Mali

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Arabic, Hasanya
[mey] 106,000 in Mali (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 14 December). Alternate Names: Hassani, Hassaniya, Hassaniyya, Maure, Mauri, Moor, Sahrawi, Sulaka, Suraka, Suraxxé Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic Comments: Ethnonym: Maures, Moors; glossonym: Suraka by the Bambara, Suraxxé by the Soninke. Muslim.

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Bamako Sign Language
[bog] Bamako school for deaf children has 3 grade classes. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Deaf sign language Comments: Based on American Sign Language [ase].

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Bamanankan
[bam] Widespread, southern, central Koulikoro, Segou, northern Sikasso, Watershed, middle Niger river; Kayes Region. Also in Côte d’Ivoire (Bambara), Gambia (Bambara), Mauritania (Bambara), Senegal (Bambara). 4,000,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrin), increasing. 75,000 Ganadugu (Vanderaa 1991), 164,000 Wasulu (2009 census). Population total all countries: 4,072,040. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bamanakan, Bambara Dialects: Beledugu, Ganadugu, San, Segou, Sikasso, Somono, Standard Bambara, Wasulunkakan (Maninkakan, Eastern, Wassulu, Wassulunka, Wassulunke, Wasulu, Wasuu). Many local dialects. The main division is standard Bambara, influenced heavily by Eastern Maninkakan [emk], and rural dialects. Bamanankan dialects are spoken in varying degrees by 80% of the Mali population. In Mali, Wasulunkakan is shared by both Bamanankan and Eastern Maninkakan, but in Guinea it is only a dialect of Eastern Maninkakan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Wasulu are former Fulbe. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Bangime
[dba] Mopti Region, Bandiagara circle. 7 villages. 2,000 (Blench 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bangeri Me, Bangeri Me Dogon, Bangerime, Bangi Me, Dyeni, Elebo, Noumandan, Numadaw Classification: Language isolate Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bangande. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bankagooma
[bxw] Sikasso Region, Sikasso circle, 2 enclaves northeast of Sikasso town. Danderesso, 7 other townships. 6,000 (2007). Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banka, Bankagoma, Bankagoroma, Bankaje Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo

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Bolon
[bof] Ségou Region, Tominian and San circles, 8 villages; Koutiala circle, 1 village. 5,920 in Mali (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bo, Boka, Boon, Boron Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Bomu
[bmq] Ségou Region, San circle, Bani river south bank, San area; enclave south on Burkina Faso border. Also in Burkina Faso. 102,000 in Mali (1976 census). Population total all countries: 158,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bobo, Bobo Wule, Boomu, Bore, Western Bobo Oule, Western Bwamu, Western Red Dialects: Dahanmu, Dwemu, Mao. Dwemu subdialects are Terekongo (Terekoungo), Wahu (between Téné and the Bani river), Togo. Dahanmu subvarieties are Koniko, Mandiakuy, Bomborokuy, and Mao (Mahou). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Bwamu Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bozo, Jenaama
[bze] Mopti Region, 3 separate areas: 1. Djenné circle, upstream on Niger river, 2. Mopti circle, downstream on Niger river, into Youwarou circle, 3. Tenenkou and Youwarou circles, 40 km northwest of Mopti. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Nigeria (Sorko). 197,000 in Mali (2003 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Boso, Corogaama, Djenaama, Nononke, Sarkanci, Sarkawa, Sorko, Sorogaama Dialects: Débo, Korondougou, Kotya (Kotyaxo), Pondori. Lexical similarity: 53%–76% with Tieyaxo Bozo [boz] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Jenaama Comments: Ethnic autonym: Sorogo (sg.), Sorogoye (pl.); glossonym: Sorogama, language of the Bozo. The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Nononkes are often also called Marka or dry Marka, referring to the fact that they were originally Soninke or Malinke but no longer speak their language. Somono ethnic autonym: Komuo (sg.), Kombye (pl.). Muslim.

