Laos

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Aheu
[thm] Bolikhamxay Province, Khamkeut district, near Lak Sao. 250 in Laos (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 500 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kha Tong Luang, Phon Soung, Phonsung, So, Thavung Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Thavung Comments: Traditional religion.

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Akeu
[aeu] Phongsali Province, Gnot Ou district. 1,000 in Laos (1996). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Aki, Akui Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Akha
[ahk] Luang Namtha and Phongsali provinces. 66,100 in Laos (Bradley 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ahka, Aini, Aka, Ak’a, Ekaw, Hka Ko, Ikaw, Ikor, Kaw, Khako, Khao Kha Ko, Ko, Yani Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Alak
[alk] South, mainly Saravan and Sekong provinces. 4,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Harak, Hrlak Dialects: Most similar to Bahnar [bdq], Tampuan [tpu], and Lamam [lmm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, Central Bahnaric Comments: Traditional religion.

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Arem
[aem] West central, both sides of the Viet Nam-Laos border, west of Phuc Trach. 20 in Laos. Ethnic population: 500 (1995). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chombrau, Chomrau, Umo Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut

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Bit
[bgk] Near China border, Luang Namtha Province, northeast of Namtha district, and south of Boun Neua; Phongsali Province, Boun-Tai, Mai and Khua districts, 8 villages. Also in China (Buxinhua). 1,960 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 2,160. Ethnic population: 1,730 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buxinhua, Khabit, Khbit, Pasing, Phsin, Phsing Dialects: Not Khmuic, but Palaungic (1990 J. Svantesson). Related to Khao [xao] in Viet Nam. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Khao Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bo
[bgl] Central, inland from Mekong and Nhang rivers, Nape area; Khammouan Province, Hinboun district; Lak Sao and Bolikhamxay provinces. 2,950 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Muong Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bru, Eastern
[bru] East Savannakhet Province, Sepone district. Also in Viet Nam. 26,700 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 82,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bru Tri Dialects: Leun (Kaleu, Leung), Tri (Chali, So Tri, So Trii). Partially intelligible with Western Bru [brv] of Thailand. Related to Khua [xhv]. The Mangkong dialect in Viet Nam and eastern Laos is a dialect of Eastern Bru, different linguistically from the Mangkong that are the same as So [sss] of Thailand. Mangkong is also an ethnic group. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chepya
[ycp] Northwest Phongsaly Province. 2,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Related to Akeu [aeu]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern

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Chut
[scb] Khammouan Province, Boualapha district, near Viet Nam border. 200 in Laos (Bradley 2007). 50 May, 150 Ruc (Bradley 2007). Ethnic population: 400 (Bradley 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: May, Ruc, Sach, Salang Dialects: May, Ruc. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut Comments: Seminomadic. Traditional religion.

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Con
[cno] Luang Namtha Province, southwest of Vieng Pou Kha. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic

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Halang Doan
[hld] Attopeu Province, Kasseng plateau, Sanxai district, Kamane and Dak Robay rivers’ left banks, near Viet Nam border. 2,350 in Laos (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Doan, Duan, Halang Duan Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Duan Comments: Traditional religion.

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Hani
[hni] Phongsaly Province, Yunnan border. 1,120 in Laos (1995). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hanhi, Haw Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: An official nationality in China. Traditional religion.

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Hmong Daw
[mww] North. 170,000 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bai Miao, Hmong Der, Hmoob Dawb, Meo Kao, White Hmong, White Lum, White Meo, White Miao Dialects: Hmong Gu Mba (Hmong Qua Mba, Striped Hmong). Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian Comments: Traditional religion.

