Laos

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Aheu
[thm] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, near Lak Sao. 250 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 500 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bru, Kha Tong Luang, Phon Soung, Phonsung, So, Thavung. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Akeu
[aeu] Phongsali province: Gnot Ou district. 1,000 (1996 E. Johnson). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aki, Akui, Gaolkheel. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Akha
[ahk] Phongsali and Luang Namtha provinces. 113,000 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Ak’a, Aka, Ikor, Yani, “Ekaw” (pej.), “Hka Ko” (pej.), “Ikaw” (pej.), “Kaw” (pej.), “Khako” (pej.), “Khao Kha Ko” (pej.), “Ko” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Alak
[alk] South, mainly Salavan and Xekong provinces. 4,000 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 25,400 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Halak, Harak, Hrlak. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bahnar [bdq], Tampuan [tpu], and Romam [rmx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Arem
[aem] Khammouan province: Nam Noy river upper reaches, both sides of Viet Nam-Laos border, west of Phuc Trach. 250 (Enfield and Diffloth 2009). Ethnic population: 500 (1995). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chombrau, Chomrau, Harème, Kri, Umo. Dialects: Phòòngq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut.

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Bit
[bgk] Luang Namtha province: northeast Namtha district, and south of Boun Neua; Oudomxai province: Namo district; Phongsali province: Boun-Tai, Khua, and Mai districts, 8 villages; near China border. 2,370 (2015 census). Total users in all countries: 2,570. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buxinhua, Kha Bet, Khabit, Khbit, Pasing, Phsin, Phsing, Pu Sing. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Bit-Khang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bo
[bgl] Bolikhamxai province: Lak Sao area; Khammouan province: Hinboun district, Nape area. 2,950 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boe, Bor, Kha Bo, Tai Bo, Thay Bo. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bru, Eastern
[bru] Savannahkhet province: Sepone district; Khammouan province: Boulapha district. 37,400 (2015 census). Total users in all countries: 93,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bru Tri. Dialects: Leun (Kaleu, Leung), Tri (Chali, So Tri, So Trii). Partially intelligible with Western Bru [brv] of Thailand. The Mangkong dialect in Viet Nam and eastern Laos is a dialect of Eastern Bru, different linguistically from the Mangkong that are the same as So [sss] of Thailand. Mangkong is also an ethnic group. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chepya
[ycp] Phongsali province. 1,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Akeu [aeu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Chut
[scb] Khammouan province: Boualapha district, near Viet Nam border. 200 (Bradley 2007a). 50 May, 150 Ruc (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 400 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: May, Ruc, Sach, Salang. Dialects: May, Ruc. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion.

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Con
[cno] Bokeo province: Meung district; Luang Namtha province: southwest of Vieng Pou Kha. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic.

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Halang Doan
[hld] Attapu province: Sanxai district, Kasseng plateau, Kamane and Dak Robay rivers’ left banks near Viet Nam border; Xekong province: Dakcheung district. 2,350 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doan, Duan, Halang Duan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Hani
[hni] Phongsali province: Ou Nua district; Ban Sika Hon, Ban Si Ben Chay, and Ban Kuchu Lin. 740 (2015 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ha Nhi, Hanhi, Haw, Hayi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: An official nationality in China. Traditional religion.

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Hmong Daw
[mww] Widespread in the north. 170,000 (1995 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Hmong Der, Hmoob Dawb, White Hmong, White Lum, White Miao, “Meo Kao” (pej.), “White Meo” (pej.). Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Striped Hmong). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Co-extensive with Hmong Njua [hnj]. Traditional religion.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] North, widespread. 100,000 (Hattaway 2000). Total users in all countries: 310,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Blue Hmong, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, Mong Leng, Mong Njua, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao, “Blue Meo” (pej.), “Green Meo” (pej.), “Meo Dam” (pej.), “Meo Lai” (pej.). Autonym: Hmongb Nzhuab, Moob Leeg. Dialects: None known. Speakers in Myanmar understand border speakers in China well. Hmong Daw [mww] and Hmong Njua are largely mutually intelligible, but there are sufficient sociolinguistic, phonological, and lexical differences to require separate literature. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian. Comments: Co-extensive with Hmong Daw [mww]. Traditional religion.

