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Aimaq
[aiq] Mazandaran province: scattered. 221,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Teimuri (Teimurtash). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Barbari and Berberi are also applied to Hazara people in Mashad.

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Alviri-Vidari
[avd] Markazi province: Saveh area; Qom province. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Alvir (Alviri), Vidar (Vidari). Related to Gozarkhâni [goz] and Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Gulf Spoken
[afb] Hormozgan province and nearby Persian gulf islands; also Bushehr, Fars, Kerman, and Yazd provinces. 260,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gulf Arabic. Dialects: Al-Hasâ, Khamseh. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Bushehr province: Deylam county; Khuzestan province: southwest Zagros mountains, Shatt al Arab river area. 1,350,000 (2015 M. Izady). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arabi, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic. Dialects: Khuzistani Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] 1,320,000 in Iran (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1979, Constitution, Article 16), used in education. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Armenian
[hye] Ardebil, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, and Azarbayjan-e Sharqi provinces; Ahar, Isfahan, Khoi, Shahpur, Shiraz, Tabriz, and Tehran areas. 102,000 (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Armani, Armjanski, Ermenice, Erâmani, Haieren, Somekhuri. Dialects: Eastern Armenian, Agulis, Astrakhân, Jolfâ (Dzhulfa), Karabagh Shamakhi, Khoi-Salmst (Khvoy), Urmia-Maragheh. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Christian.

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Ashtiani
[atn] Markazi province: Ashtiyan and Tafresh. 21,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ashtiyani, Astiani. Dialects: Ashtiani, Tafresh. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]. Dialects may be separate languages. Reportedly very similar to Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

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Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] Azarbayjan-e Gharbi province: west of Lake Urmia; many in Reza’iyeh (Rizaiye) and Tehran. 15,000 (1994). Ethnic population: 80,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aturaya Swadaya, Lishana Aturaya, Swadai, Swadaya. Dialects: Urmi. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Religious separation of Assyrian from Chaldean happened in the 16th century. Christian.

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Avestan
[ave] No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Avesta, Pazend. Dialects: Old Avestan (Gathic), Younger Avestan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian.

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Azerbaijani
[aze] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 23,200,540 Status: Comments: Includes: North Azerbaijani [azj] (Azerbaijan), South Azerbaijani [azb].

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Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Widespread, especially north and central. 11,100,000 (2015 M. Izady). Ethnic population: 18,700,000. Total users in all countries: 13,973,280. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Azeri, Türki. Autonym: آذربایجان دیلی‎ (Azərbaycan dili), آذربایجانجا‎ (Azərbaycanca). Dialects: Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Karapapakh, Tabriz, Afshari (Afsar, Afshar), Shahsavani (Shahseven), Moqaddam, Baharlu (Kamesh), Nafar, Qaragozlu, Pishagchi, Bayat, Qajar. A member of macrolanguage Azerbaijani [aze]. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Comments: Muslim.

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Bakhtiâri
[bqi] Khuzestan province; also west Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Lorestan, and Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad provinces; Esfahan and Markazi provinces: Dorud, Masjed-e Soleiman, and Shahr-e Kord. 1,000,000 (2001). 350,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lori, Lori-ye Khaveri, Luri. Autonym: بختیاری‎ (Bakhtiâri). Dialects: Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord, Izeh, Haftgel, Aligudarz, Chelgerd, Kohrang (Kuhrang), Haflang (Haftlang), Charlang (Chaharlang). Bakhtiâri is on a continuum of related varieties between Northern Luri [lrc] and Southern Luri [luz]. Farsi dialects in Chaharmahâl va Bakhtiâri Province are mutually intelligible with Bakhtiâri. Lexical similarity: 75% with Southern Luri (Mamasani) [lrc], 86% with Southern Luri (Boyerahmadi) [luz], 73% with Northern Luri (rural), 78% with Northern Luri (Khorramabadi), 76% with Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri. Comments: Little contact with Southern Luri [luz], some contact with Northern Luri [lrc]. Muslim.

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Balochi, Southern
[bcc] Hormozgan province: southeast coast; Kerman province: Qaleh Ganj and Rudbar-e Jonubi counties; Sistan va Baluchestan province. 474,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). All Balochi: 1,900,000 (2015 M. Izady). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci. Dialects: Makrani (Lotuni), Koroshi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Muslim.

