Mali

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ASL, LSAF, Langue des signes de l’Afrique francophone. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Since LSAF is not officially recognized as a distinct language, it would be considered a dialect of ASL, with influence from spoken and written French [fra] and local signs. The relationship of ASL and LSAF in Mali to standard ASL in the United States and to LSAF in other francophone African countries has not been systematically assessed.

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Arabic, Hasanya
[mey] Widespread. 123,000 (2014 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 14 December). Alternate Names: Hassani, Hassaniya, Hassaniyya, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sahrawi, Sulaka, Suraka, Suraxxé. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Muslim.

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Arabic, Standard
[arb] Widespread. 41,800 in Mali (2015 SIL), all users. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1992, Constitution, Article 25), used in education. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Bamako Sign Language
[bog] Bamako capital district. Estimated 40,000–70,000 people with moderate to severe hearing loss in Mali (Nyst et al 2012). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: LaSiMa, Langue des signes bambara, Langue des signes malienne, Malian Sign Language. Dialects: Lexical variation within Bamako and between Bamako and other parts of Mali, currently being assessed (Nyst et al 2012). Classification: Sign language.

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Bamanankan
[bam] Widespread. Kayes, Koulikoro, and Ségou regions; Sikasso: north, middle Niger river watershed. 14,000,000 in Mali, all users. L1 users: 4,000,000 (2012 V. Vydrin), increasing. 75,000 Ganadugu (Vanderaa 1991), 164,000 Wasulu (2009 census). L2 users: 10,000,000 (2012 V. Vydrine). Total users in all countries: 14,102,320 (as L1: 4,102,320; as L2: 10,000,000). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bamanakan, Bambara. Autonym: Bamanankan. Dialects: Standard Bambara, Somono (Kombye), Segou, San, Beledugu, Ganadugu, Sikasso, Wasulunkakan (Maninkakan, Eastern, Wassulu, Wassulunka, Wassulunke, Wasulu, Wasuu). Many local dialects. The main division is standard Bambara, influenced heavily by Eastern Maninkakan [emk], and rural dialects. Bamanankan dialects are spoken in varying degrees by 80% of the Mali population. In Mali, Wasulunkakan is shared by both Bamanankan and Eastern Maninkakan, but in Guinea it is only a dialect of Eastern Maninkakan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana. Comments: Wasulu are former Fulbe. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bangime
[dba] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, 7 villages. 2,000 (Blench 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangana, Bangeri Me, Bangeri Me Dogon, Bangerime, Bangi Me, Dyeni, Elebo, Noumandan, Numadaw. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bankagooma
[bxw] Sikasso region: Sikasso circle, 2 areas northeast of Sikasso town; Danderesso, 7 other townships. 6,000 (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banka, Bankagoma, Bankagoroma, Bankaje, Samogho. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo.

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Bolon
[bof] Ségou region: San circle, 2 villages; Tominian circle, 7 villages. 5,920 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo, Boka, Boon, Boron. Dialects: Bon, Samalen. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bomu
[bmq] Mopti region: Djenne circle; Ségou region: San circle, San area on Bani river south bank; Sikasso region: enclave along Burkina Faso border. 102,000 (1976 census). Total users in all countries: 158,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bo, Bobo, Bobo Wule, Boré, Mu Boomu, Western Bobo Oule, Western Bwamu, Western Red. Autonym: Boomu. Dialects: Dwemu, Dahanmu, Mao. Dwemu subdialects are Terekongo (Terekoungo), Wahu (between Téné and the Bani river), Togo. Dahanmu subvarieties are Koniko, Mandiakuy, Bomborokuy, and Mao (Mahou). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bozo, Jenaama
[bze] Mopti region: Djenné and Mopti circles on Niger river, Tenenkou and Youwarou circles; Ségou region: Niger river, upstream from Mopti. 197,000 (2003 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boso, Corogaama, Djenaama, Nononke, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Sorko, Sorogaama, Sorogoye. Autonym: Sorogama. Dialects: Pondori, Kotya (Kotyaxo), Korondougou, Débo. Lexical similarity: 53%–76% with Tieyaxo Bozo [boz] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama. Comments: Muslim.

