Laos

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Aheu
[thm] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, near Lak Sao. Population: 250 in Laos (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 500 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bru, Kha Tong Luang, Phon Soung, Phonsung, So, Thavung. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung.

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Akeu
[aeu] Phongsali province: Gnot Ou district. Population: 1,000 in Laos (1996 E. Johnson). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Aki, Akui, Gaolkheel. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Akha
[ahk] Phongsali and Luang Namtha provinces. Population: 113,000 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Ak’a, Aka, Ikor, Yani, “Ekaw” (pej.), “Hka Ko” (pej.), “Ikaw” (pej.), “Kaw” (pej.), “Khako” (pej.), “Khao Kha Ko” (pej.), “Ko” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Alak
[alk] Xekong province: Lamam and Thataeng districts; Attapu and Salavan provinces. Population: 25,000 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Halak, Harak, Harlak, Hrlak. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bahnar [bdq], Tampuan [tpu], and Romam [rmx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric.

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Arem
[aem] Khammouan province: Nam Noy river upper reaches, both sides of Viet Nam-Laos border, west of Phuc Trach. Population: 250 in Laos (Enfield and Diffloth 2009). Ethnic population: 500 (1995). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chombrau, Chomrau, Harème, Kri, Umo. Dialects: Phòòngq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut.

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Bit
[bgk] Luang Namtha province: northeast Namtha district, and south of Boun Neua; Oudomxai province: Namo district; Phongsali province: Boun-Tai, Khua, and Mai districts, 8 villages; near China border. Population: 2,370 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Total users in all countries: 2,570. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buxinhua, Kha Bet, Khabit, Khbit, Pasing, Phsin, Phsing, Pu Sing. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Bit-Khang.

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Bo
[bgl] Bolikhamxai province: Lak Sao area; Khammouan province: Hinboun district, Nape area. Population: 2,950 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Boe, Bor, Kha Bo, Tai Bo, Thay Bo. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong.

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Bru, Eastern
[bru] Savannahkhet province: Sepone district; Khammouan province: Boulapha district. Population: 37,400 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Total users in all countries: 93,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bru Tri. Dialects: Leun (Kaleu, Leung), Tri (Chali, So Tri, So Trii). Partially intelligible with Western Bru [brv] of Thailand. The Mangkong dialect in Viet Nam and eastern Laos is a dialect of Eastern Bru, different linguistically from the Mangkong that are the same as So [sss] of Thailand. Mangkong is also an ethnic group. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru.

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Bru, Western
[brv] Khammouan and Savannahkhet provinces: central and southern areas. Population: 163,000 in Laos (2015 census). Includes So [sss]. Total users in all countries: 183,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bru. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru.

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Cham
[cja] Viengchan Capital City: Chanthaburi district, Ban Pounsavath Tai; Savannahkhet province. Population: Ethnic population: 340 (Schliesinger 2003a). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cam, Chiem, Khmer Islam, Tjam, Tscham, Tsiam. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Chamic, Coastal, Cham.

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Chepya
[ycp] Phongsali province. Population: 1,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 2,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Related to Akeu [aeu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Chut
[scb] Khammouan province: Boualapha district, near Viet Nam border. Population: 200 in Laos (Bradley 2007a). 50 May, 150 Ruc (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: 400 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: May, Ruc, Sach, Salang. Dialects: May, Ruc. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut.

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Con
[cno] Bokeo province: Meung district; Luang Namtha province: southwest of Vieng Pou Kha. Population: 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic.

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Halang Doan
[hld] Attapu province: Sanxai district, Kasseng plateau, Kamane and Dak Robay rivers’ left banks near Viet Nam border; Xekong province: Dakcheung district. Population: 2,350 in Laos (2000). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Doan, Duan, Halang Duan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan.