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Balochi, Western
[bgn] Sistan va Baluchestan province: north; Kerman province: Rigan and Fahraj counties; Khorasan-e Janubi province: northeast. 704,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). All Balochi: 1,900,000 (2015 M. Izady). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Yarahmadza. Dialects: Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Distinct from Eastern Balochi [bgp] and Southern Balochi [bcc]. Muslim.

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Bashkardi
[bsg] Hormozgan province: east; Kerman province: south; Sistan va Baluchestan province: southwest. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bashaka. Dialects: Northern Bashaka, Southern Bashaka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Muslim.

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Brahui
[brh] Sistan va Baluchestan province: central, including Zahedan. 22,000 (2014 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barahui, Birahui, Brahudi, Kur Galli. Dialects: Jharawan (Jhalawan), Kalat, Sarawan. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Dari
[prs] Khorasan province. 370,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Afghan Persian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Dari, Zoroastrian
[gbz] Kerman and Yazd provinces: settled communities. 8,000 (1999). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dari, “Gabar” (pej.), “Gabri” (pej.), “Yazdi” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Related to Parsi-Dari [prd] and Nâyini [nyq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Different from Dari dialect of Eastern Farsi [prs] of Afghanistan, though both names refer to Darius, the ancient Persian Emperor (‘dar’ is Classical Persian for court). Many Zoroastrians speak Parsi-Dari and do not know Zoroastrian Dari [gbz]. Zoroastrian.

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Dezfuli
[def] Khuzestan province: Dezful and Shushtar. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dezhfili, Dizfuli. Dialects: Dezfuli, Shushtari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Unclassified. Comments: Muslim.

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Domari
[rmt] Fars and Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad provinces: Ghorbat and Mehtar, Kurbat and Luti west. Ethnic population: 1,340,000 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dom, Gypsy, Luti, Mehtar, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene. Dialects: Kurbati (Ghorbati), Qinati, Yürük, Koli, Karachi (Garachi), Luli, Maznoug, Nawar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. Influenced by Arabic, as well as languages of host ethnic groups with which any Domari group is associated. Muslim.

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Dzhidi
[jpr] Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djudi, Judeo-Persian, Judi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

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Eshtehardi
[esh] Markazi province: Karaj district, Eshtehard area. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Takestani [tks]. May be the same language as some dialects spoken southwest of Qazvin. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Fars, Northwestern
[faz] Fars province: scattered. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sivandi [siy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Distinct from Farsi [prs] or [pes]. Muslim.

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Fars, Southwestern
[fay] Fars province: Buringun, Davani, Kondazi, Papun, Masarm, Somghun, and others. 100,000 (2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Iranian Persian [prs] or [pes] and Lari [lrl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars. Comments: Distinct from Iranian Persian [prs] or [pes]. Muslim.

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Gazi
[gzi] Esfahan province: small area east of Kashan. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

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Georgian
[kat] Esfahan province: Esfahan area, Najaf Abad, Shahin Shahr, and Yazdan Shahr; Mazandaran province: Behshahr. 62,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gorji, Gruzin. Dialects: Fereydan (Ferejdan). Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Gilaki
[glk] Gilan province: coast south of Caspian and Talish sea. 2,850,000 (2015 M. Izady), decreasing. 2,000 Galeshi. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gelaki, Gilani, Guilaki, Guilani. Dialects: Galeshi, Rashti, Rudbari, Some’e Sarai, Lahijani, Langerudi, Rudsari, Bandar Anzali, Fumani. Reportedly similar to Mâzanderâni [mzn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian. Comments: Heavy influence from Farsi. Muslim.

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Gozarkhani
[goz] Qazvin province: Alamut area, Gozarkhan, Tajrish, north of Tehran. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maraghei [vmh] and Semnani [smy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Gurani
[hac] Kermanshah province; Kordestan province: Iraq border area, Hewraman. 180,000 (Paul 2007). Population provisionally estimated to be two-thirds of the 300,000 speakers in Iran and Iraq (2007 L. Paul). Total users in all countries: 300,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Avromani, Awroman, Awromani, Gorani, Hawramani, Hawrami, Hewrami, Hourami, Howrami, Ourami. Dialects: Hawraman i Luhon, Hawraman i Taxt, Kandula, Gurani (Gorani), Bewyani, Gawrajuyi, Zardayana. Zaza-Gurani group includes Southern Zazaki [diq] (Zaza) (Turkey), and Gurani [hac], Bajelani [bjm] (Bajalani), Shabak [sdb], and Sarli [sdf] (Iraq); Hawrami [hac] (Iran). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim, Ahl-e Haqq.

