Iran

Print
Aimaq
[aiq] Mazandaran Province, scattered. 221,000 in Iran (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Teimuri (Teimurtash). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Barbari and Berberi are also applied to Hazara people in Mashad.

More Information

Alviri-Vidari
[avd] Markazi Province, near Saveh; also in Qom Province. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Alvir (Alviri), Vidar (Vidari). Related to Gozarkhâni [goz] and Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Arabic, Gulf Spoken
[afb] Mainly in Hormozgan Province and nearby Persian gulf islands; in east Fars, Bushehr, Kerman, and Yazd provinces; Khamseh nomads and other Arab nomadic groups in south central Iran. 260,000 in Iran (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: ’Arabi, Gulf Arabic, Khaliji. Dialects: Al-Hasâ, Khamseh. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Arabic, Mesopotamian Spoken
[acm] Khuzestan Province, southwest side of Zagros mountains, Shatt al Arab river bank; Bushehr Province, Deylam county. 1,310,000 in Iran (2014 M. Izady). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arabi, ’Arabi, Mesopotamian Gelet Arabic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Armenian
[hye] North, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi, Azarbayjan-e Gharbi, and Ardebil provinces; Khoi, Shahpur, Ahar, Tabriz, Tehran, Isfahan, and Shiraz areas. 102,000 in Iran (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Armani, Armjanski, Erâmani, Ermenice, Haieren, Somekhuri. Dialects: Eastern Armenian, Agulis, Astrakhân, Jolfâ (Dzhulfa), Karabagh Shamakhi, Khoi-Salmst (Khvoy), Urmia-Maragheh. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Christian.

More Information

Ashtiani
[atn] Markazi Province, Ashtiyan and Tafresh. 21,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Ashtiyani, Astiani. Dialects: Ashtiani, Tafresh. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]. Dialects may be separate languages. Reportedly very similar to Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Assyrian Neo-Aramaic
[aii] Azarbayjan-e Gharbi Province, west of Lake Urmia; many in Tehran and Reza’iyeh (Rizaiye). 15,000 in Iran (1994). Ethnic population: 80,000 (1994). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Iranian Koine (General Urmi). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Religious separation of Assyrian from Chaldean happened in the 16th century. Christian.

More Information

Avestan
[ave] Sacred language of Zoroastrian scripture. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Avesta, Pazend. Dialects: Old Avestan (Gathic), Younger Avestan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian.

More Information

Azerbaijani
[aze] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: North Azerbaijani [azj] (Azerbaijan), South Azerbaijani [azb].

More Information

Azerbaijani, South
[azb] Widespread, especially north and central. 12,100,000 in Iran (2014 M. Izady). Ethnic population: 18,700,000. Total users in all countries: 14,973,280. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Azeri, Torki. Dialects: Aynallu (Inallu, Inanlu), Karapapakh, Tabriz, Afshari (Afsar, Afshar), Shahsavani (Shahseven), Moqaddam, Baharlu (Kamesh), Nafar, Qaragozlu, Pishagchi, Bayat, Qajar. A member of macrolanguage Azerbaijani [aze]. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Bakhtiâri
[bqi] Southwest, mainly Khuzestan Province; also in west Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, east Lorestan, and Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad provinces; smaller areas, west Esfahan and Markazi provinces; Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord, Dorud. 1,000,000 (2001). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,000,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lori, Lori-ye Khaveri, Luri. Dialects: Masjed-e Soleiman, Shahr-e Kord, Izeh, Haftgel, Aligudarz, Chelgerd, Kohrang (Kuhrang), Haflang (Haftlang), Charlang (Chaharlang). Bakhtiâri is on a continuum of related varieties between Northern Luri [lrc] and Southern Luri [luz]. Farsi dialects in Chaharmahâl va Bakhtiâri Province are mutually intelligible with Bakhtiâri. Lexical similarity: 75% with Southern Luri (Mamasani) [lrc], 86% with Southern Luri (Boyerahmadi) [luz], 73% with Northern Luri (rural), 78% with Northern Luri (Khorramabadi), 76% with Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri. Comments: Little contact with Southern Luri [luz], some contact with Northern Luri [lrc]. Muslim.