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Hani
[hni] Phongsali province: Ou Nua district; Ban Sika Hon, Ban Si Ben Chay, and Ban Kuchu Lin. Population: 740 in Laos (2015 census), decreasing. Based on ethnicity. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ha Nhi, Hanhi, Haw, Hayi. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Hmong Daw
[mww] Widespread in the north. Population: 170,000 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Hmong Der, Hmoob Dawb, White Hmong, White Lum, White Miao, “Meo Kao” (pej.), “White Meo” (pej.). Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Striped Hmong). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] North, widespread. Population: 100,000 in Laos (Hattaway 2003). Total users in all countries: 312,450. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Blue Hmong, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, Mong Leng, Mong Njua, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao, “Blue Meo” (pej.), “Green Meo” (pej.), “Meo Dam” (pej.), “Meo Lai” (pej.). Autonym: Hmongb Nzhuab, Moob Leeg. Dialects: None known. Speakers in Myanmar understand border speakers in China well. Hmong Daw [mww] and Hmong Njua are largely mutually intelligible, but there are sufficient sociolinguistic, phonological, and lexical differences to require separate literature. A member of macrolanguage Hmong [hmn]. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian.

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Hung
[hnu] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district; northeast of Nape and south of Phong river (Toum dialect). Population: 3,630 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Total users in all countries: 4,130. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Toum (Tum), Phong (Pong, Pong 1, Pong 2, Poong). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi.

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Ir
[irr] Salavan province: east of Salavan town. Population: 4,420 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: In, Yiir, Yir. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ong [oog]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih.

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Iu Mien
[ium] Bokeo province: Houay Xay and Pak Tha districts; Luang Namtha province: Long, Namtha, and Sing districts; Phongsali province: Yot Ou district; Xiangnabouli province: Khop and Xienghone districts. Population: 32,400 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ewmien, Highland Yao, Iu Mienh, Man, Mien, Mienh, Myen, Yao, Yao Mienh. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin.

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Jeh
[jeh] Attapu province: Sanxai district; Xekong province: Dakchung district; basin of Dak Main, Kamane, and Poko rivers. Population: 11,500 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Die, Gie, Yae, Yaeh, Yeh. Dialects: Jeh Bri La, Jeh Mang Ram. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang.

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Kaduo
[ktp] Phongsali province: Ou Nua district. Population: 200 in Laos (Schliesinger 2003c). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gazhuo, Kado, Kadu, Khatu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Kang
[kyp] Houaphan and Xiengkhoang provinces. Population: 47,600 in Laos (1995 census). Total users in all countries: 81,700. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Khang. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui.

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Katang, Northern
[ncq] Salavan province: centered in Toumlan district; Savannahkhet province: Nong and Phin districts. Population: 65,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kataang, Katang. Dialects: Katang Phin. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru.

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Katang, Southern
[sct] Salavan province: Salavan and Tumlan districts. Population: 40,000 (2016). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kataang Rueal, Katang, Katang Rueal. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru.

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Katu, Western
[kuf] Xekong province: upper Xe Kong river border area. Population: 28,400 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Dak Kang, Triw, Kantu. A different language, Eastern Katu [ktv], and orthography from Viet Nam. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh.

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Khmu
[kjg] Scattered in the north. Population: 708,000 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Total users in all countries: 798,250. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Khomu, Kmhmu, Lao Kang, Lao Terng, Mou, Pouteng, Pu Thenh, Tenh, Theng. Autonym: ກຶມຫມຸ‎ (Kmhmu’). Dialects: Yuan, Khroong (Krong, Kroong), Luang Prabang, Sayabury, Cwaa (Lii, Lyy), Rok, U (Eastern Khmu, Uu), Hat. Dialects are grouped into three: Northern Khmu (Cwaa and Yuan), Western Khmu (Khroong and Rok), and Eastern Khmu (Svantesson and Holmer 2015). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’.

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Khua
[xhv] Khammouan province: Bouarapha district, northwest of Boualapha. Population: 2,000 in Laos (1981). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru.

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Khuen
[khf] Luang Namtha province: Nale, Sing, and Viangphoukha districts. Population: 8,000 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Total users in all countries: 9,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khouen, Khween, Kween. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’.

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Khün
[kkh] Louangphabang province: sacred temple area. Population: 600 in Laos (Schliesinger 2003a). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Kim Mun
[mji] Luang Namtha province: Long district, 21 villages. Population: 4,500 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jim Mun, Kem di mun, Lan Tin, Lanten, Lowland Yao, Man Lan-Tien, Mun. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin.