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Hung
[hnu] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district; northeast of Nape and south of Phong river (Toum dialect). 3,630 (2015 census). Total users in all countries: 4,330. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Toum (Tum), Phong (Pong, Pong 1, Pong 2, Poong). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ir
[irr] Salavan province: east of Salavan town. 4,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: In, Yiir, Yir. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ong [oog]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Iu Mien
[ium] Bokeo province: Houay Xay and Pak Tha districts; Luang Namtha province: Long, Namtha, and Sing districts; Phongsali province: Yot Ou district; Xiangnabouli province: Khop and Xienghone districts. 32,400 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ewmien, Highland Yao, Iu Mienh, Man, Mien, Mienh, Myen, Yao, Yao Mienh. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Comments: Almost all Western refugees came from Laos. Daoist, traditional religion.

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Jeh
[jeh] Attapu province: Sanxai district; Xekong province: Dakchung district; basin of Dak Main, Kamane, and Poko rivers. 11,500 (2015 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Die, Gie, Yae, Yeh. Dialects: Jeh Bri La, Jeh Mang Ram. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kaduo
[ktp] Phongsali province: north of Mong Ou Tay. 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khatu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Different from Kadu [zkd], Western Katu [kuf].

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Kang
[kyp] Houaphan and Xiengkhoang provinces. 47,600 (1995 census). Total users in all countries: 81,700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Khang. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui.

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Katang, Northern
[ncq] Salavan province: centered in Toumlan district; Savannahkhet province: Nong and Phin districts. 65,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kataang, Katang. Dialects: Katang Phin. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Katang, Southern
[sct] Salavan province: Salavan and Tumlan districts. 40,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kataang Rueal, Katang, Katang Rueal. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Katu, Western
[kuf] Xekong province: upper Xe Kong river border area. 28,000 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dak Kang, Triw, Kantu. A different language, Eastern Katu [ktv], and orthography from Viet Nam. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khlor
[llo] Salavan province: Laongam district; Xekong province. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Klor, Lor. Dialects: Reportedly a dialect of Kriang [ngt]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khmu
[kjg] Scattered in the north. 708,000 (2015 census). Total users in all countries: 797,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Khomu, Kmhmu, Lao Kang, Lao Terng, Mou, Pouteng, Pu Thenh, Tenh, Theng. Autonym: ກຶມຫມຸ‎ (Kmhmu’). Dialects: Yuan, Khroong (Krong, Kroong), Luang Prabang, Sayabury, Cwaa (Lii, Lyy), Rok, U (Eastern Khmu, Uu), Hat. Dialects are grouped into three: Northern Khmu (Cwaa and Yuan), Western Khmu (Khroong and Rok), and Eastern Khmu (Svantesson and Holmer 2015). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khua
[xhv] Khammouan province: Bouarapha district, northwest of Boualapha. 2,000 (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru. Comments: Different from Cua [cua]. Traditional religion.

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Khuen
[khf] Luang Namtha province: Nale, Sing, and Viangphoukha districts. 8,000 (1995 L. Chazee). Total users in all countries: 9,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khouen, Khween, Kween. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’. Comments: Distinct from Kuan [uan], Khmu Keun [kjg]. Buddhist.

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Khün
[kkh] Louangphabang province: sacred temple area. 600 (Schliesinger 2003a). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kim Mun
[mji] Luang Namtha province: Long district, 21 villages. 4,500 (1995 L. Chazee). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jim Mun, Kem di mun, Lan Tin, Lanten, Lowland Yao, Man Lan-Tien, Mun. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin. Comments: Non-indigenous. Daoist.

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Kiorr
[xko] Luang Namtha and Oudomxai provinces: 6 villages. 2,360 (1985 F. Proschan). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Col, Con, Saamtaav, Samtao, Samtao II. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Buddhist.