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Harzani
[hrz] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi province: Marand-Jolfa area northwest of Tabriz. 33,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karingani [kgn] and Talysh [tly]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Hazaragi
[haz] Khorasan-e Razavi province: widespread, especially urban centers. 368,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Population increased significantly due to influx of Hazaragi-speaking refugees from Afghanistan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hazara, Hezare’i, Hezareh. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic group names are (Central) Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, (Southern) Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad. Muslim.

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Jadgali
[jdg] Sistan va Baluchestan province: Saravan area. 10,000 (2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jat, Jatgali, Jatki. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Jakati [jat] of Afghanistan and Ukraine, and Russian Central Asia. Muslim.

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Kabatei
[xkp] Gilan province: Rudbar district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Kalas, Kabate. Reportedly similar to Upper Taromi [tov]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Kajali
[xkj] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi province: Kaqazkonan district, Kajal. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shahrudi [shm] and Koresh-e Rostam [okh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Karingani
[kgn] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi province: Dizmar district, Keringan village; Hasanu district, northeast of Tabriz. 21,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Keringani. Dialects: Various dialects. Reportedly very similar to Harzani [hrz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Kashkay
[qxq] Fars province: most; Bushehr, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, Esfahan, and Hormozgan provinces; Gachsaran, Firuzabad, and Shiraz are centers. 949,000 (2015 M. Izady). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kashkai, Qashqa’i, Qashqay. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Azerbaijani [azb]. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Nomadic. Muslim.

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Kazakh
[kaz] Golestan province: Gorgan city, Caspian sea area. 3,000 (1982). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gazaqi, Kazak, Kazakhi. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Khalaj
[kjf] Ardebil and Gilan provinces: scattered. 50,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Pronounced with 2 short or front a’s. Different from Turkic Khalaj [klj] in Iran.

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Khalaj, Turkic
[klj] Qom province: northeast of Arak. 51,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaladsch, Khalaj. Dialects: Not a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb], as previously supposed. Distinct from other extant Turkish languages (Doerfer et al 1971). Different from Indo-Iranian Khalaj [kjf]. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Kho’ini
[xkc] Zanjan province: Kho’in district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Kabatei [xkp] and Takestani [tks]. Closely related varieties spoken in nearby villages of Balbavin, Sefidkamar, Halab, and Sa’dabad. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Khorasani Turkish
[kmz] Northeast, Khorasan-e Shemali Province, northwest of Mashhad; Bojnurd area (West Quchani, Quchan area (North or Northeast Quchani, probably largest), Soltanabad area near Sabzevar (South Quchani). 886,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Quchani. Dialects: West Quchani (Northwest Quchani), North Quchani (Northeast Quchani), South Quchani. Midway linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen [tuk], but not a dialect of either. The Oghuz-Uzbek dialect of Uzbek, Northern [uzn] in Uzbekistan is reportedly a dialect. Different from Khorasani, a local Persian dialect in Khorasan. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Muslim.

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Khunsari
[kfm] Esfahan province: Isfahan and Kashan areas. 25,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: May be one of a large complex of dialects in Esfahan Province. Other Northwestern closely related dialects include Vonishun, Qohrud, Keshe, Zefre, Sedeh, Gaz, Kafran, Mahallat, So, Mejme, and Djaushaqan. Distinct from Kumzari [zum] of Oman. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

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Koresh-e Rostam
[okh] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi province: Koresh-e Rostam district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Koroshi
[ktl] Fars province. 160. 40–50 families. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Appears to be Baluchi with some features of Farsi. They work for the Qashqa’i people.

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Kurdish, Central
[ckb] Azarbayjan-e Gharbi and Kordestan provinces; also Hamadan, Kermanshah, and Zanjan provinces; Mahabad area (Mukri dialect); Sanandaj (Sine) area (Sanandaji dialect). 3,250,000. All Kurdish: 5,540,000 (2015 M. Izady). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto provincial working language in northwest. Alternate Names: Kordi, Korkora, Kurdi, Kurdy, Mokri, Mukri, Sine’i, Sorani, Wawa. Dialects: Mukri (Kordi, Mokri), Sanandaji (Sina’i, Sine’i, Sineyi), Southern Jafi, Pijdari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: 90% in cities or villages, 10% nomadic. Kordi may also refer to Northern Kurdish varieties (such as in Khorasan Province), and Southern Kurdish [sdh] varieties, such as Kermanshahi [sdh]. Muslim.