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Hmong Njua
[hnj] North. Also in Australia, Canada, China, France, French Guiana, Myanmar, Thailand, United States, Viet Nam. 100,000 in Laos (Hattaway 2000). Population total all countries: 312,020. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Blue Hmong, Blue Meo, Ching Miao, Green Hmong, Green Meo, Hmong Leng, Hmong Nzhua, Hmoob Leeg, Lu Miao, Meo Dam, Meo Lai, Mong Leng, Mong Ntsua, Qing Miao, Tak Miao Dialects: Speakers in Myanmar understand well border speakers in China. Classification: Hmong-Mien, Hmongic, Chuanqiandian

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Hung
[hnu] Bolikhamxay, Khammouan provinces, Khamkeut district. Toum dialect is northeast of Nape and south of Phong river. Also in Viet Nam. 2,000 in Laos (Ferlus 1996). Population total all countries: 2,700. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: Phong (Pong, Pong 1, Pong 2, Poong), Toum (Tum). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Cuoi Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ir
[irr] Saravan Province, east of Saravan town. 4,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: In, Yiir, Yir Dialects: Most similar to Ong [oog]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih Comments: Traditional religion.

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Iu Mien
[ium] 20,300 in Laos (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Highland Yao, Man, Mien, Myen, Yao Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: Almost all Western refugees came from Laos. Daoist, traditional religion.

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Jeh
[jeh] South, Xekong Province, Dakchung district; Attopeu Province, Sanxai district, basin of Poko, Kamane, and Dak Main rivers. 10,600 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Die, Gie, Yeh Dialects: Jeh Bri La, Jeh Mang Ram. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Jeng
[jeg] Attopeu Province, Samakkhixai and Sanamxai districts. 7 villages north of Attopeu town. 4,540 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cheng, Chiengceng Dialects: Related to Oy [oyb], Sapuan [spu], and Sok [skk]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kaduo
[ktp] North central on China border, north of Mong Ou Tay. 5,000 in Laos (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khatu Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Different from Kadu [zkd], Western Katu [kuf].

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Kang
[kyp] Houaphan Province, Xam-Tai district; Xiangkhoang Province, Nonghet district. Also in China. 47,600 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 81,700. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Khang Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Kam-Sui

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Kasseng
[kgc] South near Viet Nam border, Boloven plateau area north of Attopeu, and between Jeh [jeg], Alak [alk], Laven [lbo], and Tareng [tgr] language areas. 1,200 (2000 D. Bradley). Ethnic population: 6,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kaseng, Koseng, Kraseng Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Kaseng Comments: Also classified as West Bahnaric. Traditional religion.

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Kataang
[kgd] South, Saravan Province, centered in Toumlan district; Savannakhet Province, Phin and Nong districts; Sekong and Champassak provinces, near Ta’oih and Bru [bru]. 118,000 (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Katang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih

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Katu, Western
[kuf] Sekong, Saravan, and Champassak provinces, Upper Xe Kong river, high basin of Song Boung river watershed along the border. 22,800 (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: A different language, Eastern Katu [ktv], and orthography from Viet Nam. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khlor
[llo] Saravan Province, Laongam district, south of Ir and Ong. 6,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Klor, Lor Dialects: Most similar to Ngeq [ngt]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khmu
[kjg] Scattered in the north. Also in China, France, Thailand, United States, Viet Nam. 614,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 704,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamhmu, Kammu, Kamu, Khamu, Khamuk, Khmu’, Khomu, Kmhmu, Lao Terng, Mou, Pouteng, Pu Thenh, Tenh, Theng Dialects: Hat, Khroong (Krong), Luang Prabang, Lyy, Rok, Sayabury, U, Yuan. There are two subgroups of Khmu in China (Damaile and Damailao), which may differ in dialect. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: Traditional religion.

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Khua
[xhv] Khammouan Province, Bouarapha district, northwest of Boualapha. 2,000 in Laos (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Different from Cua [cua]. Traditional religion.

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Khuen
[khf] Luang Namtha Province, Nale, Sing, and Viangphoukha districts. Near th Lamet [lbn] language area. Also in China, United States. 8,000 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Population total all countries: 9,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khouen, Khween, Kween Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: Distinct from Kuan [uan], Khmu Keun [kjg]. Buddhist.

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Khün
[kkh] Khün sacred temple area. 600 in Laos (Schliessinger 2003). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Kim Mun
[mji] Northwest, Luang Namtha Province, Long and Namtha districts; Bokeo Province, Huay Sai district; Udom Sai Province, Nam Mo district. 4,500 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jim Mun, Lan Tin, Lanten, Lowland Yao, Man Lan-Tien, Mun Classification: Hmong-Mien, Mienic, Mian-Jin Comments: Included in Yao nationality in Laos. Daoist.

