki [dhn]. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Kharia
[khr] Jharkhand state: Ranchi district, Khunti sub-district, Kolebira and Thethaitangar Anchal; Simdega sub-district; Bilaspur, Chhattisgarh, Durg, Jashpur, Raigarh, Raipur, East Singhbhum, and West Singhbhum districts; Odisha state: Mayurbhanj, Sambalpur, and Sundargarh districts; Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Assam, Tripura, West Bengal states. Dhelki dialect mainly in northwest Gangpur (Raigarh), Jashpur, and Sundargarh; Dudh dialect is in south Gangpur (Raigarh) Ranchi, and western Sambalpur. L1 users: 240,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 240,240. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Haria, Khadia, Khariya, Kharvi, Khatria, Kheria. Dialects: Dhelki Kharia, Dudh Kharia, Mirdha-Kharia. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal. A Scheduled Caste in Tripura. Christian, Hindu.

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Kharia Thar
[ksy] Jharkhand state, East Singhbhum district, Chakulia, Dhalbhumgarh, Dumaria, Ghatsila, Musabani and Potka blocks; a few in West Singhbhum district; West Bengal state: Bankura district, Indpur, Raipur, and Ranibandh blocks; Purulia district, Balrampur, Barabazar, Bundwan, Hura, Manbazar, Puncha, and Purulia Muffasil blocks; West Medinipur district, Binpur block. L1 users: 25,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 25,500 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Erenga, Kheria, Pahari, Sabar. Dialects: A Western subdialect of Bengali [ben] (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928). Lexical similarity: 57%–90% among varieties of Kharia Thar, 53%–63% with Bengali [ben], 51%–67% with Odia [ory], 57%–75% with Lodhi [lbm]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khasi
[kha] Assam state: Cachar, Kamrup, Lakhimpur, Nagaon, and North Cachar Hills districts; Meghalaya state: Jaintia Hills, and East and West Khasi Hills districts; Manipur, Tripura, and West Bengal states. L1 users: 843,000 (2001 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Meghalaya State (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347 inclusive), unscheduled language. Alternate Names: Kahasi, Kassi, Khasa, Khashi, Khasiyas, Khuchia. Autonym: Khasi. Dialects: Bhoi-Khasi, Khasi (Cherrapunji, Sohra), Khynrium, War. Bhoi Khasi in East Khasi Hills, Nongpoh block, and Nonglung in East Khasi Hills, Umksning block are very different from standard Khasi, with different word order. Many varieties have only partial mutual inherent intelligibility. War dialect is separate from War-Jaintia [aml]. Cherrapunji (Sohra) is the standard. Lexical similarity: 75% between War dialect and standard Khasi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian, Hindu, Muslim.

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Khirwar
[kwx] Chhattisgarh state: Surguja district, at Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh borders. L1 users: 34,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kherwari, Khirwara. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: Khirwar is a subgroup of the Gonds. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Khowar
[khw] Jammu and Kashmir state. L1 users: 19,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Chitral. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Kinnauri
[kfk] Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur and Lahaul Spiti districts, Chauhra to Sangla and north along Satluj river to Morang, upper Ropa river valley villages; Rampur and Shimla area; Kashmir, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh states. 80,100, all users. L1 users: 65,100 (2001 census). L2 users: 15,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kanauri, Kanaury Anuskad, Kanawari, Kanawi, Kanoreunu Skad, Kanorin Skad, Kanorug Skadd, Kinnaura Yanuskad, Kinner, Kinori, Koonawure, Kunawari, Kunawur, Lower Kinnauri, Malhesti, Milchan, Milchanang, Milchang, Tibas Skad. Dialects: Dialect at Nichar has 79% inherent intelligibility of Sangla. Other varieties have functional intelligibility of each other. Related languages: Kanashi [xns], Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik], and Jangshung Tukpa [jna]. Lexical similarity: 76%–90% among varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Kinnauri, Bhoti
[nes] Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur district, Morang sub-district, Nesang village in upper Kinnauri Sutlej river basin; Puh sub-district, Puh village; possibly Charang and Kuno villages. L1 users: 6,790 (2000 USCWM). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhotea of Upper Kinnauri, Bod-Skad, Bud-Kat, Myamkat, Myamskad, Nyamkat, Nyamskad, Puh, Sangs-Rgyas, Sangyas. Dialects: None known. May be more than 1 language. Lexical similarity: 71% with Tukpa [tpq], 63% with Mane village, 59% with Darcha village, 54% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Kinnauri, Chitkuli
[cik] Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur district, Nichar subdistrict, Chitkul and Rakchham villages in Sangla valley, Baspa river area. L1 users: 1,060 (1998 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chitkhuli, Chitkuli, Kanauri, Kinnauri, Thebarskad, Tsitkhuli, Tsíhuli. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 46% with Kinnauri [kfk], 51% with Jangshung [jna], 43% with Shumcho [scu], 38% with Sunam [ssk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Kinnauri, Pahari
[kjo] Himachal Pradesh state: throughout Kinnaur district. L1 users: 6,330 (1998 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boli, Chamang Boli, Lower Kinnauri, Orasi, Ores, Sonar Boli, “Harija” (pej.), “Harijan Boli” (pej.), “Harijan Kinnauri” (pej.). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Spoken by Scheduled Castes throughout Kinnaur District.

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Kisan
[xis] Jharkhand state: Palamu district; Odisha state: Sambalpur and Sundargarh districts; West Bengal state: Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts. L1 users: 141,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birhor, Koda, Kola, Kora, Kuda, Kunha, Kunhar, Kunna, Kunrukh, Kunuk, Mirdha, Morva, Nagesia, Nageswar. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: Kisan is a Scheduled Tribe.

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Koch
[kdq] Assam state: Goalpara and Nagaon districts; Meghalaya state: West Garo Hills district; Bihar, Tripura, and West Bengal states. L1 users: 30,000 (2007 survey), increasing. Includes only the Koch of Garo Hills, Meghalaya, India. No monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 36,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koc, Kocch, Koce, Kocha, Kochboli, Konch. Dialects: Harigaya, Margan (Dasgaya), Tintekiya, Wanang. Tintekiya in Meghalaya is intelligible with same dialect in Bangladesh; Tintekiya not intelligible with other Koch dialects; Koch-Rabha and Harigaya are mutually intelligible with Wanang; Dasgaya and Harigaya are mutually intelligible; these form a dialect chain (Koch-Rabha-Wanang-Harigaya-Dasgaya-Tintekiya). Lexical similarity: 90% between Tintekiya Koch of India and Bangladesh; Tintekiya: 44%–55% with other Koch dialects; Kock: 31%–39% with Rongdani Rabha [rah], 13%–17% with Garo [grt]. Lexical borrowing is heavier when it comes to high register vocabulary; Koch has borrowed words from Bangla [ben], Assamese [asm] and Hajong [haj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Koch. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Meghalaya. Koch-Rabha belongs to Koch linguistically and ethnically but claims identity with the Rabha for political reasons. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Koda
[cdz] West Bengal state: Bankura and Bardhaman districts. L1 users: 43,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 44,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kaora, Kora, Korali, Korati, Kore, Mudi, Mudikora. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49%–55% with Santhali [sat], 61%–67% with Mundari [unr], 57%–60% with Kol [ekl]; wordlist contained 19% Bengali [ben] words. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari.

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Kodaku
[ksz] Chhattisgarh state: Surguja district; Jharkhand state: Garhwa and Palamau districts; Uttar Pradesh state: Sonbhadra district. L1 users: 15,700 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koraku, Korwa. Dialects: None known. A subgroup of Korwa [kfp] (Parkin 1991). Lexical similarity: 82%–96% between varieties, 50%–70% with Korwa [kfp]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari. Comments: Grouped with Korwa on Scheduled Tribes list in Chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Kodava
[kfa] Karnataka state: Coorg (Kodagu) and Mysore districts, Mercara area; Kerala state: Wayanad district. L1 users: 200,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 200,000. 100,000 in Kodagu District; 100,000 in Karnataka District and major cities. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Coorge, Coorgi Kodava, Kadagi, Khurgi, Kodagu, Kotagu, Kurja, Kurug. Dialects: None known. May be more than 1 language. 66% intelligibility of Malappuram [pcg]. Lexical similarity: 72% with Malappuram Paniya [pcg]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Comments: A symbol of identity. ‘Kodagu’, situated to the west. Northern variety has emerged as standard and is used in Kodava literature (Rajyashree 2001). Hindu, traditional religion.

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Koireng
[nkd] Manipur state: Bishnupur district, 3 villages south of Moirang; Chandel district, 2 villages near Palel; Senapati district, Saikul and Kangpokpi subdistricts, 5 villages; Nagaland state. L1 users: 3,000 (2002 BCA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koirng, Kolren, Koren, Kwoireng, Liangmai, Liangmei, Liyang, Liyangmai, Lyengmai, Quoireng. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with any related speech varieties (1991 P. Khasung). Lexical similarity: 62%–68% with Aimol [aim], 60%–66% with Purum [pub], 64% with Kharam Naga [kfw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Naga. Comments: Different from Liangmai Naga [njn]. A Scheduled Tribe. Assigned under 3 different Naga groups politically. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kok Borok
[trp] Assam and Tripura states. L1 users: 778,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 783,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Tripura State (1964, Official Languages Act No. 19 (as amended)), not a Schedule VIII language. Alternate Names: Halam, Kakbarak, Kokbarak, Kokborok, Tipura, Tripura, Tripuri, Usipi Mrung. Dialects: Jamatia, Noatia (Tipra), Debbarma. Debbarma is spoken by the royal family and is medium of communication with the other dialects; understood by all, but not vice versa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Dimasa-Kokborok, Kok Borok. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kolami, Northwestern
[kfb] Maharashtra state: Nanded, Wardha, and Yavatmal districts; Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh states. L1 users: 122,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kolam, Kolamboli, Kolamy, Kolmi, Kulme. Dialects: Madka-Kinwat, Pulgaon, Wani, Maregaon. Northwestern [kfb] and Southeastern Kolami [nit] not inherently intelligible. Neither is intelligible of Bodo Parja [bdv], Gadaba [gau], or Pottangi Ollar Gadaba [gdb]. Lexical similarity: 61%–68% with Southeastern Kolami [nit]. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki. Comments: Kolam is a Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kolami, Southeastern
[nit] Maharashtra state: Chandrapur and Nanded districts; Telangana state: Adilabad district. L1 users: 10,000 (1989 F. Blair). 1,500 speakers of Naiki (Van Driem 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Metla-Kinwat, Utnur, Asifabad, Naiki. Not intelligible with Northwestern Kolami [kfb]. Rao (1950) reports another dialect in Chinnoor and Sirpur taluks of Adilabad District. The Naiki dialect is different from Naikri (Zvelebil 1970:13). Lexical similarity: 85%–88% with Naiki and other Southeastern Kolami dialects, 83% with the Metla-Kinwat and Utnur, 86% with Asifabad and Utnur, 60%–74% with Northwestern Kolami [kfb]. Classification: Dravidian, Central, Kolami-Naiki.

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Koli, Kachi
[gjk] Gujarat state: Kachchh district, Rann, centered in Bhuj area. L1 users: 400,000 (1998). 100,000 Kachi Koli, 250,000 Rabari, 50,000 or more Vagri Meghwar, Katai Meghwar, and Zalavaria Koli. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bajania, Kachi, Kachi Gujarati, Katchi, Kohli, Kolhi, Koli, Kori, Kuchi, Kuchikoli, Vagari, Vagaria, Vaghri. Dialects: Kachi, Rabari (Rahabari), Kachi Bhil, Vagri (Kachi Meghwar), Katai Meghwar, Zalavaria Koli. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu.

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Koli, Wadiyara
[kxp] Gujarat state: Wadhyar town area. L1 users: 404,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 542,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wadaria, Wadhiara, Wadiyara, Wadiyari, Wadiyari Koli. Dialects: Tharadari Koli. Mewasi [kxp] and Wadiyara are almost the same linguistically and are converging as a caste. Dialects listed are distinct sociolinguistic endogamous ethnic groups. Lexical similarity: 78% with Kachi Koli [gjk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati.

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Kom
[kmm] Manipur state: Churachandpur, Seanapati, and Tamenglong districts, 22 villages. L1 users: 14,700 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kom Rem. Dialects: Kolhreng. Kolhreng may be a distinct language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Konda-Dora
[kfc] Andhra Pradesh state: East Godavari, Srikakulam, and Vizianagaram districts (Konda-Dora); Odisha state: Koraput district (Kubi); Assam state. L1 users: 20,000 (2007 WFA). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Porja. Dialects: Konda-Dora (Konda), Kubi. Konda and Kubi dialects mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 83% between Konda-Dora and Kubi dialect, 28%–36% with Telugu [tel]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. The Porja are well established as two groups: the Pedda Kondalu and Chinna Kondalu. The Pedda Kondalu retain most of their traditional culture; however, the Chinna Kondalu have been heavily influenced by the Telugu [tel]. Traditional religion.

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Konkani
[knn] Gujarat state: Valsad district; Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Maharashtra state: Raigad, Ratnagiri, Sindhudung, and Thane districts; probably in Mumbai. L1 users: 2,420,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 2,423,540. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Goa State (1992, Constitution, Amendment 71). Alternate Names: Amchigela, Bankoti, Central Konkan, Concorinum, Cugani, Kathodi, Katvadi, Konkan Standard, Konkanese, Konkani Mangalorean, Kunabi, North Konkan. Autonym: कोंकणी‎ (Konknni). Dialects: Agari of Kolaba, Parabhi (Damani, Kayasthi), Koli, Kiristav, Dhanagari, Bhandari, Thakuri (Thakari, Thakri, Thakua, Thakura), Karhadi, Sangamesvari (Bakoti, Bankoti), Ghati (Maoli), Mahari (Dhed, Holia, Parvari), Chitapavani. Dialects closely related; Chitapavani recognized as standard Konkani. Local fishermen use the Koli dialect (Hukkeri). Related to Katkari [kfu] (dialects: Kathodi, Katvadi), Varli [vav], Phudagi [phd], Samvedi [smv], Mangelas. A member of macrolanguage Konkani [kok]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Konkani. Comments: Hindu.

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Konkani
[kok] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 6,057,440 Status: Comments: Includes: Goan Konkani [gom], Konkani [knn].

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Konkani, Goan
[gom] Maharashtra state: Ratnagari district, south coast strip; Goa, Karnataka, and Kerala states. L1 users: 3,630,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 3,633,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Goan, Gomataki, Konknni, Southern Kanara. Dialects: Bardeskari (Gomantaki), Sarasvat Brahmin, Chitpavani (Konkanasths), Daldi (Nawaits), Kudali (Malvani), Mangalore Standard Konkani (Goan). Daldi and Chitapavani [knn] are intermediate varieties between Goan Konkani [gom] and standard Konkani [knn]. A member of macrolanguage Konkani [kok]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Konkani. Comments: Christian.

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Koraga, Korra
[kfd] Karnataka state: Dakshina Kannada, and Udupi districts; Kerala state: Kannur, and Kasargod districts; possibly Tamil Nadu state. L1 users: 14,000 (2007 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Koragar, Koragara, Korangi, Korra. Dialects: Ande, Onti, Tappu. Related to Tulu [tcy], Bellari [brw]. Not intelligible with Mudu Koraga [vmd], Tulu [tcy], or Kannada [kan]. Structural differences in phonology with Mudu Koraga. According to Bhat (1968), there are 4 dialects: Onti (spoken in Udupi), Tappu (in Hebri), Mudu (in Coondapur), Ande (in Mangalore). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga. Comments: Koraga is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Koraga, Mudu
[vmd] Kerala state: Kasaragod district. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Muudu. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Korra Koraga [kfd], Tulu [tcy], or Kannada [kan]. Structural differences in phonology with Korra Koraga. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu, Koraga. Comments: Koraga is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Korku
[kfq] Madhya Pradesh state: Betul district, Betul city area and north; Hoshangabad and East Nimar (Khandwa) districts; Maharashtra state: Akola, Amravati, and Buldana districts. L1 users: 574,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bondeya, Bopchi, Korki, Kuri, Kurku, Kurku-Ruma, Ramekhera. Dialects: Bouriya, Bondoy, Ruma, Mawasi (Muasi, Muwasi). Dialects in northern Maharashtra and south central Madhya Pradesh constitute one language; 82% to 97% intelligibility among them; Bouriya most widely understood. Lexical similarity: 76%–82% with Laki Bouriya dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Korku. Comments: Different from Koraku [ksz]. A Scheduled Tribe in India. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Korlai Creole Portuguese
[vkp] Maharashtra state: Korlai, 200 km south of Mumbai on west coast. L1 users: 750 (1998 J. Clements). 250 families (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Creole Portuguese. Dialects: None known. A blend of Portuguese [por] and Marathi [mar]. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based. Comments: Christian.

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Koro
[jkr] Arunachal Pradesh state: East Kameng district. L1 users: 1,500 (2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aka Koro. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 9% with Hruso [hru]. Both are highly dissimilar to neighboring languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Part of the Aka ethnic group.

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Korwa
[kfp] Chhattisgarh state: Bilaspur, Jashpur, Korba, Raigarh, and Surguja districts; Jharkhand state: Gumla, Garhwa, and Palamau districts; Odisha state: Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh districts; Uttar Pradesh state: Mirzapur district; Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, and West Bengal states. L1 users: 34,600 (2001 census). Few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ernga, Singli. Dialects: Majhi-Korwa. Lexical similarity: 71%–92% between dialects, 50%–70% with Kodaku [ksz], 26%–36% with local Sadri [sck] spoken by Dihari Korwa. Lexical similarity with Sadri (an Indo-Aryan language) shows noticeable influence of Sadri on Korwa. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal. Also a Scheduled Caste in Uttar Pradesh speaking Hindi as mother tongue (Singh 1995b). Korwa divided into two groups: Pahadi (hill dwellers) and Dihari (plains dwellers). No intermarriage. Hindu, Muslim.

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Kota
[kfe] Tamil Nadu state: Gudalur, Kilkotagiri, Kollimalai, Kotagiri, Kundah, Sholur Kokkal, Trichicady settlements; a few in Aravankavu, Coonoor, Indunagar, Ooty, and Wellington; Chennai. L1 users: 930 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 1,400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Knof, Kohatur, Kotar, Kotha, Kother-Tamil, Kotta, Kov, Kowe-Adiwasi, Kuof. Dialects: Ko Bashai. Lexical similarity: 35% with Badaga [bfq], 38% with Tamil [tam], 36% with Malayalam [mal], 24% with Toda [tcx]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Endogamous within the ethnic group. Hindu.

