Arabic, Libyan Spoken
[ayl] Widespread, especially in the north. 4,130,000 (2015), increasing. Total users in all countries: 4,802,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Alternate Names: Libyan Arabic, Libyan Vernacular Arabic, Sulaimitian Arabic, Western Egyptian Bedawi Spoken Arabic. Autonym: ليبي (Lībi). Dialects: Tripolitanian Arabic, Southern Libyan Arabic, Eastern Libyan Arabic. In the west it is reportedly similar to Bedouin Arabic of southern Tunisia [aeb]. A member of macrolanguage Arabic [ara]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.
[rmt] Al ‘Aziziyah, north Gharyan, and Tarabulus districts; Northwest coastal area, near Tripoli. Ethnic population: 37,700 (2015). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Dom. Dialects: Helebi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Dom. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.
[gha] Nalut district, Ghadamès, a small oasis near Algeria-Tunisia border. 10,000 (2001 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 13,100. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Ayt Waziten (Ait Wazitan), Ayt Welid. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East. Comments: Muslim.
Libyan Sign Language
[lbs] Scattered. 38,000 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: None known. Unclear how similar it is to other sign languages in the region. Not the same as Unified Arabic Sign Language, an artificial system promoted by representatives of 18 Arabic-speaking countries (Rashdan 2016). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Muslim.
[jbn] Al Jabal al Gharbi and Nalut districts: Jabal Nafusah area, Tripolitania, Nalut and Yafran areas isolated, Zuara Coast, west of Tripoli. 220,000 (2015). Preschool children are monolingual in Nafusi. Total users in all countries: 270,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djerbi, Jabal Nafusi, Jbel Nafusi, Jebel Nefusi, Nefusi. Dialects: Zuara (Zouara, Zuraa, Zuwara, Zuwarah, Zwara), Tamezret (Duwinna), Jerbi (Jerba). Zuara dialect well known in Jebel Nafusa area and in Jerba Tunisia. Some visit Zuara, but not vice versa. Matmata and Tatawine area less well understood by speakers in Jerba or Zuara. Speakers in Zuara and Jebel areas understand Jerba dialect stories well. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Northern, Zenati, East. Comments: Most live apart from Arabized inhabitants of the region. Muslim.
[thv] Ghat and Murzuq districts; Hoggar dialect: south Hoggar (Ajjer) Mountain area, Tamanrasset area, south into Niger; Ghat dialect: southeast, Ganet and west Libya oases, Ghat area. 17,000 (2001 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tamachek, Tamahaq, Tamashekin, Tomachek, Tourage, Toureg, Tuareg. Dialects: Hoggar (Ahaggaren, Ajjer, Tahaggart), Ghat (Djanet, Ganet). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Northern. Comments: Muslim.