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Bozo, Kelengaxo
[bzx] Ségou region: Macina and Ségou circles, Ke-Maacina area upstream to Tamani, both sides of Niger river. 30,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boso, Hain, Hainyaxo Bozo, Hanyaxo, Kelenga, Kelengaxo, Kélinga, Kéllingua, Xan, Xanyaxo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 48%–66% with Tieyaxo Boso [boz] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern. Comments: The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Muslim.

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Bozo, Tiemacèwè
[boo] Mopti region: Youwarou circle, where Niger river leaves Lake Debo, 6 villages. 2,500 (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boso, Bozo, Tiema Ciewe, Tiemacewe, Tièma Cièwè, Tièma Cèwè, Tièmacèwè, Tié. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 60%–79% with Tieyaxo Bozo [boz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern. Comments: The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Muslim.

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Bozo, Tieyaxo
[boz] Mopti region: Tenenkou circle, northwest of Kouakourou town on Niger river; upriver into Ségou region: Machina circle. 118,000 (1987 census). Population may include Tiemacèwè Bozo [boo] and Kelengaxo Bozo [bzx]. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Boso, Tie, Tiemaxo, Tigemaxo, Tiguémakho, Tiéyakho, Tyeyaxo, Tégué. Autonym: Tieyaxo. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 53%–76% with Jenaama Bozo [bze] (most similar), 30% with Soninke [snk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern. Comments: Muslim.

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Dogon, Ampari
[aqd] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, Pignari commune, 16 villages. 5,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambeenge, Ampari, Pignari. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–53% with Mombo Dogon [dmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Ana Tinga
[dti] Mopti region: Koro circle, Diankabou township, Ana village. 500 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Yanda Dom Dogon [dym]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon. Comments: Muslim.

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Dogon, Bankan Tey
[dbw] Mopti region: Douentza circle, north Douentza town area, Walo village, other hamlets. 1,320 (1998 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bankan Tey, Oualo, Walo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Nanga Dama [nzz] with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns. The influence of Songhay on Bankan Tey and Jamsay [djm] on Ben Tey [dbt] have resulted in fairly substantial lexical differentiation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Ben Tey
[dbt] Mopti region: Douentza circle, 3 villages south of Douentza town. 3,000 (2005 J. Heath). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ben Tey. Dialects: None known. The people of Beni and Gamni have contact with Jamsay [djm] speakers, and to a lesser extent with speakers of Nanga [nzz] and Fulfulde. The influence of Songhay on Bankan Tey [dbw], and that of Jamsay on Ben Tey, have resulted in fairly substantial lexical differentiation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Bondum Dom
[dbu] Mopti region: Douentza circle, Borko village. 24,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bondum-Dom, Najamba-Kindige Dogon. Dialects: Kindjim, Nadjamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Bunoge
[dgb] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, Goundaka township, Boudou, Dakouma, and Sangou villages. 1,000 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Budu-Tagu, Bunoge, Korandabo. Dialects: None known. Nominal plural suffix aligns it with Ampari Dogon [aqd] and Mombo Dogon [dmb], but lexically quite different (Blench 2005). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon. Comments: Muslim.