More Information

Balochi, Southern
[bcc] South Sistan va Baluchestan Province; Hormozgan Province, southeast coastal areas; Kerman Province, Rudbar-e Jonubi and Qaleh Ganj counties. 474,000 in Iran (2015 J. Leclerc). All Balochi: 1,850,000 (2014 M. Izady). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci. Dialects: Makrani (Lotuni), Koroshi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Balochi, Western
[bgn] Mainly north Sistan va Baluchestan Province; Kerman Province, Rigan and Fahraj counties; northeast Khorasan-e Janubi Province; half in cities and villages, half nomadic. 704,000 in Iran (2015 J. Leclerc). All Balochi: 1,850,000 (2014 M. Izady). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Yarahmadza. Dialects: Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Distinct from Eastern Balochi [bgp] and Southern Balochi [bcc]. Muslim.

More Information

Bashkardi
[bsg] East Hormozgan, South Kerman, possibly southwest Sistan va Baluchestan provinces. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bashaka. Dialects: Northern Bashaka, Southern Bashaka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Brahui
[brh] Central Sistan va Baluchestan Province, including Zahedan. 20,000 in Iran (2007), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Barahui, Birahui, Brahudi, Kur Galli. Dialects: Jharawan (Jhalawan), Kalat, Sarawan. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

More Information

Dari, Zoroastrian
[gbz] Settled communities in Yazd and Kerman provinces. 8,000 (1999). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dari, “Gabar” (pej.), “Gabri” (pej.), “Yazdi” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Related to Parsi-Dari [prd] and Nâyini [nyq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Different from Dari dialect of Eastern Farsi [prs] of Afghanistan, though both names refer to Darius, the ancient Persian Emperor (‘dar’ is Classical Persian for court). Many Zoroastrians speak Parsi-Dari and do not know Zoroastrian Dari [gbz]. Zoroastrian.

More Information

Dezfuli
[def] Dezful and Shushtar, north Khuzestan Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dezhfili, Dizfuli. Dialects: Dezfuli, Shushtari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Unclassified. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Domari
[rmt] Fars and Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad provinces, Mehtar and Ghorbat; Kurbat and Luti in west. Ethnic population: 1,340,000 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Dom, Gypsy, Luti, Mehtar, Middle Eastern Romani, Tsigene. Dialects: Kurbati (Ghorbati), Qinati, Yürük, Koli, Karachi, Luli, Maznoug, Nawar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. Influenced by Arabic, as well as languages of host ethnic groups with which any Domari group is associated. Muslim.

More Information

Dzhidi
[jpr] Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Djudi, Judeo-Persian, Judi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Jewish.

More Information

Eshtehardi
[esh] Markazi Province, Karaj District, Eshtehard area. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Reportedly similar to Takestani [tks]. May be the same language as some dialects spoken southwest of Qazvin. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Fars, Northwestern
[faz] Fars Province, scattered pockets. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sivandi [siy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Distinct from Farsi [prs] or [pes]. Muslim.

More Information

Fars, Southwestern
[fay] Central Fars Province: Somghun, Papun, Masarm, Buringun, Kondazi, Davani, and others. 100,000 (2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Tajik” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Related to Iranian Persian [prs] or [pes] and Lari [lrl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars. Comments: Distinct from Iranian Persian [prs] or [pes]. Muslim.

More Information

Gazi
[gzi] Esfahan Province, small area east of Kashan. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Georgian
[kat] Esfahan Province, Esfahan area, Najaf Abad, Shahin Shahr, and Yazdanshahr; Mazandaran Province, Behshahr. 62,000 in Iran (2015 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gorji, Gruzin, Kartuli. Dialects: Fereydan (Ferejdan). Classification: Kartvelian, Georgian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

More Information

Gilaki
[glk] Gilan Province, coastal plain, south of Talish and Caspian sea; Galeshi is a mountain dialect. 2,770,000 (2014 M. Izady), decreasing. 2,000 Galeshi. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gelaki, Gilani, Guilaki, Guilani. Dialects: Galeshi, Rashti, Rudbari, Some’e Sarai, Lahijani, Langerudi, Rudsari, Bandar Anzali, Fumani. Reportedly similar to Mâzanderâni [mzn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian. Comments: Heavy influence from Farsi. Muslim.