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Kriang
[ngt] Champasak province: Ba Chiang Chaleun Souk and Pak Song districts; Salavan province: Salavan district; Xekong province: Kaleum and Tha Taeng districts. 16,800 (2015 census). 9,030 monolinguals (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Griang, Khiang, Kuriang, Ngae, Nge, Nge’, Ngeh, Ngeq, Ngkriang, Nhae, Nkriang. Dialects: Kriang Koh, Kriang Tha Taeng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ksing Mul
[puo] Houaphan province: Xiangkho district; Xieng Khouang province: Het river, along Viet Nam border. 9,870 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ksingmul, Lao Muh, Pou Hok, Puhoc, Xin Mul, Xing Mun, Xingmoun, Xinh Mul, Xinh Mun, “Kha Puhoc” (pej.), “Puoc” (pej.), “Puok” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist.

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Kuan
[uan] Bolikhamxai province: Viangthong district, near Muang river; Khamkeut district, Ban Guan at Ban pakha, Ban Pung, and Ban Bo. 890 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guan, Tai Guan, Tai Khouan, Tai Kouane, Tai Kuan, Tai Kwan. Dialects: None known. Not easily classified, possibly due to migration. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Kuay
[kdt] Champasak, Salavan, and Savannahkhet provinces: both sides of the Mekong river. 46,600 (2015 census). 34,200 monolinguals (2005). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aouei, Cuoi, Dui, Khamen-Boran, Kui, Kuoy, Kuy, Old Khmer, Soai, Suai, Suay, Suei, Sui, Suoi. Dialects: Antra, Na Nhyang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lahu
[lhu] Bokeo province: Houayxay, Peung, and Tonpheung districts; Luang Namtha province: Long district. 19,200 (2015 census), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Muhso, Museu, Musso, Mussuh. Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Loheirn, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Luhishi, Luhushi, Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lahu Si
[lhi] Bokeo province: Kentung. 3,000 (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kui, Kui Lung, Kui Sang, Lahu Shi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Lao
[lao] Widespread throughout Mekong river valley, south to Cambodia border. 4,230,000 in Laos, all users. L1 users: 3,430,000 (2015 census). L2 users: 800,000. Total users in all countries: 4,424,200 (as L1: 3,624,200; as L2: 800,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 89). Alternate Names: Eastern Thai, Lao Kao, Lao Wiang, Lao-Lum, Lao-Noi, Lao-Tai, Laotian, Laotian Tai, Lum Lao, Phou Lao, Rong Kong, Tai Lao. Autonym: ພາສາລາວ‎ (Phasa Lao), ລາວ‎ (Lào). Dialects: Luang Prabang, Vientiane (Wiang Jan), Savannakhet, Pakse, Lao-Kao, Lao-Khrang. Dialect subgroup with Northeastern Tai [tts] of Thailand. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: The Lao Kao migrated to Thailand and are in Nan, Loei, Saraburi, and elsewhere. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Laopang
[lbg] Bokeo province. 9,550 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gu-ba, Laopa, Laopan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Unclassified.

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Laos Sign Language
[lso] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Possibly more than one language.

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Lave
[brb] Attapu and Champasak provinces: Laos-Cambodia border. 26,000 (2015 census). Total users in all countries: 35,340. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Brao, Braou, Brau, Brou, Laveh, Love, Proue, Rawe. Dialects: Palau. Reportedly similar to Krung [krr], Kavet [krv], and Sou [sqq]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Laven
[lbo] Attapu province; Champasak province: Paksong district; Salavan province; Xekong province: Thataeng district. 56,400 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boloven, Boriwen, Jaru, Jru, Jru’, Jruq, Laweenjru, Loven, Yrou. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Laven. Comments: Different from Brao [brb]. Traditional religion.

