Cambodia

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Brao
[brb] Northeasternmost Cambodia, north Rotanah Kiri Province, especially Ta Veaeng district, north of Sesan river. 9,030 in Cambodia (2008 census). About 2,000 of the Brao counted in the census are Brao Tanap, which is actually more similar to Krung [krr]. 4,520 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 9,030. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Braou, Brou, Lave, Laveh, Love, Proue Dialects: Hamong, Jrii, Ka-nying, Lun, Ombaa. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet Comments: Krung [krr], Brao [brb], Kavet [krv], and Lun dialect [brb] form a mutually-intelligible cluster. At times, Brao may be used as a cover term for all groups. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Cham, Western
[cja] Near major cities; mainly in central provinces, especially along Mekong and Tonle Sap rivers; Batdambang Province, just northwest of provincial capital; Pouthisat and Kampong Chhnang provinces, southwest shoreline, Tonle Sap reservoir; Mekong river in Kampong Chhnang into very small portion of Kampong Spoe and Kandal provinces; area around Phnum Penh; Kampong Cham and Krachen provinces, Mekong river upstream from Khum Angkor Ban almost to Krachen city; far southwest, Kampot and Preah Seihanu provinces, 2 areas west of Kompot, on shore of Gulf of Thailand. 204,000 in Cambodia (2008 census). Population total all countries: 246,990. 0 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 400,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cambodian Cham, Cham, New Cham, Tjam Dialects: None known. Cannot communicate with Eastern Cham [cjm] of central Viet Nam. Lexical similarity: 84% with Eastern Cham [cjm] of Vietnam (Pawley 2010), 69% with Jarai [jra] of northeast Cambodia. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham Comments: Small ethnic groups from Cambodia settled in Thailand but no longer speak Cham (Bradley 2007). Muslim (Sunni).

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Border area, Stoeng Treng and Rotanah Kiri provinces; 2 nearby enclaves along Sesan river. 500 in Cambodia (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese

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Chong
[cog] Koh Kong Province, Areng valley. Ethnic population: 1,500 (2015 E. Pawley). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong

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Jarai
[jra] Rotanah Kiri Province, Bar Kaev, Andoung Meas, Ou Ya Dav districts principally, northeast border near Viet Nam. 20,800 in Cambodia (2008 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chor, Cho-Rai, Chrai, Djarai, Gia-Rai, Gio-Rai, Jorai, Mthur Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Highlands Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kaco’
[xkk] Northeast, Rotanah Kiri Province, Andoung Meas and Veun Sai districts, along Sesan river downstream from Phumi Ba Kham. 3,370 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kachah’, Kachok Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric

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Kavet
[krv] Laos-Cambodia border area, Stoeng Treng Province east of Kang river, Siempang; Rotanah Kiri Province, area north of San river near Virochey. 6,220 (2008 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Khvek, Kowet, Kravet Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet

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Khmer, Central
[khm] Widespread. 12,900,000 in Cambodia (2008 census). Population total all countries: 14,224,500. L2 users: 1,000,000 in Cambodia. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 5). Alternate Names: Cambodian, Khmer Dialects: Battambang Khmer, Cardamom Khmer, Khmer Kandal (Central), Khmer Keh (Stung Treng), Khmer Krom (Southern). Distinct from Northern Khmer [kxm] of Thailand. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Khmer

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Kraol
[rka] East Krachen Province, small border area, east of Mekong river. 4,200 (2008 census). 4,200 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Not intelligible to speakers of Central Mnong [cmo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong Comments: Different from Kraol dialect of Kuy [kdt].

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Kru’ng 2
[krr] East, Rotanah Kiri and Mondol Kiri provinces, Laos border area, mainly between Sesan and Sprepok rivers; also in southeast corner, Stoeng Treng Province. 20,700 (2008 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Brao Krung, Kreung Dialects: Brao Tanap, Lun. Brao [brb] and Kavet [krv] are reportedly inherently intelligible with Kru’ng 2. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet Comments: Different from Krung 1 dialect of Rade [rad] in Viet Nam.