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Kiorr
[xko] Louang Nam Tha and Bokeo provinces. 6 villages. 2,360 (1985 F. Proschan). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Col, Con, Saamtaav, Samtao, Samtao 2 Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Buddhist.

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Kuan
[uan] Bolikhamxay Province, Viangthong district, near Mouan river. 2,500 (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Not easily classified, possibly due to migration. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kuy
[kdt] South, Savannakhet, Saravan, Sedone provinces; both sides of the Mekong. 42,800 in Laos (2005 census). 80% monolingual. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Aouei, Cuoi, Dui, Khamen-Boran, Kui, Kuoy, Old Khmer, Soai, Suai, Suay, Suei, Sui, Suoi Dialects: Antra, Na Nhyang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Kuay-Nheu Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lahu
[lhu] Bokeo Province, Peung, Tonpheung, and Houayxay districts. 8,700 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Muhso, Museu, Musso, Mussuh Dialects: Na (Black Lahu, Loheirn, Musser Dam, Northern Lahu), Nyi (Luhishi, Luhushi, Musseh Daeng, Red Lahu, Southern Lahu), Shehleh. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lahu Shi
[lhi] Bokeo Province, Kentung district. 3,000 in Laos (2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kui Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Central Comments: Traditional religion.

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Lamet
[lbn] Northwest, Luang Namtha, and Bokeo provinces. Also in Thailand, United States. 19,800 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 19,932. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kha Lamet, Khamed, Khamet, Lemet, Rmeet Dialects: Lower Lamet, Upper Lamet. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Lametic Comments: Glossonym: Lamet in Laos, Khamet in Thailand. Traditional religion.

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Lao
[lao] Mekong river valley, Luang Prabang south to the Cambodia border. Lao-Khrang dialect is in Nakhonsawan and Nakhon Pathom areas. Also in Australia, Cambodia, Canada, France, Thailand, United States, Viet Nam. 3,070,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 3,273,180. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 89). Alternate Names: Eastern Thai, Lào, Lao Kao, Lao Wiang, Lao-Lum, Lao-Noi, Lao-Tai, Laotian, Laotian Tai, Lum Lao, Phou Lao, Rong Kong, Tai Lao Dialects: Lao-Kao, Lao-Khrang, Luang Prabang, Pakse, Savannakhet (Suwannakhet), Vientiane (Wiang Jan). Dialect subgroup with Northeastern Tai of Thailand. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: The Lao Kao migrated to Thailand and are in Nan, Loei, Saraburi, and elsewhere. Buddhist, traditional religion, Christian.

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Laopang
[lbg] 9,550 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Laopa Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Unclassified

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Laos Sign Language
[lso] Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Related to sign languages in Viet Nam and earlier ones in Thailand. Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Possibly more than one language.

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Lave
[brb] Attopeu Province, Laos-Cambodia border. Also in Cambodia (Brao), France (Brao), United States (Brao), Viet Nam (Brao). 22,800 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 32,235. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Brao, Braou, Brau, Brou, Laveh, Love, Proue, Rawe Dialects: Palau. Similar to Kru’ng 2 [krr], Kavet [krv], and Sou [sqq]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet Comments: Glossonym: Lave in Laos. Traditional religion.

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Laven
[lbo] Southwest, Champassak and Attopeu provinces, Boloven plateau, near the Alak [alk] language area. Also in United States. 28,100 in Laos (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boloven, Boriwen, Jaru, Jru’, Jruq, Laweenjru, Loven Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Laven Comments: Different from Brao [brb]. Traditional religion.

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[khb] West Phongsali, Luang Namtha, Bokeo, Udomxay, Xanyabouli, and Luang Prabang provinces. 123,000 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lu, Lue, Pai-I, Shui-Pai-I Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Mal
[mlf] Xaignabouli Province, Phiang district, west of the Mekong. Also in Thailand, United States. 23,200 in Laos (1995 census). Population total all countries: 26,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Htin, Khatin, Thin, Tin, T’in Dialects: Not intelligible with Lua [prb], Prai [prt], or Pray 3 [pry]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai Comments: Ethnic autonym: Mal and Madl; T’in in Thailand. Traditional religion.