More Information

Gozarkhani
[goz] Gozarkhan, northwest Qazvin Province; Tajrish, north of Tehran; Alamut area. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Maraghei [vmh] and Semnani [smy]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Gurani
[hac] West Kordestan Province, near Iraq border, Hewraman, east of Sanandaj, north of Kermanshah; Kermanshah Province. 180,000 in Iran (Paul 2007). Population provisionally estimated to be two-thirds of the 300,000 speakers in Iran and Iraq (2007 L. Paul). Total users in all countries: 300,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Avromani, Awroman, Awromani, Gorani, Hawramani, Hawrami, Hewrami, Hourami, Howrami, Ourami. Dialects: Hawraman i Luhon, Hawraman i Taxt, Kandula, Gurani (Gorani), Bewyani, Gawrajuyi, Zardayana. Zaza-Gurani group includes Southern Zazaki [diq] (Zaza) (Turkey), and Gurani [hac], Bajelani [bjm] (Bajalani), Shabak [sdb], and Sarli [sdf] (Iraq); Hawrami [hac] (Iran). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Zaza-Gorani. Comments: Muslim, Ahl-e Haqq.

More Information

Harzani
[hrz] Northwest, Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, Marand-Jolfa area, northwest of Tabriz; related varieties in Galin Qaya, Babra, and Dizmar. 28,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Karingani [kgn] and Talysh [tly]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Hazaragi
[haz] Khorasan-e Razavi Province, widespread, especially urban centers. 368,000 in Iran (2015 J. Leclerc). Population increased significantly due to influx of Hazaragi-speaking refugees from Afghanistan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hazara, Hezareh, Hezare’i. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic group names are (Central) Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, (Southern) Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad. Muslim.

More Information

Jadgali
[jdg] Sistan va Baluchestan Province, Saravan area. 10,000 in Iran (2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jat, Jatgali, Jatki. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Jakati [jat] of Afghanistan and Ukraine, and Russian Central Asia. Muslim.

More Information

Kabatei
[xkp] Gilan Province, Rudbar district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Kalas, Kabate. Reportedly similar to Upper Taromi [tov]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kajali
[xkj] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, Kaqazkonan district, Kajal. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Shahrudi [shm] and Koresh-e Rostam [okh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Karingani
[kgn] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, Dizmar district, Keringan village; Hasanu district, northeast of Tabriz. 17,600 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Keringani. Dialects: Various dialects. Reportedly very similar to Harzani [hrz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kashkay
[qxq] Southwest, mainly Fars Province; Bushehr, Esfahan, Chahar Mahall va Bakhtiari, and Hormozgan provinces; some possible in Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad Province; Shiraz, Gachsaran, and Firuzabad are centers. 923,000 (2014 M. Izady). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kashkai, Qashqa’i, Qashqay. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Azerbaijani [azb]. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Nomadic. Muslim.

More Information

Kazakh
[kaz] Caspian sea, northwest Golestan Province, Gorgan city. 3,000 in Iran (1982). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gazaqi, Kazak, Kazakhi. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

More Information

Khalaj
[kjf] Gilan and Ardebil provinces; scattered. 42,100 in Iran (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Pronounced with 2 short or front a’s. Different from Turkic Khalaj [klj] in Iran.

