Iraq

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Adyghe
[ady] Baghdad, Diyala, As Sulaymaniyah, and At Ta’mim (Kirkuk) governorates; scattered communities. 34,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adygey, Circassian, West Circassian. Classification: North Caucasian, West Caucasian, Circassian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Arabic, Gulf Spoken
[afb] Al Basrah Governorate, south of Basrah city, near Persian Gulf. 67,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Arabi, Gulf Arabic, Khaliji. Dialects: Zubair-Faau Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, Judeo-Iraqi
[yhd] Scattered. 120 in Iraq (1992 H. Mutzafi). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Arabi, Iraqi Judeo-Arabic, Jewish Iraqi-Baghdadi Arabic, Yahudic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Widespread, Tigris and Euphrates area, southeast from Baghdad to Kuwait and Persian Gulf; border enclave, An Bar Governorate, Al-Q’aim district. 13,400,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 15,379,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: ’Arabi, Arabic, Baghdadi, Furati, Iraqi Arabic, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic, Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic. Dialects: Anatolian Cluster, Tigris Cluster, Euphrates Cluster. Geographical and sectarian divisions correlate with Iraqi dialects. The vernacular standard based on Baghdad speech. Also Bedouin dialects. Nearly unintelligible to speakers of certain other vernacular Arabic varieties. Anatolian Cluster in Turkey. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim, Christian, Jewish, Yezidi.

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Arabic, Najdi Spoken
[ars] Widespread; central Najdi dialect in western desert, Al Anbar, Al Muthanna, and An Najaf governorates; North Najdi dialect south between the rivers up to the Syrian border (Ninawa Governorate). 1,470,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: North Najdi (Shammar), Central Najdi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic.

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Arabic, North Mesopotamian Spoken
[ayp] North central concentration,Tigris and Euphrates valleys north of Baghdad, Salah ad Din, Al Anbar, Diyala, At Ta’mim, Ninawa, Arbil, and As Sulaymaniyah governorates; south enclave, northeast of An-Najaf, shared borders of An Najaf, Al Qadisiyah, and Babil governorates. 7,570,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 8,691,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). De facto language of provincial identity in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Mesopotamian Qeltu Arabic, Moslawi, Syro-Mesopotamian Vernacular Arabic. Dialects: Mardini Aramaic (Abdul-Massih, Jesrawi, Mardilli, Mardini). Reportedly very similar to Judeo-Iraqi Arabic [yhd], but has important sociolinguistic differences. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Armenian
[hye] Al Basrah, At Ta’mim, Dahuk, Ninawa, and Baghdad governorates. 60,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Alternate Names: Haieren. Dialects: Western Armenian. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] Northern Iraq, mainly Dahuk and Ninawa governorates, 2 enclaves, one northeast of Buhayrat al Mawsil, the other, at Turkish border; scattered in Baghdad, Al Basrah, At Ta’mim (Kirkuk), and Arbil governorates. 152,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 4,250,000 (1994). Total users in all countries: 598,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Syriac. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Aisorski, Assyrian, Assyrianci, Assyriski, Lishana Aturaya, Neo-Syriac, Sooreth, Suret, Sureth, Suryaya Swadaya. Dialects: Urmi Assyrian (Sipurghan, Solduz, Urmi), Northern Assyrian (Baz, Dez, Gavar, Jilu, Qudshanis, Salamas, Upper Barwari, Van), Central Assyrian (Anhar, Mar Bishu, Nochiya, Shamezdin, Tergawar), Western Assyrian (Lewin, Lower Barwari, Tal, Tkhuma), Sapna (Aradhin, Benatha, Daudiya, Inishke, Tina). Similar linguistically to other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. Inherent intelligibility is difficult to estimate due to extensive exposure throughout the Assyrian diaspora to many dialects, especially Urmi and Iraqi Koine. As a result, intelligibility between dialects is as high as 80%–90%. Urmian group subdialects: Urmi, Sipurghan, Solduz; Northern Group: Salamas, Van, Jilu, Gavar, Qudshanis, Upper Barwari, Dez, Baz; Central Group: Mar Bishu, Nochiya (Shamezdin), Tergawar, Anhar; Western Group: Tkhuma, Lower Barwari, Tal, Lewin; Sapna Group: Aradhin, Tina, Daudiya, Inishke, Benatha. Standard literary Assyrian is based on Urmi. Many left original areas and developed a common spoken and written form based on the prestigious Urmi dialect as spoken in Baghdad, the United States, and elsewhere (Iraqi Koine). Most Christians understand it. This Urmi variety is different from Lishán Didán Urmi variety. All dialects of Western, Northern, and Central Assyrian are spoken in Syria. A member of macrolanguage Syriac [syr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Religious separation of Assyrian and Chaldean happened in the 16th century. Christian.

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Separate enclaves, Kirkuk and Arbil cities, At Ta’mim and Arbil governorates; third one, between the 2 cities; fourth in sar Qal’ah area, border of Diyala and As Sulaymaniyah governorates; some in Mosul area. 2,040,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Turkmen. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Azeri, Turk, Turkmen. Dialects: Kirkuk. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Bajelani
[bjm] Qasr-e Shirin, Zohâb, Bin Qudra, Quratu, north of Khanaqin; Ninawa Governorate, Mosul province; Kurdish areas. 59,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bajalani, Bajoran, Bejwan, Chichamachu, Gurani. Dialects: In the Gurani and Zaza group. Closely related to other Gurani varieties, such as Shabak, Sarli (less closely to Zaza dialects). Contact with Kurdish. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Many displaced since late 1980s. Muslim.