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Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Khorasan-e Shemali province: Quchan and Bojnurd towns; Mazandaran province: Kalardast region; Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, Golestan, Khorasan-e Razavi and Qazvin provinces; east of the Caspian Sea, north and west of Lake Urmia (Khorasani Kurmanji dialect). 350,000 (Stanzer 1988). All Kurdish: 5,540,000 (2015 M. Izady). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Eastern Kurmanji, Kordi, Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji. Dialects: Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji), Khorassani Kurmanji. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim.

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Kurdish, Southern
[sdh] Hamadan, Ilam, Lorestan, Kermanshah, Khuzestan, and Kordestan provinces; Sistan va Baluchestan province: southeast small area. 3,000,000 (Fattah 2000). All Kurdish: 5,540,000 (2015 M. Izady). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kolyai, Kermanshahi (Kermanshani), Kalhori, Garrusi (Bijari), Sanjabi, Malekshahi (Maleksh ay), Bayray, Kordali, Luri. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim.

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Laki
[lki] Ilam, Hamadan, and Lorestan provinces: Aleshtar, Khorramabad, Kuhdasht, and Nurabad-e Dolfan. 1,000,000 (Fattah 2000). 150,000 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alaki, Leki. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Iranian Persian [pes], 78% with Luristani (Khorramabadi), 69% with Northern Luri [lrc] (central rural dialects). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim, Ahl-e Haqq.

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Laraki
[zum] Hormozgān province: Qeshm, Shahāb, Lārak, Lārak Shahri. Spoken in a single town in Iran. 700 in Iran, all users. L1 users: 670 (Anonby and Yousefian 2011). L2 users: 30 (Anonby and Yousefian 2011). 70 monolinguals (Anonby and Yousefian 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Komzāri, Komzari. Dialects: 72% intelligibility of Musandam dialect of Laraki [zum] (Anonby and Yousefian 2011). 93% (100-word list) / 88% (225-word list) with Kumzari [zum] of Musandam; 76% (100-word list) / 66% (225-word list) with Minabi dialect of Bandari; 73% (100-word list) / 71% (225-word list) with Qeshmi dialect of Bandari; 70% (100-word list) / 60% (225-word list) with Iranian Persian [pes]; 12% (100-word list) / 10% (225-word list) with Standard Arabic [arb]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri.

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Lari
[lrl] Fars province: Lar district, Shiraz. 112,000 (2014 J. Leclerc), increasing. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Achomi, Larestani. Dialects: Lari. Verbal system distinct from Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars. Comments: Muslim.

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Lasgerdi
[lsa] Semnan province: Lasjerd southwest of Semnan. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lasjerdi, Läsgerdi, Läsjerdi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani. Comments: Muslim.

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Luri, Northern
[lrc] Ilam province; Hamadan province: south; Khuzestan province: Andimeshk; Lorestan province: Borujerd, and Khorramabad; Markazi province: south edge. 1,500,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 1,700,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lori, Luri, Luristani. Dialects: Feyli, Khorramabadi, Borujerdi, Nahavandi, Andimeshki, Bala-Gariva’i, Mahali (Rural Mahali), Cagani, Solasi. Major Northern Luri dialects (Khorramabadi, Borujerdi) are found in Lorestan and Khuzestan. Some areas in Ilam Province (Posht-e Kuh) reportedly speak Northern Luri dialects. A few villages in Iraq, using a dialect of Northern Luri (Fattah 2000). Reportedly similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: Mahali dialect: 80% with Iranian Persian [pes], 69% with Laki [lki], and 73% with Bakhtiâri [bqi] (Haflang); Khorramabadi dialect: 85% with Iranian Persian [pes], 78% with Laki, and 75% with Bakhtiâri (Haflang). Similarity to Iranian Persian [pes] is due to lexical borrowing and language shift. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri. Comments: Ethnic groups: Pish-e Kuh, some parts of Posht-e Kuh. Muslim.