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Koya
[kff] Chhattisgarh state: Bastar district; Maharashtra state; Odisha state: Koraput district, Malkangiri subdistrict; Telangana state: south of Godavari river, adjoining districts north of the river. L1 users: 362,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kavor, Kaya, Koa, Koi, Koi Gondi, Koitar, Koyato, Koyi, Raj Koya. Dialects: Malkangiri Koya, Podia Koya (Gotte Koya), Jaganathapuram Koya (Godavari Koya, Gommu Koya), Dorli (Chintoor Koya, Dor Koi, Dora, Dora Koi, Dorla Koitur, Dorla Koya, Korla). Linguistic center is Chintoor. Malkangiri and Podia are more divergent. Separate from Northern Gondi [gno], Adilabad Gondi [wsg], and Aheri Gondi [esg]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kudiya
[kfg] Karnataka state: Dakshina, Kannada, and Kodagu districts; Kerala state: Kannur, and Kasargod districts; Tamil Nadu state. L1 users: 2,800 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Male Kudiya. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kudmali
[kyw] Assam state: Darrang, Golaghat, Jorhat, and Sonitpur districts; Jharkhand state: east side; Odisha state: Keonjhar, Mayourbhanj, and Sundargargh districts; West Bengal state: Bankura Malda, west Midnapur, Nadia, and west Purulia districts. L1 users: 37,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bedia, Dharua, Khotta, Kurmali, Kurmali Thar, Kurumali. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 58%–89% between varieties, 61%–86% with Panchpargania [tdb], 58%–72% with Magahi (Khortha) [mag], 51%–73% with Sadri [sck], 46%–53% with Odia [ory], 41%–55% with Bengali [ben], 44%–58% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Kudmali is spoken by the Kurmi people of Assam brought to the tea gardens from Bihar, Odisha, and West Bengal. Hindu.

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Kui
[kxu] Odisha state: Ganjam, Kandhamal, and possibly Koraput districts; Ganjam, Udayagiri area; Andhra Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Tamil Nadu states. L1 users: 916,000 (2001 census). 410,000 ethnic Kui Khond who speak Kui plus additional ethnic groups. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kanda, Kandh, Khond, Khondi, Khondo, Kodu, Kodulu, Kuinga, Kuy. Dialects: Khondi, Gumsai. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi. Comments: Different from Kuvi [kxv] and Koya [kff] (Koi). Kondh is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

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Kukna
[kex] Gujarat state: Dangs and Valsad districts; Karnataka state: Dakshina Kannada (Kanara) district; Maharashtra state: Dhule, Nasik, and Thane districts, Dadra and Nagar Haveli; Rajasthan state. 211,000, all users. L1 users: 111,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 100,000 (1998). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kanara, Kanara Konkani, Kokna, Kokni. Dialects: None known. Dhule District Kukna has 98%–100% intelligibility with Khandesi [khn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Konkani. Comments: May be the same as Dhanki [dhn]. Hindu.

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Kulung
[kle] Sikkim state: Assam Lingzey, Zoom and many other places; Uttarakhand state: Dehradun; West Bengal state: Jalpaiguri district; Assam state. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kholung, Khulung, Khulunge Rai, Kulu Ring. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern.

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Kumaoni
[kfy] Uttarakhand state: Almora, Bageshwar, Champawat, Nainital, Pithoragarh, and Udhamsingh Nagar districts; Almora and north Nainital (Central Kumaoni); Pithoragarh (Northeastern Kumaoni); southeast Nainital (Southeastern Kumaoni); west of Almora and Nainital (Western Kumaoni). L1 users: 2,360,000 (1998 survey). 472,000 monolinguals (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamaoni, Kumau, Kumauni, Kumawani, Kumgoni, Kumman, Kunayaoni. Dialects: Central Kumaoni, Northeastern Kumaoni, Southeastern Kumaoni, Western Kumaoni. Reportedly, eastern dialects are different. Names sometimes listed for dialects or subgroups are: Askoti, Bhabari of Rampur, Chaugarkhiya, Danpuriya, Gangola, Johari, Khasparjiya, Kumaiya Pachhai, Pashchimi, Phaldakotiya, Kumaoni, Rau-Chaubhaisi, Sirali, Soriyali. Most closely related to Garwhali [gbm] and Nepali [npi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Central Pahari. Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kumarbhag Paharia
[kmj] Jharkhand state: Godda district, Sundar Pahardi sub-district; Pakaur district except southernmost block; Odisha state: Mayurbhanj; West Bengal state: Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts. L1 users: 12,500 (Bhaskararao 2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kumar, Mad, Mal, Maler, Malti, Malto, Maltu, Paharia, Pahariya. Dialects: None known. Low comprehension of Mal Paharia [mkb]. Related to Kurux [kru]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Mal Paharia [mkb]. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: Part of the Malto ethnic group. Traditional religion.

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Kumbaran
[wkb] Kerala state: Kozhikode, Malappuram, and Wayanad districts, Ernakkulam, Kannur, Palakkad, and Trissur; all states in peninsular India. L1 users: 10,000 (2004 NLCI). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Adi Andhra, Kusavan. Dialects: None known. Reportedly cannot understand Telugu [tel] on Wayanad District radio. Lexical similarity: 48% with Telugu [tel]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern. Comments: Kumbaran are a subcaste of Chettiars (or Adi Andhra) whose caste occupation is pottery or any work with mud or clay. Adi Andhra is a Scheduled Caste. Kusavan caste also speaks Kumbaran. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kunduvadi
[wku] Kerala state: Kozhikode district, Vythiri sub-district, Cheeyambam, Irulambam, Manaluvayal, Pakkam, and Porakady villages; Wayanad district, Pulpalli, Purakkadi, and Puthadi villages. L1 users: 1,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Similar to Malayalam [mal] but with peculiar intonation and dialect virtually unintelligible to others (Shashi and Shri 1994, Menon 1996). Lexical similarity: 65% with Malayalam [mal], 61% with Aranadan [aaf], 83% with Pathiya [pty], 81% with Kalanadi [wkl]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern. Comments: Common cultural origin with Kalanadiyar and Pathiyar. Hindu.

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Kupia
[key] Andhra Pradesh state: East Godavari and Vishakhapatnam districts. L1 users: 6,600 (2007). Ethnic population: 79,000 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Valmiki. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Oriya. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Kurichiya
[kfh] Kerala state: Kannur, Kozhikode, and Wayanad districts, Mananthavady and Vythiri sub-districts in Wayanad. L1 users: 29,400 (2004 survey). Ethnic population: 32,800 (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kowohans, Kurichchan, Kurichchia, Kurichia, Kurichiyars, Kuruchans. Dialects: Kunnam, Wayanad. Lexical similarity: 60%–66% between dialects; Wayanad dialect 67%–71% with Malayalam [mal]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Consider themselves higher caste than Brahmin. An endangered language (Central Institute of Indian Languages). Further study is being done at Annamalai University. Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Kurmukar
[kfv] Assam state: Barpeta, Goalpara, and Dhubri districts; Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Tripura, and West Bengal states. L1 users: 3,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamar, Karmakar, Karmokar, Kumbhakar, Kumhar, Umar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: A dialect of Bengali [ben] which differs a lot from the standard (Singh et al 2003). Hindu.

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Kurumba, Alu
[xua] Tamil Nadu state: east Nilgiri Hills. L1 users: 2,500 (1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alu Kurumba Nonstandard Kannada, Hal Kurumba, Pal Kurumba. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% between Alu Nonstandard Kannada and Pal. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kurumba, Attapady
[pkr] Kerala state: Palakkad district, Attapady sub-district. L1 users: 1,370 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kurumba, Pal Kurumba. Dialects: None known. Separate from Alu Kurumba [xua] and Kurumba Kannada [kfi]. Despite dissimilarity between Kurumba, Muduga [udg], and Irula [iru], each group uses their mother tongue to communicate with each other. Lexical similarity: 82% with Muduga [udg]; 61%–70% with Irula [iru], 50% with Alu Kurumba [xua], 52% with Kurumba Kannada, 55% with Malayalam [mal], 58% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern. Comments: The least developed language group in Attapady. Thudukki variety is reportedly most pure. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Kurumba, Betta
[xub] Karnataka state: Chamrajnagar district, Gundlupet sub-district; Kodagu district, Somvarpet and Virarajendrapet sub-districts; Mysore district, Heggadadevanakote and Piriyapatna sub-districts; Kerala state: Wayanad district, Bathery, Mananthavady and Vythiri sub-districts; Tamil Nadu state: Nilgiri district, Gudalur and Panthalur sub-districts. L1 users: 32,000 (2003 NLCI), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kadu Kurumba, Urali Kurumba. Dialects: A nonstandard variety of Tamil [tam] or Kannada [kan]. May be same as Betta Kurumba dialect in Coorg District. Lexical similarity: 59%–77% among groups that are called Betta Kurumba. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: ’Kadu Kurumba’, jungle shepherds. ‘Betta Kurumba’, hill shepherds. 3 subdivisions: Ane (elephant) Kurumba, Bevina (neem tree) Kurumba, and Kolli (fire-brand) Kurumba. A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Kurumba, Jennu
[xuj] Karnataka state: Mysore and Kodagu districts; Kerala state: Wayanad district. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka states’ border; east of Kerala state border; North Nilgiri Hills. L1 users: 35,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jen Kurumba, Jennu Kurumba, Jennu Nudi, Kattu Nayaka, Naik Kurumba, Naikan, Nonstandard Kannada, Shola Nayakan, Ten Kurumba. Dialects: Possibly the same as Jeinu Kuruba dialect of Kannada [kan]. Lexical similarity: 61%–83% among varieties called Jennu Kurumba, less than 60% with Betta Kurumba [xub] dialects. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Comments: ’Jennu Kurumba’, honey shepherds. A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kurumba, Kannada
[kfi] Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore district, Pollachi; Dindigul district, Sirumalai and Palani; Teni district, Cumbum Valley; Chingalpattu, Dharmapuri, Salem, and Vellore districts; Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh states. L1 users: 180,000 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Canarese, Korambar, Kuramwari, Kuremban, Kuruba, Kuruban, Kurubar, Kurubas Kuruma, Kuruman, Kurumans, Kurumar, Kurumba, Kurumban, Kurumbar, Kurumbas, Kurumvari, Palu Kurumba, Southern Nonstandard Kannada. Dialects: Coimbatore, Dharmapuri, Pudukottai. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Comments: Reportedly 3 groups of Gowda: Okkili, Anuppa, and Kurumba, which may be languages or dialects of 1 language. Sometimes referred to as Alu or Palu Kurumba, but is a different language from Alu Kurumba [xua] in the hills. Kurumba and Kuruman are different Scheduled Tribes. Hindu.

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Kurumba, Mullu
[kpb] Kerala state: Wayanad district, Sulthan Bathery and Vythiri sub-districts; Tamil Nadu state: Nilgiri district, Gudalur sub-districts, Cherangodu and Erumad villages, 10 hamlets. L1 users: 26,000 (2004 survey). 25,000 in Wayanad; 1,000 in Gudalur of Nilgiri. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 89%–92% between Mullu Kurumba varieties in Tamil Nadu and Kerala, 73%–77% with Malayalam [mal], 56%–65% with Tamil [tam], 22%–36% with Kannada Kurumba [kfi], 29%–41% with other Kurumba languages. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Kodagu. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Mullukuruman and Mullukurumbar are sometimes referred to as different tribes. Kuruman are in Kerala and Kurumbar in Tamil Nadu. Linguistically can be considered one group. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kurux
[kru] Chhattisgarh state: Raigarh, and Surguja districts; Jharkhand state: Ranchi district; Odisha state: Jharsuguda and Sundargarh districts; West Bengal state: Jalpaigiri district; Assam, Bihar, and Tripura states. L1 users: 1,750,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 1,804,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kadukali, Kurka, Kurukh, Oraon, Urang, Uraon. Dialects: Oraon. Kisan [xis] and the Oraon dialect have 73% intelligibility. Oraon becoming standard. Related to Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj]. Different from Nepali Kurux [kxl]. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: Oraon is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

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Kuvi
[kxv] Odisha state: Ganjam, Kalahandi, Koraput, and Phulbani districts; Andhra Pradesh state: Srikakulam, Vishakhapatnam, and Vizianagaram districts. L1 users: 158,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jatapu, Khondh, Khondi, Kond, Kuvi Kond, Kuvinga, Kuwi. Dialects: Laxmipur, Rayagada, Dongria Khond. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Kui-Kuvi. Comments: Kondh is a Scheduled Tribe. Distinct from Kui [kxu] and Koi (Koya). Hindu.

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Ladakhi
[lbj] Himachal Pradesh state: Lahaul Spiti district; Jammu and Kashmir state: western Leh district, 250 villages and hamlets. L1 users: 105,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 117,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ladak, Ladakh Skat, Ladaphi, Ladhakhi, Ladwags. Dialects: Leh (Central Ladakhi), Shamma (Lower Ladakhi, Sham, Shamskat), Nubra Ladakhi. Perhaps 30%–40% intelligibility of Tibetan [bod]. Leh users comprehend 90% of Zangskari [zau] and Changthang [cna]. Nubra and Shamma not adequately intelligible with Leh to use the same educational, literacy, or development materials. Changthang and Zanskar, while understanding Stod Bhoti [sbu] better than Leh dialect, identify more with Leh Ladakhi culture. 58% to 85% intelligibility of Leh by Changthang, 73%–81% by Zanskar. Lexical similarity: 71%–83% with Purik [prx], 53%–60% with Tibetan, 84%–94% among 5 main dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western. Comments: Written Ladakhi is distinct from spoken forms. Leh dialect is acknowledged as standard spoken Ladakhi. It is the medium of Leh radio broadcasts and standard medium of communication among all Ladakh dialects, including Changthang and Zangskari (Paldan 2002). Buddhist, Muslim.

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Lambadi
[lmn] Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Tamil Nadu, Telangana, and West Bengal states. L1 users: 4,150,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: Estimates range up to 40,000,000 for the total group. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangala, Banjara, Banjari, Banjori, Banjuri, Brinjari, Gohar-Herkeri, Goola, Gormati, Gurmarti, Kora, Labhani, Labhani Muka, Lamadi, Lamani, Lambani, Lambara, Lavani, Lemadi, Lumadale, Singali, Sugali, Sukali, Tanda, Vanjari, Wanji. Dialects: Maharashtra Lamani, Karnataka Lamani (Mysore Lamani), Andhra Pradesh Lamani (Telugu Lamani). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Odisha, a Scheduled Caste in Karnataka, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Lamkang
[lmk] Manipur state: Chandel district, 6 villages near Shuganu; 6 villages in Chalong area; 18 villages in Palel, Chandel town, and Sibong area; Nagaland state: Dimapur. L1 users: 10,000 (1999 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lamkaang, Lamkang Naga, “Hiroi-Lamgang” (pej.), “Lamgang” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Anal Naga [anm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Lepcha
[lep] Sikkim state: Dzongu district; West Bengal state: Darjeeling district, Kalimpong. L1 users: 50,600 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 69,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lapche, Nünpa, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa. Dialects: Ilammu, Tamsangmu, Rengjongmu. Classification uncertain; has been classified both in Himalayan and Naga groups. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Lepcha. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Lepcha is both language and name of people. Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Lhomi
[lhm] West Bengal state: Darjeeling. L1 users: 1,320 (2000 USCWM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lhoket, Lhomi dzyükki keccyok, Lhomiki keccyok, Shing Saapa, Syingsaaba. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Limbu
[lif] Assam state; Sikkim state: West district; West Bengal state: Darjeeling district. L1 users: 37,300 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 177,000 (2007). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Limbo, Limboo, Lumbu, Yakthung Pan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Lish
[lsh] Arunachal Pradesh state: West Kameng district, Lish, Lish Gompache, Lish Gompalok villages. L1 users: 2,340. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kishpignag, Lish Monpa, Lishpa, Monpa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Chug [cvg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa. Comments: The cover term ‘Monpa’ (Moinba), man of the lower country, used to refer to several ethnically related peoples whose languages may not be related linguistically. Buddhist.

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Lisu
[lis] Arunachal Pradesh state: Changlang district, Miao and Vijoynagar sub-district, 6 villages, Gandhigram being largest. L1 users: 2,700 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. The Lisu people are called Yobin or Yawyin by the Singpho [sgp] people. Christian.

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Lodhi
[lbm] Jharkhand state: West Bengal state border area; Odisha state: Mayurbhanj district, Sadar subdistrict, Morada and Suliapada; Balasore district, Sora sub-district; West Bengal state: West Medinipur district, Binpur and Kharagpur-I sub-districts. L1 users: 25,000 (2007 survey). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lodha, Lodi, Lohi, Lozi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 59%–67% with Oriya [ory], 56%–72% with Bangla (Bengali [ben]), 20% with Santhali [sat] and Mundari [unr], 66%–85% between varieties of Lodhi, 57%–75% with Kharia Thar [ksy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Lodha is a Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

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Lohar, Gade
[gda] Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh states. L1 users: 500,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagri Lohar, Belani, Bhubaliya Lohar, Chitodi Lohar, Chittoriya Lohar, Dhunkuria, Domba, Dombiali, Gadia Lohar, Gaduliya Lohar, Gara, Kanwar Khati, Lohari, Lohpitta, Panchal Lohar, Rajput Lohar. Dialects: No significant dialect differences. May be same as Loarki [lrk] in Pakistan. A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Nomadic blacksmiths. The name ‘Gade Lohar’ refers to people who travel in bullock carts and are blacksmiths. Hindu.

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Lohar, Lahul
[lhl] Himachal Pradesh: Lahaul Spiti district in Lahul valley; Jammu and Kashmir state: Leh district, small border area. L1 users: 750 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Garas, Lohar. Dialects: None known. Different from Gade Lohar [gda]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Lohar is a Scheduled Caste in Himachal Pradesh, not all of whom speak Lahul Lohar. Similar name and occupation to ‘Gade Lohar’.

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Lui
[lba] Arunachal Pradesh. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Loi, Looe. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified.

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Lyngngam
[lyg] Assam state: Kamrup district; Meghalaya state. L1 users: 5,000 (Singh 1994b). Total users in all countries: 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khasi, Lyngam, Lyngym. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 36% with standard Khasi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian. Comments: Previously listed as dialect of Khasi. Culturally intermediate between the Khasi and the Garo [grt]. Christian.

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Magahi
[mag] Bihar state: Bhagalpur, Gaya, eastern Patna districts; Jharkhand state: Hazaribagh district, north Chota Nagpur area; West Bengal state: Maldah district. L1 users: 14,000,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 14,046,400 (as L1: 14,035,600; as L2: 10,800). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bihari, Magadhi, Magaya, Maghai, Maghaya, Maghori, Magi, Magodhi, Megahi. Dialects: Southern Magahi, Northern Magahi, Central Magahi, Khortha. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Hindu, Jain, traditional religion.