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Bozo, Kelengaxo
[bzx] Ségou Region, Macina and Ségou circles, Ke-Maacina area upstream to Tamani on both sides of Niger river. 30,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boso, Hain, Hainyaxo Bozo, Hanyaxo, Kelenga, Kélinga, Kéllingua, Xan, Xanyaxo Dialects: Lexical similarity: 48%–66% with Tieyaxo Boso [boz] (most similar). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern Comments: The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Muslim.

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Bozo, Tiemacèwè
[boo] Mopti Region, Youwarou circle, where Niger river leaves Lake Debo. 6 villages. 2,500 (1991). 830 in Enguem, 1,320 in Aouré. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Boso, Tié, Tiema Ciewe, Tièma Cièwè, Tiemacewe, Tièmacèwè Dialects: Lexical similarity: 60%–79% with Tieyaxo Bozo [boz]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern Comments: The Bambara term Boso refers to the entire ethnic group. Muslim.

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Bozo, Tiéyaxo
[boz] Mopti Region, Tenenkou circle, northwest of Kouakourou town on Niger river; confluence of Diaka and Niger rivers; upriver into Segou Region, Machina circle. 118,000 (1987 census). Population may include Tiemacèwè Bozo [boo] and Kelengaxo Bozo [bzx]. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Boso, Tégué, Tie, Tiemaxo, Tiéyakho, Tigemaxo, Tiguémakho, Tyeyaxo Dialects: Lexical similarity: 53%–76% with Jenaama Bozo [bze] (most similar), 30% with Soninke [snk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Boso, Eastern Comments: Ethnic autonym: Boso, house of bamboo in Bambara. Muslim.

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Dogon, Ampari
[aqd] Mopti Region, Bandiagara circle, Pignari commune. 16 villages. 5,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambeenge, Ampari, Pignari Dialects: Most similar to Mombo Dogon [dmb]. Lexical similarity: 40%–53% with Mombo Dogon [dmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Ana Tinga
[dti] Mopti Region, Koro circle, Diankabou township, Ana village. 500 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Most similar to Yanda Dom Dogon [dym]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon Comments: Muslim.

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Dogon, Bankan Tey
[dbw] Mopti Region, Douentza circle, north Douentza town area, between Debere and Gono; Walo village, other hamlets. 1,320 (1998 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oualo, Walo Dialects: Similar to Nanga Dama [nzz] with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns. The influence of Songhay on Bankan Tey and Jamsay [djm] on Ben Tey [dbt] have resulted in fairly substantial lexical differentiation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Ben Tey
[dbt] Mopti Region, Douentza circle, south of Douentza town west of road to Bamba. 3 villages. 2,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: The people of Beni and Gamni have contact with Jamsay [djm] speakers, and to a lesser extent with speakers of Nanga [nzz] and Fulfulde. The influence of Songhay on Bankan Tey [dbw], and that of Jamsay on Ben Tey, have resulted in fairly substantial lexical differentiation. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Bondum Dom
[dbu] Mopti Region, Douentza circle, south of Lake Korarou, along Douentza–Tassembe–Sangali road, Borko village. 24,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bondum-Dom, Dogon, Najamba-Kindige Dialects: Kindjim, Nadjamba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Bunoge
[dgb] Mopti Region, Bandiagara circle, Goundaka township northeast of Mopti city. 1,000 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Budu-Tagu, Korandabo Dialects: Nominal plural suffix aligns it with Ampari Dogon [aqd] and Mombo Dogon [dmb], but lexically quite different (Blench 2005). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon Comments: Muslim.

