Liberia

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Bandi
[bza] Lofa county; into Gbarpolu county: Belleh district. 84,000 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 91,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bande, Gbande, Gbandi, Gbunde. Dialects: Tahamba, Wawana, Wulukoha, Hasala, Lukasa, Hembeh. Tahamba dialect used for literature. Lexical similarity: 96% with the 6 dialects, 83% with the most similar Mende [men] dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Mende-Loma, Mende-Bandi, Bandi. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Bassa
[bsq] Most of Grand Bassa county; western River Cess county; Margibi county: coastal areas and inland (Gibi district); Bong and Montserrado counties. 412,000 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 417,730. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Gbor, Gba Sor, Mabahn, Hwen Gba Kon, Central Bassa, Rivercess Bassa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Bassa. Comments: Different from Basa [bzw] of Nigeria or Bassa (Basaa) [bas] of Cameroon. Christian, traditional religion.

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Dan
[dnj] Nimba county. 151,000 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Da, Gio, Gio-Dan, Guio, Gyo, Yacouba, Yakuba. Dialects: Upper Gio, Lower Gio, River Cess Gio. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Tura-Dan. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Dewoin
[dee] Bomi county coast: west of Monrovia, between Lofa and Saint Paul rivers; Montserrado county: near coast. 9,610 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: De, Dei, Dewoi, Dey. Dialects: No significant dialect differences. Lexical similarity: 72% with Bassa [bsq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Bassa. Comments: Many loan words from other languages. Muslim, traditional religion.

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English
[eng] 74,000 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 2,500,000 in Liberia (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Dialects: Liberian Standard English. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gbii
[ggb] Nimba county: west of Cestos river. 6,640 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbee, Gbi-Dowlu. Dialects: Kplor, Dorbor. Lexical similarity: 78% with Bassa [bsq]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Bassa. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Glaro-Twabo
[glr] River Gee and Grand Gedeh counties; Cote d’Ivoire border. 4,630 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Glaro, Twabo. Minimal intelligibility between Twabo dialect and some Eastern Krahn [kqo] dialects, but not with Glaro. Lexical similarity: 82% with some Eastern Krahn [kqo] dialects, 87% with Glaro and Twabo dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Glio-Oubi
[oub] Grand Gedeh county: 6 towns. 4,150 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 6,650. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Glio, Oubi, Ubi. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with Twabo dialect of Glaro-Twabo [glr] and 73% with Trepo dialect of Krumen [ted] and Pye [pye] of Côte d’Ivoire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Glio-Oubi. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Gola
[gol] Grand Cape Mount, Gbarpolu, and Lofa counties, between Mano and Saint Paul rivers; inland portions, Bomi and Montserrado counties. 99,300 in Liberia (Vanderaa 1991). Total users in all countries: 107,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Deng (Todii), Kongba, Senje. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Gola. Comments: Different from Gola dialect of Mumuye [mzm] of Nigeria or Badyara [pbp] of Guinea and Guinea-Bissau. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Grebo
[grb] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Barclayville Grebo [gry], Central Grebo [grv], Gboloo Grebo [gec], Northern Grebo [gbo], Southern Grebo [grj].

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Grebo, Barclayville
[gry] Grand Kru county: southeast coast and inland, between Klao [klu] language area and Jabo Grebo. 28,100 (2012 J. Leclerc). 387,000 all Grebo languages in Liberia (Johnstone and Mandryk 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wedebo Grebo. Dialects: Wedebo, Kplebo. A subgroup of quite distinct dialects. Many phonological differences with Jabo dialect of Southern Grebo [grj]. A member of macrolanguage Grebo [grb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian. Comments: They identify with Klao [klu], but understand Grebo better. Strong ethnocentric attitudes between subgroups. Traditional religion.

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Grebo, Central
[grv] Maryland county: center Barrobo district; into River Gee and Grand Kru counties. 31,500 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Globo, Nyenebo, Dorobo, Borobo, Trembo. Distinct from Gboloo Grebo [gec]. Dialects may be quite distinct. A member of macrolanguage Grebo [grb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Grebo, Gboloo
[gec] Maryland county: east border, north of Jabo Grebo. 66,800 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gblou Grebo, Gboloo. Dialects: Gederobo, Nyanoun, Tuobo, Biabo, Dediebo. A member of macrolanguage Grebo [grb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Grebo, Northern
[gbo] Maryland, River Gee, Sinoe, Grand Kru, and Grand Gedeh counties; near Cote d’Ivoire border, south of Krahn, north of Klao, west of Glaro. 84,500 (1999 LBT). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Chedepo, E Je (Eh Je), Palipo, Gbepo (Gbeapo), Jedepo, Tienpo, Klepo, Fopo-Bua, Northeastern Grebo. A subgroup of quite distinct dialects. Subdialects of Northeastern dialect are Ketiepo, Nitiabo, Sabo, Tuobo, Webo. A member of macrolanguage Grebo [grb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian. Comments: Strong ethnocentric attitudes between subgroups. Traditional religion.

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Grebo, Southern
[grj] Grand Kru and Maryland counties: southeasternmost coast and inland. 65,000 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Glebo (Seaside Grebo), Jabo, Nyabo, Wrelpo. A subgroup of quite distinct dialects. A member of macrolanguage Grebo [grb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Liberian. Comments: Strong ethnocentric attitudes between subgroups. Traditional religion.