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Magar, Eastern
[mgp] Sikkim state: South district, scattered in East district. L1 users: 71,700 (2006 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 278,000 (2006 FTT). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Magari, Magarkura, Mangari, Manggar. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Magar. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Mahali
[mjx] Assam state: tea estates; Jharkhand state: Dhanbad, Gumla, Hazaribagh, Pargana, Ranchi, Santal Lohardaga, Saraikela Kharsawan, East Singhbhum, and West Singhbhum districts in Chota Nagpur area; Odisha state: Balasore, Keonjhar, and Mayurbhanj districts; West Bengal state: Jalpaiguri and West Medinipur districts. L1 users: 33,000 (2007), decreasing. Ethnic population: 278,000 (2007). Total users in all countries: 36,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mahili, Mahle, Mahli. Dialects: Possible dialect of Santhali [sat]. Lexical similarity: 69%–87% between varieties of Mahali, 68%–93% with Santhali [sat], 53%–59% with Mundari [unr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali. Comments: Mahli is a Scheduled Tribe, reported to speak Sadri [sck] as L1 in Jharkhand, the Thar dialect of Dhatki [mki] in Odisha, and Bengali in West Bengal. Hindu.

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Maithili
[mai] Bihar state: Muzaffarpur west, past Kosi east to west Purnia district, to Munger and Bhagalpur districts south, and Himalayan foothills north; Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai. Cultural, religious, and linguistic centers are Janakpur, Madhubani and Darbhanga. Many settled abroad. L1 users: 30,000,000 (2000 SIL). 12,000,000 monolinguals (1998). Total users in all countries: 34,085,000 (as L1: 33,890,000; as L2: 195,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in Bihar State (1992, Constitution, Amendment 71). Alternate Names: Apabhramsa, Bihari, Maitili, Maitli, Methli, Tirahutia, Tirhuti, Tirhutia. Autonym: मैथिली‎ (Maithilī). Dialects: Standard Maithili, Southern Standard Maithili, Eastern Maithili (Khotta, Kortha, Kortha Bihari), Western Maithili, Jolaha, Central Colloquial Maithili (Sotipura), Kisan, Dehati, Bajjika, Thetiya. Caste variation more than geographic variation in dialects. Functional intelligibility among all dialects, including those in Nepal. Reportedly most similar to Magahi [mag]. Lexical similarity: 91% between Brahmin and non-Brahmin dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Hindu.

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Majhi
[mjz] Jharkhand state: Gumla district; Sikkim state: South district, Majhigaon near Jorethang, and East district, Majhitar near Rangpo; possibly Assam and West Bengal states. L1 users: 20,400 (2000). Ethnic population: 121,000 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Manjhi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Non-indigenous. Distinct from Majhi dialect of Eastern Punjabi [pan] or Bote (Bote-Majhi) [bmj] of Nepal. Hindu.

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Majhwar
[mmj] Chhattisgarh state: Bilaspur district, Katghora sub-district; Raigarh and Surguja districts; Sikkim state; Uttar Pradesh state: scattered in Allahabad, Mirzapur, and Varanasi districts. L1 users: 34,300 (1995). Ethnic population: 174,000 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Majhvar, Manjhi, Manjhia. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Asuri [asr]. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Chhattisgarh. Reportedly speak Chhattisgarhi [hne] as L1. Hindu.

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Mal Paharia
[mkb] Bihar state: Banka district; Jharkhand state: Deoghar district; Dumka district, Pakaur; south Godda district; Sahibganj district, Borio, Depart village; south Santal Pargana district, Ramgarh hills; West Bengal state: Bankura, Barddhaman, and Murshidabad districts. L1 users: 51,000 (Bhaskararao 2006). Possibly 40,000 in West Bengal. Ethnic population: 111,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dehri, Mad, Mader, Mal, Mal Pahariya, Maler, Malpaharia, Malti, Malto, Maltu, Manlati, Mar, Marpaharia, Maw, Mawdo, Mawer, Mawer Nondi, Paharia, Parsi. Dialects: Not inherently intelligible with Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj], Sauria Paharia [mjt], Bengali [ben], or Hindi [hin]. Part of the Malto ethnic group. Reportedly speak a variety similar to Kharia Thar [ksy] of Manbhum (Jharkhand). Lexical similarity: 85% between dialects, 59% with Mal Paharia Barmasiya. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mala Malasar
[ima] Kerala state: Palakkad district, Parambikulam wildlife sanctuary; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore district, Annamalai hills. L1 users: 1,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maha Malasar, Malai Malasar, Malasir. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68%–74% with Malasar [ymr], 70% with Eravallan [era], 70% with Muduga [udg], 65% with Tamil [tam], 61% with Malayalam [mal], 67%–72% with the Attapady dialect of Irula [iru], 75% with the Walayar dialect of Irula. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Mala Malasar means king of the forest. Culturally very distinct from neighboring tribal groups. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Malankuravan
[mjo] Kerala state: Kollam, Kottayam, and Trivandrum districts, Chittar, Kattachira, and Rajanpara in Ranni Range, Pathanamthitta sub-district, Nottakal in Pathanapuram sub-district, Pampa river, Neduvanged sub-district forest tracks; Tamil Nadu state: Kanniyakumari district. L1 users: 18,600 (2001 census). 260 in Kerala, 18,300 in Tamil Nadu. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mala Koravan, Malaikuravan, Malakkuravan, Male Kuravan. Dialects: Malayadiars. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reported to speak a dialect of Malayalam [mal] with many borrowed words and phrases from Tamil. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Malapandaram
[mjp] Kerala state: Kollam and Pathanamthitta districts, some in Kottayam and Palakkad districts; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore, Maduari, and Villupuram districts. L1 users: 5,850 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hill Pantaram, Malapantaram, Malepantaram, Pandaram Basha. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 83%–94% between varieties in Kerala, 63%–68% with Malayalam [mal], 64%–68% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Malaryan
[mjq] Kerala state: scattered in Ernakulam, Idukki, Kottayam, and Thrissur districts. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 35,000 (2001 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Arayans, Karingal, Malai Arayan, Malayarayan, Malayarayar, Male Arayans, Maley Arayan, Vazhiyammar. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Speak a variety of Malayalam [mal] as L1. Malayarayar and Mala Arayan are listed as 2 different communities in the census but are the same group. Though the Kanikkar of Trivandrum District also sometimes call themselves Malayarayar, they are entirely different (Menon 1996:198). Hindu, Christian.

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Malasar
[ymr] Kerala state: Palakkad district, Chittoor and Palakkad sub-districts; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore district, Pollachi sub-district. L1 users: 7,760 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Malayar. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68%–74% with Tamil [tam], 79%–83% with Walayar Irula [iru], 77%–86% with Eravallan [era], 57%–61% with Malayalam [mal], 68%–75% with Mala Malasar [ima] (2004 survey); 52%–56% with Malaryan [mjq], 77%–82% between Malasar and Kollimalakkar, Kollimalakkar 80% with Malapulaya (2006 survey). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Kollimalakkar call themselves Malasar but are different culturally, belonging to the Malayali tribe of Tamil Nadu. They migrated to Nelliyampathy area in Kerala for work many years ago. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Malavedan
[mjr] Kerala state: Ernakulam, Idukki, Kollam, Kottayam, Pathanamthitta, and Trivandrum districts; Tamil Nadu state: scattered in Dindigul, Kanniyakumari, Madurai, Nilgiris, Salem, and Tirunelveli districts. Ethnic population: 12,600 (2001 census). Total population unknown. 6,190 in Kerala, 6,410 in Tamil Nadu (2001 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malai Vedan, Malavetan, Towetan, Veda Bhasha, Vedans, Vettava Bhasha. Dialects: Vetan, Vettuvan. Lexical similarity: 64%–68% with Malayalam [mal], 48%–52% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Malayalam
[mal] Karnataka state: Dakshina Kannada, Kodagu, and Mysore districts; Kerala and Lakshadweep states; Puducherry state: Mahe; Tamil Nadu state: Colimbatore, The Nilgiris, and Tirunelveli districts. L1 users: 33,000,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 34,451,800. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kerala State; union territories Lakshadweep and Puducherry (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Alealum, Malayalani, Malayali, Malean, Maliyad, Mallealle, Mopla. Autonym: മലയാളം‎ (Malayāḷam). Dialects: Malabar, Nagari-Malayalam, Malayalam, South Kerala, Central Kerala, North Kerala, Kayavar, Namboodiri, Moplah (Mapilla), Pulaya, Nasrani, Nayar, Kasargod. Caste and communal dialects: Namboodiri, Nayar, Moplah, Pulaya, Nasrani. Mapilla is among the most divergent dialects, differing considerably from literary Malayalam. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: Hindu, Christian, Jewish, Muslim.

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Maldivian
[div] Lakshadweep state: Laccadives, Minicoy island; Kerala state: possibly in Trivandrum. L1 users: 9,500 (2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Dhivehi Bas, Mahl, Malikh, Malki. Dialects: Maliku Bas (Minicoy Dialect). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Sinhalese-Maldivian. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Malvi
[mup] Madhya Pradesh state: Bhopal, Dewas, Dhar, Indore, Mandsaur, Nimuch, Rajgarh, Rathlam, Sehore, Shajapur, and Ujjain districts; Rajasthan state: Jhalawar district. Sondwari dialect geographically isolated from the others. L1 users: 5,560,000 (2001 census). 1,110,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malavi, Mallow, Malwada, Malwi, Ujjaini. Dialects: Ujjaini (Avanthika, Malvi Proper), Rajawadi, Umadwadi, Sondwari (Sondhwadi, Soudhwari). Considered the standard variety, Southeastern Rajasthani Nimadi [noe] is reportedly most similar language with 70% intelligibility. 88%–92% intelligibility of Ujjaini dialect by other dialects. Lexical similarity: 65%–89% among dialects. A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Manda
[mha] Odisha state: Kalahandi district, Thuamul Rampur subdivision. L1 users: 4,040 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo. Comments: Hindu.

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Mandeali
[mjl] Himachal Pradesh state: Mandi district. L1 users: 900,000 (1991 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mandi, Mandiali, Pahari Mandiyali. Dialects: Preliminary survey suggests speakers have functional intelligibility of Kangri [xnr]. People in southeast Mandi district may have more difficulty understanding Kangri. Standard Mandeali is spoken throughout the broad valley running north and south from Jogindernagar to Sundarnagar. Mandeali Pahari is spoken north around Barot, east of Uhl River. Intelligible with difficulty to standard Mandeali. May be intermediate variety between Mandeali and Kullui [kfx]. Southeast district contains transition to Mahasui [bfz]. In the west, Sarkaghat is also a bit different from standard Mandeali, perhaps forming a transition towards Hamirpur and Bilaspur areas. Lexical similarity: 89% with Palampuri dialect of Kangri [xnr], 83% with Chambeali [cdh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Hindu.

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Manna-Dora
[mju] Andhra Pradesh state: Srikakulam, Vishakhapatnam, and Vizianagaram districts, scattered in East Godavari and West Godavari districts; perhaps in Tamil Nadu state. Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reportedly speak Telugu [tel] as L1. Hindu.

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Mannan
[mjv] Kerala state: Idukki district, Devikulam, Pirmed, and Udumpanchola sub-districts; Tamil Nadu state: scattered in Madurai district. L1 users: 7,850 (2001 census). 7,760 in Kerala, 82 in Tamil Nadu. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Inavan petch, Mannan Pasha, Manne, Mannyod. Dialects: Little variation between varieties with 92% intelligibility, 70% intelligibility of Malayalam [mal]. Lexical similarity: 86%–96% between varieties, 57%–61% with Tamil [tam], 56%–64% with Malayalam [mal]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Kerala and Tamil Nadu. Not the same as the Scheduled Caste Mannan in Trivandrum and other adjoining districts of Kerala and Tamil Nadu who speak Malayalam. Romanized spelling is the same but the Scheduled Caste name is pronounced with retroflex double n. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Marathi
[mar] Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Goa, Karnataka, and Madhya Pradesh states; Maharashtra state: Belgaum, Bidar, and Karnataka districts. 74,700,000 in India, all users. L1 users: 71,700,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 3,000,000. Total users in all countries: 74,775,760 (as L1: 71,775,760; as L2: 3,000,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Maharashtra State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Maharashtra, Maharathi, Malhatee, Marthi, Muruthu. Autonym: मराठी‎ (Marāṭhī). Dialects: Gawdi of Goa, Kasargod, Kosti, Kudali, Nagpuri Marathi. 42 dialects. Complex dialect situation. Dialects bordering other major language areas share many features with those languages. Dialects or closely related languages: Konkani [knn], Goan Konkani [gom], Deccan [dcc], Varhadi-Nagpuri [vah], and Gowlan [goj]. There is a dialect in Thanjavur District and elsewhere in Tamil Nadu influenced lexically by Tamil [tam] and Kannada [kan], with at least 100,000 speakers. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern. Comments: The Habshi are Muslim, descended from East African slaves brought to western India. Are is a synonym for a Marathi caste name. Are also refers to Marathi-speaking communities in south India. Hindu, Jewish, Muslim.

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Maria
[mrr] Chhattisgarh state: Bastar district, Narayanpur and Bijapur sub-districts, administrative block of 200 villages known as ‘Abujhmar block’; Maharashtra state: Garhchiroli (Chanda) district, Bhamragad, Etapalli, and Sironcha sub-districts. L1 users: 165,000 (2000). 141,000 Maria and 23,700 Hill Maria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hill Maria, Madi, Madia, Madiya, Modh, Modi. Dialects: Abujmaria (Abujhmadia, Abujhmaria, Abujmar Maria, Abujmariya, Hill Maria), Adewada, Bhamani Maria (Bhamani), Etapally Maria. Etapally Maria dialect is apparently understood by all. Distinct from Muria, Dandami Maria [daq], Northern Gondi [gno], Adilabad Gondi [wsg], Aheri Gondi [esg], and Koya [kff]. 76%–77% intelligibility of other Gondi varieties. Muria Gondi [mut] is intelligible of Abujmaria around Narainpur area but not elsewhere. Distinct from Maria dialect of Chanda District in Maharashtra (Natarajan 1985). Intelligibility 90%–100% of Bhamragarh dialect by other Maria speakers. Maria is intelligible to the Gatte Maria, an ethnic group. Lexical similarity: 59%–80% among dialects (1991 survey), 65%–98% (1999 survey). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Maria, Dandami
[daq] Andhra Pradesh state: Bijapur, Chhattisgarh, and Daksin Bastar Dantewada districts; Maharashtra state: Garhichiroli district; Telangana state: Khamman district. L1 users: 200,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bastar Koya, Bison Horn Maria, Dandami Madiya, Dhuru, Madiya, Maria Gond. Dialects: None known. Those in Geedam and Bailadila have 95%–98% mutual intelligibility, 81% of the Sukma variety, but 18%–21% of Maria [mrr], 18%–45% of Muria in Sukma understood the Geedam variety at 81% or lower; those in Bailadila understood Sukma at 92%. May be more than one language. Distinct from Northern Gondi [gno], Adilabad Gondi [wsg], Aheri Gondi [esg], Maria of Garhchiroli, and Koya [kff]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Marma
[rmz] Mizoram and Tripura states. L1 users: 30,600 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mraima, “Mogh” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Burmish, Southern. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Muslim.

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Marwari
[mwr] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 19,712,600 Status: Comments: Includes: Dhundari [dhd], Marwari [mve] (Pakistan), Marwari [rwr], Merwari [wry], Mewari [mtr], Shekhawati [swv].

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Marwari
[rwr] Rajasthan state: Barmer, Bikaner, Churu, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jodhpur, and Pali districts; Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Punjab, and Uttar Pradesh states; thoughout India. L1 users: 5,600,000 (2007 SIL). Total users in all countries: 5,623,530 (as L1: 5,622,600; as L2: 930). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Marvadi, Marvari, Marwadi, Rajasthani. Autonym: मारवाड़ी‎ (Mārwāṛī). Dialects: Barmeri, Bikaneri, Jaisalmeri, Standard Marwari (Jodhpuri). The standard form of Marwari. May or may not be different from Marwari of Pakistan [mve]. 67% intelligibility of Shekhawati [swv], 61% of Godwari [gdx], 54% of Mewari [mtr], 54% of Dhundari [dhd], 45% of Haroti [hoj], and 45% of Mewati [wtm]. 53% intelligibility of Shekawati by Marwari. Lexical similarity: 50%–65% with Hindi [hin], 69%–76% with Merwari [wry], 72%–87% between dialects, 62%–74% with Godwari [gdx], 61%–77% with Shekawati [swv]. A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Hindu, Jain, Muslim.

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Mawchi
[mke] Gujarat state: southeast; Maharashtra state: Dhule district. L1 users: 99,500 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mauchi, Mavchi, Mawachi, Mawchi Bhil, Mowchi. Dialects: Mawchi, Padvi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra. Traditional religion.

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Meitei
[mni] Assam state: Cachar and Dima Hasao; Mainly Manipur state; Nagaland state: Dimapur, Kohima, Peren, Phek; Mizoram state: Aizwal and Kolasibi; possibly some in nearby states. L1 users: 1,470,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 1,485,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Manipur State (1992, Constitution, Amendment 71). Alternate Names: Kathe, Kathi, Manipuri, Meitei Manipuri, Meiteilon, Meiteiron, Meithe, Meithei, Menipuri, Mitei, Mithe, Ponna. Dialects: Meitei, Loi (Chakpa), Pang-gal (Manipuri Muslim, Pang-gan). Intelligibility of Meitei in Bangladesh is difficult. Those in Bangladesh may understand India Meitei better than vice versa possibly due to more language change in Bangladesh over the years. India Meitei is more standard. Intelligibility between dialects in Bangladesh definitely sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Lexical similarity: 80%–86% between dialects in Bangladesh, 65%–70% between Bangladesh and India varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Kuki-Chin-Naga. Comments: Mainly rural. 7 clans (Mangang (Ningthouja), Luwang. Khuman (Khumal), Moirang, Angom, Khaba-nganba, and Sarang-leisangthem). Hindu, Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Merwari
[wry] Rajasthan state: Ajmer and Nagaur districts. L1 users: 3,900,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ajmeri. Dialects: None known. 82%–97% intelligibility of Marwari [mve]. Lexical similarity: 60%–73% between varieties of Merwari in Ajmer and Nagaur districts; 49%–74% with Marwari [rwr], 58%–80% with Shekhawati [swv], 44%–70% with Godwari [gdx], 54%–72% with Mewari [mtr], 62%–70% with Dhundari [dhd], 57%–67% with Haroti [hoj]. A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari.