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Kiorr
[xko] Luang Namtha and Oudomxai provinces: 6 villages. Population: 2,360 (1985 F. Proschan). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Col, Con, Saamtaav, Samtao, Samtao II. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic.

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Kriang
[ngt] Champasak province: Ba Chiang Chaleun Souk and Pak Song districts; Salavan province: Salavan district; Xekong province: Kaleum and Tha Taeng districts. Population: 16,800 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. 9,030 monolinguals (2005). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Griang, Khiang, Kuriang, Ngae, Nge, Nge’, Ngeh, Ngeq, Ngkriang, Nhae, Nkriang. Dialects: Kriang Koh, Kriang Tha Taeng, Khlor (Klor, Lor). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang.

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Ksing Mul
[puo] Houaphan province: Xiangkho district; Xieng Khouang province: Het river, along Viet Nam border. Population: 9,870 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ksingmul, Lao Muh, Pou Hok, Puhoc, Xin Mul, Xing Mun, Xingmoun, Xinh Mul, Xinh Mun, “Kha Puhoc” (pej.), “Puoc” (pej.), “Puok” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul.

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Kuan
[uan] Bolikhamxai province: Viangthong district, near Muang river; Khamkeut district, Ban Guan at Ban pakha, Ban Pung, and Ban Bo. Population: 890 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guan, Tai Guan, Tai Khouan, Tai Kouane, Tai Kuan, Tai Kwan. Dialects: None known. Not easily classified, possibly due to migration. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai.

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Kuay
[kdt] Champasak, Salavan, and Savannahkhet provinces: both sides of the Mekong river. Population: 46,600 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. 34,200 monolinguals (2005). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aouei, Cuoi, Douon, Dui, Khamen-Boran, Kouy, Kui, Kuoy, Kuy, Old Khmer, Soai, Soay, Soei, Souai, Souei, Suai, Suay, Suei, Sui, Suoi, Xuay, Xuoi. Dialects: Antra, Na Nhyang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay.

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Lahu
[lhu] Bokeo province: Houayxay, Peung, and Tonpheung districts; Luang Namtha province: Long district. Population: 19,200 in Laos (2015 census), increasing. Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Muhso, Museu, Musso, Mussur. Dialects: White Lahu (Lahu Phu). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Lahu Si
[lhi] Bokeo province: Kentung. Population: 3,000 in Laos (2007). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kui, Kui Lung, Kui Sang, Lahu Shi, Yellow Lahu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central.

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Lao
[lao] Widespread throughout Mekong river valley, south to the Cambodia border. Population: 4,230,000 in Laos, all users. L1 users: 3,430,000 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. L2 users: 800,000. Total users in all countries: 4,500,560 (as L1: 3,700,560; as L2: 800,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 89). Alternate Names: Eastern Thai, Lao Wiang, Lao-Lum, Lao-Noi, Lao-Tai, Laotian, Laotian Tai, Lum Lao, Phou Lao, Rong Kong, Tai Lao. Autonym: ພາສາລາວ‎ (Phasa Lao). Dialects: Luang Prabang, Vientiane (Wiang Jan), Savannakhet, Pakse, Lao-Kao, Lao-Khrang. Dialect subgroup with Northeastern Thai [tts] of Thailand. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Laopang
[lbg] Bokeo province. Population: 9,550 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gu-ba, Laopa, Laopan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Unclassified.

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Laos Sign Language
[lso] Scattered. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language.

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Lave
[brb] Attapu and Champasak provinces: Laos-Cambodia border. Population: 26,000 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Total users in all countries: 35,430. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Brao, Braou, Brau, Brou, Laveh, Love, Proue, Rawe. Dialects: Palau. Reportedly similar to Krung [krr], Kavet [krv], and Sou [sqq]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet.

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Laven
[lbo] Attapu province; Champasak province: Paksong district; Salavan province; Xekong province: Thataeng district. Population: 56,400 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boloven, Boriwen, Jaru, Jru, Jru’, Jruq, Laweenjru, Loven, Yrou. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Laven.