More Information

Khalaj, Turkic
[klj] Qom Province, northeast of Arak. 42,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chaladsch, Khalaj. Dialects: Not a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb], as previously supposed. Distinct from other extant Turkish languages (Doerfer et al 1971). Different from Indo-Iranian Khalaj [kjf]. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kho’ini
[xkc] Zanjan Province, Kho’in district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Kabatei [xkp] and Takestani [tks]. Closely related varieties spoken in nearby villages of Balbavin, Sefidkamar, Halab, and Sa’dabad. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Khorasani Turkish
[kmz] Northeast, Khorasan-e Shemali Province, northwest of Mashhad; west dialect in Bojnurd area, north in Quchan area (probably largest), south in Soltanabad area near Sabzevar. 400,000 (1977 G. Doerfer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Quchani. Dialects: West Quchani (Northwest Quchani), North Quchani (Northeast Quchani), South Quchani. Midway linguistically between Azerbaijani and Turkmen [tuk], but not a dialect of either. The Oghuz-Uzbek dialect of Uzbek, Northern [uzn] in Uzbekistan is reportedly a dialect. Different from Khorasani, a local Persian dialect in Khorasan. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Khunsari
[kfm] Esfahan Province, Kashan and Isfahan areas. 21,100 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: May be one of a large complex of dialects in Esfahan Province. Other Northwestern closely related dialects include Vonishun, Qohrud, Keshe, Zefre, Sedeh, Gaz, Kafran, Mahallat, So, Mejme, and Djaushaqan. Distinct from Kumzari [zum] of Oman. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Koresh-e Rostam
[okh] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, Koresh-e Rostam district. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Koroshi
[ktl] Fars Province. 160. 40–50 families. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Appears to be Baluchi with some features of Farsi. They work for the Qashqa’i people.

More Information

Kurdish, Central
[ckb] Northwest, primarily Kordestan and Azarbayjan-e Gharbi provinces; also in Kermanshah, Hamadan, and Zanjan provinces; Mukri dialect: Mahabad area; Sineyi (Sine’i) dialect: Sanandaj (Sine) area. 3,250,000 in Iran. All Kurdish: 5,390,000 (2014 M. Izady). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto provincial working language in northwest. Alternate Names: Kordi, Korkora, Kurdi, Kurdy, Mokri, Mukri, Sine’i, Sorani, Wawa. Dialects: Mukri (Kordi, Mokri), Sanandaji (Sina’i, Sine’i, Sineyi), Southern Jafi, Pijdari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: 90% in cities or villages, 10% nomadic. Kordi may also refer to Northern Kurdish varieties (such as in Khorasan Province), and Southern Kurdish [sdh] varieties, such as Kermanshahi [sdh]. Muslim.

More Information

Kurdish, Northern
[kmr] Azarbayjan-e Gharbi Province, north and west of Lake Urmia; enclaves in Mazandaran (Kalardast region), and Qazvin provinces; northeast, in Khorasan-e Shemali Province, Quchan and Bojnurd towns, also in Khorasan-e Razavi and Golestan provinces; Kurdish variety of Khorasani Kurmanji is east of the Caspian Sea. 350,000 in Iran (Stanzer 1988). All Kurdish: 5,390,000 (2014 M. Izady). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Eastern Kurmanji, Kordi, Kurdi, Kurmancî, Kurmanji. Dialects: Northern Kurdish (Kurmanji), Khorassani Kurmanji. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Kurdish, Southern
[sdh] West, mainly Kermanshah and Ilam provinces; to east, Hamadan, Lorestan, Kordestan, and Khuzestan provinces; southeast, small area in Sistan va Baluchestan Province. 3,000,000 in Iran (Fattah 2000). All Kurdish: 5,390,000 (2014 M. Izady). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Kolyai, Kermanshahi (Kermanshani), Kalhori, Garrusi (Bijari), Sanjabi, Malekshahi (Maleksh ay), Bayray, Kordali, Luri. A member of macrolanguage Kurdish [kur]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Laki
[lki] Western Lorestan, Ilam, and Hamadan provinces; Aleshtar, Kuhdasht, Nurabad-e Dolfan, and Khorramabad. 1,000,000 (Fattah 2000). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Alaki, Leki. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 70% with Iranian Persian [pes], 78% with Luristani (Khorramabadi), 69% with Northern Luri [lrc] (central rural dialects). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Kurdish. Comments: Muslim, Ahl-e Haqq.