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Mewari
[mtr] Rajasthan state: Bhilwara, Chittoaurgarh, and Udaipur districts; Gujarat, Haryana, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh states. L1 users: 5,100,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mewadi. Dialects: Khairari. 54% intelligibility with Marwari [rwr]. Lexical similarity: 81%–97% between dialects, 73%–91% with Marwari, 75%–90% with Wagri-Dhevdi, 72%–89% with Malvi [mup], 54%–72% with Merwari [wry], 57%–66% with Shekhawati [swv], 51%–73% with Godwari [gdx], 56%–64% with Dhundari [dhd], 69%–84% with Haroti [hoj]. A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Different from Mewati, dialect of Haryanvi [bgc]. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Mewati
[wtm] Haryana state: Faridabad and Gurgaon districts; Rajasthan state: Alwar, Bharatpur, and Dholpur districts; Uttar Pradesh: Madhura district. L1 users: 645,000 (2001 census). 51,600 monolinguals (2006 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mewathi. Dialects: Ahirwati. 45% intelligibility of Marwari [rwr]. Over 90% intelligibility of Alwar District dialect throughout Mewati area. Dialect in the Nuh area of Gurgaon is considered purest. Lexical similarity: 72%–77% with Hindi [hin], 63%–68% with Haryanvi [bgc], 57%–70% with Shekhawati [swv], 62%–67% with Dhundari [dhd], 52%–70% with Haroti [hoj], 68%–71% with Braj Bhasha [bra], 86%–99% between all varieties of Mewati. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Unclassified. Comments: People are called Meo; many Urdu [urd] loanwords. Muslim, Hindu.

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Miji
[sjl] Arunachal Pradesh state: East Kameng district, Bameng and Lada sub-districts, Besai, Dongko, Drackchi, Gerangzing, Kampaa, Kojo, Nabolong, Naschgzang, Panker, Pego, Rojo, Sachung, Salang, Sekong, Wakke, and Zarkam villages; West Kemang district, Nafra sub-district, 25 villages including Chalang, Debbing, Dibrick, Dichik, Khellong, Lower Dzang, Nachinghom, Nafra, Najang, Naku, Nizong, Rurang, Upper Dzang, and Zangnaching in Bichom and Pakesa river valley. L1 users: 6,500 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dammai, Dhammai, Namrei, Sajalong, Sajolang. Dialects: None known. Generally considered in the Mirish subgroup. Reportedly completely dissimilar to any surrounding language. Lexical similarity: 54%–65% between varieties of West and East Kameng; 54%–83% between all varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Hrusish. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Miju-Mishmi
[mxj] Arunachal Pradesh state: Lohit district, 25 villages, high altitudes of east, upper Lohit and Dau valleys; Assam state. L1 users: 18,000 (2006 Arunachal Tourism). Total users in all countries: 18,200. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Eastern Mishmi, Geman Dend, Geman Deng, Kaman, Miji, Miju, Mishmi. Autonym: Kman. Dialects: None known. Conflicting reports about Miju-Mishmi similarity to Idu-Mishmi [clk] and Digaro-Mishmi [mhu]. Reportedly intelligible but recorded lexical similarity is too low for this to be possible. Ethnically related, but may not be linguistically similar. Related to Kachin, Chin and Lepcha [lep] languages (Chowdhury 1996). Some linguists believe the language is similar to Jingpho [kac]. Lexical similarity: 7% with Idu-Mishmi [clk], 10% with Digaro-Mishmi [mhu] (IICCC). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Mijish. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe, subgroup of Mishmi. Different from the Miji [sjl]. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Mina
[myi] Madhya Pradesh state: Guna, Gwalior, Rajgarh, and Shivpuri districts; Vidisha district, Sironj subdistrict; Rajasthan state: Baran, Jhalawar, Kota, and Sawai Madhopur districts; Uttar Pradesh state: Jhansi and Lalitpur districts. L1 users: 3,800,000 (IMA 1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reportedly L1 is Dhundari [dhd] in Rajasthjan and Braj Bhasha [bra] in Madhya Pradesh. Not a Bhil tribe, and there is no connection between Mina and Wagdi, who call themselves Mina Bhil. Hindu.

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Mirgan
[zrg] Chhattisgarh state: Bastar district; Odisha state: Koraput and Nabarangapur districts. L1 users: 60,000 (1998 N. Lima). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mirgami, Mirkan, Panika, Panka. Dialects: Batasuna, Jagdal Pur, Kosagumuda, Kotpad, Nabarang Pur, Umerkote. Dialects have good intelligibility. Not functionally intelligible of Halbi [hlb]. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Declared a General Caste by the government. Divided into 2 groups, the larger Kabirpanthi and the smaller Sakta. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Mising
[mrg] Arunachal Pradesh state: Lower Subansiri district, Ziro subdistrict, villages near Pasighat, both sides of Kamla river; Upper Subansiri district, Daporizo sub-district; Assam state: Dhemaji, Dibrugarh, Golaghat, Jorhat, North Lakhimpur, Sibsagar, Sonitput, and Tinsukia districts. L1 users: 551,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Miri, Mishing, Takam. Dialects: Idu-Mishmi [clk] may be a dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Mizo
[lus] Assam state; Manipur state: Churachandpur district; Mizoram and Nagaland states; Tripura state: Jampui Hill range. L1 users: 675,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 687,750. Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Mizoram State (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347 inclusive), unscheduled language. Alternate Names: Duhlian Twang, Dulien, Hualngo, Lukhai, Lusago, Lusai, Lusei, Lushai, Lushai-Mizo, Lushei, Sailau, Whelngo. Dialects: Fannai, Mizo, Ngente, Tlau. Related to Hmar [hmr], Pangkhua [pkh], and Falam Chin [cfm] (Zahao dialect). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Mizo. Comments: Mizo is a Scheduled Tribe with subgroups Lushai, Pang, Tlau, and Hualngo. Christian.

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Monpa, Kalaktang
[kkf] Arunachal Pradesh state: West Kameng district, Kalaktang sub-district, Balimu, Kalaktang, and Tomko villages. L1 users: 8,000 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sharpa-lo, Southern Monpa, Tsangla Monpa. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Dirang dialect of Tshangla [tsj], average 55% intelligibility of Dirang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish. Comments: ’Monpa’ (Moinba), man of the lower country and refers to several ethnically-related peoples which may not be related linguistically. Buddhist.

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Monpa, Tawang
[twm] Arunachal Pradesh state: Tawang district. L1 users: 8,600. Total users in all countries: 9,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brahmi, Cuona Menba, Dwags, Monkit, Northern Monpa, Takpa, Tawan Monba. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, East Bodish. Comments: Monpa (Moinba), ‘man of the lower country’, refers to several ethnically related peoples, which may not be related linguistically. Buddhist.

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Mru
[mro] West Bengal state: Hoogly, Jalpaiguri, and Nadia districts. Ethnic population: 2,100. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mro, Mrung, Murung, Niopheng. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Mru. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Muduga
[udg] Kerala state: Palakkad district, Mannarkad sub-district, Attapady block, Abbannuru, Chandakulam, Chitturu, Chundakki, Kakkuppady, Kallamale, Karuvare, Koravanpady, Kottamale, Kottiyuru, Molakambi, Mukkali, Ommale, Pettikkallu, Thazhachundakki, Thekkumpanna, Ummathupadiga, and Veeranuru; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore and Nilgiris. L1 users: 3,370 (1991 census). National census population figures combine Muduga of Attapady with Muthuvan, who, despite the similarity of the spelling of their ethnonym, are entirely different and separated by geographic and cultural distance (Menon 1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mudugar. Dialects: Also influenced by Kannada [kan] and Tulu [tcy]. Has grammatical similarities with Tamil [tam], but cannot be treated as a dialect. It is distinct in the Dravidian family (Menon 1996:274 citing Rajendran). No dialects determined on survey. Lexical similarity: 55%–57% with Malayalam [mal], 59% with Muthuvan [muv], 60% with Tamil [tam], 75% with the Attapady dialect of Irula [iru], 82%–83% with Attapady Kurumba [pkr]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Mugom
[muk] Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur, Dharmshala and Ladakh; Kullu, Manali. L1 users: 500 (2006 SIL). 75 families in India, 60 Mugom and 15 Karmarong. In addition, there are many seasonal workers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Non-indigenous. Migrate from Nepal temporarily for work, but many stay 20 to 30 years.

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Mukha-Dora
[mmk] Andhra Pradesh state: Srikakulam, Vishakhapatnam, and Vizianagaram districts; Adivasi Oriya, scattered. L1 users: 29,700 (1991 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Conta-Reddi, Mukha Dhora, Nooka Dora, Nuka-Dora, Reddi, Reddi-Dora, Riddi. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Konda. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Munda
[unx] Odisha and Jharkhand states; possibly Bihar and West Bengal. L1 users: 469,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Heriki, Killi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Mundari [unr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Mundari
[unr] Jharkhand state: Ranchi district, south and west; Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory, Assam, Himachal Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha, Tripura, and West Bengal states. L1 users: 1,110,000 (2001 census). 1,060,000 Mundari, 47,400 Bhumij. Total users in all countries: 1,120,280. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Colh, Horo, Kolh, Mandari, Mondari, Munari. Dialects: Hasada’, Latar, Naguri, Kera’, Bhumij (Bhumij Munda, Bhumij Thar, Sadar Bhumij). 75% intelligibility of Ho [hoc]. Lexical similarity: 70%–84% with the Bhumij dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. There is Bhumij literature. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Muria, Eastern
[emu] Chhattisgarh state: Bastar district, Keshkal and Kondagaon sub-districts; Odisha state: Nabarangapur district, Raigarh sub-district. L1 users: 200,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Raigarh, Lanjoda. 95% intelligibility between dialects; 73%–83% of Western Muria [mut]; 19%–34% of Northern Gondi [gno]; 35% of Dandami Maria [daq]. Lexical similarity: 74%–77% with Western Muria [mut], 65%–75% with Far Western Muria [fmu]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Muria, Far Western
[fmu] Chhattisgarh state: Rajnandgaon district, Mahola and Manpur sub-districts; Maharashtra state: Garhchiroli district, Armori, Dhanora, Korchi, and Kurkheda sub-districts; Gondia district, Jamdi sub-district. L1 users: 400,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gondi, Koitor Boli, Koitori. Dialects: None known. 79%–88% intelligibility of other Muria languages; 74% of Dandami Maria [daq], 0% to 34% of Northern Gondi [gno], 6%–50% of Aheri Gondi [esg] and Adilabad Gondi [wsg], 2%–70% of Maria [mrr]. Lexical similarity: 72%–80% with Western Muria [mut]; 65%–75% with Eastern Muria [emu]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Muria, Western
[mut] Chhattisgarh state: Bastar district, Narayanpur and Uttar Bastar Kanker districts; Maharashtra state: Gadchiroli. L1 users: 400,000 (2000 IICCC). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jhoria, Mudia, Muria Gondi. Dialects: Sonapal, Banchapai, Dhanora. 80%–96% intelligibility among dialects, 69%–73% of Eastern Muria [emu], 51%–78% of Far Western Muria [fmu]. No intelligibility of Dandami Maria [daq], Northern Gondi [gno], Adilabad Gondi [wsg], Aheri Gondi [esg] or Maria [mrr]. Lexical similarity: 72%–80% with Far Western Muria [fmu]; 74%–77% with Eastern Muria [emu]. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Muthuvan
[muv] Andhra Pradesh state; Kerala state: Idukki district, Devikulam sub-district, Adimali and Devikulam blocks; Ernakulam, Kannur, Kottayam, Kozhikode, and Thrissur districts; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore district, Udumalpet and Valparai sub-districts, Anaimalai hills; Madurai district, Cardamom hills. L1 users: 16,800 (2006 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mudavan, Muduva, Muduvan, Muduvar, Mutuvar, Paanti naattu peeccu. Dialects: Western Muthuvan (Malayalam Muthuvan, Nattu Muthuvan), Eastern Muthuvan (Pandi Muthuvan, Tamil Muthuvan). Intelligibility 82%–87% between dialects, eastern dialect more intelligible to western than vice versa, 80% intelligibility of Malayalam [mal]. Lexical similarity: 77%–88% between dialects, 62%–67% with Tamil [tam], 58%–68% with Malayalam [mal]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Na
[nbt] Arunachal Pradesh state: Upper Subansiri district; Taksing sub-district, Dadu, Esnaya, Gumsing, Lingbing, Redi, Reding, Taying, Tongla, and Yeja villages. L1 users: 1,500. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Affinity with Tagin [tgj] (Singh 1994b). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Naga Pidgin
[nag] Nagaland state: Kohima district, Dimapur sub-district; Arunachal Pradesh state border area. L1 users: 30,000 (Holm 1989). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bodo, Kachari Bengali, Naga Creole Assamese, Naga-Assamese, Nagamese. Dialects: None known. A variety least similar to Assamese [asm] is spoken by the Yimchenger Naga, and varieties most similar to Assamese by the Angami Naga, and around Dimapur and Kohima. Classification: Creole, Assamese based.

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Naga, Angami
[njm] Nagaland state: Kohima district; Maharashtra and Manipur states. L1 users: 132,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Trade language used by about 30,000 Naga of other groups. Alternate Names: Angamis, Gnamei, Monr, Ngami, Tendydie, Tsanglo, Tsoghami, Tsugumi. Dialects: Dzuna, Kehena, Khonoma, Chakroma (Western Angami), Mima, Nali, Mozome, Tengima (Kohima). Tengima (Kohima) dialect is standard. Naga Chokri and Naga Khezha are eastern Angami groups with their own dialects. 2 southern varieties (Viswemal, Jakhama) are not intelligible with dialects listed. Tenyidie is an umbrella term for all the dialects spoken by the Angami people. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Angami-Pochuri. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Ao
[njo] Assam state; Nagaland state: central Mokokchung district. L1 users: 261,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ao, Aorr, Cholimi, Hatigoria, Nowgong, Paimi, Uri. Dialects: Mongsen Khari, Changki, Chongli (Chungli), Dordar (Yacham), Longla. Chongli and Mongsen border on mutual unintelligibility (Burling 2003). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Chang
[nbc] Assam state; Nagaland state: Tuensang district, 36 villages. L1 users: 62,400 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chang, Changyanguh, Machongrr, Mochumi, Mochungrr, Mojung. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Wancho Naga [nnp]. Tuensang village dialect is central and intelligible to all. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Chokri
[nri] Nagaland state: Phek district, Cheswezumi is main village; Manipur state: some in Senapati district. L1 users: 83,600 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chakhesang, Chakrima Naga, Chakru, Chokri, Eastern Angami. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Angami-Pochuri. Comments: An eastern Angami tribe with its own language. Chokri, Khezha [nkh], and Sangtam-Pochuri [nsa] make up the Chakhesang Naga community (see separate entries). Chakhesang Naga is a Scheduled Tribe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Chothe
[nct] Manipur state: Bishnupur district, Lamlang Hupi village; Chandel district, 15 villages; Nagaland state: near Myanmar border. L1 users: 3,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chawte, Chote, Chothe, Chowte. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Tarao Naga [tro]. Reported intelligibility of Aimol [aim]. Lexical similarity: less than 60% with any neighboring languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Inpui
[nkf] Assam state; Manipur state: Imphal, Senapati, and Tamenglong Imphal districts, 16 villages; Nagaland state: Dimapur, Mahei Namchi, New Zaluke, and Peren. L1 users: 29,200 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kabui, Kabui Naga, Kapwi, Koboi, Kubai. Autonym: Inpui. Dialects: None known. Considered by some to be the same language as Puimei Naga [npu]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Puimei Naga [npu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Kabui recognized as Scheduled Tribe combining Inpui and Rongmei. Christian.

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Naga, Kharam
[kfw] Manipur state: Senapati district, Kharam Pallen, Laikot, Phaijol, and Thuisenpai villages. L1 users: 1,400 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duisalongmei, Thinglong. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71%–73% with Purum [pub], 58%–60% with Kom [kmm], 64% with Koireng [nkd]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Khezha
[nkh] Nagaland state: Khezhakhonoma, Kohima, and Phek districts. L1 users: 40,800 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kezami, Khezha, Khezhama. Dialects: None known. An east Angami group with its own language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Angami-Pochuri. Comments: Belong to Chakhesang Naga community. Christian.

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Naga, Khiamniungan
[kix] Nagaland state: east central Tuensang district. L1 users: 37,800 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 47,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aoshedd, Kalyokengnyu, Khiamngan, Khiamniungan, Nokaw, Tukhemmi, Welam. Dialects: Noklak. Dialects in Myanmar and India somewhat intelligible but have very limited contact. Lexical similarity: 67% with Gongwang dialect of Ponyo-Gongwang Naga [npg], 72%–73% with Ponyo dialect of [npg], 62%–67% with Lainong Naga [lzn], 41% with Lao Naga. Is in Konyak subgroup, but is divergent. They consider Ponyo Naga [npg] a part of Khiamniungan, though lexical similarity is only around 70%. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Main clans are Lam, Thai, Shiu, and Maya. Christian.

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Naga, Khoibu
[nkb] Manipur state: Chandel district mountainous regions, Khoibu, Narum, Saibol, and Yangkhul villages; Laiching. L1 users: 25,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 25,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khoibu, Khoibu Maring, Khoibu Maring Naga. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangkhulic.

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Naga, Konyak
[nbe] Assam state: Sibsagar district, Bortol and Nagagaon villages near Simulguri township; Nagaland state: Mon and Tuensang districts. L1 users: 248,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 250,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kanyak, Konyak. Dialects: Angphang, Hopao, Changnyu, Chen, Chingkao, Chinglang, Choha, Gelekidoria, Jakphang, Longching, Longkhai (Lungkhai, Lungkhi), Longmein, Longwa, Mon, Mulung, Ngangching, Sang, Shanlang, Shunyuo, Shengha, Sima, Sowa, Shamnyuyanga, Tableng (Angwangku, Kongon, Mohung, Wakching), Tabu, Tamkhungnyuo, Tang, Tobunyuo, Tolamleinyua, Totok. Tableng is standard dialect spoken in Wanching and Wakching. Reportedly similar to Phom Naga [nph]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Liangmai
[njn] Nagaland state: Kohima district, Jhaluke, Medzephima, and Paren sub-districts. L1 users: 34,200 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kacha, Liangmai, Liangmei, Liyang, Lyangmay, Lyengmai, Zeliang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Naga. Comments: Merged ethnically with Zeme [nme] and Rongmei [nbu] Naga to form the Zeliangrong community. Liangmai and Zeme are referred to collectively as Zeliang.

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Naga, Lotha
[njh] Nagaland state: west central, Wokha district. L1 users: 170,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chizima, Choimi, Hlota, Kyong, Lhota, Lotha, Lutha, Miklai, Tsindir, Tsontsii. Dialects: Live, Tsontsu, Ndreng, Kyong, Kyo, Kyon, Kyou. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Makuri
[jmn] Nagaland state: Kiphire and Phek districts. L1 users: 4,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makuri, Makury Naga. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified.