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Chaldean Neo-Aramaic
[cld] Contiguous with Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [aii] enclaves in Dahuk and Ninawa governorates. 100,000 in Iraq (1994 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 212,800. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)), constitutional term: Syriac. Unevenly recognized except in Kurdistan Region. Alternate Names: Chaldean, Fallani, Fellihi, Kaldaya, Kildani, Lishana Kaldaya, Modern Chaldean, Neo-Chaldean, Soorath, Soorith, Suras, Sureth. Dialects: Mangesh, Alqosh, Tel Kepe, Tisqopa, Bartille, Shirnak-Chizre (Bohtan), Dihok. High intelligibility of Lishana Deni [lsd] and Ashirat [aii] (western dialect group of Assyrian Neo-Aramaic); little or no intelligibility with other Northeastern Aramaic varieties. A member of macrolanguage Syriac [syr]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Ethnic group distinct religiously from other Northeastern Aramaic varieties; separated from the Assyrian in 16th century. The names Chaldean and Assyrian sometimes used in a popular sense to include both groups. Originally located in central western and northern Iraqi Kurdistan and some in bordering Turkey. Christian.

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Domari
[rmt] Scattered. Ethnic population: 22,900 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dom, Middle Eastern Romani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Koy Sanjaq Surat
[kqd] North, Arbil Governorate, Koi-Sanjaq, Armota. 800 (1995 H. Mutzafi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Koi Sanjaq Soorit, Koi-Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq Sooret, Koy Sanjaq Soorit, Surat. Dialects: None known. Related in certain morphological and lexical respects to Senaya [syn]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Christian.

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Kurdish
[kur] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Central Kurdish [ckb], Northern Kurdish [kmr] (Turkey), Southern Kurdish [sdh] (Iran).

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Kurdish, Central
[ckb] Northeast, south of Great Zab river, As Sulaymaniyah, Arbil, At Ta’mim (Kirkuk), and Diyala governorates; smaller area, east of Tuz Khurmatu, Salah ad Din Governorate; diaspora communities elsewhere. 4,000,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 7,250,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kurdistan Region (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Alternate Names: Kurdi, Sorani. Dialects: Hewleri (Arbili), Xoshnaw, Pizhdar, Suleimani (Silemani), Warmawa, Rewandiz, Bingird, Mukri, Kerkuki, Garmiyani. In Sulaimaniya, Hewleri and Kerkuki dialects seen as mutually intelligible. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim.

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] North of Great Zab river, Dahuk, Ninawa, and Arbil governorates; Surchi dialect near Great Zab river. 3,440,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Kurdistan Region (2005, Constitution, Article 4(1)). Alternate Names: Badinani, Bahdini, Behdini, Kirmanciya Jori, Kurmanji. Dialects: Akre, Amadiye, Barwari Jor, Gulli, Sheikhan, Surchi, Zakho. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Surchi dialect shares elements of both Northern and Central Kurdish. Many displaced since late 1980s. Muslim, Yezidi.

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Kurdish, Southern
[sdh] Large area on Iran border east of Baghdad, Diyala, Wasit, and Maysan governorates. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kalhori, Sanjabi, Maleksh ahi (Maleksh ay), Bayray, Kordali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim.

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Macho
[hac] As Sulaymaniyah Governorate; near Halabja, east of Silemani, Topzawa near Tawuq, pockets from Mosul to Khanaqin. 120,000 in Iraq (Paul 2007). Population provisionally estimated to be one-third of the 300,000 speakers in Iran and Iraq (2007 L. Paul). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Gorani, Gurani, Hawramani, Hawrami, Hewrami, Macho-Zwani. Dialects: Kakai (Kakkai), Zengana. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Very old literary tradition since A.D. 1300s. Muslim, Ahl-e Haqq.

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Mandaic
[mid] Scattered in Baghdad and Al Basrah governorates. 5,000 in Iraq (2006). Ethnic population: 30,000. Total users in all countries: 5,500. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mandaayi, Mandaean, Mandi, Mandini, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabean, Sabe’in, Subbi. Dialects: Iraqi Neo-Mandaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic. Comments: Mandaean.

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Mandaic, Classical
[myz] Al Basrah. Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Persian, Iranian
[pes] Near Iran border, Al Basrah, Diyala, Maysan, and Wasit governorates. 408,000 in Iraq (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Persian, Western Farsi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Sarli
[sdf] Kirkuk Governorate, At Ta’mim province, north of Mosul; many displaced. Fewer than 20,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sarliya. Dialects: None known. In the Gurani [hac] (Gorani) and Zaza group. Reportedly most similar to Bajelani [bjm]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim.

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Shabak
[sdb] Ninawa Governorate, north of Mosul, Ali Rach, Yangija, Khazna, Talara villages; many displaced since 1980s. 10,000 (Blau 1989). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. In the Gurani [hac] (Gorani) and Zaza group. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim.

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Syriac
[syr] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Assyrian Neo-Aramaic [aii], Chaldean Neo-Aramaic [cld].

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