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Lavi
[lvi] Xekong province: Lavi Fang Daeng village, south of Xekong town. Two other villages. Population: Ethnic population: 1,220 (2015 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Lavy, Lawi, Salwoeng, Saveung, Swoeng, “Lak-wi” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric.

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[khb] Bokeo, Louangphabang, Luang Namtha, Oudomxai, Phongsali, and Xiangnabouli provinces. Population: 126,000 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lu, Lue, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Mal
[mlf] Xiangnabouli province: Phiang district, west of the Mekong. Population: 23,200 in Laos (1995 census). Total users in all countries: 26,700. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Htin, Khatin, Madl, T’in, Thin, Tin. Autonym: Mal, Ma’di. Dialects: None known. Not intelligible with Prai [prt]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Prai.

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Maleng
[pkt] Khammouan province: Nakay district, Nam Theun valley, near Theun river; Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, Lac Sao sub-district, Ban Baga Tan. Population: 500 in Laos (Bradley 2007a). Ethnic population: Less than 1,000. Total users in all countries: 1,700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malang, Malieng. Dialects: Maleng, Pakatan (Kha Pakatan), Malang, Hareme. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut.

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Mlabri
[mra] Xiangnabouli province: Phiang district, near Thailand border. Population: 40 in Laos (Schliesinger 2003b). Ethnic population: 67 (Schliesinger 2003d). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ma Ku, Mabri, Mla, Mla-Bri, Mrabri, Yellow Leaf, Yumbri. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri.

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Ngoaun
[nuo] Khammouan province: Nakai district. Population: 760 in Laos (2010 N. Cheeseman). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nguan, Nguane, Nguôn. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong.

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Nung
[nut] Louangphabang province: Xiengngeun district. Population: A few in Laos. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Nong. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central.

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Nyaheun
[nev] Champasak province: Paksong district; Xekong and Attapu provinces. Population: 9,000 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hin, Hoen, Hun, Nha Heun, Nia Hoen, Niahon, Nyah Heuny, Nyahön, Yaheun. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Nyaheun.

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O’du
[tyh] Xiengkhoang province: Khouone district, 2 villages. Population: 600 in Laos (2015 census), decreasing. Based on ethnicity. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: ’Iduh, O Du, Oedou, “Haat” (pej.), “Hat” (pej.), “Tay Hat” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’.

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Ong
[oog] Champasak province; Salavan province: north of Salavan town. Population: 10,300 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hantong, Tong. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Ir [irr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih.

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Oy
[oyb] Attapu province: foot of Bolaven plateau, and near Pakse; Xekong province: Thateng district. Attapu province: Samakkhixai and Sanamxai districts, 7 villages north of Attopeu town; Xekong province: Dakcheung and Lamam districts (Jeng dialect); Attapu, Champasak, and Xekong provinces (Sok dialect). Population: 32,200 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. 23,500 Oy and 8,690 Jeng (2015 census). 8,960 monolinguals (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Huei, Oey, Oi, Oi-Sok, Thae, The. Dialects: Riyao, Tamal Euy, Inn Tea, Kranyeu, Khen Sang, Kongsang, La-Nyao, The, Jeng (Cheng, Chiengceng), Sok (Sawk, Sork). Related to Sapuan [spu]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The.

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Pacoh
[pac] Salavan province: Samouay district; Savannahkhet province; Xekong province: Kaleum district. Population: 22,600 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. 11,600 monolinguals (2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo River Van Kieu, Ganai, Pa Co, Paco, Pako, Poko, Pokoh. Dialects: Pahi, Kado (Cado, Cadô). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh.

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Phana’
[phq] Bokeo province: Houayxay district, 1 village; Luang Namtha province: Namtha district, Bopiet and Namtoung villages; Phongsali province: east of Moung Ou Tail. Population: 350 (1995 census). Ethnic population: Included within the Ahka [ahk] ethnic group. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bana’, Pana’. Dialects: None known. Very similar to Sila [slt] (Bradley 2007a). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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Phong-Kniang
[pnx] Houaphan province: Aet and Xieng Khor districts near Neun river; Xiengkhoang province. Population: 30,700 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Keneng, Kenieng, Lao Phong, Pong, “Kha Niang” (pej.), “Khaniang” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul.