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Naga, Mao
[nbi] Manipur state: Senapati district; Nagaland state. L1 users: 81,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Emela, Imemai, Maikel, Mao, Memi, Sopfomo, Sopvoma, Sopwama, Southern Angami. Dialects: Paomata. Paomata dialect and Poumei Naga [pmx] may be the same (Breton 1997). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Angami-Pochuri. Comments: Mao is a Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Maram
[nma] Assam state; Manipur state: Imphal district; Senapati district, 26 villages near Maram, 5 villages near Senapati. L1 users: 37,300 (2001). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Maram. Dialects: Willong Circle, Maram Khullen Circle, T. Khullen, Ngatan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Maring
[nng] Manipur state: Chandel district north border mountainous region, Tengnoupal sub-district; southeast, Laiching. L1 users: 22,300 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maring. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangkhulic. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Monsang
[nmh] Manipur state: Chandel district, Chandel sub-district, Heibunglok, Japhou, Liwa Sarei, Liwchangning, and Monsang Pantha villages; Nagaland state: near Myanmar border. L1 users: 3,200 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mawshang, Monshang, Moshang, Mushang. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Moyon Naga [nmo] and Anal Naga [anm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Moyon
[nmo] Manipur state: Chandel district, 14 villages including Heigru Tampak, Khongjom, Komlathabi, Mitong, Moyon Khullen, Penaching; Nagaland state: near Myanmar border. L1 users: 3,700 (2001). Ethnic population: 3,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mayol, Mayon Naga, Moyon. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Mzieme
[nme] Manipur state: Senapati; Nagaland state: Paren district, northeast of Zeme. L1 users: 29,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mzieme, Northern Zeme. Dialects: None known. Different from Zeme Naga [nzm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Naga. Comments: Adopted the designation Northern Zeme because Zeme has government recognition while Mzieme does not.

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Naga, Nocte
[njb] Arunachal Pradesh state: Changlang district; Tirap district, Laju, Khonsa, and Namsang sub-districts; Assam state: Lakhimpur district, Jaipur; Nagaland state: Mon district, Namsang. L1 users: 33,000 (2001 census). 19,800 monolinguals (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Borduria, Jaipuria, Mohongia, Namsangia, Nocte, Nokte, Paniduria. Dialects: Khapa, Laju, Ponthai (Lamlak). Ponthai dialect is similar to both Tangsa [nst] and Nocte. Those living closer to the Nocte identify as Nocte; those living closer to the Tangsa identify as Tangsa. 50% intelligible with Wancho Naga [nnp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Tutsa, Wancho, Laju, Lamlak considered ethnic subgroups of Nocte although Tutsa consider themselves not related to Nocte. Christian, Hindu, traditional religion.

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Naga, Northern Rengma
[nnl] Nagaland state: Kohima district, north Rengma. L1 users: 13,000 (1997). 61,345 total Rengma (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northern Rengma, Ntenyi, Ntenyi Naga, Nthenyi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Angami-Pochuri. Comments: Christian.

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Naga, Phom
[nph] Nagaland state: Tuensang district, Longleng sub-district, 36 villages. L1 users: 123,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Assiringia, Chingmengu, Phom, Phon, Tamlu, Tamlu Naga. Dialects: Yongyasha. Reportedly similar to Konyak Naga [nbe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Pochuri
[npo] Manipur state: Ukrul district; Nagaland state: Phek district, Meluri sub-district, 27 villages. L1 users: 16,700 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Rengma, Meluri, Pochuri, Pochury. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Angami-Pochuri. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Meluri is a place-name in this region. Pochury is an amalgamation of 3 place-names: Sapo, Kechuri, Khury. Christian.

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Naga, Poumei
[pmx] Manipur state. L1 users: 51,000 (1997). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Paumei, Pomai, Pome, Poumei. Dialects: Similar to Mao Naga [nbi]. Different from Puimei Naga [npu] (Breton 1997:217). Paomata dialect of Mao Naga and Poumei Naga may be the same (Breton 1997). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Angami-Pochuri.

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Naga, Puimei
[npu] Assam and Manipur states. L1 users: 3,000 (2001). Mostly monolingual. Ethnic population: 3,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Puimei. Dialects: None known. Different from Poumei Naga [pmx] (Breton 1997:217). Not functionally intelligible of any related language (Khasung). Lexical similarity: 68% with Inpui Naga [nkf]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Were assigned as part of Rongmei Naga [nbu]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Rongmei
[nbu] Assam state: Cachar district. 35 villages; Manipur and Nagaland states. L1 users: 61,200 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Kabui, Maruongmai, Nruanghmei, Rongmai, Rongmei, Zeliang. Dialects: Songbu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Naga. Comments: Songbu is principal Division of Rongmei. Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Sangtam
[nsa] Nagaland state: Tuensang district, Kiphire sub-district, Chare circle. L1 users: 84,300 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Isachanure, Lophomi, Sangtam. Dialects: Kizare, Pirr (Northern Sangtam), Phelongre, Thukumi (Central Sangtam), Photsimi, Purr (Southern Sangtam). Standard based on Tsadanger village dialect. Kizare north of Meluri, and not known how much it differs from other Sangtam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Naga. Comments: Chokri, Khezha, and a small section of Sangtam make up the Chakhesang Naga community. A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Southern Rengma
[nre] Assam state: Karbi-Anglong district, 15 villages; Manipur state; Nagaland state: Kohima district, Tseminyu sub-district. L1 users: 21,000 (1997). 61,345 total Rengma (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Injang, Moiyui, Mon, Mozhumi, Nzong, Nzonyu, Rengma, Rengma Naga, Southern Rengma, Unza, Western Rengma. Dialects: Keteneneyu, Azonyu (Nzonyu, Southern Rengma). Tseminyu principal dialect main center. Southern Rengma and Northern Rengma [nnl] are reportedly inherently unintelligible. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Angami-Pochuri. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Sumi
[nsm] Assam state: Tinsukia district, 7 villages. Nagaland state: Kohima, Mokokchung, Tuensang, and Zunheboto districts. Dayang is near Dayang river. L1 users: 104,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sema, Simi, Sumi. Dialects: Dayang (Western Sumi), Lazemi, Zhimomi, Zumomi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Angami-Pochuri. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Tangkhul
[nmf] Manipur state: Ukhrul district, 168 villages; Nagaland and Tripura states. L1 users: 142,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Champhung, Luhuppa, Luppa, Tagkhul, Tangkhul, Thangkhulm. Dialects: Ukhrul, Khunggoi, Khangoi, Kupome, Phadang. Ukhrul is principal dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Tangkhulic. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. The most educated group of Manipur. Christian.

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Naga, Tangsa
[nst] Arunachal Pradesh state: Changlang district, Manmau, Jayrampur, Nampong, and Kharsang circles; Assam state: border area with Changlang district, 25 villages. L1 users: 40,100 (2001 census). 400 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cham Chang, Rangpan, Tangsa, Tangshang, Tase, Tase Naga, Tasey. Dialects: Lungri, Sangche, Sangwal, Taipi, Tikhak, Tonglim (Tangrim), Tutsa, Yogli (Jugli), Yongkuk (Yukok), Have (Havoy), Higsho, Higtsii, Kimsing (Chamchang, Khemsing, Sanke, Sechu, Shangge, Shechu), Longphi (Longkhi), Lungchang, Miti, Moklum, Mosang (Hewa), Mungray (Morang), Ngemu, Phong (Ponthai), Rongrang, Ronrang (Poerah). Phong (Ponthai) dialect is similar to both Nocte [njb] and Tangsa. Those living closer to the Nocte identify as Nocte; those living closer to the Tangsa identify as Tangsa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: ‘Tangsa’, hill people. A Scheduled Tribe. May be up to 36 subtribes of Tangsa. Kimsing dialect speakers can understand all dialects well. Kimsing is similar to Tutsa. Higsho is similar to Nocte. Kimsing has most speakers and is most influential. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Naga, Tarao
[tro] Manipur state: Chandel district, Palel sub-district, Heikakpokpi, Khuringmul Laiminei, and Leishokching villages; Ukhrul district, Sinakeithei village. L1 users: 870 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tarao, Taraotrong, Tarau. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Chothe Naga [nct], 70% intelligibility. Lexical similarity: less than 60% with any neighboring language; 43%–46% with Chothe Naga [nct]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Northwestern. Comments: Not recognized as a separate Scheduled Tribe by the government due to its small size. Christian.

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Naga, Thangal
[nki] Manipur state: Senapati district, East and West Sadar hills sub-districts, Gailongde, Makeng Thangal, Mapao Thangal, Mayangkhang, Ningthoubam, Thangal Surung, Tikhulen, Tumnoupokpi, and Yaikangpou. Most are east of Barak valley. L1 users: 23,600 (2001). Ethnic population: 23,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Khoirao, Khoirao Naga, Koirao, Kolya, Mayangkhang, Miyang-Khang, Ngari, Thangal, Thanggal, Tukaimi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maram Naga [nma]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Tutsa
[tvt] Arunachal Pradesh state: south Changlang and east Tirap districts; Assam state: Tinsukia district. L1 users: 25,000 (2001). 12,500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Totcha, Tutsa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nocte Naga [njb] and Tase Naga [nst]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: Consider themselves separate from Nocte [njb] and Tase Naga [nst]. Traditional religion.

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Naga, Wancho
[nnp] Arunachal Pradesh state: southwest Tirap district, 36 villages; Assam and Nagaland states. L1 users: 49,100 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Banpara Naga, Joboka, Jokoba, Wancho. Dialects: Changnoi, Bor Muthun (Bor Mutonia), Horu Muthun, Kulung Muthun (Mithan). Significant variation between spoken language in upper and lower regions. Reportedly similar to Chang Naga [nbc] and Konyak Naga [nbe]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Northern Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian, traditional religion.

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Naga, Yimchungru
[yim] Nagaland state: Tuensang district, between Namchik and Patkoi. L1 users: 92,100 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tozhuma, Yachumi, Yanchunger, Yimchunger, Yimchungre, Yimchungru. Dialects: Tikhir, Wai, Chirr, Minir, Pherrongre, Yimchungru. The last 3 dialects listed are in the south. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Naga, Zeme
[nzm] Assam state: North Cachar district, upper Barak valley; Manipur state: Tamenglong district; Nagaland state: Kohima district, Jhaluke, Medzephima, and Paren sub-districts. L1 users: 34,100 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Arung, Empeo, Empui, Jeme, Kacha, Kachcha, Kachcha Naga, Kutcha, Mezama, Sangrima, Sengima, Zeliang, Zeliangrong, Zeme, Zemi. Dialects: Paren, Njauna. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Naga. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian, Hindu.

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Nagarchal
[nbg] Madhya Pradesh state: Balaghat, Chhindwara, Mandla, and Seoni districts. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Nagar, Nagarchi. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: Nagarchi is a people group living in Seoni, Jabalpur, and Mandla districts of Madhya Pradesh who speak Hindi [hin] (Singh 1998a).

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Nahali
[nlx] Madhya Pradesh state: Barwani district; Maharashtra state: Dhule district; Jalgaon district, Chopda sub-district, north of Amalwadi; Nandurbar district, Dhadgaon sub-district, 12 villages near Toranmal. L1 users: 15,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalto, Nahal, Nahale, Nahalia. Dialects: None known. 96% intelligibility of Bareli Pauri [bfb]. This may be acquired rather than inherent (1988 S. Watters). Lexical similarity: 58%–68% with Noiri [noi] varieties, 60%–61% with Dungra Bhil [duh], 69%–73% with Bareli Pauri [bfb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reported to speak Nimadi [noe] as L1. (Singh 1994b). Nihali [nll] and Nahali are different languages.

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Nahari
[nhh] Chhattisgarh state: Raipur, Bilaspur districts; Odisha state: Sambalpur district. L1 users: 20,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nahali. Dialects: None known. A more divergent variety, related to Halbi [hlb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Hindu.

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Nefamese
[nef] Arunachal Pradesh state. L1 users: Population unknown. May be replaced by Hindi [hin] (2006 Y. Modi). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Arunamese. Classification: Pidgin, Assamese based.

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Nepali
[npi] Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, and Uttarakhand states; West Bengal state: Darjeeling area. L1 users: 2,870,000 (2001 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sikkim, West Bengal state (1992, Constitution, Amendment 71). Alternate Names: Eastern Pahari, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Nepalese, Parbatiya. Dialects: Gorkhali, Palpa, Nepali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, Eastern Pahari. Comments: Hindu.

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Newar
[new] Bihar state: some in Bettiah; Sikkim and West Bengal states. L1 users: 14,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 166,000 (2007). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Newa Bhaye, Newaah Bhaae, “Newari” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Newar.

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Nicobarese, Car
[caq] Andaman and Nicobar Islands state: North Nicobar Islands, Car island. L1 users: 37,000 (2005). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Lingua franca for Nicobar Islands. Alternate Names: Car, Pu. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Car. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Nicobarese, Central
[ncb] Andaman and Nicobar Islands state: Camorta, Katchal, Nancowry, Nicobar Islands, Trinket islands. L1 users: 10,100 (2001 census). 5,310 on Katchal, 3,410 on Kamorta, 930 on Nancowry, 430 on Trinket. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Muöt, Nicobar. Dialects: Camorta (Kamorta), Katchal (Kachel, Tehnu), Nancowry (Nancoury), Trinkut (Trinkat). Central Nicobar once regarded as one language but no longer generally accepted. Dialects now regarded as mutually unintelligible with the exception of Trinket and Katchal. (Parkin 1991). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Nancowry. Comments: Christian.

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Nicobarese, Southern
[nik] Andaman and Nicobar Islands state: Little Nicobar and outer Great Nicobar islands. L1 users: 7,500 (2001 census). 350 on Little Nicobar Island, 7,570 total on Great Nicobar, about 400 of these are Shompen. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nicobara. Dialects: Condul (Kondul), Great Nicobar, Little Nicobar, Milo. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Great Nicobar. Comments: Hindu, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Nihali
[nll] Madhya Pradesh state: Burhanpur; Maharashtra state: Buldana district, Jamod Jalgaon sub-district. L1 users: 2,000 (Parkin 1991). Ethnic population: 5,000 (1987). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nihal. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 25% between Nihal in Chikaldara taluk and Akola District and Korku [kfq] (Munda). Classification: Language isolate. Comments: They live in or near Korku villages in a position of subordination to the Korku people. Possibly belonged to a now extinct speech family of India. Influenced significantly by Munda and Dravidian languages. 60%–70% of vocabulary borrowed. Nihali and Nahali [nlx] are different languages.

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Nimadi
[noe] Madhya Pradesh state: Barwani, south Dhar, Khandwa, and Khargone districts; Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh states. L1 users: 2,150,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nemadi, Nimari, Nimiadi. Dialects: Bhuani. Dialects have 90%–100% mutual inherent intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 74%–94% among dialects, 64%–75% with Malvi [mup], 62%–77% with Hindi [hin], 56%–64% with Gujarati [guj], 49%–58% with Marathi [mar]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Noiri
[noi] Madhya Pradesh state: Badwani district, Pansemal sub-district; Maharashtra state: Dhule district, Shirpur sub-district; Jalgaon district, Chopda sub-district; Nandurbar district, Akkalkua, Dhadgaon, and Shahada sub-districts. L1 users: 100,000 (2003 IICCC). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mathwadi Bhilori. Dialects: Barutiya. Barutiya people have high acquired intelligibility of Vasavi [vas] and Bareli Pauri [bfb] and Dungra Bhili [duh]. Lexical similarity: 77%–87% with Dungra Bhili [duh], 60%–71% with different Vasavi [vas] varieties, 58%–68% with Nahali [nlx] of Toranmal, 47%–54% with the Kotali dialect of Bhili [bhb]; the Barutiya dialect of Noiri, 64%–70% with Bareli Pauri [bfb]. Noiri-Barutiya variety falls between Vasavi and Bareli Pauri on a dialect continuum. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. A Bhil subgroup. ‘Noira’ means people who speak through the nose. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Nora
[nrr] Arunachal Pradesh state: northeast, near Tibet. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Norra, Noza, Nurra. Classification: Tai-Kadai.

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Nyishi
[njz] Arunachal Pradesh state: lower Subansiri district. L1 users: 230,000 (2001 census). 23,000 speakers of Bangni dialect (Van Driem 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangni, Dafla, Daphla, Lel, Nishi, Nisi, Nissi, Nyising. Autonym: Nil. Dialects: Aka Lel, Bangni, Nishang. Reportedly similar to Tagin [tgj]. Apatani [apt] may be a dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani. Comments: Nisi is a Scheduled Tribe. Nisi has been used as a cover term for western Tani languages. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Odia
[ory] Andhra Pradesh state: Vishakhapatnam district; Chhattisgarh state: Bastar, Raigarh, and Raipur districts; Jharkhand state: Ranchi and Singhbhum districts; West Bengal state: Medinipur (Midnapore) district; Assam and Odisha states. L1 users: 32,100,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 32,137,870. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Odisha State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Odisha, Odri, Odrum, Oliya, Oriya, Uriya, Utkali, Vadiya, Yudhia. Autonym: ଓଡ଼ିଆ‎ (Oḍiā). Dialects: Mughalbandi (Odia Proper, Standard Odia), Southern Odia, Northwestern Odia, Western Odia (Sambalpuri), North Balasore Odia, Midnapore Odia, Halbi. Lexical similarity: 75%–76% with Sambalpuri [spv], 68% with Kamar [keq]. A member of macrolanguage Oriya [ori]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Oriya. Comments: Hindu.

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Oko-Juwoi
[okj] Andaman and Nicobar Islands, west central and southwest interior Middle Andaman island. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Junoi, Juwoi, Oku-Juwoi. Classification: Andamanese, Great Andamanese, Central.

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Öñge
[oon] Andaman and Nicobar Islands: Little Andaman island, Dugong Creek and South Bay. L1 users: 94 (Abbi 2006). Mainly monolingual. Ethnic population: 110 (1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ong. Dialects: None known. Reportedly distinct from Sentinel [std]. Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reserved toward outsiders. Traditional religion.

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Oriya
[ori] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 32,656,870 Status: Comments: Includes: Odia [ory], Sambalpuri [spv].

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Oriya, Adivasi
[ort] Andhra Pradesh state: Vishakhapatnam district, Araku valley; Odisha state. 400,000, all users. L1 users: 200,000 (2011 SIL). L2 users: 200,000 (1998 U. Gustafsson). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adivasi, Adiwasi Oriya, Desiya, Kotia, Kotia Oriya, Kotiya, Tribal Oriya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 38%–42% with standard Odia [ory], 80%–85% with Desiya [dso] in Odisha. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Oriya. Comments: Adivasi Oriya is a Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Pahari, Kullu
[kfx] Himachal Pradesh state: Kullu district, Balichowk, Banjar, and Sainj sub-districts. L1 users: 109,000 (1997). All Pahari 2,170,000 (1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kauli, Kullui, Kulu Boli, Kulu Pahari, Kului, Kulvi, Kulwali, Pahari, Pahari Kullu, Phari Kulu. Dialects: Inner Siragi (Inner Seraji, Saraji, Siragi, Siraji), Kullui, Outer Seraji. Inner Siragi is apparently different from the Siraji-Kashmiri dialect of Kashmiri [kas]. Lexical similarity: 85% or higher among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Pahari, Mahasu
[bfz] Himachal Pradesh state: Shimla and Solan districts; Uttarakhand state: Uttarkashi district. L1 users: 1,000,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahasui. Dialects: Lower Mahasu Pahari (Baghati, Baghliani, Kiunthali), Upper Mahasu Pahari (Rampuri, Rohruri, Shimla Siraji, Sodochi). The Kiunthali variety appears to be understood by others, and their attitude toward it is favorable. Rampuri is also called Kochi; Rohruri is also called Soracholi. Intelligibility among dialects above 85%. Lexical similarity: 74%–82% with upper dialects, 74%–95% with lower dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Hindu.