More Information

Laraki
[zum] Hormozgān: Qeshm, Shahāb, Lārak, Lārak Shahri. Spoken in a single town in Iran. 670 in Iran (Anonby and Yousefian 2011). L2 users: 30 in Iran (Anonby and Yousefian 2011). No monolinguals (Anonby and Yousefian 2011). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Komzari, Komzāri, Kumzari, Lāraki, Rāraki. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri.

More Information

Lari
[lrl] South Fars Province, Lar district; Shiraz; some in United Arab Emirates. 112,000 (2015 J. Leclerc), increasing. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Achomi, Larestani. Dialects: Lari. Verbal system distinct from Iranian Persian [pes]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Fars. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Lasgerdi
[lsa] Semnan Province, southwest of Semnan, Lasjerd. 1,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Läsgerdi, Lasjerdi, Läsjerdi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Luri, Northern
[lrc] West: central and south Lorestan, north Khuzestan, and south Hamadan provinces, southern edge of Markazi Province, some regions of Ilam Province; Khorramabad, Borujerd, and Andimeshk; possibly eastern Iraq. 1,500,000 (2001). Ethnic population: 1,700,000 (2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lori, Luri, Luristani. Dialects: Feyli, Khorramabadi, Borujerdi, Nahavandi, Andimeshki, Bala-Gariva’i, Mahali (Rural Mahali), Cagani, Solasi. Major Northern Luri dialects (Khorramabadi, Borujerdi) are found in Lorestan and Khuzestan. Some areas in Ilam Province (Posht-e Kuh) reportedly speak Northern Luri dialects. A few villages in Iraq, using a dialect of Northern Luri (Fattah 2000). Reportedly similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: Mahali dialect: 80% with Iranian Persian [pes], 69% with Laki [lki], and 73% with Bakhtiâri [bqi] (Haflang); Khorramabadi dialect: 85% with Iranian Persian [pes], 78% with Laki, and 75% with Bakhtiâri (Haflang). Similarity to Iranian Persian [pes] is due to lexical borrowing and language shift. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri. Comments: Ethnic groups: Pish-e Kuh, some parts of Posht-e Kuh. Muslim.

More Information

Luri, Southern
[luz] Mainly Kohgiluyeh va Buyer Ahmad Province; northwest Fars and east Khuzestan provinces; some in Bushehr Province. 875,000 (1999), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 900,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lor, Lori, Lori-ye Jonubi, Lur, Ruliy Luri. Dialects: Boyerahmadi, Yasuji (Yasichi), Kohgiluyeh, Mamasani, Shuli. Southern Luri is on a continuum between Bakhtiari [bqi] and Iranian Persian [pes] dialects such as Bushehri and Southwestern Fars [fay]. A non-Lur tribe in Fars Province called Kurdshuli reportedly speaks a Southern Luri dialect. Their winter quarters are at Qasr-e Dasht near Sivand, 70 km from Sharaz on Shiraz-Esfahan road. Reportedly similar to Kumzari [zum]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Iranian Persian [pes], 80% with Bushehri dialect of Iranian Persian; Mamasani dialect 75% with Bakhtiâri [bqi], Boyerahmadi dialect 86% with Bakhtiâri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Luri. Comments: Boyerahmadi dialect: Yasuji; Kohgiluyeh dialect: Dehdasht; Mamasani dialect: Nurabad; Shuli dialect: Shul, Shiraz. Muslim.

More Information

Mandaic
[mid] Khuzestan Province; Hoveiseh, other towns. 500 in Iran (2001). Ethnic population: 23,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Mandaayi, Mandaean, Mandi, Mandini, Modern Mandaic, Neo-Mandaic, Sabean, Sabe’in, Subbi. Dialects: Ahwaz (Ahvaz), Shushtar (Shustar), Iraqi Neo-Mandaic. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic Mandaeans in Iraq now speak Arabic (1994 H. Mutzafi). Mandaean.