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Maleng
[pkt] Khammouan Province, Nakay district, Nam Theun valley, near Theun river banks. Also in Viet Nam. 500 in Laos (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 700. Ethnic population: Less than 1,000 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malang, Malieng Dialects: Hareme, Malang, Maleng, Pakatan (Kha Pakatan). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Viet-Muong, Chut Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mlabri
[mra] Xaignabouli Province, Phiang district, near Thailand border. 24 in Laos (1985 F. Proschan). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Ma Ku, Mabri, Mla, Mla-Bri, Mrabri, Yellow Leaf, Yumbri Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mlabri Comments: Nomadic. Different from Kha Tong Luang (Phi Tong Luang, Yellow Leaf), which are Western Viet-Muong (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Traditional religion.

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Ngeq
[ngt] Champassak, Sekong, and Saravan provinces. 25 villages. 12,900 (2005 census). 70% monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kriang, Ngae, Nge’, Ngeh, Nkriang Dialects: Most similar to Khlor [llo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Ngeq-Nkriang Comments: Ethnic autonym: Nkriang. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nung
[nut] A few in Laos. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nong Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Central Comments: Different from Chinese Nung [yue] (Cantonese in Viet Nam).

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Nyaheun
[nev] East Boloven plateau near Sekong and Paksong. 3,960 (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Hin, Hoen, Hun, Nha Heun, Nia Hoen, Niahon, Nyah Heuny, Nyahön, Yaheun Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Nyaheun Comments: Traditional religion.

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O’du
[tyh] Xiang Khuang Province, Khouone District. 2 villages. 650 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: “Haat” (pej.), “Hat” (pej.), ’Iduh, Oedou, “Tay Hat” (pej.) Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Khmu’ Comments: An official ethnic community in Viet Nam. Traditional religion.

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Ong
[oog] Attopeu Province, Udomsouk village, near Pakse; Saravan Province, north of Saravan town. 10,300 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Hantong, Tong Dialects: Most similar to Ir [irr]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih Comments: Traditional religion.

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Oy
[oyb] Attopeu Province, at the foot of Bolaven plateau, and near Pakse. 11,200 (Bradley 2007). 80% monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Huei, Oi Dialects: Inn Tea, Kranyeu, Riyao, Tamal Euy. Related to Jeng [jeg], Sapuan [spu], Sok [skk], and The [thx]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The Comments: Traditional religion.

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Pacoh
[pac] Salavan Province, Samouay district; Savannakhet Province, Nong district. 16,500 in Laos (2005 census). 70% monolingual. 15,824 in Salavan Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo River Van Kieu, Pokoh Dialects: Ka’do, Pahi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh Comments: ‘Koh’ in Pacoh, mountain. Traditional religion.

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Phana’
[phq] Luang Namtha Province and district, Bopiet and Namtoung villages; Bokeo Province, Houayxay district. 1 village. 350 (1995 census). Included within the Ahka [ahk] ethnic group (Bradley 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bana’, Pana’ Dialects: Very similar to Sila [slt] (Bradley 2007). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: A larger population may be in China under Han nationality.

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Phong-Kniang
[pnx] South Houaphan Province, Xieng Khor and Aet districts, near Neun river; north Xieng Khouang Province. 1,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Keneng, Kenieng, Khaniang, Lao Phong, Pong 3 Dialects: Related to Puoc [puo] and Kháng [kjm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul Comments: A Phong exonym of Kniang and not to be confused with Kha Phong, a dialect of Maleng [pkt], nor with the autonym Pong as a dialect of Hung [hnu] (Ferlus 1996). Traditional religion.

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Phu Thai
[pht] Khammouan, Savannakhet, Saravan, and Champassak provinces; some in Oudomxai and Luang Prabang provinces. 187,000 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Phutai, Putai, Puthay Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Phuan
[phu] Bolikhamxai, Vientiane, Xiangkhuang, and Houaphan. 106,000 in Laos (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Phuan, Phu Un Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Name also used for Lao in Thailand. Buddhist.