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Phu Thai
[pht] Bolikhamxai, Khammouan, and Savannahkhet provinces; Salavan province: centered in Toumlan district; Champasak and Xiengkhoang provinces. Population: 218,000 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phutai, Putai, Puthay. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Phuan
[phu] Xiengkhoang province: Kham, Pek, and Phou Kout districts. Population: 106,000 in Laos (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Phunoi
[pho] Phongsali province. Population: 39,200 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phounoy, Phu Noi, Punoi, Singsily, Sinsali. Dialects: Black Khoany, White Khoany, Mung, Hwethom, Khaskhong. Reportedly similar to Bisu [bzi], Pyen [pyy], and Mpi [mpz]. Listed dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern, Bisoid.

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Prai
[prt] Xiangnabouli province: Hongsa, Nguen, Phiang, Xiang Hon, and Xaignabouli districts. Population: 28,700 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Mai, Lao Prai, Lua Prai, Phai, “Htin” (pej.). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Prai.

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Rmeet
[lbn] Bokeo, Luang Namtha, and Oudomxai provinces. Population: 22,400 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kha Lamet, Khamed, Khamet, Lamed, Lamet, Lemet. Autonym: Rmeet. Dialects: Upper Lamet, Lower Lamet. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic.

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Saek
[skb] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, Nam Ve subdistrict, Na Kadok village; Khammouan province: Grommarol, Thakhek, Hinboun, Mahaxai, and Nakai districts. Population: 3,840 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Seak, Sek, Set, Tai Sek, Xaek, Xec, Xek. Dialects: Na Kadok, Khammouan. Reportedly similar to Tai Yo [tyj]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Salang
[hal] Attapu province. Population: 4,000 in Laos. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Halang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang.

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Samtao
[stu] Bokeo province: Houay Xai district; Luang Namtha province: Ban Tha Oo. Population: 3,420 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Samtau, Samtuan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic.

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Sapuan
[spu] Champasak and Xekong provinces: Se Kamane and Se Kong rivers’ banks. Population: 1,000 (Sidwell 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sapouan. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The.

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Sila
[slt] Luang Namtha province; Oudomxai province: Namo district; Phongsali province: Boun Neua, Ngot Ou, and Samphan districts. Population: 3,150 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Total users in all countries: 3,860. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Asong, Sida, “Kha Pai” (pej.). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern.

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So
[sss] Bolikhamxai, Khammouan, Savannahkhet provinces. Population: 163,000 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity, includes Western Bru [brv]. Total users in all countries: 233,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bru, Makong, Mang Cong, Mang-Koong, Mangkong, Mankoong, So Makon, Sô, Thro, “Kha So” (pej.). Dialects: So Trong, So Slouy, So Phong. Reportedly similar to Bru [bru]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Bru.

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Sou
[sqq] Attapu province: Phouvong and Sanamxai districts. Population: 2,500 (Schliesinger 2003b). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sawk, Souk, Su, Su’, Suq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet.

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Tai Daeng
[tyr] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, Lac Sao sub-district; Luang Namtha province: Luong district; Viengchan province: Kasi district; Houaphan, Louangphabang, Oudomxai, Phongsali, and Xiengkhoang provinces. Population: 25,000 in Laos (Asian Minorities Outreach 1999b). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Daeng, Man Thanh, Red Thai, Tai Deng, Tai Nhai, Thai Dang, Thai Do. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Tai Dam
[blt] Bokeo, Bolikhamxai, Houaphan, Louangphabang, Luang Namtha, Oudomxai, Phongsali, Viengchan, Xiangnabouli, and Xiengkhoang provinces. Population: 65,000 in Laos (Schliesinger 2003a). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Tai, Tai Noir, Thai Den, ʼTáy Ðăm. Dialects: Tai Muoi (Meuay, Tai Muei, Tay Mueai). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Tai Dón
[twh] Houaphan and Phongsali provinces. Population: 200,000 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Blanc, Tai Kao, Tai Lai, Thái Tráng, White Tai. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Tai Khang
[tnu] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, Ban Phon Than and Ban Ban Sopkat sub-districts; Nam Hai and Viengthong districts. Population: 200. Ethnic population: 1,500 (Schliesinger 2003a). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tai Kang, Tay Chieng, Tay Khang. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai.

