Moldova

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Bulgarian
[bul] Cahul, Cantemir, Chisinau city, Gagauzia, Leova, and Taraclia districts. 41,800 (2014 census). Ethnic population: 51,900 (2014 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, National Minority Law, Article 6(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Gagauz
[gag] Basarabeasca, Cahul, Cantemir, Cimislia, Criuleni, Gagauzia, Leova, and Taraclia districts; Ceadîr-Lunga City, Chisinau City, and Vulcanesti City. 115,000 (2014 census). Ethnic population: 126,000 (2014 census). Total users in all countries: 566,720. Status: 5 (Developing). Statutory language of provincial identity in Gagauzia (1994, Constitution, Articles 3(1), 3(2)). Alternate Names: Gagauzi. Dialects: Bulgar Gagauzi, Maritime Gagauzi. Reportedly similar to Turkish [tur], but uses Russian Orthodox Christian religious vocabulary in contrast to Islamic vocabulary of Turkish. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Christian.

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Moldova Sign Language
[vsi] Scattered. 17,500 total signing deaf in Moldova in all sign languages (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2012, Article 25(1), Inclusion of Persons with Disabilities, No. 60). Dialects: None known. Relatively high lexical similarity to sign languages in Russia [rsl] and Ukraine [ukl] (Bickford 2005). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Sign language recognized as the official language of Deaf people, as the first language in deaf education, and as the main means of communication between Deaf people and others. Government measures to encourage media to make their information services available to Deaf. Christian.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Scattered. 7,570 (2014 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gypsy. Dialects: Ursári (Usari). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic groups: Ursári (Moldova), Karamítika (Ukraine), Romá (Crimean Peninsula). Muslim.

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Romanian
[ron] Widespread. 2,180,000 (2014 census). 1,540,000 Moldavian and 640,000 Romanian (2014 census). Ethnic population: 2,260,000 (2014 census). 2,070,000 Moldovan and 193,000 Romanian (2014 census). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2013, Constitutional Court, Jts. 8b and 41b). Alternate Names: Moldovan, Română, Roumanian, Rumanian. Dialects: Muntenian (Muntean, Walachian), Banat, Bayash, Chrishana, Maramuresh, Oltenia-Lesser Wallachia (Oltean). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: Christian.

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Romanian Sign Language
[rms] Briceni, Cantemir, Cahul, Edinet, Falesti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Leova, Nisporeni, Riscani, and Ungheni districts; scattered in areas above which border Romania. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Russian
[rus] Widespread. 1,714,000 in Moldova, all users. L1 users: 264,000 (2014 census). L2 users: 1,450,000 (Arefyev 2012). Ethnic population: 112,000 (2014 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Russian Sign Language
[rsl] Arenii Noi, Causeni, Chisinau, Criuleni, Dubasari, Floresti, Orhei, Rezina, Soldanesti, and Stefan-Voda districts; scattered in areas bordering Transnistria. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ukrainian
[ukr] Briceni, Cimislia, Donduseni, Drochia, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Ocnita, Riscani, and Singerei districts. 107,000 (2014 census). Ethnic population: 181,000 (2014 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, National Minority Law, Article 6(1)). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Scattered. 1,300 (2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, National Minority Law, Article 6(1)). Dialects: Southeastern Yiddish (Bessarabian-Romanian). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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