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Kuy
[kdt] North central Cambodia, Preah Vihear and north Kampong Thum provinces, Sen river area; Stoeng Treng Province, concentration west of Mekong; Krachen Province, isolated area east of Krachen city on the Mekong river. 10,000 in Cambodia. Ethnic population: 37,700. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kuay Dialects: Kuy Ak, Kuy Anthua, Kuy Antra, Kuy May (Kuy Ma’ay), Kuy Mlor. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu Comments: Central Khmer used in schools. Dialects are based on the use of their word for ‘what’: Kuy Antra (northern Kompong Thom, southern Preah Vihear), Kuy Anthua (central Preah Vihear), Kuy May or Ma’ay (in Kratie), Kuy Mlor (1 village in northern Preah Vihear); only the older people still speak the last 2 dialects.

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Lao
[lao] Northeast, Stoeng Treng Province, large language area between Laos border and Kong river; otherwise, widely scattered communities, including Banteay Mean Cheay Province, 3 enclaves between Thai border and Sisophon city; southern Cambodia, enclaves in Prey Veng and Svay Rieng provinces. 21,600 in Cambodia. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Lao Phuon
[phu] Banteay Mean Cheay Province, Mongkol Borei district, Pong Ror, Rohat Teak, Ta Sal, Sranal, Prey To Teang, Pouy Ta Sek, Boung Preang, Sdey Leu, Sdey Kraom, and Kok Thnong villages. 1,000 in Cambodia (2013). Ethnic population: 2,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Mnong, Central
[cmo] East Cambodia, almost all of Mondol Kiri Province; into northeast and central Krachen Province. 37,500 in Cambodia (2008 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Budong, Bunong, Phanong, Phnong, Phong Dialects: Biat, Bu Dang, Bu Nar, Bu Rung, Dih Bri, Preh. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Sre-Mnong, Mnong, Southern-Central Mnong Comments: Biat is main dialect.

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Pear
[pcb] Preah Vihear Province, Rovieng district, 3 to 4 villages. 1,670 (2011). Ethnic population: 1,830 (2008 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Por Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Eastern

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Samre
[sxm] Siem Reab Province, north of Lake Sap, near Siem Reab town. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 200 (2000 D. Bradley). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Samre

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Sa’och
[scq] Southwest, Preah Seihanu Province, near Kampong Saom bay, east coast, but inland. 10 (2009 J. Filipi), decreasing. Ethnic population: 450. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Saotch, Sauch Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Chong

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Somray
[smu] Pouthisat Province, 2 areas, north, east, and west of Phum Tasanh, and Tanyong river around Phum Pra Moi; far north, Kaoh Kong Province; southwest Batdambang Province, Phumi Chhak Rokar area. 4,100 (2005 J. Ironside). Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Samre

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Stieng, Bulo
[sti] East, Krachen Province, Snuol district; perhaps in southern Mondol Kiri. 6,540 in Cambodia (2008 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kajiang Dialects: Budip, Bulo. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, South Bahnaric, Stieng-Chrau

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Suoy
[syo] Kampong Spoe and Pouthisat provinces, Phumi Krang Trachak area. 860 (Bradley 2007), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Su’ung Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Pearic, Western, Suoy

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Tampuan
[tpu] Northeast border area, Central Rotanah Kiri Province, Sesan river, area stretching south, as far as Srepok river. 31,000 in Cambodia (2008 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Campuon, Kha Tampuon, Proon, Proons, Tamphuan, Tampuen, Tampuon Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric Comments: Exogamous clans, together with Kaco’ and Jarai, override ethnic and linguistic boundaries.

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Thai
[tha] Thai Koh Kong Kaoh Kong Province, west of Meleuk river, Thai Koh Kong dialect; northwest, Banteay Mean Cheay Province between Sisophon and Paoy Pet on Thai border; dialect: Thai Norkor Raja. 2,460 in Cambodia (2008 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Thai Koh Kong, Thai Norkor Raja (Siam Nokor, Siam Trang). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Vietnamese
[vie] Phnum Penh; generally dispersed longstanding population; communities in urban areas, including Siem Riep, Preah Seihanu, Ta Khmau, others. 72,800 in Cambodia (2008 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Vietnamese

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