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[khb] Bokeo, Louangphabang, Luang Namtha, Oudomxai, Phongsali, and Xiangnabouli provinces. 126,000 (2015 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lu, Lue, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Mal
[mlf] Xiangnabouli province: Phiang district, west of the Mekong. 23,200 (1995 census). Total users in all countries: 26,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Htin, Khatin, Madl, T’in, Thin, Tin. Autonym: Mal, Ma’di. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Prai [prt]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Prai. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Maleng
[pkt] Khammouan province: Nakay district, Nam Theun valley, near Theun river; Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, Lac Sao sub-district, Ban Baga Tan. 500 (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: Less than 1,000. Total users in all countries: 700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malang, Malieng. Dialects: Maleng, Pakatan (Kha Pakatan), Malang, Hareme. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mlabri
[mra] Xiangnabouli province: Phiang district, near Thailand border. 40 (Schliesinger 2003b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ma Ku, Mabri, Mla, Mla-Bri, Mrabri, Yellow Leaf, Yumbri. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri. Comments: Nomadic. Different from Kha Tong Luang (Phi Tong Luang, Yellow Leaf), which are Western Viet-Muong (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Traditional religion.

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Ngoaun
[nuo] Khammouan province: Nakai district. 27,800 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nguôn. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nung
[nut] Louangphabang province: Xiengngeun district. A few in Laos. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central. Comments: Non-indigenous. Different from Chinese Nung [yue] (Cantonese in Viet Nam).

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Nyaheun
[nev] Champasak province: Paksong district; Xekong and Attapu provinces. 9,000 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hin, Hoen, Hun, Nha Heun, Nia Hoen, Niahon, Nyah Heuny, Nyahön, Yaheun. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Nyaheun. Comments: Traditional religion.

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O’du
[tyh] Xiengkhoang province: Khouone district, 2 villages. 600 (2015 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: ’Iduh, O Du, Oedou, “Haat” (pej.), “Hat” (pej.), “Tay Hat” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ong
[oog] Champasak province; Salavan province: north of Salavan town. 10,300 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hantong, Tong. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ir [irr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Oy
[oyb] Attapu province: foot of Bolaven plateau, and near Pakse; Xekong province: Thateng district. Attapu province: Samakkhixai and Sanamxai districts, 7 villages north of Attopeu town; Xekong province: Dakcheung and Lamam districts (Jeng dialect); Attapu, Champasak, and Xekong provinces (Sok dialect). 23,500 (2015 census). 23,500 Oy and 8,690 Jeng (2015 census). 8,960 monolinguals (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Huei, Oey, Oi, Oi-Sok, Thae, The. Dialects: Riyao, Tamal Euy, Inn Tea, Kranyeu, Khen Sang, Kongsang, La-Nyao, The, Jeng (Cheng, Chiengceng), Sok (Sawk, Sork). Related to Sapuan [spu]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Pacoh
[pac] Salavan province: Samouay district; Savannahkhet province; Xekong province: Kaleum district. 22,600 (2015 census). 11,600 monolinguals (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo River Van Kieu, Ganai, Pa Co, Paco, Pako, Poko, Pokoh. Dialects: Pahi, Kado (Cado, Cadô). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh. Comments: ‘Koh’ in Pacoh, mountain. Traditional religion.

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Phana’
[phq] Bokeo province: Houayxay district, 1 village; Luang Namtha province: Namtha district, Bopiet and Namtoung villages; Phongsali province: east of Moung Ou Tail. 350 (1995 census). Ethnic population: Included within the Ahka [ahk] ethnic group. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bana’, Pana’. Dialects: None known. Very similar to Sila [slt] (Bradley 2007a). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: A larger population may be in China under Han nationality.

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Phong-Kniang
[pnx] Houaphan province: Aet and Xieng Khor districts near Neun river; Xiengkhoang province. 30,700 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Keneng, Kenieng, Lao Phong, Pong, “Kha Niang” (pej.), “Khaniang” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul. Comments: A Phong exonym of Kniang and not to be confused with Kha Phong, a dialect of Maleng [pkt], nor with the autonym Pong as a dialect of Hung [hnu] (Ferlus 1996). Traditional religion.

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Phu Thai
[pht] Bolikhamxai, Khammouan, and Savannahkhet provinces; Salavan province: centered in Toumlan district; Champasak and Xiengkhoang provinces. 218,000 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phutai, Putai, Puthay. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phuan
[phu] Xiengkhoang province: Kham, Pek, and Phou Kout districts. 106,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Name also used for Lao in Thailand. Buddhist.

