Italy

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Albanian, Arbëreshë
[aae] Calabria region: Catanzaro and Reggio di Calabria provinces; Molise region: Campobasso province; Sicily region: Palermo province; possibly Apulia and Basilicata regions. 100,000 (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 260,000 (Stephens 1976). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Arbëreshë. Dialects: Sicilian Albanian, Calabrian Albanian, Central Mountain Albanian, Campo Marino Albanian, Molise Albanian. Speakers say 4 Italian dialects not mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 45% with Tosk Albanian [als]. A member of macrolanguage Albanian [sqi]. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Tosk. Comments: Descendants of 15th century mercenaries and refugees from the Ottoman invasion. Christian.

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Arpitan
[frp] Valle d’Aosta region; Piedmont region: Turin province. 70,000 (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Valle D’aosta (Patoé Valdoten, Valdostano, Valdotain), Faeto (Faetar), Celle San Vito. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, Southeastern.

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Bavarian
[bar] Trentino-Alto Adige region: south Tyrol. 250,000 (2005). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bavarian Austrian, Bayerisch, Boarisch. Dialects: Central Bavarian, North Bavarian, South Bavarian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Catalan
[cat] Sardinia region: Sassari province, Alghero area. 7,480 (Argenter 2008). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Algherese Catalan, Català. Dialects: Alghero (Algherese). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, East Iberian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Once part of the ancient Arago-Catalan kingdom, now a linguistic enclave in the municipality of Alghero (Argenter 2008).

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Cimbrian
[cim] Veneto region: Vincenza province, Roana commune. 2,230. 500 in Lusernese Cimbrian in Trentino Alto Oolige 40 km southeast from Trento, plus 1,500 Sette Comuni Cimbrian (40% of Roana (Rowan), 70% of Messaselva di Roana Rotzo) in Veneto around 60 km north of Vicenza (Kloss 1978), and 230 or 65% of Giazza (Ijetzan) Veneto, 43 km northeast of Verona (1992 R. Zamponi). 22,700 were in Sieben Gemeinde and 12,400 in Dreizehn Gemeinde in 1854. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tzimbro, Zimbrisch. Dialects: Lusernese Cimbrian, Tredici Communi Cimbrian (Tauch), Sette Comuni Cimbrian. Based on structural and intelligibility differences, the 3 dialects could be considered separate languages. Lusernese Cimbrian is heavily influenced by Italian [ita]. Heavily influenced by Bajuwarisch dialects. Sometimes considered a dialect of South Bavarian [bar]. Different from Bavarian [bar], Walser [wae], and Mocheno [mhn]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian.

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Corsican
[cos] Sardinia region; Maddalena islands, Sardinia northeast coast. 1,000 (1990). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Corse, Corsi, Corsu, Còrso. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Corsican.

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Emilian
[egl] Emilia-Romagna region: Reggio Emilia, main town; also in Bologna, Ferrara, Parma, Piacenza, Modena; Piedmont region: Curone valley. Some L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 3,000,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bolognese, Ferrarese, Modenese, Parmigiano, Piacentino, Reggiano. Autonym: Emigliân. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian. Comments: Emilian is less and less publicly used. Christian.

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French
[fra] Valle d’Aosta region. 9,830,000 in Italy, all users. L1 users: 100,000 (Harris 1987). L2 users: 9,730,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Valle d’Aoste (1999, Historical Minorities Protection Act, No. 482). Alternate Names: Francese, Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Friulian
[fur] Friuli-Venezia Giulia autonomous region except Trieste province and western and eastern border areas; Veneto region: Venezia province, Portogruaro area. 300,000 (2002). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Frioulan, Frioulian, Friulano, Marilenghe, Priulian. Autonym: Furlan. Dialects: East Central Friulian, Western Friulian, Carnico. Friulian, Ladin [lld] and Romansh [roh] are separate languages (1978 R. Hal). Reportedly more similar to Italian than Romansh [roh] (1981 F. Agard). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian. Comments: Some cultivate Friulian as a literary language.

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German, Standard
[deu] Trentino-Alto Adige region: Bolzano and South Tyrol provinces; Veneto region: Belluno province. 225,000 (Vincent 1987). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Trentino-Alto Adige region (1999, Historical Minorities Protection Act, No. 482). Alternate Names: Deutsch, Tedesco. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Greek
[ell] Apulia region: Bari province, Monopoli; Adriatic coast; Calabria region: east of Reggio. 20,000 (Vincent 1987). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Greco. Dialects: Salento (Griko, Katoitaliótika), Aspromonte. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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International Sign
[ils] Scattered in many countries. No known L1 users (2015 A. Bickford). No native signers; learned by adults at international gatherings. Ethnic population: No ethnic community (2015 A. Bickford). Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Gestuno, IS, International Sign Language. Dialects: Not a full language, but rather a limited pidgin used for cross-linguistic communication, especially at international meetings such as those of the WFD and the Deaflympics. Distinct lexically from all specific sign languages, as it incorporates elements from a variety of different (mostly European) sign languages, and shows considerable variation depending on the location where it is being used and the L1 of the interlocutors. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: The listing of International Sign under Italy is semi-arbitrary, but necessary since Ethnologue is organized by country.