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Dogon, Dogul Dom
[dbg] Northeast of Bandiagara, Nandoli as center. 14 villages. 15,700 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dogul-Dom Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Donno So
[dds] Mopti Region, Bandiagara circle, area upstream on Yame river, both sides of headwaters. 45,300 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kamba So Dialects: Donno So, Kamma So. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Jamsay
[djm] Mopti Region, Koro circle; sparsely populated area east of Dogon cliffs, near Burkina Faso border; southwest Koro circle, Kiri town, northwest to Douentza circle. Also in Burkina Faso. 130,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dyamsay Tegu, Gamsaj Dialects: Bama, Domno, Gono, Guru, Pomuru. Degree of comprehension between dialects uncertain. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Mombo
[dmb] Mopti Region, Bandiagara circle, from Mopti to Bandiagara. 27 villages. 19,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kolum-so, Kolu-so, Pignari Dialects: Most similar to Ampari Dogon [aqd]. Lexical similarity: 40%–53% with Ampari Dogon [aqd]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Nanga Dama
[nzz] Mopti Region, Douentza circle, northeast of Bamba town, southwest of Debere town. 9 villages. 3,000 (2009 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nanga Dogon Dialects: Similar to Bankan Tey [dbw] and Ben Tey [dbt]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Tebul Ure
[dtu] Mopti Region, Koro circle, Diankabou township. 3,000 (2005 D. Douyon and R. Blench). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Tene Kan
[dtk] Mopti Region, northeast Bankass circle, near Koro circle border; into Bandiagara circle. 127,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tene Kan, Tene Tingi, Tengu Kan Dialects: Giwnri Kan, Togo Kan, Woru Kan (Wolu Kan). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Tiranige Diga
[tde] Mopti Region, northeast edge of Dogon plateau, Lowol Gueou, Pignari Bana, and Kendie townships. 4,200 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Duleri, Duleri Dom Dialects: Lexical similarity: about 50% with Mombo [dmb]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Tommo So
[dto] Eastern Mopti Region, Tédié, Diamnati, Kendé, Kendié, Segué Iré, Wadouba, Ondougou, Metoumou, and Kassa townships. 60,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tombo-So Dialects: Similar to Donno So [dds] and Toro So [dts]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Tomo Kan
[dtm] Far southwest Mopti Region, Bankass circle, Segue town area and east. Also in Burkina Faso. 133,000 in Mali (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tomo-Kan Dialects: Aa, Aa Bara, Basara, Bongu, Nienne, Tanwan Bara, Tie Bara, Tienwan Ganda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Toro So
[dts] Mopti Region, Koro and Bandiagara circles, Bereli and Madougou town areas. 50,000 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Bomu Tegu, Dogoso Dialects: Ibi, Ireli, Sangha, Yorno, Youga. Different from Dogoso [dgs], Dogosé [dos] in Burkina Faso. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon Comments: Cliff dwellers. Glossonym: Bomu Tegu by neighbors in the plains. Muslim, Christian.

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Dogon, Toro Tegu
[dtt] Mopti Region, Douentza circle, Ouro Nguerou town area. 15 villages. 2,900 (1998 J. Durieux). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tandam Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Dogon, Yanda Dom
[dym] Mopti Region, Koro and Bandiagara circles, southwest of Bamba town. 2,000 (Blench 2005). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Similar to Nanga Dama [nzz] with which it shares both lexicon and a final -m on many nouns. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Dogon

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Duungooma
[dux] Sikasso Region, Kadiolo and Sikasso circles; Bafini river, north basin, east of Bananso town. 70,000 (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Du, Duungo, Mali Duun, Samogho, Samogo, Samoro, Western Duun Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo Comments: Ethnonym: Samogho is a cover term to include Duungooma [dux], Bankagooma [bxw], and Jowulu [jow]. Muslim, traditional religion.

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French
[fra] 9,000 in Mali (Johnstone 1993). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 25). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Gallo-Romance, Gallo-Rhaetian, Oïl, French Comments: Official language for instruction in schools.

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Fulfulde, Maasina
[ffm] Widespread in central Mali; Koulikoro Region, Sikasso except southwest regions, Segou except southeast; Mopti Region north of Mopti city; Toumbouctou Region, Youvarou, Niafunke, Dire, and Gourma-Rharous circles. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana. 1,000,000 in Mali (2007 S. Crickmore). Population total all countries: 1,008,500. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Macina, Peul Dialects: Eastern Macina, Western Macina. Some dialect differences, but all dialects in Mali perceived inherently intelligible. Substantial Bamanankan [bam] influence. There is skewing between the ethnic and linguistic relationships. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Maasina in Mali is a major Fula geopolitical state. Ethnonym: Fulbe in Fulfulde [ffm]; Fulani in English. Glossonym: Peul or Toucouleur in French. Muslim, Christian.

