Madagascar

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English
[eng] Scattered. Population: Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Anglisy. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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French
[fra] Population: 4,840,000 in Madagascar, all users. L1 users: 120,000 in Madagascar (2005). L2 users: 4,720,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Constitution, Article 6). Alternate Names: Frantsay, Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French.

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Madagascar Sign Language
[mzc] Scattered. Population: 110,000 (2014 IMB). Estimated 170,000, based on 1% of general population (2014 Rajaonary Theodoric, World Association of Sign Language Interpreters). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malagasy Sign Language. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Norwegian Sign Language [nsl], but this needs verification. Classification: Sign language.

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Malagasy
[mlg] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 18,138,380. Includes: Antankarana Malagasy [xmv], Bara Malagasy [bhr], Masikoro Malagasy [msh], Northern Betsimisaraka Malagasy [bmm], Plateau Malagasy [plt], Sakalava Malagasy [skg], Southern Betsimisaraka Malagasy [bzc], Tandroy-Mahafaly Malagasy [tdx], Tanosy Malagasy [txy], Tesaka Malagasy [tkg], Tsimihety Malagasy [xmw].

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Malagasy, Antankarana
[xmv] Antsiranana province: Diana and Sava regions; Mahajanga province: Sofia region, a small area. Population: 156,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antakarana Malagasy, Antekarana, Antekarana Malagasy, Tankarana, Tankarana Malagasy. Autonym: Antakarana. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 71% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Bara
[bhr] Antananarivo province: Vakinankaratra region; Fianarantsoa province: Amoron’i Mania, Ihorombe, and Haute Matsiatra regions; Toliara province. Population: 724,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Autonym: Bara Malagasy. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 69% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Masikoro
[msh] Toliara province: Atsimo-Andrefana region, Moromba south to Tollara; Menabe region, coast near Mangoky river, inland near Mozambique channel. Population: 550,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: A quarter are Masikoro; the rest are Masikoro speakers from other ethnic groups. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Autonym: Masikoro Malagasy. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 72% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Northern Betsimisaraka
[bmm] Antanarivo province: areas in Analamanga and Vakinankaratra regions; Antsiranana province: Sava region, south of Bemariva river; Mahajanga province: Sofia region, east and southeast; Toamasina province. East coast from Mahanoro north. Population: 1,270,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antavaratra. Autonym: Betsimisaraka. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Plateau
[plt] Antanarivo and Fianarantsoa provinces; Mahajanga province: Betsiboka region. Population: 7,520,000 in Madagascar (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 7,544,380. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2010, Provisional Constitution, Article 6), use limited in higher education. Alternate Names: Ambaniandro, Borizany, Fiteny Malagasy, Hova, Malgache, Official Malagasy, Standard Malagasy, Teny ofisiealy. Autonym: Malagasy. Dialects: Merina, Betsileo, Sihanaka, Bezanozano, Tanala, Vakinankaritra, Zafimaniry. Reportedly the most similar language outside Madagascar is Ma’anyan [mhy] in south Borneo (Kalimantan, Indonesia). A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Sakalava
[skg] Antananarivo province: western Bongolava and Vakinankaratra regions; Antsiranana province: Diana region; Fianarantsoa province: western Amoron’i Mania region; Mahajanga province; Toliara province: Atsimo-Andrefana and Menabe (coastline only) regions. Population: 1,210,000 (2014 SIL). Based on extrapolations of latest census figures to report on Malagasy people groups (2014 L. Bouwer). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Vezo, Northern Sakalava Boeny, Southern Sakalava Boeny, Menabe. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Southern Betsimisaraka
[bzc] Antananarivo province: Vakinankaratra region; Fianarantsoa province: Amoron’i Mania and Atsimo-Atsinanana regions; Vatovavy-Fitovinany region, Nosy Varika, Manakara Atsimo, and Mananjary districts; Toamasina province: Alaotra-Mangoro region, south border; Atsinanana region, Mahanoro district. Population: 2,000,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antatsimo, Betsimisaraka. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Tandroy-Mahafaly
[tdx] Toliara province: Androy region, Ambovombe, Bekily, Beloha, and Tsihombe districts; Anosy and Atsimo-Andrefana regions. Population: 1,300,000 (2011 SIL). Tandroy 865,000; Mahafaly 330,000; Karimbola 103,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahafaly, Tandroy. Autonym: Antandroy. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 62% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Tanosy
[txy] Fianarantsoa province: Atsimo-Atsinanana region, Mahafaly area and northeast; Toliara province: Androy, Anosy, and Atsimo-Andrefana regions, southeast coast. Population: 639,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Lexical similarity: 75% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Tesaka
[tkg] Fianarantsoa province: Atsimo-Atsinanana and Ihorombe regions; Toliara province: Anosy region, migrating, particularly to western deltas. Population: 1,130,000 (2010 T. Bergman). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Antaisaka, Antesaka, Atesaka. Autonym: Tesaka Malagasy. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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Malagasy, Tsimihety
[xmw] Antsiranana province; Fianarantsoa province: Analanjirofo and Alaotra-Mangoro regions; Mahajanga province: Sofia region. Population: 1,615,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tsimihety. Autonym: Tsimihety Malagasy. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 68% with the Merina dialect of Plateau Malagasy [plt]. A member of macrolanguage Malagasy [mlg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, East, Malagasy.

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