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Dogon, Dogul Dom
[dbg] Mopti region: 14 villages northeast of Bandiagara, Nandoli is center. 15,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dogul-Dom. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Donno So
[dds] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, area upstream on Yame river. 45,300 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Donno, Donno So, Kamba So, Kamma So. Dialects: Kamma So, Donno So. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Jamsay
[djm] Mopti region: Koro circle near Burkina Faso border; southwest Koro circle, Kiri town, northwest to Douentza circle. 130,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dyamsay Tegu, Gamsaj, Jamsay. Dialects: Domno, Gono, Bama, Guru, Pomuru. Degree of comprehension between dialects uncertain. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Mombo
[dmb] Mopti region: Bandiagara circle, 27 villages from Bandiagara to Mopti. 19,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolu-so, Kolum-so, Pignari. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 40%–53% with Ampari Dogon [aqd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Nanga Dama
[nzz] Mopti region: Douentza circle, 9 villages northeast of Bamba town, southwest of Debere town. 3,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nanga Dogon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Bankan Tey [dbw] and Ben Tey [dbt]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Tebul Ure
[dtu] Mopti region: Koro circle, Diankabou township. 3,000 (2005 FEL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oru yille, Tebul Ure. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Tene Kan
[dtk] Mopti region: northeast Bankass circle, near Koro circle border; into Bandiagara circle. 127,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tene Kan, Tene Tingi, Tengu Kan, Togo Kan. Dialects: Togo Kan, Giwnri Kan, Woru Kan (Wolu Kan), Tengu Kan, Tene Kan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Dogon, Tiranige Diga
[tde] Mopti region: Kendie, Lowol Gueou, and Pignari Bana townships on northeast Dogon plateau. 4,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duleri, Duleri Dom. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: about 50% with Mombo [dmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Tommo So
[dto] Mopti region: Diamnati, Kassa, Kendé, Kendié, Metoumou, Ondougou, Segué Iré, Tédié, and Wadouba townships. 60,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tombo-So, Tommo So. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Donno So [dds] and Toro So [dts]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Tomo Kan
[dtm] Mopti region: Bankass circle far southwest; Ségou region: Tominian circle. 133,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tomo-Kan. Dialects: Bongu, Aa Bara, Aa, Tienwan Ganda, Tie Bara, Nienne, Tanwan Bara, Basara. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Toro So
[dts] Mopti region: Bandiagara and Koro circles, Bereli and Madougou town areas. 50,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bomu Tegu, Dogoso. Dialects: Yorno, Youga, Ibi, Sangha, Ireli. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon. Comments: Different from Dogoso [dgs] and Dogosé [dos]. Cliff dwellers. Muslim, Christian.

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Dogon, Toro Tegu
[dtt] Mopti region: Douentza circle, Ouro Nguerou town area, 15 villages. 2,900 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tandam. Dialects: None known. Toro Tegu is very different from Jamsay [djm], the other Dogon language widely known by Toro Tegu speakers (2011 J. Heath). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Dogon, Yanda Dom
[dym] Mopti region: Koro and Bandiagara circles, southwest of Bamba town. 2,000 (Blench 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Yanda Dom. Dialects: None known. Reporedly similar to Nanga Dama [nzz] with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon.

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Duungooma
[dux] Sikasso region: Kadiolo and Sikasso circles; Bafini river north basin. 125,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Du, Duungo, Mali Duun, Samogho, Samogo, Samoro, Western Duun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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French
[fra] 2,955,000 in Mali, all users. L1 users: 15,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 2,940,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 25). Alternate Names: Français. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French. Comments: Non-indigenous. Official language for instruction in schools.

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Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] Widespread. 1,040,000 (2014 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,045,440. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Fulani, Fulbe, Macina, Peul, Toucouleur. Autonym: Fulfulde, Maasinankoore. Dialects: Western Macina, Eastern Macina. Some dialect differences, but all dialects in Mali perceived inherently intelligible. Substantial Bamanankan [bam] influence. There is skewing between the ethnic and linguistic relationships. A member of macrolanguage Fulah [ful]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Maasina in Mali is a major Fula geopolitical state. Muslim, Christian.

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Jahanka
[jad] Kayes region: Kéniéba circle, Kofoulabé, a few other villages. 500 (2001), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diakhanke, Diakkanke, Dyakanke, Jahanque, Jahonque, Jakankalou. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding. Comments: Non-indigenous. Reportedly originated in Mali. Origins traced to Soninke [snk], but now speak a separate language. Muslim.

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Jalunga
[yal] Kayes region: Kéniéba circle, 3 enclaves. 9,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dialonke, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonke, Jalunga xuwiina’, Jalunganéé, Jalungas, Yalunka, Yalunke. Dialects: Bafing, Yalunka, Jalunga, Fontofa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka. Comments: Muslim.