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Italian
[ita] 59,000,000 (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 67,845,790 (as L1: 64,819,790; as L2: 3,026,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1999, Law No. 482, Article 1.1). Autonym: Italiano. Dialects: Tuscan, Abruzzese, Pugliese (Salentino), Umbrian, Laziale, Central Marchigiano, Cicolano-Reatino-Aquilano, Molisano. Regional varieties coexist with the standard language; some are inherently unintelligible. Aquilano, Molisano, and Pugliese are very different from other Italian varieties. Piedmontese [pms] and Sicilian [scn] are distinct enough to be separate languages (1982 F. Agard). Venetian [vec] and Lombard [lmo] are also very different (1981 P. Cousson). The Napoletano dialect of Napoletano-Calabrese [nap] is reportedly unintelligible to standard Italian. Northern varieties are more similar to French and Occitan [oci] than to standard or southern varieties (1982 F. Agard, Vincent 1987). Lexical similarity: 89% with French [fra], 87% with Catalan [cat], 85% with Sardinian [srd], 82% with Spanish [spa], 78% with Ladin [lld], 77% with Romanian [ron]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian.

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Italian Sign Language
[ise] Scattered, including Sardinia and Sicily. 40,000 (2014 EUD). 40,000 deaf sign language users (2014 EUD). 70,000 profoundly deaf people, including 9,000 school age. (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LIS, Lingua Italiana Dei Segni. Dialects: Some variation between northern, central, and southern regions, possibly enough to be considered separate languages. Deaf Italians report that communication between signers from different regions requires negotiation. Opinions differ as to whether the variation is desirable or should be standardized (2013 D. Eberle and S. Eberle). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: 300 sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Classes in LIS for hearing people. Christian.

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Judeo-Italian
[itk] Tuscany region: Siena province, Buonconvento; urban areas central and north, Rome. 200. Total users in all countries: 250. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Italkian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Comments: Jewish.

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Ladin
[lld] Trentino-Alto Adige region: the autonomous province of Bolzano-South Tyrol, 2 valleys. 31,000 (2013). Ethnic population: 38,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dolomite, Rhaeto-Romance. Dialects: Atesino, Cadorino, Nones (Nones Blot, Nonese, Nonesh, Parlata Trentina), Gardenese (Grödnerisch, Grüdno), Fassano, Badiotto (Gadertalisch), Marebbano (Ennebergisch), Livinallese, Ampezzano. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Rhaetian. Comments: Written since 1800 in Italy. Dialects of Gardenese, Badiotto, and Fassano taught in school. Distinct from Ladino [lad], Judeo-Spanish.

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Ligurian
[lij] Liguria region: east and west of Genoa along the Riviera and mountain hinterland; small communities near Piedmont-Liguria regional border (Garessio, Ormea, Saliceto, Seorle, Spigno, Orba valley, Scrivia valley); Piedmont region: Cuneo province; Tuscany region: Massa-Carrara province, small border areas; possible scattered settlements in Sardinia area. 500,000 (2002). Total users in all countries: 508,210. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ligure, Zenéize. Dialects: Genoese (Genoan, Genovese). Ligurian is reportedly more similar to Piedmontese [pms], Lombard [lmo], and French [fra] than to standard Italian [ita]. Ligurian varieties in Piedmont-Liguria border area are mutually intelligible with Piedmontese varieties. There are over 20 villages in Sicily and Basilicata regions where transitional Piedmontese [pms]-Ligurian varieties are spoken, due to a massive immigration from Piedmont during the Middle Ages (Pfister 1988). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian. Comments: Ligurian has had a literature since the 1200s and the Genoese variant was widely used alongside the Mediterranean because of the commercial and nautical importance of the Republic of Genoa. That is why Zenéize (meaning Genoese) is one of its alternate names.