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Jahanka
[jad] Kayes Region, Kéniéba circle, 20 km southeast of Kéniebé town, Kofoulabé, a few other villages. 500 in Mali (2001), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Diakhanke, Diakkanke, Dyakanke, Jahanque, Jahonque Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding Comments: Reportedly originated in Mali. Origins traced to Soninke [snk], but now speak a separate language. Ethnic autonym: Jakanka (sing.), Jakankalou (pl.). Muslim.

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Jalunga
[yal] Southwest, Kayes Region, Kéniéba circle, 3 enclaves. 9,000 in Mali (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dialonke, Djallonke, Dyalonke, Jalonke, Yalunka, Yalunke Dialects: Bafing. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Susu-Yalunka Comments: Ethnic autonym: Jalungana (sg.) or Jalunganéé (pl.). Fontofa dialect is spoken in Mali. Muslim.

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Jowulu
[jow] Sikasso Region, Kadiolo circle, Loulouni commune, south of Sikasso town, on Burkina Faso border. Also in Burkina Faso. 10,000 in Mali (2002 SIL), increasing. Population total all countries: 11,000. Ethnic population: 12,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jo, Samogho Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Samogo Comments: Ethnonym: Samogho, a cover term including the Dzuungoo [dnn], Duungooma [dux], Bankagooma [bxw], Matya Samo [stj], Jowulu [jow], and possibly other languages. Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Jula
[dyu] Widespread in south. 50,000 in Mali (1991). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dioula, Diula, Djula, Dyoula, Dyula Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Northeastern Manding, Bamana Comments: Muslim.

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Kagoro
[xkg] West, Kayes Region, Diema, south Nioro, and far northeast Kita circles; Koulikoro Region, Nara and Kolokani circles; Ségou Region, Kadiolo circle. 88 villages. 15,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Ethnic population: 30,000 (2001 V. Vydrin). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kakolo Dialects: Diéma, Guissimbiné, Jumara, Kamiko, Mogola, Sébékoro, Séféto. Similar to Xaasongaxango [kao]. Bambara [bam] have poor comprehension of Kagoro. Western dialects (Séféto, Guissimbiné) are similar to Maninka-Bagè, a dialect of Kita Maninkakan [mwk]. Lexical similarity: 86% with Kita Maninkakan [mwk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Some lexical influence from Soninke [snk]. Recent heavy Bamanankan [bam] influence. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Konabéré
[bbo] Sikasso Region, east Yorosso circle. Along Burkina Faso border. 25,000 in Mali (2007 SIL). Few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Black Bobo, Bobo, Bobo Da, Bobo Fi, Bobo Fing Dialects: San, Tankire, Yaba. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Bobo Comments: Ethnic autonym: Konakuma. ‘Kuma’, people and ‘béré’, speech. The term Bobo has also been applied to the Bwa people or their languages, Buamu and Boomu. Bambara names Bobo Fing, Black Bobo and Bobo Oule, Red Bobo, Buamu and Boomu create confusion. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Koromfé
[kfz] Mopti Region, Koro circle; southeast of Dinangourou town, on Burkina Faso border. 11 villages. 6,000 in Mali (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foula, Foulse, Kurum-Korey, Tellem Dialects: Eastern Koromfe, Western Koromfe. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Kurumfe

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Maninkakan, Eastern
[emk] Koulikoro Region, Kati circle, south of Bamako, west of Niger river, into Kangaba circle, 5 communes; Sikasso Region, Yanfolila circle. 390,000 in Mali (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Southeastern Manding

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Maninkakan, Kita
[mwk] Kayes Region, Kita circle except far east. 434,000 (2009 census). 50,000 Fulanke (Vanderaa 1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 28 December). Alternate Names: Central Malinke, Kita Maninka, Malinke Dialects: Bagè, Biriko (Birgo), Kita, Sagabari. Kita have 64% intelligibility of Bamanankan [bam]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Muslim.