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Pahari-Potwari
[phr] Jammu and Kashmir state: Kupware district, near Pakistan border. L1 users: 1,020,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mirpur, Mirpur Panjabi, Mirpur Punjabi, Mirpuri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu, Sikh.

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Pali
[pli] L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Total users in all countries: none known. Status: 9 (Second language only). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Buddhist.

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Paliyan
[pcf] Kerala state: Idukki district, Pirmed sub-district, Chakkupallam, Kumily, and Vandanmedu areas; Ernakulam and Kottayam districts; Tamil Nadu state: Coimbatore, Dindigul, Madurai, Pudukkottai, Ramanathapuram, Thanjavur, and Tirunelveli districts; Karnataka state. L1 users: 9,520 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Makkal, Malai Paliyar, Palani, Palaya, Palayan, Paliyar, Palleyan, Palliyar, Poliyar, Seramar, Tamil. Dialects: Mala Pulayan (Hill Pulaya, Karavazhi). Lexical similarity: 71%–75% with Tamil [tam], 62%–65% with Malayalam [mal], 79%–85% with Mala Pulayan [pcf]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Paliya and Mala Pulaya refer to L1 as Tamil [tam], though it differs from standard Tamil. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Panchpargania
[tdb] Assam state: upper tea gardens; Jharkhand state: Ranchi and Singhbhum districts; Odisha and West Bengal states. L1 users: 194,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bedia, Chik Barik, Pan, Pan Sawasi, Tair, Tamara, Tamaria, Tanti, Temoral, Tumariya. Dialects: Sonahatu variety considered most pure. Lexical similarity: 77%–94% between dialects, 61%–86% with Kudmali, 68%–76% with Magahi (Khortha) [mag], 61%–70% with Sadri [sck], 48%–52% with Odia [ory], 45%–58% with Bengali [ben], 50%–60% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Panchpargania means 5 districts, namely Silli, Bundu, Rahe, Baranda, and Tamar parganas of Ranchi (Singh 1995b). Hindu, Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Pangwali
[pgg] Himachal Pradesh state: Chamba district, Pangi sub-district; Lahaul Spiti district, Udaipur on Chenab river to Chamba border at Purthi, possibly from Tandi to Sach Pass; Jammu and Kashmir state: Doda district. L1 users: 17,000 (1997). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pahari, Pangi, Pangwali Pahari. Dialects: 64% inherent intelligibility of Mandeali [mjl], 52% of Kangri [xnr], 44% of Chambeali [cdh], 50% of Bhadrawahi [bhd]; some dialect variation throughout the valley in Chamba District; Purthi reportedly most divergent. Lexical similarity: 55% with Hindi [hin], 77% with Kullu Pahari [kfx]; 45% with Bhadrawahi [bhd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Paniya
[pcg] Karnataka state: Kodagu district; Kerala state: Kannur, Kozhikode, Malappuram, and Wayanad districts; Tamil Nadu state: west of Nilgiris hills. L1 users: 94,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nil, Pania, Paniyan, Panyah. Dialects: Intelligibility of Malappura Paniya by Kodava [kfa] is 66%. Lexical similarity: 79%–88% between dialects and Malappuram Paniya, 71% with Kodaku [ksz] and Kodava [kfa]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Pankhu
[pkh] Mizoram state: Chhimtuipui and Lunglei districts, 12 villages. L1 users: Current population unknown. Ethnic population: 230 (1971). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Paang, Pang, Pang Khua, Pangkhu, Pankho, Pankhua, Panko, Pankua. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central. Comments: Scheduled Tribe. A subgroup of the Mizo [lus]. Christian.

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Pardhan
[pch] Chhattisgarh state: Bilaspur, Raipur, and Surguja districts; Madhya Pradesh state: Balaghat, Betul, Chhindwara, Hoshangabad, Jabalpur, Mandla, and Seoni districts; Maharashtra state: Bhandara, Garhchiroli, Nagpur, Wardha, and Yavatmal districts; Telangana state: possibly in Adilbad district. L1 users: 135,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 347,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pradhan, Pradhani. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Gondi. Comments: L1 is Gondi [gon] (Singh 1994b). Hindu.

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Pardhi
[pcl] Karnataka state: Belgaum and Bijapur districts, small border areas; Maharashtra state: Kolhapur, Sangli, Satara, and Solapur districts; Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh states: widely scattered. L1 users: 49,300 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bahelia, Chita Pardhi, Lango Pardhi, Paidia, Paradi, Paria, Phans Pardhi, Takankar, Takia. Dialects: Neelishikari, Pittala Bhasha, Takari, Haran Shikari. Probably more than 1 language (Lango). Possibly a dialect of Bhili [bhb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe in Gujarat, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra, and a Scheduled Caste in Madhya Pradesh. Different than Paradhi, who speak Kacchi [kfr]. Traditional religion.

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Parenga
[pcj] Odisha state: Mayurbhanj district. Ethnic population: 12,600 (2001 census). In Odisha. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Gadaba, Gorum, Gorum Sama, Pareng, Parenga Parja, Parengi, Parenji, Poroja. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Gorum. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Ethnonym: Gadaba, erroneously.

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Parsi
[prp] Gujarat and Maharashtra states. L1 users: 151,000 (2000). Total users in all countries: 251,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Parsee. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not inherently intelligible with Parsi-Dari [prd], from whom they separated 600–700 years ago. Other reports say they came to India 1,300 years ago. Related to Zoroastrian Dari [gbz] in Iran. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Distinct from Parsi, a dialect of Gujarati [guj]. Zoroastrian.

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Pathiya
[pty] Kerala state: Wayanad district, Cheramkolli, Kazhambu, Mathamangalam, Thekkumpatta, and Thelampatta villages. L1 users: 1,000 (2004 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. It has been reported that they speak Malayalam [mal] mixed with Kannada [kan] words (Menon 1996:313; Shashi and Shri 1994, Vol. 11). Lexical similarity: 88% with Kalanadi [wkl], 83% with Kunduvadi [wku], 72% with Malayalam [mal], 79% with Paniya [pcg], 76%–80% with Mullu Kurumba [kpb], 70%–74% with Wayanad Kurichiya. Classification: Dravidian, Southern. Comments: Common cultural origin with Kunduvadiyar and Kalanadikal. Not related to the washerman caste of the same name in Travancore area. (Menon 1996). Jain.

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Pattani
[lae] Himachal Pradesh state: Chamba-Lahul, Lahul, Pattan, and lower Mayar valleys, some in Kullu and Manali cities; Jammu and Kashmir state: Kishtwar district. 16,000, all users. L1 users: 11,000 (1997). L2 users: 5,000 (1997). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2002). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chamba, Chamba Lahuli, Changsapa Boli, Lahuli, Manchad, Manchati, Patni, Swangla. Dialects: Chamba-Lahuli (Western Pattani), Eastern Pattani, Central Pattani. 3 caste dialects exist (Pandit-Rajput, Harijan and Lohar). The lower castes understand Pandit-Rajput, but not vice versa. Lexical similarity: 55%–63% between Western Pattani dialect and Tinani [lbf], 26%–39% with Bunan [bfu], 37% with Shumcho [scu], 35% with Jangshung [jna], 33% with Sunam [ssk], 31% with Chitkuli [cik] and Kinnauri [kfk], 25% with Puh and Kinnaur District varieties (Kinnaur Bhoti [nes]) of Tibetan, 22% with Nesang [tpq], 18% with Tibetan [bod], 14%–15% with the Spiti and Stod varieties of Tibetan. Average of 80% between dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: Lahaula and Swangla are both Scheduled Tribes. Hindu.

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Pattapu
[ptq] Andhra Pradesh state: Guntur, Prakasam, and Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore districts. L1 users: 200,000 (2013 R. Rebbavarapu). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pattapu Bhasha. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 28% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified.

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Pengo
[peg] Odisha state: Kalahandi district; Koraput district, Dasamantapur and Nandapur sub-districts; Nabarangapur district, Pappadahandi sub-district; Rayagada district, Kashipur sub-district. Ethnic population: 350,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hengo, Pengu. Dialects: Indi, Awe. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Gondi-Kui, Konda-Kui, Manda-Kui, Manda-Pengo. Comments: They consider themselves separate from Jhodia Poraja. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Phake
[phk] Arunachal Pradesh state; Assam state: Dibrugarh district, Bor-phake, Man-long, Man-po-mung, Mung-lang, Nam-phake, Ning-gam, Nong-lai, Pha-neng, and Tipam-phake villages along Dihing river. L1 users: 2,000 (Bradley 2007a). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Faake, Phakey, Phakial. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Aiton [aio]. Similar to Shan [shn] of Myanmar. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Phudagi
[phd] Maharashtra state: Thane district. L1 users: 1,010 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Vadval. Dialects: A more divergent dialect of, or closely related language to, Konkani [knn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Konkani.

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Pnar
[pbv] Assam state: North Cachar hills, Borolokha, Dibruchera and Jatinga; Karbi Anglong district, Ulukunchi; Meghalaya state: Khasi and Jaintia hills north of War Jaintia; Mizoram state: north Aizawl district. L1 users: 243,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 247,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Jaintia (Synteng), Nongtung. Formerly considered a dialect of Khasi [kha]. Jaintia dialect has 12 spoken forms: Jowai, Shangpung, Batau, Raliang, Sutnga, Sumer, Nartiang, Barato, Rymbai, Lakadong, Mynso, and Nongtalang. All are intelligible, except for Nongtalang, which is akin to Khmer [khm]. Jowai is standard spoken form. Lexical similarity: 68% with standard Khasi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Portuguese
[por] Goa state, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli. L1 users: 250,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Português, Purtagaalee. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Powari
[pwr] Madhya Pradesh state: Balaghat, Betul, Chindwara, and Seoni districts; Maharashtra state: Bhandara, Gondia, and Wardha districts. L1 users: 426,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 2,000,000 (1986 All India Powar Council). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pwari. Dialects: Bhoyar Powari (Bhomiyari, Bhoyari, Bhoyaroo, Bhuiyar, Bhuria, Bohoyeri), Vyneganga Powari, Govari of Seoni, Khalari, Koshti, Kumbhari, Lodhi, Marari. Reported intelligibility between Bhoyar and Vyneganga. Balaghat District dialect considered central among Bhoyar and Vyneganga varieties. Lexical similarity: 60%–87% among dialects; 80%–83% with Koshti, Kumbhari, and Khalari sub-groups; 49%–65% with Bagheli [bfy], 46%–64% with Bundeli [bns]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western. Comments: Younger generation is getting education. Hindu.

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Punjabi, Eastern
[pan] Chhandigarh state; Haryana state: Ambala and Pauchkula districts; Himachal Pradesh state: Kangra and Una districts; Jammu and Kashmir state: Jambu, Kathua, and Samba Jambu districts; Punjab state: Amritsar and Gurdaspur districts (Majhi); Rajasthan state: north Ganganagar district. L1 users: 28,200,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 29,258,970. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Punjab, West Bengal states; union territories Delhi, Chandigarh (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Eastern Panjabi, Gurmukhi, Gurumukhi, Punjabi. Autonym: ਪੰਜਾਬੀ‎ (pãjābī), ਪੰਜਾਬੀ ਭਾਸ਼ਾ‎ (pãjābī bʰāšā). Dialects: Punjabi Proper (Panjabi Proper), Majhi, Doab, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Powadhi (Puadi), Malwa, Bathi. Western Punjabi [pnb] is distinct from Eastern Punjabi, although there is a chain of dialects to Western Hindi (Urdu) [urd]. Bhatyiana dialect considered a mixture of Punjabi and Marwari [mve]. Majhi considered the purest Punjabi form (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi. Comments: Associated with Sikhs. Different from Majhi [mjz] in India and Nepal. Sikh, Muslim.

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Punjabi, Western
[pnb] Jammu and Kashmir state: Kathua, Jammu, and Samba districts; Punjab state: Gurdaspur district; possibly Delhi, Haryana. L1 users: 1,910,000 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lahanda, Lahnda, Lahndi, Western Panjabi, “Hindki” (pej.). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Purik
[prx] Jammu and Kashmir state: Kargil district, mainly Suru valley; Dras valley, some in western Himalayas. L1 users: 37,700 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Burig, Burigskat, Purig, Purig-pa, Purigskad, Purik Bhotia, Purki. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Balti [bft]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western. Comments: ’Purig’ of Tibetan origin. People prefer to be culturally and linguistically identified with Tibet, although religiously with Islam. A Scheduled Tribe. Muslim.

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Puroik
[suv] Arunachal Pradesh state: East Kameng, Kurung Kumey, Papumpare, and Lower Subansiri districts, along Par river, 53 villages. L1 users: 20,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. A divergent language which may not be Sino-Tibetan but possibly Austro-Asiatic. Intelligible of Bugun [bgg] (Chowdhury 1996). Burling (2003) groups it with Sherdukpen [sdp] and Bugun; possibly also with Lish [lsh] and Sartang [onp]. Lexical similarity: 54%–67% between varieties; 57%–68% with Chug [cvg]; less than 15% with Bugun [bgg] and Nyishi [njz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa. Comments: A satellite relationship to Nyishi and Bangni peoples, bonded economically. A Scheduled Tribe in India. Claim kinship with the Khoa or Bugun. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Purum
[pub] Manipur state: Chandel district, Chandanpokpi, Khongkhang Chothe, Lamlang Huipi, Loirang Talsi, New Wangparan, Salemthar, and Zat’lang; Senapati district, Moibunglikli, Purumkhulen, Purumkhunou, Purumlikli, and Waicheiphai villages. L1 users: 500 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Puram, Purum Naga. Dialects: None known. 95% intelligibility of Kharam Naga [kfw]. Lexical similarity: 60%–65% with Kom [kmm], 60%–66% with Koireng [nkd], 57%–60% with Aimol [aim], 71%–73% with Kharam Naga [kfw]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern. Comments: Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Rabha
[rah] Assam state: Darrang, Goalpara, and Kamrup districts; Nagaland state; West Bengal state: Alipurduar and Jalpaiguri districts; Koch Bihar district, Tafangunj sub-district; Meghalaya state: East and West Garo hills districts. L1 users: 165,000 (2001 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 374,000 (1993). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Rava. Dialects: Maitaria (Maitoria, Maituri), Rangdania (Rongdani). Rongdani is the standard dialect. Lexical similarity: 73% between Maituri and Rongdani. 31%–39% with Koch [kdq]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Koch. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Rajasthani
[raj] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 12,904,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Bagri [bgq], Gade Lohar [gda], Gujari [gju], Haroti [hoj], Malvi [mup], Wagdi [wbr].

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Ralte
[ral] Mizoram state: mainly Aizawl district, scattered in Chhimtuipui and Lunglei districts; Manipur and Tripura states; a few in Jampui hills. L1 users: 900 (2007). Ethnic population: 34,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Tedim Chin [ctd], Paite Chin [pck], Thado Chin [tcz], and Zo [zom]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. A subgroup of the Mizo [lus]. Spoken only in northern Mizoram villages (Singh 1995b). Christian.

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Rangkas
[rgk] Uttarakhand state: Pithoragarh district, Darchula and Munsyari sub-districts in Johar valley, Nepal border along Mahakali valley. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,010 (2000). 1,420 all countries. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Canpa, Chyanam, Johari, Kyonam, Saukas, Saukiya Khun, Shaukas. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora. Comments: Identity merged with the dominant Kumaoni people. Rangkas sometimes refers to the whole group of Darmiya, Chaudangsi, Byangsi, and the now extinct Johari.

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Ranglong
[rnl] Assam and Mizoram states; Tripura state: Joitang village. L1 users: 8,000 (2003 BI). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ronglong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Unclassified. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Rathawi
[rtw] Gujarat state: Panchmahals district; Vadodara district, Chhota Udaipur and Kavant sub-districts; Madhya Pradesh state: Jhabua district, Alirajpur sub-district. L1 users: 451,000 (2006 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bal-La, Kohelia, Rathwi. Dialects: None known. 76% intelligibility of Bhilali [bhi]. A chain of related varieties from Bhilali to Rathawa; extremes have limited mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 83% with Bhilali [bhi]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Distinct from Rathwi Bareli [bgd] in Madhya Pradesh. Hindu.

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Ravula
[yea] Karnataka state: Kodagu district; Kerala state: Kannur district; Wayanad district, Mananthavadi sub-district. L1 users: 26,900 (2007). 25,000 Yerava and 1,900 Adiya. Ethnic population: 47,000 (2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adiya, Adiyan, Iryavula, Panjiri Yerava, Yerava, Yoruba. Dialects: Adiya, Pani Yerava, Panjiri Yerava. 93%–94% dialect intelligibility between Yerava and Adiya dialects. Pani Yerava may be a dialect of Ravula or of Paniya [pcg]. Lexical similarity: 83%–98% among Yerava and Adiya varieties, 53%–61% with standard Malayalam [mal], 35%–40% with Badaga [bfq], 32%–42% with colloquial Kannada [kan], 66%–74% Pani Yerava dialect with the Adiya and Yerava dialects. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Malayalam. Comments: Adiyan is a Scheduled Tribe in Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. Yerava is a Scheduled Tribe in Karnataka. Pani Yeravas are not the same as the Paniya of Wayanad District. Hindu.

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Rawang
[raw] Arunachal Pradesh state: near Myanmar and Tibet border (Kunlang). L1 users: 1,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ch’opa, Chiutse, Ganung-Rawang, Hkanung, Kiutze, Krangku, Taron. Dialects: Kunlang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Nungish.

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Rawat
[jnl] Uttarakhand state: Pithoragarh district, north of Askot Maila, 9 villages. L1 users: 670 (1998). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ban Manus, Ban Rauts, Bhulla, Bãt-kha , Dzanggali, Jangali, Janggali, Jhangar, Raji, Raut. Dialects: None known. Extensive borrowing from areal Indo-Aryan (Kumaoni, Nepali) languages (2011 J. Fortier). Very similar to Raute [rau] and Raji [rji]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Raute-Raji. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Many Indo-Aryan loans. Raute are found in Kumaon where they are known as Raji (Gurung 1997). Traditional religion.