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Phunoi
[pho] North central, Phongsaly area. Also in Thailand. 35,600 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Phounoy, Phu Noi, Punoi, Sinsali Dialects: Black Khoany, Hwethom, Khaskhong, Mung, White Khoany. Similar to Bisu [bzi], Pyen [pyy], and Mpi [mpz]. Listed dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Glossonym: Phunoi or Phounoy in Laos, Côông in Viet Nam. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Prai
[prt] Xaignabouli Province, Hongsa, Xaignabouli, Xiang Hon, and Phiang districts. 21,900 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lao Mai Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Mal-Khmu’, Mal-Phrai Comments: Distinct from Mal [mlf]. Traditional religion.

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Pu Ko
[puk] 2 villages. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Poko Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Puoc
[puo] Northeast, Houaphan Province, Xiangkho district; Xieng Khouang Province, Het river, along Viet Nam border. 8,570 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kha Niang, Kha Puhoc, Ksing Mul, Lao Muh, Pou Hok, Puhoc, Puok, Xin Mul, Xing Mun, Xingmoun, Xinh Mul Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Khmuic, Xinh Mul Comments: Buddhist.

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Rien
[rie] 5,280 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai

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Saek
[skb] Central, near Viet Nam border; Khammouan Province, Upper Nam Noy and Nam Pheo areas; Borikhamxay Province, Khamkeut district, Na Kadok village. Also in Thailand. 3,730 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 14,730. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sek, Set, Tai Sek Dialects: Khammouan, Na Kadok. Similar to Tai Mène [tmp]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: The Saek of Na Kadok claim to have come from Phu Quan, Ban Pho Quang, Duc Tho District, in what is now Ha Tinh Province, Viet Nam. Khammouan dialect speakers are originally from Nakai District, and it is still spoken in Toeng, Nam Meo, Na Moey, and Beuk. Traditional religion.

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Salang
[hal] South, Attopeu Province. 4,000 in Laos. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Halang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West, Jeh-Halang Comments: Traditional religion.

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Samtao
[stu] Bokeo Province, Houay Xai district. 3,530 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samtau, Samtuan Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic

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Sapuan
[spu] South, Attopeu Province, Se Kong and Se Kamane rivers’ banks. 2,400 (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sapouan Dialects: Related to Oy [oyb], Sok [skk], and Jeng [jeg]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The Comments: Traditional religion.

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Sila
[slt] Luang Namtha Province, Namtha district; Phongsali Province, Samphan, Boun Neua, and Ngot Ou. Also in Viet Nam. 1,770 in Laos (1995 census). Most members of the ethnic group speak the language (Bradley 2007). Population total all countries: 2,480. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Asong, “Kha Pai” (pej.), Sida Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Ngwi-Burmese, Ngwi, Southern Comments: Traditional religion.

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[sss] Khammouan and Savannakhet provinces. Also in Thailand. 118,000 in Laos (2005 census). Population total all countries: 188,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bru, Kah So, Makong, Mang Cong, Mangkong, Mang-Koong, Mankoong, So Makon, Thro Dialects: So Phong, So Slouy, So Trong. Similar to Bru [bru]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, West Katuic, Brou-So Comments: Glossonym: Mangkong and Bru in Laos. Traditional religion.

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Sok
[skk] Attopeu Province. 1,600 (1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sawk, Sork Dialects: Related to Oy [oyb], Sapuan [spu], and Jeng [jeg]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The

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Sou
[sqq] South, Attopeu Province, Phouvong and Sanamxai districts. 2,360 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sawk, Souk, Su, Su’, Suq Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Brao-Kravet Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Daeng
[tyr] Northeast, near Viet Nam border. 25,000 in Laos (1991). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Daeng, Red Thai, Tai Deng, Thai Dang, Thai Do Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Part of the official Thai ethnic community in Viet Nam. Traditional religion.