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Maninkakan, Western
[mlq] Kayes Region, north Kéniéba circle, west of Bafing river and Lake Manantali; Bafoulabé circle and Baking-Baloy drainage area; Kayes circle north to Kayes. 433,000 in Mali (2009 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malinka, Malinke, Northwestern Maninka, Western Malinke Dialects: Kenieba Maninka, Nyoxolonkan. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: Muslim, traditional religion, Christian.

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Marka
[rkm] Ségou Region, northeast Tominian circle, 3 areas between Niger river and Burkina Faso border; Mopti Region, Bankass circle, south of Dialassagou town. 7 villages. 25,000 in Mali (1991). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dafing, Marka-Dafin, Meka Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-East, Marka-Dafin Comments: Used for followers of the traditional religion, Dafing for Muslim speakers. Different from the Marka name for Soninke [snk], and Marka-Jalan who speak the San dialect of Bamanankan [bam]. Muslim.

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Mòoré
[mos] Mopti Region, Koro circle, enclave shared with Koromfe [kfz] language group, on Burkina Faso border; southwest border area south of Koro town. 17,000 in Mali (1980). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mole, More, Moshi, Mossi Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Northern, Oti-Volta, Western, Northwest Comments: Came from Burkina Faso during the colonial period. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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N’ko
[nqo] No known L1 speakers in Mali. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Mixed language

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Pana
[pnq] Mopti Region, Bankass circle, Baye township, on Mali-Burkina Faso border east of Sourou river. 2,800 in Mali (1982 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sama Dialects: Pana North, Pana South. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Pulaar
[fuc] Northwest, Kayes Region, northwest Kayes, Yelimané, Nioro, and Diema circles; Koulikoro Region, Nara, northern Kolokani, and Banamba circles. 175,000 in Mali (1995). 40,000 Fulbe Jeeri. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Peuhl, Peul, Pulaar Fulfulde Dialects: Toucouleur (Fulbe Jeeri, Haalpulaar, Halpulaar, Pulaar, Tukolor, Tukulor). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, Western Comments: Muslim.

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Pular
[fuf] Kayes Region, Kéniéba circle. 50,000 in Mali (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Foula Fouta, Fouta Dyalon, Fulfulde Jalon, Fullo Fuuta, Futa Fula, Futa Jallon, Fuuta Jalon Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Atlantic, Northern, Senegambian, Fula-Wolof, Fula, West Central Comments: Muslim.

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Sàmòmá
[knz] Mopti Region, Koro circle, Dougoutene and Koro townships, about 12 villages, including Sougou, Zon, Ponghon, Gako, and Soyema. 2,500 in Mali (2009 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalamsé, Kalemsé, Kalenga Dialects: Logremma (Logma, West Kalamsé). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Central, Southern, Grusi, Northern Comments: Distinct from other languages called Samo. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Sénoufo, Mamara
[myk] Sikasso Region, Koutiala and Yorosso circles; northeast Mopti Region, scattered. 738,000 (2000). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Mamara, Mianka, Minianka, Miniyanka, Minya, Minyanka, Tupiire Dialects: Bàjii, Kle Noehmõ, Koloo, Kujaa, Mìjuu, Nafãã, Nejuu, Sõghoo, Suõõ. Similar to Supyire Senoufo [spp], but intercomprehension difficult. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Ethnic autonym: Bamaraga. Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Sénoufo, Shempire
[seb] Sikasso Region, Kadiolo circle, Bagoe river west bank to Cote d’Ivoire border, and on Bafini river south bank. 14,800 in Mali (2009 T. Requadt). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gbajere Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: The language is called Gbajere by Syenara [shz] speakers.