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Jowulu
[jow] Sikasso region: Kadiolo circle, Loulouni commune, 12 villages on Burkina Faso border. 10,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 12,000. Total users in all countries: 11,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jo, Samogho. Autonym: Jowulu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo. Comments: Ethnonym: Samogho, a cover term including the Dzuungoo [dnn], Matya Samo [stj], and possibly other languages. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Jula
[dyu] Widespread, in southeast. 370,000 in Mali, all users. L1 users: 92,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 278,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used for travel, market, and business communication. Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula, Julakan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana. Comments: Non-indigenous. The Malian government recognizes Jula in Mali as Bambara [bam]. Muslim.

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Kagoro
[xkg] Kayes region: Diema, northeast Kita, south Nioro circles; Koulikoro region: Kolokani and Nara circles; Ségou region: Kadiolo circle. 88 villages. 15,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Ethnic population: 30,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kakolo. Dialects: Mogola, Kamiko, Sébékoro, Jumara, Diéma, Guissimbiné, Séféto. Similar to Xaasongaxango [kao]. Bambara [bam] have poor comprehension of Kagoro. Western dialects (Séféto, Guissimbiné) are reportedly similar to Maninka-Bagè, a dialect of Kita Maninkakan [mwk]. Lexical similarity: 86% with Kita Maninkakan [mwk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Some lexical influence from Soninke [snk]. Recent heavy Bamanankan [bam] influence. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Konabéré
[bbo] Sikasso region: east Yorosso circle, on Burkina Faso border; some in Ségou region. 25,000 (2007 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Da, Bobo Fi, Boboda, Konakuma, “Bobo Fing” (pej.). Dialects: San, Yaba, Tankire. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Koromfé
[kfz] Mopti region: Koro circle, 11 villages on Burkina Faso border. 6,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foula, Foulse, Koromba, Kurum-Korey, Tellem. Dialects: Eastern Koromfe, Western Koromfe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe.

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Maninkakan, Eastern
[emk] Koulikoro region: Kati circle, into Kangaba circle, 5 communes; Sikasso region: Yanfolila circle. 390,000 (2014 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Maninga, Maninka, Maninkakan, Maninkaxan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding.

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Maninkakan, Kita
[mwk] Bamako capital district; Kayes region: Kita circle except far east; Koulikoro region: west of Bamako; Ségou region: Baroueli circle. 434,000 (2014 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 28 December). Alternate Names: Central Malinke, Kita Maninka, Malinke. Dialects: Bagè, Kita, Biriko (Birgo), Sagabari. Kita have 64% intelligibility of Bamanankan [bam]. A member of macrolanguage Mandingo [man]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim.

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Maninkakan, Western
[mlq] Kayes region: Bafoulabé circle and Baking-Baloy drainage area; Kayes circle north to Kayes, north Kéniéba circle. 433,000 (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malinka, Malinké, Northwestern Maninka, Western Malinke. Dialects: Kouroudougou, Konkodougou, Djébé, Niagala. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Marka
[rkm] Mopti region: Bankass circle, south of Dialassagou town; Ségou region: northeast Tominian circle, along Burkina Faso border. 50,800 (2014 UNSD). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dafing, Marka-Dafin, Meka. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin. Comments: Used for followers of the traditional religion, Dafing for Muslim speakers. Different from the Marka name for Soninke [snk], and Marka-Jalan who speak the San dialect of Bamanankan [bam]. Muslim.

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Mòoré
[mos] Mopti region: Koro circle on Burkina Faso border, border area south of Koro town. 39,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mole, More, Moshi, Mossi. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest. Comments: Came from Burkina Faso during the colonial period. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Pana
[pnq] Mopti region: Bankass circle, Baye township, on Mali-Burkina Faso border. 2,800 (1982 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sama. Dialects: Pana North, Pana South. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Kayes region: Diema, northwest Kayes, Nioro, and Yelimané circles; Koulikoro region: Banamba, north Kolokani, and Nara circles. 175,000 (1995). 40,000 Fulbe Jeeri. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Peuhl, Peul, Pulaar Fulfulde. Dialects: Toucouleur (Fulbe Jeeri, Haalpulaar, Halpulaar, Pulaar, Tukolor, Tukulor). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Pular
[fuf] Kayes region: Kéniéba circle. 50,000 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Foula Fouta, Fouta Dyalon, Fulfulde Jalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central. Comments: Muslim.