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Phunoi
[pho] Phongsali province. 39,200 (2015 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Phounoy, Phu Noi, Punoi, Singsily, Sinsali. Dialects: Black Khoany, White Khoany, Mung, Hwethom, Khaskhong. Reportedly similar to Bisu [bzi], Pyen [pyy], and Mpi [mpz]. Listed dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Prai
[prt] Xiangnabouli province: Hongsa, Nguen, Phiang, Xiang Hon, and Xaignabouli districts. 28,700 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Mai, Lao Prai, Lua Prai, Phai, “Htin” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Prai. Comments: Distinct from Mal [mlf]. There are 9 Lao Prai villages in Hongsa district in Xaignabouli province where the Prai spoken is similar to the Prai spoken in Thailand. More specifically, it is very similar to the ‘Y’ variety of Prai spoken in Thailand. Traditional religion.

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Rmeet
[lbn] Bokeo, Luang Namtha, and Oudomxai provinces. 22,400 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kha Lamet, Khamed, Khamet, Lamed, Lamet, Lemet. Autonym: Rmeet. Dialects: Upper Lamet, Lower Lamet. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Saek
[skb] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, Na Kadok village; Khammouan province: upper Nam Noy and Nam Pheo areas. 3,840 (2015 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Seak, Sek, Set, Tai Sek, Xaek, Xec, Xek. Dialects: Na Kadok, Khammouan. Reportedly similar to Tai Yo [tyj]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern. Comments: The Saek of Na Kadok claim to have come from Phu Quan, Ban Pho Quang, Duc Tho District, in what is now Ha Tinh Province, Viet Nam. Khammouan dialect speakers are originally from Nakai District, and it is still spoken in Toeng, Nam Meo, Na Moey, and Beuk. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Salang
[hal] Attapu province. 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Halang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Samtao
[stu] Bokeo province: Houay Xai district. 3,420 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samtau, Samtuan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sapuan
[spu] Champasak and Xekong provinces: Se Kamane and Se Kong rivers’ banks. 2,400 (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sapouan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Sila
[slt] Luang Namtha province; Oudomxai province: Namo district; Phongsali province: Boun Neua, Ngot Ou, and Samphan districts. 3,000 (2015 census). Total users in all countries: 3,710. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Asong, Sida, “Kha Pai” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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So
[sss] Bolikhamxai, Khammouan, Savannahkhet provinces. 163,000 (2015 census). Total users in all countries: 233,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bru, Makong, Mang Cong, Mang-Koong, Mangkong, Mankoong, So Makon, Sô, Thro, “Kha So” (pej.). Dialects: So Trong, So Slouy, So Phong. Reportedly similar to Bru [bru]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Sou
[sqq] Attapu province: Phouvong and Sanamxai districts. 2,360 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sawk, Souk, Su, Su’, Suq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Daeng
[tyr] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, Lac Sao sub-district; Luang Namtha province: Luong district; Viengchan province: Kasi district; Houaphan, Louangphabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali, and Xiengkhoang provinces. 25,000 (1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Daeng, Red Thai, Tai Deng, Thai Dang, Thai Do. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Part of the official Thai ethnic community in Viet Nam. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Tai Dam
[blt] Bokeo, Bolikhamxai, Houaphan, Louangphabang, Luang Namtha, Oudomxai, Phongsali, Viengchan, Xiangnabouli, and Xiengkhoang provinces. 65,000 (Schliesinger 2003a). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Tai, Tai Noir, Thai Den. Dialects: Tai Muoi (Meuay, Tai Muei, Tay Mueai). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Dón
[twh] Houaphan and Phongsali provinces. 200,000 (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Blanc, Tai Kao, Tai Lai, Thái Tráng, White Tai. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Khang
[tnu] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district; Ban Phon Than, Ban Ban Sopkat subdistrict; Nam Hai district; Viengthong district. 200. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Schliesinger 2003a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tai Kang, Tay Chieng, Tay Khang. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai. Comments: Some problem in classification and confusion with Kháng [kjm] of Viet Nam. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Tai Loi
[tlq] Luang Namtha province: Sing district. 500 (1995 census). Ethnic population: 600 (Schliesinger 2003b). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Doi, Lao Doi, Loi, Monglwe, Tai Doi, Tailoi, Wakut, “Kha Doy” (pej.). Dialects: Tai Loi, Doi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Tai Long
[thi] Louangphabang province. 4,800 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] Bolikhamxai, Houaphan, Viengchan, Xiengkhoang, and Xaisomboun provinces. 14,100 (2015 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chinese Shan, Tai Neua, Tai Nuea, Thaineau. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Tai Pao
[tpo] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut, Pakkading, and Viangthong districts. 3,300 (1995 census). Total users in all countries: 13,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai. Comments: Classification unclear, possibly due to migration. Traditional religion.