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Sénoufo, Sìcìté
[sep] Sikasso Region, Sikasso circle, east of Sikasso town, on Burkina Faso border. 4 villages. 3,000 in Mali (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sìcìré, Sìcìté, Sìpììté, Sucite, Tagba Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Little intermarriage with others in the southern area. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Sénoufo, Supyire
[spp] Sikasso Region, Sikasso circle, north from Sikasso city. 350,000 (2007 SIL). 100,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Sup’ide, Suppire, Supyire Dialects: Fanywohoshin, Kadi, Kampwo, Nyana nyuni. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Suppire-Mamara Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim, Christian.

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Sénoufo, Syenara
[shz] Southeast Sikasso Region, Kadiolo circle. 155,000 (2010 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Senare, Senari, Shenara, Syenara Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, North, Gur, Senufo, Senari Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Songhay, Humburi Senni
[hmb] Mopti Region, Douentza circle, between Gao and Mopti cities; Timbuktu Region, Gourma-Rharous circle. Also in Burkina Faso (Songhay). 15,000 in Mali (1999 J. Heath). Population total all countries: 25,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Songai, Hombori Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai Dialects: Closely related languages: Koyraboro Senni Songhay [ses], Zarma [dje], Dendi [ddn], Tadaksahak and [dsq]. Maransé dialect is 77% intelligible of Songhay of Falangountou. Lexical similarity: Maransé is 65% with Songhay of Falangoutou, 35% with Songhay of Gao. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Songhay, Koyra Chiini
[khq] Far northeast Ségou Region, Niono circle, northeast to Niger river; Timbuktu Region, all circles. 200,000 (1999 SIL), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Songai, Songay, Songhai, Songhay, Songhoy, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai, Timbuktu Songhoy, West Songhoy Dialects: Djenné Chiini, Koyra Chiini. Main dialect division between Timbuktu and the upriver towns from Diré to Niafunké. Very distinct in Djenné City. Closely related languages: Koyraboro Senni Songhay, Humburi Senni Songhay, Zarma, and Dendi. Lexical similarity: 77% with Gao and Timbuktu dialects, 50% lexical similarity with Tadaksahak [dsq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Songhay, Koyraboro Senni
[ses] Southeast along Niger river from Gourma Rharous to Niger border. 430,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 300,000 monolinguals (2007 SIL). Ethnic population: 850,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: East Songhay, Gao Songhay, Koroboro Senni, Koyra Senni, Koyra Senni Songhay, Songai, Songay, Songay Senni, Songhai, Songhay, Songoi, Songoy, Sonrai, Sonrhai Dialects: Fulan Kirya, Gao. Intelligibility good among all dialects on Niger River. Fulan Kirya dialect has more limited intelligibility through heavy lexical borrowing from Fulfulde [ffm] and Humburi Senni Songhay [hmb]. The Gao dialect is dominant in all respects. Closely related languages: Koyra Chiini Songhay [khq], Humburi Senni Songhay [hmb], Zarmaci [dje], and Dendi [ddn]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Gao and Timbuktu dialects; 50% with Tadaksahak [dsq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Soninke
[snk] Northwest, Kayes Region, Kayes, Yélimané, and Nioro circles; Koulikoro Region, Nara, Kolokani, Banamba, and Koulikoro circles; Ségou Region, Ségou, and Baraouéli circles. 6 principal towns, 163 villages. Also in Côte d’Ivoire, Gambia (Serahule), Guinea-Bissau, Mauritania, Senegal, United States. 1,280,000 in Mali (2009 census), increasing. Population total all countries: 2,114,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Aswanek, Aswanik, Azer, Ceddo, Cheddo, Gangara, Genger, Kwara, Maraka, Marka, Markaajo, Markakan, Sarakole, Sarakolle, Sarakule, Sarakulle, Sarangkole, Sarangkolle, Saraxuli, Sebbe, Serahule, Serecole, Soninkanxanne, Sooninke, Wakkore, Wankara Dialects: Geriga (Giriga), Kinbakka, Kinxenna. Giriga dialect heavily influenced by Hassaniya Arabic [mey]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Northwestern, Soninke-Bobo, Soninke-Boso, Soninke Comments: Ethnic autonym: Soninkanxaane. The Bambara refer to the Soninke as Marka and their language as Markakan; this name is different from the Marka [rkm] language. Muslim.