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Samo, Matya
[stj] Mopti region: Bankass circle, southeast Baye township, Dissa and 12 other villages. 1,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Samogho, San, Sànán, Sã. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Eastern, Eastern, Samo.

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Sàmòmá
[knz] Mopti region: Koro circle, Dougoutene and Koro townships, about 12 villages, including Sougou, Zon, Ponghon, Gako, and Soyema. 2,500 (2014 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalamsé, Kalemsé, Kalenga, Sàmó. Dialects: Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern. Comments: Distinct from other languages called Samo. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Mamara
[myk] Ségou region: Bla circle, scattered; Sikasso region: Koutiala and Yorosso circles. 738,000 (2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bamaraga, Mamara, Mianka, Minianka, Miniyanka, Minya, Minyanka, Tupiire. Autonym: Mamaara. Dialects: Sõghoo, Bàjii, Nafãã, Mìjuu, Kle Noehmõ, Nejuu, Koloo, Kujaa, Suõõ. Reportedly similar to Supyire Senoufo [spp], but intercomprehension difficult. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Sikasso region: Kadiolo circle, Bagoe river west bank to Cote d’Ivoire border, and Bafini river south bank. 14,800 (2009 T. Requadt). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbajere. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: The language is called Gbajere by Syenara [shz] speakers.

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Sénoufo, Sìcìté
[sep] Sikasso region: Sikasso circle, 4 villages on Burkina Faso border. 3,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sucite, Sìcijuungé, Sìcìré, Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Tagba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: Little intermarriage with others in the southern area. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Supyire
[spp] Sikasso region: Sikasso circle, north from Sikasso city. 350,000 (2007 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sup’ide, Suppire. Autonym: Supyire. Dialects: Kampwo, Kadi, Nyana Nyuni, Fanywohoshin. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Syenara
[shz] Sikasso region: Kadiolo circle. 155,000 (2010 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Senare, Senari, Shenara, Syenara. Dialects: Sangaar, Kuleele, Loakloho, Tuvunro, Pomporo, Tagbaar. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari. Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Songhay, Humburi Senni
[hmb] Mopti region: Douentza circle, between Gao and Mopti cities; Tombouctou region: Gourma-Rharous circle. 15,000 (1999 J. Heath). Total users in all countries: 25,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Songai, Hombori Songhay, Songai, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai. Dialects: Hombori, Maransé. Maransé dialect is 77% intelligible of Songhay of Falangountou. Lexical similarity: Maransé is 65% with Songhay of Falangoutou, 35% with Songhay of Gao. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Songhay, Koyra Chiini
[khq] Mopti region: Douentza and Youvarou circles; northeast Ségou region: Niono circle, northeast to Niger river; Tombouctou region: Niger river, both banks. 200,000 (1999 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Songai, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai, Timbuktu Songhoy, West Songhoy. Dialects: Koyra Chiini, Djenné Chiini. Main dialect division between Timbuktu and the upriver towns from Diré to Niafunké. Very distinct in Djenné city. Lexical similarity: 77% with Gao and Timbuktu dialects, 50% lexical similarity with Tadaksahak [dsq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Songhay, Koyraboro Senni
[ses] Gao region: Gao town area along Niger river; Tombouctou region: Niafunké to Niger border. 430,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 850,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: East Songhay, Gao Songhay, Koyra Senni, Koyra Senni Songhay, Songai, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai. Dialects: Gao, Fulan Kirya. Intelligibility good among all dialects on Niger River. Fulan Kirya dialect has more limited intelligibility through heavy lexical borrowing from Fulfulde [ffm] and Humburi Senni Songhay [hmb]. The Gao dialect is dominant in all respects. Lexical similarity: 77% with Gao and Timbuktu dialects; 50% with Tadaksahak [dsq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Soninke
[snk] Kayes region: Kayes, Nioro, and Yélimané circles; Koulikoro region: Banamba, Kolokani, Koulikoro, and Nara circles; Ségou region: Baraouéli and Ségou circles. 6 principal towns, 163 villages. 1,280,000 (2009 census), increasing. Total users in all countries: 2,084,110. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Aswanek, Aswanik, Azer, Ceddo, Cheddo, Gangara, Genger, Kwara, Maraka, Marka, Markaajo, Markakan, Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Sarangkole, Sarangkolle, Saraxuli, Sebbe, Serahule, Serecole, Sooninke, Wakkore, Wankara. Autonym: Sooninkanxanne. Dialects: Kinbakka, Kinxenna, Geriga (Giriga). Giriga dialect heavily influenced by Hassaniya Arabic [mey]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke. Comments: Different from Marka [rkm]. Muslim.