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Lombard
[lmo] Lombardy region: Bregaglia, Mesoldina, and Poschiavo valleys; Piedmont region: Novara province; Trentino-Alto Adige region: west Trentino border area; Emilia-Romagna region: small areas along Po river northwest of Piacenza; Veneto region: east shoreline area, Lake Garda. 3,600,000 (2002). Total users in all countries: 3,903,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lombardo. Dialects: Milanese, Eastern Lombard, Western Lombard (Nicosia, Novara, Piazza Armerina, San Fratello), Alpine Lombard, Novarese Lombard, Trentino Western, Latin Fiamazzo, Latin Anaunico, Bergamasco, Ticinese (Ticino). A group of varieties, some of which may be separate languages. Western Lombard dialects (of Ticino and Graubünden) inherently intelligible. Speakers in more conservative valleys may have to use some kind of standard dialect to communicate with those of other dialects of Lombard. Lombard varieties in Piedmont region are mutually intelligible with neighboring Piedmontese [pms] dialects. Very different from standard Italian [ita]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian.

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Mócheno
[mhn] Trentino-Alto Adige region: Valle del Fersina. 1,900 (1992 R. Zamponi). 400 Fierozzo, 1,000 Palú, 460 Gereut. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Fierozzo (Florutz), Palú (Palai), Frassilongo (Gereut). Can partially understand Bavarian [bar], Cimbrian [cim], or Standard German [deu]. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Bavarian-Austrian.

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Napoletano-Calabrese
[nap] Calabria and Campania regions. 5,700,000 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Neapolitan-Calabrese. Dialects: Napoletano (Neapolitan, Tirrenic), Northern Calabrese-Lucano (Basilicatan, Lucanian). Limited inherent intelligibility of standard Italian [ita]. Neapolitan and Calabrese dialects are reportedly very different from each other. Southern Calabrian is reportedly a dialect of Sicilian [scn]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian.

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Occitan
[oci] Liguria region: Imperia province; Piedmont region: Entraigas, Limoun, Pignerol, Sestriero, Val d’Esturo, Val Mairo, Val Varacho, Vinai, upper valleys; maybe Calabria region: Guardia Piemontese. 100,000 (1990 P. Blanchet). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Provenzale, Provençal. Dialects: Provençal. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, Oc.

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Piedmontese
[pms] Lombardy region: small communities along Po river north bank, across from Valenza; Piedmont region: all provinces except Novara province, excluding Occitan- and Arpitan-speaking Alpine valleys; Valle d’Aosta region. 700,000 (Regis 2012). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Piemontese. Autonym: Piemontèis. Dialects: High Piedmontese (Alto Piemontese), Low Piedmontese (Basso Piemontese). Distinct enough from standard Italian [ita] to be considered a separate language. Considerable French [fra] influence. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian.

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Romagnol
[rgn] Emilia-Romagna region: Cesena, Imola, Faenza, Forlì, Ravenna, and Rimini. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 1,100,000. Total users in all countries: none known. Status: 9 (Dormant). Autonym: Rumagnol. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian. Comments: Romagnol less and less publicly used. Used in public bars among people who know each other, to tell daily events and jokes. Used also among people who do not know each other to win somebody over. Christian.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Scattered in northern regions. 14,000 (1980). 10,000 Manouche, 4,000 Slovenian-Croatian. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes, Sinte, Sinti. Dialects: Piedmont Sintí (Piedmontese Sinti), Slovenian-Croatian, Manouche, Venetian Sinti. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Major cities. 4,000. 1,000–3,000 Kalderash, 1,000 Lovari. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rom. Dialects: Kalderash (Italian Kalderash), Lovari, Italian Xoraxane. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Sardinian
[srd] Population total all languages: 1,200,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Campidanese Sardinian [sro], Gallurese Sardinian [sdn], Logudorese Sardinian [src], Sassarese Sardinian [sdc].

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Sardinian, Campidanese
[sro] Sardinia region: southern half of Sardinia island. 500,000 (Salminen 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Statutory language of provincial identity in south Sardinia (1999, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Campidanese, Campidese, Sardu, South Sardinian. Dialects: Cagliare (Cagliari, Cagliaritan), Arborense, Sub-Barbaricino, Western Campidenese, Central Campidanese, Ogliastrino, Sulcitano, Meridionale, Sarrabense. Cagliaritan is Cagliari dialect. Campidanese is distinct from other Sardinian languages. Lexical similarity: 62% between the Cagliare dialect and standard Italian [ita], 73% with Logudorese [src], 66% with Gallurese [sdn]. A member of macrolanguage Sardinian [srd]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian.