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Tadaksahak
[dsq] Gao Region, Menaka circle; west into Ansongo circle. Menaka is principal town. Also in Algeria. 100,000 in Mali (2007 M. Almaki), increasing. 70,000 youth are monolingual. Population total all countries: 101,800. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Daosahaq, Daoussahaq, Daoussak, Dausahaq, Dawsahaq Dialects: No major dialects. Closely related to Tagdal [tda] (Niger), Tasawaq [twq] (Niger), and Korandje [key] (Algeria). Northern Songhay Languages share features from Songhay languages and Tamasheq [taq]. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Northern Comments: Shares culture with Tamasheq [taq].

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Tamajaq
[ttq] East Mali, Gao Region, Menaka circle. 190,000 in Mali (1991). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tahoua, Tajag, Tamajeq, Tamashekin, Tamasheq, Tomacheck, “Tourage” (pej.), “Tuareg” (pej.) Dialects: Tawallammat Tan Ataram, Tawallammet Tan Dannag (Ioullemmeden). Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Tamashek
[tmh] Population total all countries: 1,248,200. Comments: Member languages are: Tahaggart Tamahaq [thv] (Algeria), Tamasheq [taq], Tawallammat Tamajaq [ttq] (Niger), Tayart Tamajeq [thz] (Niger)

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Tamasheq
[taq] Widespread in northeast, Timbuktu, Kidal, and Gao regions. Also in Algeria (Kidal Tamasheq), Burkina Faso (Kidal Tamasheq). 250,000 in Mali (1991). Population total all countries: 281,200. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1982, Decree No. 159 of 19 July, Article 1). Alternate Names: Kidal, Kidal Tamasheq, Tamashekin, Timbuktu, Tomacheck, “Tuareg” (pej.) Dialects: Tadhaq (Kidal), Timbuktu (Tanaslamt, Tombouctou). May be 2 separate languages. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Berber, Tamasheq, Southern Comments: The Bellah were formerly under the Tamasheq economically. Muslim.

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Tebul Sign Language
[tsy] Mopti Region, Koro circle, Diankabou township, Uluban village area. 500 (2007 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Deaf sign language

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Tondi Songway Kiini
[tst] Mopti Region, Douentza circle, northeast of Douentza town, Kikara village northeast to Gono town south. 3,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: TSK Dialects: Clearly distinct from other Songhay languages. Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim.

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Xaasongaxango
[kao] Kayes Region, Bafoulabé, Kayes, and Kéniéba circles. Also in Gambia (Xasonga), Senegal (Xasonga). 700,000 in Mali (2012 V. Vydrin). Population total all countries: 710,610. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1996, Law 96-049 of 14 December). Alternate Names: Kasonke, Kasso, Kasson, Kassonke, Khasonke, Khassonka, Khassonké, Malinke, Maninka, Xaasonga, Xasonga, Xasonke Dialects: Jahanka, Kéniéba Maninka, Xaasonga. High intelligibility of Western Maninkakan [mlq], less of Bamanankan [bam], but for sociolinguistic reasons they are considered separate languages. 90% inherent intelligibility of Loma [loi]. Lexical similarity: 70% with Mandinka [mnk] of Gambia and Senegal. Classification: Niger-Congo, Mande, Western, Central-Southwestern, Central, Manding-Jogo, Manding-Vai, Manding-Mokole, Manding, Manding-West Comments: French spelling is Khassonké. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Zarmaci
[dje] Gao Region, Ansongo circle, south of Menaka at Niger border. 2 villages. 500 in Mali (2009 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Adzerma, Djerma, Dyabarma, Dyarma, Dyerma, Zabarma, Zarbarma, Zarma Classification: Nilo-Saharan, Songhai, Southern Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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