More Information

Mandaic, Classical
[myz] Scattered. No known L1 speakers in Iran. Total users in all countries: NaN. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Classical Mandaean. Dialects: None known. Appears to be the direct ancestor of Modern Mandaic [mid]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Mandaic.

More Information

Maraghei
[vmh] Gilan Province, upper Rudbar county (Rudbar-e Alamut). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Dikini. Various other dialects. Reportedly similar to Gozarkhani [goz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Mazanderani
[mzn] North near Caspian Sea, Mazandaran Province; some also in Semnan and Golestan provinces. 2,300,000 (2014 M. Izady), decreasing. Some monolinguals in rural areas. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gilaki, Mazandarani, Sari, Tabri. Dialects: Mazanderani, Gorgani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Natanzi
[ntz] Esfahan Province, Natanz village, on Isfahan-Kashan road. 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Natanzi, Yarani (Yarandi), Farizandi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Nayini
[nyq] Esfahan Province, Nayin and Anarak, east of Isfahan; Khuri dialect in Khur (Khvor) and Mehrjan, northeast of Isfahan. 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biyabanak. Dialects: Nayini, Anarak, Khuri. Dialects listed may be separate languages. Khuri distinct from other dialects. Related to Zoroastrian Dari [gbz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Parsi-Dari
[prd] 350,000 (1999). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Parsee, Parsee-Dari, Parsi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not inherently intelligible with Parsi [prp] of India, Pakistan, and other countries, but linguistically and ethnically related. They diverged 600 to 700 years ago or more. Related to Dari [gbz]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Zoroastrian.

More Information

Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Khorasan-e Janubi and Khorasan-e Razavi provinces, on Afghanistan border east of Qa’en. 113,000 in Iran (1993). Population does not include refugees. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: “Afghani” (pej.), Paktu, Pashtu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Different from Northern Pashto [pbu] of Pakistan and India. Muslim.

More Information

Persian
[fas] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Dari [prs] (Afghanistan), Iranian Persian [pes].

More Information

Persian Sign Language
[psc] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language.

More Information

Persian, Iranian
[pes] Widespread. Most concentrated in central, south central, and northeast. 48,700,000 in Iran (2014 M. Izady), increasing. 800,000 Eastern Farsi in Khorasan speak dialects which are transitional with Iranian Persian. Total users in all countries: 51,614,320. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1979, Constitution, Article 15). Alternate Names: Farsi, New Persian, Parsi, Persian, West Persian, Western Farsi. Dialects: Abadani, Ketabi, Tehrani, Shirazi, Old Shirazi, Qazvini, Mahalhamadani, Kashani, Esfahani, Sedehi, Kermani, Araki, Shirazjahromi, Shahrudi Kazeruni, Mashadi (Meshed), Basseri, Yazdi, Bandari. Literary language virtually identical in Iran and Afghanistan, with very minor lexical differences. Dialect shading into Dari [prs] in Afghanistan and Tajiki [tgk] in Tajikistan. Many dialects may be separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Persian [fas]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Muslim, Baha’i, Christian.

More Information

Razajerdi
[rat] Qazvin Province. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Related to Takestani [tks]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Qazvin Province: Abyek district, Zargar village. Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

More Information

Rudbari
[rdb] Zanjan Province, Sefid Rud valley. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional to Caspian languages. Related to Vafsi [vaf]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Salchuq
[slq] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi and Zanjan provinces. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: Probably a dialect of Azerbaijani [azb]. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Azerbaijani.

More Information

Sangisari
[sgr] Semnan Province. Shahmirzadi dialect: Shamirzad north of Mehdi. 36,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahdi Shahri, Mehdishahri, Sangesari, Sängesäri, Sangsari, Sängsari, Sängsäri, Sengiseri, Sengsari. Dialects: Shahmirzadi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani. Comments: Muslim, Baha’i.