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Sardinian, Gallurese
[sdn] Sardinia region: Nuoro, Olbio Tempio, and Sassari provinces, facing Tyrrhenian sea. 100,000 (Salminen 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in northeast Sardinia (1999, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Gallurese, Northeastern Sardinian. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 83% with standard Italian [ita], 81% with Sassarese [sdc], 70% with Logudorese [src], 66% with Cagliare dialect of Campidanese Sardinian [sro]. A member of macrolanguage Sardinian [srd]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian. Comments: Influenced by Corsican [cos] and Tuscan varieties of Italian [ita]. They call Campidanese [sro] and Logudorese [src] Sard, and the people Sards, but do not include themselves or their language in those terms.

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Sardinian, Logudorese
[src] Sardinia region: generally south of Sassari town. 500,000 (Salminen 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in central Sardinia (1999, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Central Sardinian, Logudorese, Sard, Sardarese. Dialects: Nuorese, Northern Logudorese, Barbaricino, Southwestern Logudorese. No one form of Sardinian is selected as standard for literary purposes. Logudorese is different from other Sardinian varieties. Lexical similarity: 68% with standard Italian [ita], 73% with Sassarese [sdc] and Cagliare dialect of Sardinian, Campidanese [sro], 70% with Gallurese [sdn]. Sardinian has 85% lexical similarity with Italian, 80% with French [fra], 78% with Portuguese [por], 76% with Spanish [spa], 74% with Romanian [ron] and Ladin [lld]. A member of macrolanguage Sardinian [srd]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian. Comments: Christian.

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Sardinian, Sassarese
[sdc] Sardinia region: Sassari province. 100,000 (Salminen 1999). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in northwest Sardinia (1999, Linguistic Minority Defense Act No. 482, Article 2). Alternate Names: Northwestern Sardinian, Sassarese. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Gallurese [sdn], 76% with standard Italian [ita]. A member of macrolanguage Sardinian [srd]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Southern, Sardinian. Comments: Influenced by Ligurian [lij] and Pisan (Pisa, northwest coast of Italy). They call Campidanese [sro] and Logudorese [src] Sard, and the people Sards, but do not include themselves or their language in those terms.

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Sicilian
[scn] Sicily region: Sicily island and nearby island groups. 4,700,000 (2002). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Calabro-Sicilian, Sicilianu, Siculu. Dialects: Western Sicilian (Central-Western Agrigentino, Palermo, Trapani), Central Metafonetica, Southeast Metafonetica, Eastern Nonmetafonetica, Messinese, Isole Eolie, Pantesco, Southern Calabro. Distinct enough from standard Italian [ita] to be considered a separate language. The Pugliese dialect of Italian and Southern Calabrese are reportedly dialects of Sicilian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Comments: Christian.

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Slavomolisano
[svm] Molise region: Campobasso province, Montemitro, San Felice del Molise, and Acquaviva-Collecroce villages. 1,000 (2012 W. Breu). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2012 W. Breu). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Croato molisano, Molise Croatian, Molise Slavic, Naš jezik, Slavic of Molise. Autonym: Na-našu. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western. Comments: Descendants of 15th and 16th century Croatian refugees. Christian.

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Slovene
[slv] Friuli-Venezia Giulia region: Gorizia, Trieste, and Udine provinces, north and south along Slovenia border. 133,000 in Italy, all users. L1 users: 24,000 (European Commission 2012). L2 users: 109,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Trieste and Gorizia provinces (1999, Historical Minorities Protection Act, No. 482). Alternate Names: Slovenščina, Slovenian. Dialects: Primorski, Cividale, Resia. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western.

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Venetian
[vec] Friuli-Venezia Giulia region: southern Gorizia province, most of western Pordenone province, Trieste province; Trentino-Alto Adige region: central and east Trento province; Veneto region. 3,800,000 (2002). Total users in all countries: 7,852,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Talian, Venet. Autonym: Veneto. Dialects: Istrian, Triestino (Triestin), Venetian Proper (Venessian), Bisiacco, Paduan (Padovan), Rovigoto, Belumat, Buranelo, Caorloto, Ciosoto, Liventin, Maranese, Pordenonese, Trentin, Trevisan, Veronese, Vicentin. Distinct from standard Italian [ita]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Italian.

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Walser
[wae] Valle d’Aosta region: Val Lesa (Val del Lys) (Gressoney, Issime, Gaby); Piedmont region: Valsesia (Alagna, Rima S. Giuseppe, Rimella); Novara, Valle Anzasca (Macugnaga); Val Formazza (Formazza, Pomatt). 10 communities. 3,400 (Fazzini Giovannucci 1978). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Walscher. Dialects: Töitschu, Titsch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Upper German, Alemannic. Comments: In Valle d’Aosta influenced by Arpitan [frp] and Piedmontese [pms]; elsewhere in Italy by Italian [ita].

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