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Kisi, Southern
[kss] Lofa county, extreme northwest corner. 115,000 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 219,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gisi, Gizi, Kissi, Kissien. Dialects: Luangkori, Tengia, Warn. Different from Northern Kissi [kqs] of Guinea. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Southern, Mel, Bullom-Kissi, Kissi. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Klao
[klu] Sinoe, Grand Kru, and River Cess counties: southeast Atlantic coast and inland. 218,000 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 227,620. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Klaoh, Klau, Kroo, Kru. Dialects: Western Klaoh, West Central Klaoh, Central Klaoh, Eastern Klaoh. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Klao. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kpelle
[kpe] A macrolanguage. Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Guinea Kpelle [gkp] (Guinea), Liberia Kpelle [xpe].

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Kpelle, Liberia
[xpe] Widespread. 760,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gbese, Kpele, Kpwessi, Pessa, Pessy. Dialects: Nyawokole, Fuama, Boopolu. Dialect differences slight. Different from Kpelle [gkp] of Guinea. A member of macrolanguage Kpelle [kpe]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Kpelle. Comments: Largest group in Liberia. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Krahn, Eastern
[kqo] Grand Gedeh county: 2 areas along middle Cavally river; River Gee and Sinoe counties; Northeast near Côte d’Ivoire border. 55,700 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). 20,000 Tchien (1992 UBS). Total users in all countries: 66,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Kran, Kran. Dialects: Gorbo, Kanneh, Konobo, Tchien (Chiehn). Minimal intelligibility between some dialects and Twabo dialect of Glaro-Twabo [glr]. Distinct from Western Krahn [krw], Sapo [krn], and We Southern [gxx]. Lexical similarity: 93% between Gorbo and Kanneh dialects, 87% between Gorbo and Konobo dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Konobo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Krahn, Western
[krw] Grand Gedeh county: near Côte d’Ivoire border; Nimba and Sinoe counties. 56,700 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 68,900. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Krahn, Kran, Northern Krahn, Western Kran. Dialects: Gbo, Gbaeson (Gbaison, Gbarzon), Plo, Biai, Gbarbo, Gborbo (Gbobo), Kpeaply. Dialects in Côte d’Ivoire have French [fra] influences. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Krumen, Tepo
[ted] River Gee county: Cote d’Ivoire border area. Glawlo dialect is southeast. 3,150 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kroumen, Kru, Krumen, Southern Krumen. Dialects: Tepo, Bapo, Plapo, Wlopo (Ropo), Dapo, Honpo, Yrepo (Kapo), Glawlo. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Grebo, Ivorian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Kuwaa
[blh] Gbarpolu county: Belleh and Bokomo districts; Lofa county: Zorzor district, south of Bandi and Loma, north of Kpelle. 15,200 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Belle, Belleh, Kowaao, Kwaa. Dialects: None known. Only minor pronunciation differences exist between the 2 Kuwaa clans: Lubaisu and Gbade. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Kuwaa. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Liberian English
[lir] Monrovia; Montserrado, Margibi, and Bomi counties. L2 users: 1,500,000 (1984 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Liberian Pidgin English. Dialects: Kru Pidgin English. Regional dialects. Classification: Pidgin, English based, Atlantic. Comments: As different from standard English as is Sierra Leone Krio [kri] repidginized from American Black English of the 1800s (Holm 1989).

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Loma
[lom] Lofa county; Gbarpolu county: Belleh district. 195,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Bouze” (pej.), “Busy” (pej.), “Buzi” (pej.), Loghoma, Logoma, Looma, Lorma, Toa. Dialects: Gizima, Wubomai (Wubomei), Ziema (Siama), Gbunde (Bonde, Bunde), Briama (Bulima, Buluiema, Buluyiema, Bulyama). Distinct from Toma [tod] of Guinea and Loma [loi] of Côte d’Ivoire. Northern and southern dialects are different enough to make mutual intelligibility difficult. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Mende-Loma, Loma. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maninka, Konyanka
[mku] Lofa county: bordering Guinea. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Konya, Konyakakan, Konyanka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding. Comments: Non-indigenous. Differs from Guinea variety in use of English loan words. Muslim.

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Mano
[mev] Nimba county; Bong and Grand Bassa counties. 305,000 in Liberia (2012 V. Vydrin). Total users in all countries: 390,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Maa, Mah, Manon, Mawe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Southeastern, Guro-Tura, Tura-Dan-Mano, Mano. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Manya
[mzj] Lofa county: bordering Guinea. 53,900 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 78,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mandingo, Manya Kan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Konyanka Maninka [mku], 66% with Eastern Maninkakan [emk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding. Comments: Muslim.

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Mende
[men] Lofa county: Vahun district; Grand Cape Mount county: Porkpa district. On Sierra Leone border. 23,400 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Boumpe, Hulo, Kossa, Kosso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Southwestern, Mende-Loma, Mende-Bandi, Mende-Loko. Comments: Muslim.

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N’ko
[nqo] Widespread. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Language of wider communication, second language only. Classification: Mixed language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sapo
[krn] Sinoe and Grand Gedeh counties, adjacent to Eastern Krahn [kqo] language area; River Gee county: small border area. 37,500 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sarpo, Southern Krahn. Dialects: Nomopo (Nimpo), Waya (Wedjah), Juarzon, Sinkon (Senkon), Putu, Kabade (Karbardae). Lexical similarity: 84%–97% between Western Wè [wec] and Sapo dialects, including some Wè dialects in Côte d’Ivoire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Wee, Guere-Krahn. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tajuasohn
[tja] Sinoe county: north of Greenville. 11,400 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tajuason, Tajuoso, Tajuosohn. Dialects: 5 clans speak inherently intelligible dialects. Many understand Klao [klu], but the reverse is not true. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Kru, Western, Klao. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Vai
[vai] Grand Cape Mount county: coastal area and inland; Bomi county: southwest coast. 106,000 in Liberia (2012 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 124,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gallinas, Gallines, Vei, Vy. Dialects: None known. Different from Kono [kno] of Sierra Leone. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Vai-Kono. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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