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Tai Dam
[blt] Scattered across northern Laos to Khammouan Province. 50,000 in Laos (1995). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Black Tai, Tai Noir, Thai Den Dialects: Tai Muoi (Meuay, Tai Muei, Tay Mueai). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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Tai Dón
[twh] Northeast. 200,000 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Blanc, Tai Kao, Tai Lai, Thái Tráng, White Tai Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Loi
[tlq] Luang Namtha Province, Long district. Possibly in China. 500 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Loi, Monglwe, Tailoi, Wakut Dialects: Doi, Tai Loi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Northern Mon-Khmer, Palaungic, Eastern Palaungic, Angkuic Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tai Long
[thi] 4,800 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: May be the same as Mao [nbi] (Tai-Long, Tai-Mao, Maw, Mau) on Burma-Yunnan border, a variety of Dai in China.

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Tai Mène
[tmp] Borikhamxay Province, Vieng Thong district; Khamkeut district, Lak Xao, Khamkeut, Na Heuang, Nam Sak, Sop Chat, Ka’ane, Phon Thoen, Sop Pone, and Tha Veng. 7,200 (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tai Maen, Tai Man, Tai Men, Tai Mene, Tai-Maen, Tay Mènè Dialects: Similar to Saek [skb]. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: They claim to have come from Xieng Lip and Ban Pot in Nghe An, Viet Nam.

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Tai Nüa
[tdd] Northwest. 35,000 in Laos (1995 L. Chazee). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chinese Shan, Tai Neua, Tai Nuea Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern Comments: Glossonym: Dehong Dai or Shan in China. A different dialect from that in China. Traditional religion.

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Tai Pao
[tpo] Bolikhamxay Province, Viangthong, Khamkeut, and Pakkading districts. 3,300 (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai Comments: Classification unclear, possibly due to migration. Traditional religion.

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Talieng
[tdf] Savannakhet Province, Muong Phine-Bung Sai area; Sekong Province, Dakchung and Thateng districts; Champassak Province. 29,100 (2005 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Taliang, Tariang, Triang Dialects: Related to Trieng [stg] or Hre [hre] in Viet Nam, and may be the same language as Trieng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, North Bahnaric, West Comments: Apparently different from Tareng [tgr], which is East Katuic. ‘Tariang’, headhunters. Traditional religion.

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Ta’oih, Lower
[tto] Saravan Province, northwest of Saravan town. 15,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tong Dialects: Hantong’, Tong. Not intelligible of Upper Ta’oih [tth]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih

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Ta’oih, Upper
[tth] Saravan Province, Ta-Oy district. Also in United States, Viet Nam. 30,900 in Laos (1995 census). 70% monolingual. Population total all countries: 49,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kantua, Ta Hoi, Ta-Oi, Ta-Oy, Tau Oi Dialects: Ha’aang (Sa’ang), Kamuan’, Leem, Palee’n, Pasoom. Not inherently intelligible of Lower Ta’oih [tto]. Intelligibility can be acquired after at least 2 weeks’ contact. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, Central Katuic, Ta’oih Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tareng
[tgr] West of Viet Nam border, east of Kayong, north of Chavane and Thia. 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tariang Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Katuic, East Katuic, Katu-Pacoh Comments: Distinct from Talieng [tdf], which is North Bahnaric.

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Tay Khang
[tnu] Khammouan Province. Possibly in Viet Nam. 200. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai Comments: Some problem in classification and confusion with Kháng [kjm] of Viet Nam.

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Thai, Northern
[nod] Bokeo, Luang Namtha, and Sayaboury provinces. 29,440 in Laos (2005 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Lan Na, Lanatai, Lanna, Lannatai, Muang, Myang, “Youanne” (pej.), “Youon” (pej.), “Yuan” (pej.) Dialects: Nan. Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Southwestern

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The
[thx] Attopeu Province. 2,920 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thae Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Eastern Mon-Khmer, Bahnaric, West Bahnaric, Oi-The

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Yoy
[yoy] 1,000 in Laos (1995 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dioi, Jui, Yoi, Yooi, Yooy Classification: Tai-Kadai, Kam-Tai, Tai, Northern Comments: May be same as Tai Yo of Khammouan Province, a Northern Tai language. Buddhist.

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