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Tai Yo
[tyj] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, Lak Xao, Ka’ane, Khamkeut, Na Heuang, Nam Sak, Phon Thoen, Sop Chat, Sop Pone, and Tha Veng; Vieng Thong district. 7,200 (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Do, Tai Maen, Tai Man, Tai Men, Tai Mene, Tai Mène, Tai Mènè, Tai-Maen. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Saek [skb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai. Comments: They claim to have come from Xieng Lip and Ban Pot in Nghe An, Viet Nam.

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Talieng
[tdf] Savannahkhet province: Phine district; Xekong province: Dak Cheung district near Viet Nam border, Boloven plateau area; into Attapu province. 38,000 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Caliang, Calieng, Kaseng, Kasseng, Koseng, Kraseng, Taliang, Tariang, Tarieng, Triang, Trieng. Dialects: None known. May be the same language as Trieng [stg]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West. Comments: Apparently different from Tareng [tgr], which is East Katuic. ‘Tariang’, headhunters. Traditional religion.

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Ta’oih, Lower
[tto] Salavan province: northwest of Saravan town; Xekong province: Kaleum district. 15,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tong. Dialects: Tong, Hantong’. Not intelligible of Upper Ta’oih [tth]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih.

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Ta’oih, Upper
[tth] Salavan province: Ta-Oy district; Savannahkhet and Xekong provinces. 30,900 (1995 census). 21,600 monolinguals (1995). Total users in all countries: 49,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katang, Ta Hoi, Ta’oiq, Ta-Oi, Ta-Oy, Ta-oiq, Tau Oi. Dialects: Pasoom, Kamuan’, Palee’n, Leem, Ha’aang (Sa’ang), Katang Ta’oiq. Not inherently intelligible of Lower Ta’oih [tto]. Intelligibility can be acquired after at least 2 weeks’ contact. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tareng
[tgr] Xekong province: west of Viet Nam border, east of Kayong, north of Chavane and Thia. 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tariang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh. Comments: Distinct from Talieng [tdf], which is North Bahnaric.

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Thai, Northern
[nod] Oudomxai and Xiangnabouli provinces. 29,500 (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kam Mueang, Lan Na, Lanatai, Lanna, Lannatai, Muang, Mueang, Myang, “Youanne” (pej.), “Youon” (pej.), “Yuan” (pej.). Dialects: Nan. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Yang
[pcc] Luang Namtha province: Vieng Poukha district, Nam Fa; Nale district, Nam Huay; Oudomxai province: Beng district, Khone; Namo district, Ay, Sonsavath, Ponxay Savan Namo Neua; Xay district, Long Ya; Phongsali province: Khua district, Mone Savanh, Hat Xeui; Gnot Ou district, Xum Kham, Tha; Boun Tai district, Na Mak, Na Tene, Vieng Xai, Long Nam, Long Nay Khao; Boun Neua district, Muong Xou. 5,840 (2015 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nhang, Nyang. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Yoy
[yoy] Khammouan province. 1,000 (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dioi, Jui, Yoi, Yooi, Yooy. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern. Comments: May be same as Tai Yo of Khammouan Province, a Northern Tai language. Buddhist.

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