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Tai Loi
[tlq] Luang Namtha province: Sing district. Population: Ethnic population: 600 (Schliesinger 2003b). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Doi, Lao Doi, Loi, Monglwe, Tai Doi, Tailoi, Wakut, “Kha Doy” (pej.). Dialects: Tai Loi, Doi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic.

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Tai Long
[thi] Louangphabang province. Population: 4,800 (2004). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] Bolikhamxai, Houaphan, Viengchan, Xiengkhoang, and Xaisomboun provinces. Population: 14,100 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chinese Shan, Tai Neua, Tai Nuea, Thaineau. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Tai Pao
[tpo] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut, Pakkading, and Viangthong districts. Population: 2,500 in Laos (Schliesinger 2003a). Total users in all countries: 12,500. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai.

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Tai Yo
[tyj] Bolikhamxai province: Khamkeut district, Lak Xao, Ka’ane, Khamkeut, Na Heuang, Nam Sak, Phon Thoen, Sop Chat, Sop Pone, and Tha Veng; Vieng Thong district. Population: 7,200 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Do, Tai Maen, Tai Man, Tai Men, Tai Mene, Tai Mène, Tai Mènè, Tai-Maen. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Saek [skb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai.

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Talieng
[tdf] Savannahkhet province: Phine district; Xekong province: Dak Cheung district near Viet Nam border, Boloven plateau area; into Attapu province. Population: 38,400 (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Caliang, Calieng, Kaseng, Kasseng, Khon Dak Chueng, Koseng, Kraseng, Taliang, Tariang, Tarieng, Triang, Trieng. Dialects: None known. May be the same language as Trieng [stg]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West.

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Ta’oih, Lower
[tto] Salavan province: northwest of Saravan town; Xekong province: Kaleum district. Population: 15,800 (2000). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tong. Dialects: Tong, Hantong’. Not intelligible of Upper Ta’oih [tth]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih.

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Ta’oih, Upper
[tth] Salavan province: Ta-Oy district; Savannahkhet and Xekong provinces. Population: 30,900 in Laos (1995 census). 21,600 monolinguals (1995). Total users in all countries: 49,900. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katang, Ta Hoi, Ta’oiq, Ta-Oi, Ta-Oy, Ta-oiq, Tau Oi. Dialects: Pasoom, Kamuan’, Palee’n, Leem, Ha’aang (Sa’ang), Katang Ta’oiq. Not inherently intelligible of Lower Ta’oih [tto]. Intelligibility can be acquired after at least 2 weeks’ contact. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih.

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Tareng
[tgr] Xekong province: west of Viet Nam border, east of Kayong, north of Chavane and Thia. Population: 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tariang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh.

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Thai, Northern
[nod] Oudomxai and Xiangnabouli provinces. Population: 29,500 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kam Mueang, Lan Na, Lanatai, Lanna, Lannatai, Muang, Mueang, Myang, “Youanne” (pej.), “Youon” (pej.), “Yuan” (pej.). Dialects: Nan. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern.

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Yang
[pcc] Luang Namtha province: Vieng Poukha district, Nam Fa; Nale district, Nam Huay; Oudomxai province: Beng district, Khone; Namo district, Ay, Sonsavath, Ponxay Savan Namo Neua; Xay district, Long Ya; Phongsali province: Khua district, Mone Savanh, Hat Xeui; Gnot Ou district, Xum Kham, Tha; Boun Tai district, Na Mak, Na Tene, Vieng Xai, Long Nam, Long Nay Khao; Boun Neua district, Muong Xou. Population: 5,840 in Laos (2015 census). Based on ethnicity. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nhang, Nyang. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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Yoy
[yoy] Khammouan province. Population: 2,000 in Laos (1999 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dioi, Jui, Yoi, Yooi, Yooy. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern.

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