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Luri, Southern
[luz] Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad province; Fars province: northwest; Khuzestan province: east; some in Bushehr province. Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad province, Dehdasht (Kohgiluyeh dialect), Yasuji (Boyerahmadi dialect); Fars province, Nurabad (Mamasani dialect), Shul and Shiraz (Shuli dialect). 875,000 (1999), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lor, Lori, Lori-ye Jonubi, Lur, Ruliy Luri. Dialects: Boyerahmadi, Yasuji (Yasichi), Kohgiluyeh, Mamasani, Shuli. Southern Luri is on a continuum between Bakhtiari [bqi] and Iranian Persian [pes] dialects such as Bushehri and Southwestern Fars [fay]. A non-Lur tribe in Fars Province called Kurdshuli reportedly speaks a Southern Luri dialect. Their winter quarters are at Qasr-e Dasht near Sivand, 70 km from Sharaz on Shiraz-Esfahan road. Reportedly similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Iranian Persian [pes], 80% with Bushehri dialect of Iranian Persian; Mamasani dialect 75% with Bakhtiâri [bqi], Boyerahmadi dialect 86% with Bakhtiâri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri. Comments: Muslim.

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Mandaic
[mid] Khuzestan province: Hoveiseh, other towns. 500 (2001). Ethnic population: 23,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mandaayi, Mandaean, Mandi, Mandini, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabe’in, Sabean, Subbi. Dialects: Ahwaz (Ahvaz), Shushtar (Shustar), Iraqi Neo-Mandaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic Mandaeans in Iraq now speak Arabic (1994 H. Mutzafi). Mandaean.

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Mandaic, Classical
[myz] Scattered. No known L1 speakers. Total users in all countries: none known. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Classical Mandaean. Dialects: None known. Appears to be the direct ancestor of Modern Mandaic [mid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic.

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Maraghei
[vmh] Gilan province: upper Rudbar county (Rudbar-e Alamut). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Dikini. Various other dialects. Reportedly similar to Gozarkhani [goz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Mazandarani
[mzn] Mazandaran province; some in Golestan and Semnan provinces. 2,370,000 (2015 M. Izady), decreasing. Some monolinguals in rural areas. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gilaki, Mazanderani, Sari, Tabri. Dialects: Mazanderani, Gorgani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian. Comments: Muslim.

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Natanzi
[ntz] Esfahan province: Natanz village on Isfahan-Kashan road. 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Natanzi, Yarani (Yarandi), Farizandi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

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Nayini
[nyq] Esfahan province: Anarak and Nayin east of Isfahan; Khur and Mehrjan, northeast of Isfahan (Khuri dialect). 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biyabanak. Dialects: Nayini, Anarak, Khuri. Dialects listed may be separate languages. Khuri distinct from other dialects. Related to Zoroastrian Dari [gbz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

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Parsi-Dari
[prd] 350,000 (1999). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Parsee, Parsee-Dari, Parsi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not inherently intelligible with Parsi [prp] of India, Pakistan, and other countries, but linguistically and ethnically related. They diverged 600 to 700 years ago or more. Related to Dari [gbz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Zoroastrian.

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Khorasan-e Janubi and Khorasan-e Razavi provinces: Afghanistan border east of Qa’en. 113,000 (1993). Population does not include refugees. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Paktu, Pashtu, “Afghani” (pej.). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Different from Northern Pashto [pbu] of Pakistan and India. Muslim.

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Persian
[fas] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 61,929,420 Status: Comments: Includes: Dari [prs] (Afghanistan), Iranian Persian [pes].

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Persian Sign Language
[psc] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language.

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Persian, Iranian
[pes] Widespread; concentrated in central, south central, and northeast. 50,100,000 (2015 M. Izady), increasing. 800,000 Eastern Farsi in Khorasan speak dialects which are transitional with Iranian Persian. Total users in all countries: 52,939,220. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1979, Constitution, Article 15). Alternate Names: New Persian, Parsi, Persian, West Persian, Western Farsi. Autonym: فارسی‎ (Fārsi). Dialects: Abadani, Ketabi, Tehrani, Shirazi, Old Shirazi, Qazvini, Mahalhamadani, Kashani, Esfahani, Sedehi, Kermani, Araki, Shirazjahromi, Shahrudi Kazeruni, Mashadi (Meshed), Basseri, Yazdi, Bandari. Literary language virtually identical in Iran and Afghanistan, with very minor lexical differences. Dialect shading into Dari [prs] in Afghanistan and Tajiki [tgk] in Tajikistan. Many dialects may be separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Persian [fas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Muslim, Baha’i, Christian.