More Information

Semnani
[smy] Semnan Province. 60,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Simnani. Dialects: Biyabunaki might be a dialect of Semnani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Senaya
[syn] Tehran and Qazvin provinces. 60 in Iran (1997 H. Mutzafi). Total users in all countries: 460. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Christian Neo-Aramaic, Lshan Sray, Senaaya, Shan Gyanan, Shan Sray, Soray, Sray. Dialects: None known. Qazvin variety slightly different from that spoken by Sanandaj-born people. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, Aramaic, Eastern, Central, Northeastern. Comments: Christian.

More Information

Shahmirzadi
[srz] Semnan Province, Shahmirzad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mazanderani [mzn] and Gilaki [glk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Caspian.

More Information

Shahrudi
[shm] Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, Khalkhal and Shahrud districts, Shal, Kolur, Lerd. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Koluri. Dialects: Reportedly similar to Kajali [kjf] and Koresh-e Rostam [okh]. Different from Sharudi, an Iranian Persian [pes] dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Sivandi
[siy] Fars Province, Sivand, northwest of Shiraz on Shiraz-Isfahan Road. 7,030 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Soi
[soj] 7,030 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Sorkhei
[sqo] Semnan Province, Sorkheh, southwest of Semnan. 10,000 (2006 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Aftari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Semnani. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Takestani
[tks] Qazvin Province, Takestan area; possibly in Zanjan and Markazi provinces, Saveh area. 220000 Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Takistani. Dialects: Khalkhal, Tarom, Zanjan, Kharaqan, Ramand (Takestan). Khalkhal dialect is reportedly similar to Talysh [tly]. Transitional between Talysh and Semnani [smy] languages. Similar to Eshtehardi [esh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Different from Tat [ttt] of the Russian Federation, Azerbaijan, and Iran. Muslim.

More Information

Talysh
[tly] Northwest Gilan Province, Caspian coastal plain and mountain areas from Masuleh, Masal, and Kapur-Chal (Kepri-Chal) to Azerbaijan border; Ardebil Province, Ardabil and Namin counties; Northern Talyshi dialect: Azerbaijan, Astara and the Caspian littoral areas. Central Talyshi dialect: Gilan Province, Asalem-Hashtpar area along Caspian littoral. Southern Talyshi dialect: Gilan Province, Shandermen, Masal, Masuleh, and surrounding mountainous areas. 112,000 in Iran (1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Talesh, Taleshi, Talish, Talishi, Talyshi. Dialects: Northern Talyshi, Central Talyshi, Southern Talyshi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Taromi, Upper
[tov] Zanjan Province, Hazarrud and Siavarud areas; Azarbayjan-e Sharqi Province, upper Tarom. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Reportedly similar to Kabatei [xkp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Talysh. Comments: Muslim.

More Information

Tat, Muslim
[ttt] Gilan and Qazvin provinces. 8,000 in Iran. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mussulman Tati. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Tat. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Takestani [tks] of Iran. Muslim.

More Information

Turkmen
[tuk] Northeast, Turkmenistan border area, Golestan, Khorasan-e Razavi, and Khorasan-e Shemali provinces; possibly in Mazandaran Province: Gonbad-e Kavus and Pahlavi Dezh. 1,000,000 in Iran (2014 M. Izady). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Torkomani. Dialects: Anauli, Khasarli, Nerezim, Nokhurli (Nohur), Chavdur, Esari (Esary), Goklen (Goklan), Salyr, Saryq, Teke (Tekke), Yomud (Yomut), Trukmen. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkmenian. Comments: Not a literary language in Iran. Many are seminomadic. Ethnic groups: Yomut, Goklan. Muslim.

More Information

Vafsi
[vaf] Markazi Province, Arak district, Vafs, near Tafresh; some also in nearby Hamadan Province. 18,000 (2003). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Various dialects. Transitional between central Iranian dialects and Talysh [tly]; reportedly very similar to Ashtiani [atn]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Central Iran. Comments: Muslim.

More Information