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Tadaksahak
[dsq] Gao region: Menaka circle, west into Ansongo circle. Menaka is principal town. 100,000 (2007 M. Almaki), increasing. 70,000 youth are monolingual. Total users in all countries: 101,800. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daosahaq, Daoussahaq, Daoussak, Dausahaq, Dawsahaq. Autonym: Idaksahak. Dialects: No major dialects. Closely related to Tagdal [tda] (Niger), Tasawaq [twq] (Niger), and Korandje [kcy] (Algeria). Northern Songhay Languages share features from Songhay languages and Tamasheq [taq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Northern. Comments: Shares culture with Tamasheq [taq].

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Tamajaq
[ttq] Gao region: Menaka circle. 351,000 (2013 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tahoua, Tajag, Tamajeq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, “Tourage” (pej.), “Tuareg” (pej.). Dialects: Tawallammet Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden), Tawallammat Tan Ataram. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Tamashek
[tmh] Population total all languages: 1,628,000 Status: Comments: Includes: Tahaggart Tamahaq [thv] (Algeria), Tamasheq [taq], Tawallammat Tamajaq [ttq] (Niger), Tayart Tamajeq [thz] (Niger).

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Tamasheq
[taq] Widespread northeast: Gao, Kidal, and Tombouctou regions; Mopti region: Youvarou circle. 378,000 (2014 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 500,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Tamachen, Tamashek, Tamashekin, Tomacheck, tamachèque, tamasagt, “Tuareg” (pej.). Autonym: Tǝmajǝq. Dialects: Timbuktu (Tanaslamt, Tombouctou), Tadhaq (Kidal, Kidal Tamasheq). May be 2 separate languages. A member of macrolanguage Tamashek [tmh]. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern. Comments: The Bellah were formerly under the Tamasheq economically. Muslim.

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Tebul Sign Language
[tsy] Mopti region: Koro circle, Diankabou township, Uluban village area. 500 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language. Comments: There are also several communities in neighboring Douentza circle with a relatively high incidence of deafness (estimated 700–1,300 out of 248,000) and use of sign language (Nyst et al 2012); relationship of the signing in Douentza to that in Tebul has not been determined.

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Tondi Songway Kiini
[tst] Mopti region: Douentza circle, Kikara village northeast. 3,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Songway Kiini, TSK. Dialects: None known. Clearly distinct from other Songhay languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim.

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Xaasongaxango
[kao] Kayes region: Bafoulabé, Kayes, and Kéniéba circles. 700,000 (2012 V. Vydrin). Total users in all countries: 711,310. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 14 December). Alternate Names: Kasonke, Kasso, Kasson, Kassonke, Khasonke, Khassonka, Khassonké, Malinke, Maninka, Xaasonga, Xasonga, Xasonke. Autonym: Xasongo. Dialects: Xaasonga, Kéniéba Maninka. High intelligibility of Western Maninkakan [mlq], less of Bamanankan [bam], but for sociolinguistic reasons they are considered separate languages. 90% inherent intelligibility of Loma [loi]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mandinka [mnk] of Gambia and Senegal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West. Comments: French spelling is Khassonké. Muslim.

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Zarmaci
[dje] Gao region: Ansongo circle, 2 villages south of Menaka at Niger border. 1,700 (2012 G. Davis). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma, Zarmaciine, Zerma. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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