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Reli
[rei] Andhra Pradesh state: near Adivasi Oriya [ort] language area; Odisha state: Koraput district. L1 users: 22,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Relli. Dialects: Possibly a dialect of Odia [ory]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Oriya. Comments: A Scheduled Caste. Hindu.

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Riang
[ria] Assam state: Karimganj district; Mizoram state: Aizawl, Chhimtuipui, and Lunglei districts, Karnafuli river bank area, 30 villages; Tripura state: north and central. L1 users: 76,500 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 144,000. Total users in all countries: 77,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kau Bru, Reang, Tipra. Dialects: Considered dialect of Kok Borok [trp] called Polong-O (Muanthanga). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Dimasa-Kokborok, Kok Borok. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Different from Riang Lang [ril] of Myanmar, a Mon-Khmer language. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Rongpo
[rnp] Uttarakhand state: Chamoli district, Joshimath sub-district, Bampa, Gamshali, Malari, and Niti villages; Mana valley, Aut, Benakuli, Gajkoti, Hanuman Chatti, Indradhara, Pathiya-Dhantoli, and Mana. Mana and Niti valleys (Marchha), Niti valley (a few Tolchha). L1 users: 7,500 (2001 D. Bradley). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rang Po Bhasa, Rangkas, Rangpa, “Manchhi Bhassa” (pej.), “Marchha” (pej.), “Marchha Pahari” (pej.), “Tolchha” (pej.). Dialects: Marchha, Tolchha. A Himalayan language distinct from Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: Many Indo-Aryan loanwords. Grierson and Konow referred to this as the Garhwal dialect of Tibetan (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928). Ranglo or Rang often used as a cover term for Byangs, Chaudangs, Darma, and Rongpo. Hindu.

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Ruga
[ruh] Meghalaya state: East Garo Hills district. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Atong [aot], Koch [kdq], and Rabha [rah]. Not inherently intelligible of Garo [grt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Koch.

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Sadri
[sck] Bihar state: Aurangabad; Chhattisgarh state: Surguja; Jharkhand state: Chatra, Latehar, Palamu, and Ranchi districts. L1 users: 3,290,000 (2001 census). 2,050,000 Sadani, 1,243,000 Nagpuria. Total users in all countries: 3,291,180. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Trade language among tribal groups in Assam. Alternate Names: Chota Nagpuri, Dikku Kaji, Ganwari, Gauuari, Gawari, Goari, Jharkhandhi, Nagpuri, Nagpuria, Sadan, Sadana, Sadani, Sadari, Sadati, Sadhan, Sadhari, Sadna, Sadrik, Santri, Siddri, Sradri. Dialects: 77% of Sadri [sdr], Oraon of Bangladesh. Speakers name 3 registers of Sadri: Sadani (finer, respectful, formal), Common Sadri (Nagpuri), and Lower Sadri (rough). Lexical similarity: 77%–96% between dialects, 58%–71% with Hindi [hin], 47%–54% with Odia [ory], 45%–61% with Bengali [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Hindu, Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sakachep
[sch] Assam state: Cachar Hills, North Cachar Hills, and Karbi Anglong districts; Meghalaya state: Jaintia Hills district, Mongor, Rumphung, and Saithsma villages; Nagaland state: Kohima district, Khelma village; Manipur, Mizoram, and Tripura states. L1 users: 25,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khelma, Sakechep. Dialects: Khelma, Thangkachep, Sakachep (Sakechep). Dialects may be simply alternate names for Sakechep depending on the region. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Central, Mizo. Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Sambalpuri
[spv] Chhattisgarh state: Jagdalpur, Raigarh, and Raipur districts; Odisha state: Balangir, Bargarh, Boudh, Deogarh, Jharsuguda, Kalhandi, Nuvapada, Sambalpur, Sonpur, and Sundargarh districts. L1 users: 519,000 (2001 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dom, Kosali, Koshal, Koshali, Western Oriya. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75%–76% with Oriya [ory]. A member of macrolanguage Oriya [ori]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Oriya.

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Samvedi
[smv] Maharashtra state. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: A divergent dialect of, or closely related language to Konkani [knn]. Shares many features with Gujarati [guj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Konkani.

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Sansi
[ssi] Haryana state: Sirsa district; Punjab state: Bathinda and Muktsar districts; Rajasthan state: Hanumangarh district; scattered elsewhere in Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh states. L1 users: 60,000 (Gusain 2002). Total users in all countries: 75,600. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bhilki, Sansiboli. Dialects: Intermediate between Eastern Punjabi [pan] and Hindustani (see Hindi [hin]). Sometimes identify themselves as Marwari [rwr]. Related to Rajasthani [mwr], Sindhi [snd], Eastern Punjabi. Lexical similarity: 71% with Urdu [urd], 83% with the Sochi dialect of Sansi [ssi](1998). Numerous phonological and morphological borrowings from Eastern Punjabi [pan], Hindi [hin], and Gujarati [guj] (Gusain 2002). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi. Comments: Bhils by caste. Called a Gypsy language. They have an argot called Farsi. Gusain (2002) classifies this as a Rajasthani dialect. Socially separate from surrounding groups. Governed by their own social norms and economy. Losing some tribal characteristics but are not yet integrated into the national mainstream (Gusain 2002). Hindu.

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Sanskrit
[san] Uttar Pradesh state: Allahabad, Jaunpur, Kaushambi, and Pratagarh districts; Delhi and other urban areas; revival efforts in villages. 208,100 in India, all users. L1 users: 14,100 (2001 census). L2 users: 194,000. Total users in all countries: 211,100 (as L1: 14,100; as L2: 197,000). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan. Comments: Classical language of learning and liturgical language.

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Santhali
[sat] Bihar state: Bhagalpur and Munger districts; Jharkhand state: Hazaribagh and Manbhum districts; Odisha state: Balasore district; West Bengal state: Bankura and Birbhum districts; Assam, Mizoram, and Tripura states. L1 users: 5,940,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 6,220,280 (as L1: 6,219,300; as L2: 980). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of provincial identity in Jharkhand State (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII), amended 2003. Alternate Names: Har, Hor, Samtali, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santali, Santhiali, Satar, Sentali, Sonthal. Autonym: Har Rar. Dialects: Karmali (Khole), Kamari-Santali, Lohari-Santali, Manjhi, Paharia. Reportedly similar to Ho [hoc], Mundari [unr], and Munda [unx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Language of Santhal tribals of Chota Nagpur Plateau (comprising the states of Jharkhand, Bihar, Odisha, Chhattisgarh). Hindu, traditional religion.

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Saraiki
[skr] Haryana state: Fatehabad and Sirsa districts; Punjab state: Firozpur district, Fazilka; Rajasthan state: Bikaner district, Pugal and Khajuwala; Ganganagar district. L1 users: 68,000 (2001 census). 56,000 Multani and 12,000 Bahawalpuri (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Multani, Mutani, Seraiki, Siraiki. Dialects: Jafri, Riasati (Bahawalpuri, Bhawalpuri, Reasati). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: A new literary language based on south Lahnda dialects, especially Multani and Bahawalpuri. Hindu, Sikh.

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Sartang
[onp] Arunachal Pradesh state: West Kameng district, Nafra and Dirang sub-districts, Darbu, Jerigaon, Khoina, Khoitam, Rahung, and Sellary villages. L1 users: 1,000 (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bootpa, But Monpa, But Pa, Matchopa. Autonym: Sartang. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49%–60% with Sherdukpen [sdp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa. Comments: Buddhist.

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Saurashtra
[saz] Tamil Nadu state: North Arcot, Chengai-Annai, Dindugul, Madurai, Ramanathapuram, Salem, Thanjavur, Tiruchchirappalli, and Tirunelveli districts; Chennai, Deccan, Madurai, Salem, and Thanjavur cities; Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states. L1 users: 185,000 (2001 census). Each listed district has communities of at least 5,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Palkar, Patnuli, Saurashtri, Sourashtra, Sowrashtra. Dialects: Southern Saurashtra, Northern Saurashtra. Indo-Aryan elements reveal Gujarati [guj] relationship; some structure from Dravidian, lexicon from Telugu [tel] and Tamil [tam]. An Indo-European island surrounded by Dravidian languages. The 3 main populations in Salem, Thanjavur, and Madurai cities had between 67% and 97% inherent intelligibility among themselves. Lexical similarity: 77%–96% between all varieties. The 3 main populations: 84%–96%. Southern dialects have 83% or higher lexical similarity with Thanjavur variety. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Most are weavers; nonweavers are generally better educated. System of exogamous clans. Hindu.

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Sauria Paharia
[mjt] Bihar state: Bhagalpur; Jharkhand state: Godda and Sahibganj districts, Rajmahal hills; Pakaur district, Litipara sub-district; West Bengal state: Murshidabad district. L1 users: 54,000 (Bhaskararao 2006). Total users in all countries: 61,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malatri, Maler, Malti, Malto, Maltu, Sawriya Malto. Dialects: Sahibganj, Godda, Hiranpur, Litipara (Chatgam). Some intelligibility of Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Kumarbhag Paharia [kmj]. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: Part of Malto ethnic group. A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Sentinel
[std] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: Sentinel island east of South Andaman island. L1 users: 150 (Abbi 2006). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sentinelese. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Öñge [oon]. Classification: Andamanese, South Andamanese. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Reserved toward outsiders. Traditional religion.

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Shekhawati
[swv] Haryana state: Mahendragarh district; Rajasthan state: Jhunjhunun, Churu, and Sikar districts. L1 users: 3,000,000 (2002 L. Gusain). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Shekhawati-Marwari. Dialects: Jhunjhunu-Churu, Sikar. 78% comprehension of Marwari [rwr], 72% intelligibility of Dhundari [dhd]. Lexical similarity: 74%–77% between dialects; 51%–68% with Marwari [rwr], 58%–80% with Merwari [wry], 45%–69% with Godwari [gdx], 57%–66% with Mewari [mtr], 66%–73% with Dhundari [dhd], 58%–66% with Haroti [hoj], 57%–70% with Mewati [wtm], 69%–76% with Bagri [gda], 61%–73% with Haryanvi [bgc], 55%–69% with Hindi [hin]. A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Hindu.

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Shendu
[shl] Mizoram state. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khieng, Khyen, Sandu, Shandu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Southern.

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Sherdukpen
[sdp] Arunachal Pradesh state: West Kameng district, Rupa (Kupa), Shergaon, and Thungrao villages; Maharashtra state: Jigaon; Assam state. L1 users: 3,100 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ngnok. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 49%–60% with Sartang. Burling (2003) groups it with Puroik [suv] and Bugun [bgg] and possibly also with Lish [lsh] and Sartang [onp]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Kho-Bwa. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Separated from the Sartang by war. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Sherpa
[xsr] West Bengal state: Darjeeling district; Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim states. L1 users: 18,300 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Serwa, Sharpa, Sharpa Bhotia, Sherwi tamnye, Xarba, Xiaerba. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. ‘Sharpa’, easterner, so the term used in different countries may not always refer to Sherpa. Buddhist.

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Shina
[scl] Jammu and Kashmir state: Bandipore and Kargil districts, Dras and Kishenganga valleys, Gurais area. L1 users: 34,400 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shinaki, Sina. Dialects: Drasi, Gurezi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Open to education and jobs outside the area. Distinct from Brokskat [bkk], but Brokskat is also used semiofficially to refer to a highly divergent variety of Shina spoken by Buddhists. Buddhist, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sholaga
[sle] Karnataka state: Mysore district, Biligiri Rangana hills; Tamil Nadu state. L1 users: 24,000 (2006 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kadu Sholigar, Sholanayika, Sholiga, Sholigar, Solaga, Solagaru mattu, Solanayakkans, Solega, Soliga, Soligar. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65% with Kannada [kan]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. May be in the Kannada group. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Shom Peng
[sii] Andaman and Nicobar Islands state: interior Great Nicobar island. L1 users: 400 (2004). Mainly monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Shobang, Shom Pen, Shompen, Shompeng. Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Nicobarese languages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Shom Peng. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Seminomadic. Traditional religion.

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Shumcho
[scu] Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur district, Puh sub-district, Kanam, Labrang, Shyaso, Spilo, Rushkaling, and Taling villages. L1 users: 2,170 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Kinnauri, Shumcu, Sumcho, Sumchu, Sumtsu, Thebarskad, Thebor, Thebör Skadd. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Jangshung [jna], 67% with Sunam [ssk], 45% with Pahari Kinnauri [kjo], 43% with Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Sikkimese
[sip] Sikkim state: all districts; West Bengal state: Darjeeling. L1 users: 70,300 (2001). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Dandzongka, Danjongka, Danyouka, Denjong, Denjongkha, Denjongpa, Denjonka, Denjonke, Lachengpa, Lachungpa, Sikami, Sikkim Bhotia, Sikkim Bhutia. Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible of Dzongkha [dzo] of Bhutan. Lexical similarity: 65% with Dzongkha [dzo] of Bhutan, 42% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Southern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Simte
[smt] Manipur state: Churachandpur district, Dumsao, Khungung, Leikangpai, Lungthul, Maokot, Mingjang, Moijin, Monjon, New Bazar, Pamjal, Sasinoujang, Shumtuk, Simveng, Singhat, Suangdai, Suangpuhmun, Tallian, Thanlon, Tubuong, and Zouthang. L1 users: 10,200 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. An alternate name for Paite [pck] (Singh 1994b). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Christian.

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Sindhi
[snd] Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Delhi, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Odisha, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh states. L1 users: 1,700,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 3,000,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Statutory language of provincial identity in Rajasthan State (1950, Constitution, Articles 345–347), Schedule VIII addition, 1961. Dialects: Bhatia, Jadeji, Kayasthi, Lari, Lasi, Thareli, Thari, Viccholi, Visholi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Official language of the Sindhi community. Hindu.

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Singpho
[sgp] Arunachal Pradesh state: Changlang and Lohit districts; Assam state: Dibrugarh and Sibsagar districts; Tinsukia district, Margherita sub-district. L1 users: 2,500 (Morey 2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jingphaw, Kachin, Sing-Fo. Dialects: Turung. Lexical similarity: 50% with Jingpho [kac] of Myanmar. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingppaw-Asakia, Jingphaw. Comments: Many loans from Khamti [kht]. Kachin refers to a cultural, rather than a linguistic group. A Scheduled Tribe. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Sirmauri
[srx] Himachal Pradesh state: Shimla district, southeast section; Sirmaur district. L1 users: 400,000 (2005 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Himachali, Pahari, Sirmouri, Sirmuri. Dialects: Dharthi (Giriwari), Giripari. Difficult intelligibility between Dharthi and Giripari; and between Upper Mahasui and Giripar. Dharthi dialect more influenced by Hindi. In south Shimla District, Kiunthali and Sirmauri are used interchangeably. Reportedly a different variety of Sirmauri in Sirmaur District. Lexical similarity: 56%–70% with Dharthi and Giripari, with considerable variation within each dialect; Giripari 67% with Lower Mahasui, 65% with Upper Mahasui, 61% with Jaunsari [jns]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Pahari, Western Pahari. Comments: Dharthi is spoken in Giriwar area, Giripari in Giripar area. Hindu.

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Sora
[srb] Andhra Pradesh state: Srikakulam district; Assam state: Plains division; Odisha state: Ganjam, Koraput, and Phulbani districts; Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and West Bengal states. L1 users: 253,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sabar, Sabara, Saonras, Saora, Saura, Savara, Sawaria, Shabari, Soura, Swara. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Koraput Munda, Sora-Juray-Gorum, Sora-Juray. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

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Spiti Bhoti
[spt] Himachal Pradesh state: Lahaul Spiti district, Spiti sub-district; Jammu and Kashmir state: southeast Leh district. L1 users: 10,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nyam, Piti Bhoti. Dialects: Not intelligible of Ladakhi [lbj]; low intelligibility of Stod Bhoti [sbu]. All areas of Spiti understand each other. Lexical similarity: 41% with the Lhasa Tibetan dialect of Central Tibetan [bod], 57% with Ladakhi (Leh) [lbj], 57% with Stod Bhoti [sbu] from Darcha. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Western. Comments: Buddhist.

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Stod Bhoti
[sbu] Himachal Pradesh state: Lahul region, Khoksar, upper Mayar, and Stod valleys. L1 users: 2,500 (1996). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lahul Bhoti, Stod, Stod-Kad, Tod, Tod-Kad. Dialects: Stod (Kolong), Khoksar (Khoksar Bhoti), Mayar (Mayar Bhoti, Mayari). 85% intelligibility of Stod Bhoti by Khoksar, 75% by Mayar, 62% of Khoksar by Mayar, 95% of Khoksar by Stod Bhoti. Lexical similarity: 74% with Spiti Bhoti [spt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, Western. Comments: Buddhist.

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Sunam
[ssk] Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur district, Puh sub-district, Sunam village. L1 users: 560 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Kinnauri, Sangnaur, Sungam, Sungnam, Sunnam, Thebarshad, Thebor, Thebör Skadd. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Shumcho [scu], 65% with Jangshung [jna], 38% with Pahari Kinnauri [kjo] and Chitkuli Kinnauri [cik]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Surgujia
[sgj] Chhattisgarh state: Jashpur, Koriya, and Surguja districts; Korba and Raigarh districts’ border areas. L1 users: 1,460,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Suraji, Surguja, Surgujia-Chhattisgarhi, Surjugia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71%–76% with Chhattisgarhi [hne]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, East Central.

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Surjapuri
[sjp] Bihar state: Bhojpur, Buxar, Patna, and Saran districts; Uttar Pradesh state: Ballia district. L1 users: 1,220,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sura. Dialects: None known. Preliminary survey results show intelligibility of Nepali Rajbanshi [rjs]. Lexical similarity: 70%–74% with Hindi [hin], 67%–71% with the western variety of Kamta [rkt] spoken near Dinajpur, 77%–86% with varieties of Surjapuri [sjp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Possible alternate names are Chaupal, Choupal, and Suraji, but surveyors did not find these terms used. Historically more closely related to Kamta [rkt] and Rajbanshi [rjs] than Hindi [hin], a relationship borne out by greater morphological similarity. (2006 M. Toulmin).

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Sylheti
[syl] Assam state: Barak valley region, Cachar, Hailakandi, and Karimganj districts; Tripura state: North Tripura district; possibly Nagaland, Kolkata. L1 users: 3,000,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bengali of Cachar, Sileti, Siloti, Srihattia, Sylheti Bangla, Sylheti Bengali, Sylhetti, Syloti, Syloty. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Muslim, Hindu.

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Tagin
[tgj] Arunachal Pradesh state: upper Subansiri district. L1 users: 38,200 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nil. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nyishi [njz]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Tani. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Tamang, Eastern
[taj] Arunachal Pradesh state; Sikkim state: Rangit and lower Teesta valleys; West Bengal state: Darjeeling. L1 users: 17,500 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 272,000 (2006 FTT). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Tamang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang. Comments: Non-indigenous. Migrate from Nepal.

