Sri Lanka

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English
[eng] 10,000 in Sri Lanka (Crystal 2003). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language, used in government. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English

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Indo-Portuguese
[idb] Trincomalee, Batticaloa. 30 in Sri Lanka (1992 P. Baker). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,410. Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Creole, Portuguese based

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Sinhala
[sin] Widespread except some districts north, east, and center. Also in Canada, Libya, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand, United Arab Emirates, United States. 15,500,000 in Sri Lanka (2007). Population total all countries: 15,577,690. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution (as amended), Article 18). Alternate Names: Cingalese, Singhala, Singhalese, Sinhalese Dialects: Rodiya. Great differences exist between literary and colloquial language. Rodiya dialect is spoken by low caste Rodiya people. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sinhalese-Maldivian Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Sri Lankan Creole Malay
[sci] Especially Colombo, Kandy, Badulla, Hambantota, and Kirinda cities. 46,000 (Ansaldo and Lim 2006), decreasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Java Jati, Melayu Bahasa, Sri Lankan Malay Dialects: Not intelligible of Standard Malay [zsm] due to phonological and syntactic differences, and strong influence from Tamil [tam]. May be similar to Malaccan Creole Malay [ccm] (Lim 1981). Classification: Creole, Malay based Comments: Malay vocabulary with grammatical structure based on Sri Lankan Moor Tamil. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sri Lankan Sign Language
[sqs] 12,800 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: British English fingerspelling also used.

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Tamil
[tam] North and northeast coasts, a few pockets in the south. 3,770,000 in Sri Lanka (2007). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution (as amended), Articles 22(1),24(1)), concentrated in North and East provinces; also in local administration and courts elsewhere. Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Veddah
[ved] Eastern mountains, Badulla and Polonnaruwa districts. Ethnic population: 2,500 (2002). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Beda, Bedda, Vaedda, Veda, Veddha, Weda, Weddo Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Sinhalese-Maldivian Comments: They live in small rural settlements and are more of a caste than a separate ethnic group. Generally accepted as equal in rank to the Sinhalese Goyigama caste.

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