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Razajerdi
[rat] Qazvin province. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Takestani [tks]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Qazvin Province: Abyek district, Zargar village. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Zargari Romani, Romano. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Rudbari
[rdb] Zanjan province: Sefid Rud valley. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional to Caspian languages. Related to Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Salchuq
[slq] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi and Zanjan provinces. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Probably a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb]. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani.

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Sangisari
[sgr] Semnan province; Shamirzad north of Mehdi (Shahmirzadi dialect). 36,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahdi Shahri, Mehdishahri, Sangesari, Sangsari, Sengiseri, Sengsari, Sängesäri, Sängsari, Sängsäri. Dialects: Shahmirzadi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani. Comments: Muslim, Baha’i.

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Semnani
[smy] Semnan province. 60,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Simnani. Dialects: Biyabunaki might be a dialect of Semnani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani. Comments: Muslim.

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Senaya
[syn] Qazvin and Tehran provinces. 60 (1997 H. Mutzafi). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Christian Neo-Aramaic, Lshan Sray, Senaaya, Shan Gyanan, Shan Sray, Soray, Sray. Dialects: None known. Qazvin variety slightly different from that spoken by Sanandaj-born people. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Christian.

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Shahmirzadi
[srz] Semnan province: Shahmirzad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mazanderani [mzn] and Gilaki [glk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian.

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Shahrudi
[shm] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi province: Khalkhal and Shahrud districts, Kolur, Lerd, and Shal. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Koluri. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Kajali [kjf] and Koresh-e Rostam [okh]. Different from Sharudi, an Iranian Persian [pes] dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Sivandi
[siy] Fars province: Sivand, northwest of Shiraz on Shiraz-Isfahan Road. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

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Soi
[soj] 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

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Sorkhei
[sqo] Semnan province: Sorkheh, southwest of Semnan. 10,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Aftari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani. Comments: Muslim.

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Takestani
[tks] Qazvin province: Takestan area; Markazi and Zanjan provinces: Saveh area. 374,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Takistani. Dialects: Khalkhal, Tarom, Zanjan, Kharaqan, Ramand (Takestan). Khalkhal dialect is reportedly similar to Talysh [tly]. Transitional between Talysh and Semnani [smy] languages. Similar to Eshtehardi [esh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Different from Tat [ttt] of the Russian Federation, Azerbaijan, and Iran. Muslim.

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Talysh
[tly] Ardebil province: Ardabil and Namin counties; Gilan province: Kapur-Chal, Masal, and Masuleh, to Azerbaijan border in Caspian coastal plain and mountain areas. Astara, Azerbaijan, and the Caspian littoral areas (Northern Talyshi dialect); Gilan province: Asalem-Hashtpar area along Caspian littoral (Central Talyshi dialect); Gilan province: Masal, Masuleh, Shandermen, and surrounding mountainous areas (Southern Talyshi dialect). 146,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Talesh, Taleshi, Talish, Talishi, Talyshi. Dialects: Northern Talyshi, Central Talyshi, Southern Talyshi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Taromi, Upper
[tov] Zanjan province: Hazarrud and Siavarud areas; Azarbayjan-e Sharqi province: upper Tarom. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Reportedly similar to Kabatei [xkp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

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Tat, Muslim
[ttt] Gilan and Qazvin provinces. 8,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mussulman Tati. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Takestani [tks] of Iran. Muslim.

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Turkmen
[tuk] Golestan, Khorasan-e Razavi, and Khorasan-e Shemali provinces: Turkmenistan border area; Mazandaran province: Gonbad-e Kavus and Pahlavi Dezh. 1,030,000 (2015 M. Izady). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Torkomani, Türkmen dili, Türkmençe. Dialects: Anauli, Khasarli, Nerezim, Nokhurli (Nohur), Chavdur, Esari (Esary), Goklen (Goklan), Salyr, Saryq, Teke (Tekke), Yomud (Yomut), Trukmen. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian. Comments: Not a literary language in Iran. Many are seminomadic. Ethnic groups: Yomut, Goklan. Turkmen in Iran shows many Persian [pes] features. Muslim.

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Vafsi
[vaf] Markazi province: Arak district, Vafs, near Tafresh; some in Hamadan province. 18,000 (2003). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]; reportedly very similar to Ashtiani [atn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

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