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Tamil
[tam] Andhra Pradesh state: Chittoor and Sri Potti Sriramulu Nellore districts, east Puducherry enclaves; Karnataka state: Chamarajana district; Kerala state: south; assorted border areas; Tamil Nadu state. 68,700,000 in India, all users. L1 users: 60,700,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 8,000,000. Total users in all countries: 75,965,790 (as L1: 67,965,790; as L2: 8,000,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Tamil Nadu State; union territories Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar Islands (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Damulian, Tamal, Tamalsan, Tambul, Tamili. Autonym: தமிழ்‎ (Tamiḻ). Dialects: Adi Dravida, Aiyar, Aiyangar, Arava, Burgandi, Kongar, Madrasi, Madurai, Tamil, Sri Lanka Tamil, Malaya Tamil, Burma Tamil, South Africa Tamil, Tigalu, Harijan, Sanketi, Hebbar, Mandyam Brahmin, Secunderabad Brahmin. Burgandi are nomadic. Aiyar and Aiyangar are Brahmin dialects. Southern dialect around Madurai is literary standard. Eastern dialect is colloquial standard (Zvelebil 1998). Sanketi dialect in Karnataka used by immigrants from Madurai and Shenkotta in Tamil Nadu. Lexicon greatly influenced by Kannada. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: Officially recognized language. Hindu, Muslim.

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Telugu
[tel] Mainly Andhra Pradesh state; Chhattisgarh state: Bijapur; Karnataka state: Bangalore Rural, Bellary, east Bidar, Chikkaballapura, Chitradurga, Gulbarga, all of Kolar, Raichur, Tumkur, and Yadgir; Maharashtra state: Gadchiroli district, eastern enclaves; Puducherry union territory; Odisha state: Gajapati, Koraput, Malkangiri, and Rayagada; Tamil Nadu state: Thirvallur and Vellore. 78,800,000 in India, all users. L1 users: 73,800,000 (2001 census). L2 users: 5,000,000. Total users in all countries: 79,244,300 (as L1: 74,244,300; as L2: 5,000,000). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Andhra Pradesh State; Puducherry Union Territory, Andaman and Nicobar islands (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Alternate Names: Andhra, Tailangi, Telangire, Telegu, Telgi, Tengu, Terangi, Tolangan, “Gentoo” (pej.). Autonym: తెలుగు‎ (Telugu). Dialects: Berad, Dasari, Dommara, Golari, Kamathi, Komtao, Konda-Reddi, Salewari, Telangana, Telugu, Vadaga, Srikakula, Vishakhapatnam, East Godaveri, Rayalseema, Nellore, Guntur, Vadari, Yanadi (Yenadi). Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu.

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Teressa
[tef] Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory: Bompoka, Central Nicobar islands, and Teressa. L1 users: 2,080 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taih-Long. Dialects: Bompoka (Bompaka, Pauhut). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Nicobar, Chowra-Teressa.

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Thachanadan
[thn] Kerala state: Malappuram district, Nilambur area; Wayanad district, Ambalavayal, Kalpetta, Meppadi, and Muttil sub-districts. L1 users: 3,000 (2004 survey). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Moopan, Thacchanadens, Thachanad Muppans. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60%–64% with Malayalam [mal], 50%–54% with Tamil [tam], 66%–72% with Mullu Kurumba [kpb]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Thangmi
[thf] Sikkim state: East district, Aritar Sunua; West Bengal state: Darjeeling and scattered. L1 users: 500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Thami. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tharu, Chitwania
[the] Uttar Pradesh state: Kushinagar district, on Nepal border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified.

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Tharu, Dangaura
[thl] Uttar Pradesh state: Bahraich district; Gonda district, Tulsipur sub-district; Kheri district, Nighasan sub-district border. L1 users: 174,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaudary, Chaudhari, Chaudhuri, Dang, Dangali, Dangora, Dangura, Tharu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Tharu, Kathariya
[tkt] Uttar Pradesh state: Bahraich and Kheri districts near Nepal border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kathoriya Tharu, Khatima Tharu, Tharu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Unclassified.

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Tharu, Kochila
[thq] Bihar state: Pashchim Champaran district, on Nepal border. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Saptari. Dialects: Morangia. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Tharu, Rana
[thr] Uttar Pradesh state: Lakhimpur Kheri district, Paliakalan sub-district, Chandan Chauki block, on Nepal border; Uttarakhand state: Udham Singh Nagar district, Khatima sub-district. L1 users: 150,000 (2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rana Thakur, Tharu, Tharuwa. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Thulung
[tdh] Sikkim and Uttar Pradesh states; West Bengal state: Darjeeling district. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Thulunge Rai. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu.

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Tibetan
[bod] Himachal Pradesh state: Tibet border; Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Delhi, Sikkim, and Uttarakhand states. L1 users: 85,300 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bhotia, Bod, Central Tibetan, Phoke, Pohbetian, Poke, Skad, Tebilian, Tibate. Dialects: Aba (Batang), Dartsemdo (Tatsienlu), Dru, Gtsang, Hanniu, Kongbo, Nganshuenkuan (Anshuenkuan Nyarong), Panakha-Panags, Paurong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. In Himalayan countries, ‘Bhotiya’, people of Tibetan origin, and is applied to various languages. Buddhist.

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Tinani
[lbf] Himachal Pradesh state: Lahaul Spiti district, lower Chandra, Rangloi, and Tinan valleys; Gondhla is main village. L1 users: 22,600 (2001). Total users in all countries: 23,050. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gondhla, Gondla, Lahauli, Lahouli, Lahuli, Rangloi, Teenan, Tinan Lahuli. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63%–56% with Pattani [lae], 32%–37% with Bunan [bfu], 21% with the Spiti [spt] and Stod [sbu] varieties of central Tibetan [bod], 62% with Tandi village, 34% with Shumcho [scu], 32% with Jangshung [jna], 31% with Kanauri and Sunam [ssk], 13% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: Lahuli applies to Lahul inhabitants; Spiti refers primarily to a place. Not a tight linguistic designation. Well educated. Buddhist, Hindu.

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Tiwa
[lax] Assam state: Kamrup, Karbi Anglong, Lakhimpur, Nagaon, and Sibsagar districts; Meghalaya state: Khasi Hills district. L1 users: 27,100 (2001 census). Ethnic population: 171,000 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dowyan, Lalung. Dialects: Hajowali, Datiyali. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Boro-Tiwa. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Toda
[tcx] Tamil Nadu state: Kunda and Nilgiri hills. L1 users: 1,560 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Todi, Tuda. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 24% with Kota [kfe], the most similar language. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Toda-Kota. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu, Christian.

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Toto
[txo] West Bengal state: Jalpaiguri district, Dhunchipara, Panchayatpara, and Subhapara areas, Totopara village on Indo-Bhutan border. L1 users: 1,400 (2012 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Not inherently intelligible of Dhimal [dhi] of Nepal. Lexical similarity: low with Dhimal [dhi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Dhimalish. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Tshangla
[tsj] Arunachal Pradesh state: West Kameng district, Dirang area; Assam state: Udalguri district, Mechuka and Tuting sub-districts, Bishing Mechuka, Bona, Dorgling Halung, Galling, Korfu, Namsu, Opu, Sangti, Tempang, and Tuting villages; possibly West Siang district. L1 users: 11,200 (2007). 8,200 in Kameng District; 3,000 in West Siang. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cangluo Menba, Central Monpa, Dirang, Memba, Menba, Monba, Monpa, Motuo, Sangla, Sharchopkha, Tsangla. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Chowdhury (1996) separates Memba (Tshangla) and Khamba as different tribes in Siang District, both separate from Monpa, in Kameng District. Buddhist.

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Tukpa
[tpq] Himachal Pradesh state: Kinnaur district, Charang, Kunnu, and Nesang villages. L1 users: 610 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nesang, Nyam-Kad, Nyam-kat, Nyamkad. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Kinauri. Comments: Buddhist.

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Tulu
[tcy] Karnataka state: Dakshina Kannada and Udupi districts; Kerala state: Kasargod district; scattered in other states. L1 users: 1,720,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tal, Tallu, Thalu, Thulu, Tilu, Tullu, Tuluva Bhasa. Dialects: Northwest Tulu (Mangalore, Udipi), Northeast Tulu (Belthangadi, Kerala), Southwest Tulu (Kasaragod, Manjeswara), South Central Tulu (Bantwal, Puttur), Southeast Tulu (Sullia Subrahmanya), Brahmin Tulu, Common Tulu. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tulu. Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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Turi
[trd] Chhattisgarh state: Raigarh district, and scattered throughout; Jharkhand state: Gumla, Lohardaga, and Ranchi districts, Chotanagpur area; Odisha state: Sambalpur and Sundargarh districts; West Bengal state: Bankura, Birbhum, Murshidabad, and Nadia districts. L1 users: 2,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 354,000 (2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali. Comments: A Scheduled Caste. Speak Sadri [sck] as L1 in Jharkhand, Mundari [unr] in West Bengal, Odia [ory] in Odisha (Singh and Manoharan 1993). Turi spoken only in Chotanagpur (Breton 1997). A Turi caste in Gujarat is not related linguistically.

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Turung
[try] Assam state: Golaghat district, Karbi Anglong and Titabar. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Tai Turung, Tailung, Tairong. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Jingppaw-Asakia, Jingphaw. Comments: Shifted to a dialect of Singpho [sgp] with borrowed Tai words.

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Ullatan
[ull] Kerala state: Alleppey, Ernakulam, Idukki, Koliam, Kottayam, Palakkad, Pathanamthitta, Thrissur, and Trivandrum districts. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 16,700 (2001 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Katan, Kattalan, Kochuvelan, Ulladan. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Unclassified. Comments: Prefer to be considered Malayalis rather than Ullatan. Ulladan and Kochu Velan are both Scheduled Tribes. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Urali
[url] Kerala state: Idukki district, Memari and Vanchivayal villages. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 6,440 (2001 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Oorazhi, Uraly, Urli. Dialects: None known. Shares features with Tamil [tam], Irula [iru], and Kannada [kan] (Lal 1991). Lexical similarity: 60%–71% with Malayalam [mal], 54%–58% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Kannada. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Irali Urali is a dialect of Irula [iru] in Tamil Nadu. Urali Kurumba is an alternate name for Betta Kurumba [xub] in Wayanad District, Kerala. Traditional religion.

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Urdu
[urd] Jammu and Kashmir state: widespread use by Muslims; Maharashtra state: Hyderabad (Dakhini). L1 users: 51,500,000 (2001 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Andra Pradesh State; Delhi Union Territory (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII). Statutory provincial working language in Bihar, Uttar Pradesh states (1950, Constitution, Schedule VIII), limited to official correspondence, notices and other communication. Statutory language of provincial identity in Jammu and Kashmir State (1957, State constitution, Article 145). Alternate Names: Islami, Undri, Urudu. Dialects: Dakhini (Dakani, Dakkhini, Deccan, Desia, Mirgan), Pinjari, Rekhta (Rekhti). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani. Comments: Muslim.

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Vaagri Booli
[vaa] Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, and Maharashtra states, and Pondicherry union territory; Tamil Nadu state: Cuddalore, Tiruvannamalai, Vellore, and Villupuram districts. L1 users: 9,300 (2007). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guvvalollu, Haki Piki, Hakkipikkaru, Karikkorava, Kuruvikkaran, Marattiyan, Narakureavar, Narikkorava, Rattiyan, Shikarijanam, Vagri, Wagri Vel, Wogri Boli. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 36% with Marathi [mar], 40% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Hakkipikki is a Scheduled Tribe. The people are called by various names meaning bird catchers. Semi-nomadic. Hindu.

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Vaiphei
[vap] Manipur state: Churachandpur district, 30+ villages; Assam, Meghalaya, and Tripura states. L1 users: 40,000 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bhaipei, Vaipei, Veiphei, Zomi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Sizang. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Zomi is a collective name by which Tedim Chins of Myanmar, Paite and Vaiphei of Manipur generally identify themselves. Christian.

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Varhadi-Nagpuri
[vah] Andhra Pradesh state: Adilabad and Nizamabad districts; Madhya Pradesh state: Balaghat and Chhindwara districts; Maharashtra state: Akola, Amravati, and Buldana districts. L1 users: 6,970,000 (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Berar Marathi, Berari, Dhanagari, Kumbhari, Madhya Pradesh Marathi. Dialects: Brahmani, Govari, Jhadpi, Kosti (Rangari), Kunban (Kohli), Kunbi, Mahari (Dhedi), Raipur. Regarded by some as a dialect of Marathi [mar]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Unclassified.

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Varli
[vav] Maharashtra state: Nasik and Dhule districts; Thane district, Dahanu and Talasari sub-districts; Gujarat state: Valsad district, Dharampur sub-district, Dadra and Nagar Haveli; far north Thane district and south Gujarat state (Davari). L1 users: 600,000 (2003). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Warli. Dialects: Davari, Western Nihiri, Eastern Nihiri. Sometimes classified as a dialect of Gujarati [guj] or Bhili [bhb]. Lexical similarity: 61%–93% among dialects, 60% with Marathi [mar], 65% with Kukna [kex]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Southern, Konkani. Comments: Each dialect group is endogamous. Patrilocal. A Scheduled Tribe. Traditional religion.

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Vasavi
[vas] Gujarat state: Bharuch and Surat districts, south Akkalkuwa and Dhadgaon sub-districts, north of Tapti river; Satpudas; central and north Nandurbar and Nawapur sub-districts south of Tapti; Maharashtra state: Nandurbar district, Tapti river area. L1 users: 1,200,000 (2002 FMPB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adiwasi Bhil, Ambodia Bhil, Bhilori, Dhogri Bhil, Keski Bhil, Padwi Bhilori, Vasava, Vasava Bhil, Vasave. Dialects: Dehvali (Kolche), Ambodi (Ambodia), Dogri (Dhogri, Dungri), Khatalia, Kot. Not intelligible of Pauri Bareli [bfb] or Bhili [bhb]. 77%–93% intelligibility between Dogri, Khatali, Dehwali, Dubli, and Kotni varieties. Vasavi Dungri 79% intelligible of Dungra Bhil. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Subgroup of Bhil ethnic group. Vasava is the people name.

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Vishavan
[vis] Kerala state: Ernakulam, Kottayam, and Thrissur districts, Parana and Perumuzhi, Moovatupuzha sub-district on Idamala river, Idyara range; Chalakudi river area near Ittyani. L1 users: 150 (Shashi and Shri 1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malankudi, Malarkuti. Classification: Dravidian, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Waddar
[wbq] Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states; Maharashtra state: Jalgaon district. L1 users: 172,000 (2001 census). Ethnic population: In India, Pakistan, Nepal, and Sri Lanka about 3 million (2003 IMA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Od, Orh, Vadari, Vadda Beldar, Werders, Wodde. Classification: Dravidian, South-Central, Telugu. Comments: Hindu.

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Wagdi
[wbr] Andhra Pradesh state: Jhabua; Gujarat state: Panchmahals and Sabarkantha; Rajasthan state: Banswara, Dungarpur, and south Udaipur districts. L1 users: 2,510,000 (2001 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bhili, Bhilodi, Mina Bhil, Vagadi, Vagari, Vagdi, Vaged, Vageri, Vagi, Wagadi, Wagari, Waghari, Wagholi, Wagri. Dialects: Kherwara, Sagwara, Adivasi Wagdi, Rewadi. Dialect intelligibility above 95%. Intelligible of Adivasi Garasia [gas] of Bhiloda. Wagdi Banswara highly intelligible of Bhilodi of Gujarat. Wagdi highly intelligible of Patelia [bhb] of Gujarat. Lexical similarity: 84% with Patelia dialects; 75%–80% with Marwari [rwr] dialects; 79%–93% with Adiwasi Garasia dialects; 79%–87% with Rajput Garasia dialects. A member of macrolanguage Rajasthani [raj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Bhil. Comments: Vagri is a Scheduled Tribe in Gujarat.

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Walungge
[ola] West Bengal state: Darjeeling district, Pankhabari area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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War-Jaintia
[aml] Assam state; Meghalaya state: Jaintia and Khasi Hills area. L1 users: 25,900 (2001 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Amwi, Jaintia, Khasi, War, War-Khasi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khasian. Comments: Separate from War dialect of Khasi [kha]. Christian, traditional religion.

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West Bengal Sign Language
[wbs] West Bengal state: scattered. L1 users: 37,000 (2016 R. Johnson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolkata Sign Language, W.B. Sign Language, WBSL. Dialects: None known. Most similar to Indian Sign Language [ins], especially the (possibly distinct) variety called Bangla Sign Language in Bangladesh. Related to other sign languages in south Asia; see comments on Indian Sign Language [ins] in India. Classification: Sign language.

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Yakkha
[ybh] Sikkim state: North district; West Bengal state: Darjeeling district. L1 users: 810 (2000). Ethnic population: 6,300 (2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Yakha, Yakkha Ceya, Yakkhaba. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Buddhist, Hindu.

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Yerukula
[yeu] Karnataka, Kerala, and Maharashtra states; Telangana state: Karimagar and north Nizamabad districts; Tamil Nadu state: Chengai Anna, Coimbatore, Nilgiri, Periyar, and Salem. L1 users: 69,500 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Erukala, Eruku Bhasha, Korava, Korchi, Kurru Bhasha, Kurutha, Yarukula, Yerkula, Yerukala, Yerukala-Korava, Yerukla, Yerukula-Bhasha. Dialects: Parikala, Sankara-Yerukala. Lexical similarity: among varieties ranges from 53%–81%, 33%–38% with Irula [iru], 28%–45% with Ravula [yea], 27%–45% with Tamil [tam]. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: Some people called Yerukula speak Telugu [tel] as L1. Traditionally nomadic. A Scheduled Tribe. Hindu.

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Zakhring
[zkr] Arunachal Pradesh state: Lohit district, Kibithoo and Walong, Lohit river area. L1 users: 300 (2002). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Charumba, Eastern Mishmi, Meyor, Zaiwa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Keman. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist.

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Zangskari
[zau] Jammu and Kashmir state: Kargil district south end, in Himalayas and Indus river valley; Zaskar mountains. L1 users: 12,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Zanskari, Zaskari. Dialects: None known. 73%–81% intelligibility of Leh Ladakhi [lbj] with high standard deviation indicating some acquired intelligibility; 90% intelligibility of Stod Bhoti [sbu] of Darcha village. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western. Comments: Buddhist.

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Zou
[zom] Assam state; Manipur state: Chandel district, Singngat sub-district, Sugnu area; Churachandpur district. L1 users: 20,900 (2001 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jou, Pascuense, Yo, Zo, Zohâm, Zokam, Zome, Zoukam. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Kuki-Chin, Peripheral, Northern, Sizang. Comments: A Scheduled Tribe. Although Zomi, derived from ‘Zo’, is gaining ground as an ethnic nomenclature amongst the Northern Chins, the Zo tribe is uniquely distinct in preservation of their culture and customs since ancient times. Christian.

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