Mongolia

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Buriat, Mongolia
[bxm] Bulgan, Dornod, Hentiy, Hovsgol, Selenge, and Tov provinces: especially Russian Republic of Buryatia border area. Population: 42,500 (2016), decreasing. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buriat-Mongolian, Burraad, Buryat, Mongolian Buriat, Northern Mongolian. Dialects: Khori, Aga, Barga. Buriat in Mongolia is a variety of Khori and differs considerably from Buriat [bxu] of China and the Russian Federation. Influenced by and mutually intelligible with standard (Halh) Mongolian [khk]. A member of macrolanguage Buriat [bua]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Uvs province: Tarialan and Ulaangom districts. Population: 43,700 in Mongolia (2016). 11,300 ethnic Khoton speak a form of Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Hoton, Hui, Hui-Zu, Hytad, Khoton, Mandarin, Northern Chinese, Qotong, Xui. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese.

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Daur
[dta] Scattered, especially in Hentiy province. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daguor, Dagur, Dawar, Dawo’er, Tahuerh, Tahur. Dialects: Buteha (Bataxan), Haila’er (Hailar), Qiqiha’er (Qiqihar, Tsitsikhar). Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Dagur.

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Evenki
[evn] Selenge province. Population: No known L1 speakers in Mongolia. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Ewenke, Ewenki, Khamnigan, Khamnigan Ewenki, Khamnigan Mongol, Solon, Tungus, Tungus Ewenki. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Evenki.

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Kazakh
[kaz] Bayan-Olgiy and Hovd provinces: mining communities east of the capital; far east Choibalsan area. Population: 120,000 in Mongolia (2016). Based on ethnicity. Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kaisak, Kazakhi, Kazax, Kosach, Qazaq, Qazaqi. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian.

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Mongolian
[mon] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 6,052,080. Includes: Halh Mongolian [khk], Peripheral Mongolian [mvf] (China).

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Mongolian Sign Language
[msr] Scattered. Population: Unknown number of users out of 10,000–147,330 deaf (1998). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language.

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Mongolian, Halh
[khk] Widespread. Population: 2,640,000 in Mongolia (2016). Includes 28,100 Dariganga, 23,700 Darkhat, 22,500 Khotogoit, and 3,430 Sartul. Based on ethnicity. Total users in all countries: 2,672,080. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 8(1)). Alternate Names: Central Mongolian, Halh, Halha, Kalkh, Khalkha, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol, Mongolian. Autonym: Монгол хэл‎ (Mongol khel). Dialects: Halh (Khalkha), Dariganga, Khotogoit, Sartul, Tsongol, Darkhat (Darhad, Darkhad). A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper.

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Mongolian, Peripheral
[mvf] Bayanhongor, Dornod, Dornogovi, Govi-Altay, Omnogovi, and Suhbaatar provinces: except Choybalsan area in Dornod; south and southeast China border area. Population: Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Southern-Eastern Mongolian. Dialects: Ujumchin (Ujumuchin, Uzemchin), Jostu (Kharachin, Kharchin), Tumut (Tumet), Jirim (Khorchin), Urat, Ordos. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper.

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Oirat
[xal] Arhangay, and Bayan-Olgiy, Dzavhan, Hovd, Hovsgol, Govi-Altay, and Uvs provinces. Population: 221,000 in Mongolia (2016). 53,400 Bayit, 74,600 Durbet, 12,200 Khoton, 6,300 Myangad, 13,400 Olot, 15,000 Torguud, 26,100 Uriankhai, and 31,600 Zakhchin (2016, based on 2015 census). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalmyk-Oirat, Western Mongol. Dialects: Zakhchin (Jakhachin), Bayit (Bayad), Myangad (Mingat), Olot (Eleuth, Elyut, Uuld, Ööld), Khoshut (Khoshuud), Uriankhai, Khoton (Hoton), Durbet (Durvud), Torguud. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat.

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Russian
[rus] Scattered. Population: 1,200,300 in Mongolia, all users. L1 users: 5,300 in Mongolia (2016). L2 users: 1,195,000 (Arefyev 2012). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Okhu-in. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East.

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Tuvan
[tyv] Dzavhan province: Dorvoljin district; Hovd province: capital city area; Hovsgol province: north and west enclaves, northwest Tsagaannuur and Ulaan-Uul districts, and 2 areas of east of Hovsgol Nuur; Uvs province: far north Tsagaannuur and Ulaan-Uul districts. Population: 40,600 in Mongolia (2016). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Diba, Kök Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tuba, Tuva, Tuva-Uriankhai, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Tuwa-Uriankhai, Tyvan, Uriankhai, Uryankhai-Monchak. Dialects: Kokchulutan, Khöwsögöl Uigur. Classification: Turkic, Northern.

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Uyghur
[uig] Govi-Altay province: Altai and Thogta sums. Population: No known L1 speakers in Mongolia. Ethnic population: 12,000 (2015). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Uighuir, Uighur, Uiguir, Uigur, Uygur. Classification: Turkic, Eastern.

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