Mongolia

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Buriat, Mongolia
[bxm] North and northeast, especially Russian border (Republic of Buryatia), Dornod, Hentiy, Selenge, Hovsgol, Bulgan, and Tov provinces. 45,100 (2010 census), decreasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Buriat-Mongolian, Burraad, Buryat, Mongolian Buriat, Northern Mongolian. Dialects: Khori, Aga. Buriat in Mongolia is a variety of Khori and differs considerably from Buriat [bxu] of China and the Russian Federation. Influenced by and mutually intelligible with standard (Halh) Mongolian [khk]. A member of macrolanguage Buriat [bua]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Buriat. Comments: Some books in Buriat. Not a literary language in Mongolia. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Northwest, Uvs Province, Ulaangom and Tarialan sums. 35,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone 1993). 11,300 ethnic Khoton speak a form of Mandarin Chinese [cmn]. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Hoton, Hui, Hui-Zu, Hytad, Khoton, Mandarin, Northern Chinese, Qotong, Xui. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Daur
[dta] Scattered, especially in Hentiy Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Daguor, Dagur, Dawar, Dawo’er, Tahuerh, Tahur. Dialects: Buteha (Bataxan), Haila’er (Hailar), Qiqiha’er (Qiqihar, Tsitsikhar). Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Dagur. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Evenki
[evn] North, Selenge Aimag. 1,000 in Mongolia (Krauss 1992). Possibly no longer spoken in Mongolia (Bradley 2007a). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Khamnigan, Solon, Tungus. Classification: Tungusic, Northern, Evenki. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Kazakh
[kaz] Northwest, Bayan-Olgiy and Hovd provinces, mining communities east of the capital; far east Choibalsan area. Ethnic population: 106,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Kaisak, Kazakhi, Kazax, Kosach, Qazaq, Qazaqi. Classification: Turkic, Western, Aralo-Caspian. Comments: Muslim, traditional religion.

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Mongolian
[mon] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 6,006,590 Status: Comments: Includes: Halh Mongolian [khk], Peripheral Mongolian [mvf] (China).

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Mongolian Sign Language
[msr] Scattered. Unknown number of users out of 10,000–147,330 deaf (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Different from Russian Sign Language [rsl] and other sign languages.

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Mongolian, Halh
[khk] Widespread. 2,600,000 in Mongolia (2012). 32,300 Dariganga, 20,400 Darkhat. Total users in all countries: 2,626,590. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1992, Constitution, Article 8(1)). Alternate Names: Central Mongolian, Halh, Khalkha, Khalkha Mongolian, Mongol, Mongolian. Dialects: Halh (Khalkha), Dariganga, Khotogoit, Sartul, Tsongol, Darkhat (Darhad, Darkhad). A member of macrolanguage Mongolian [mon]. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Mongolian, Peripheral
[mvf] Omnogovi, Dornod, Suhbaatar, Dornogovi, Bayanhongor, and Govi-Altay provinces; except for enclave around Choybalsan in Dornod, language areas found along southern and southeastern China border. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Southern-Eastern Mongolian. Dialects: Ujumchin (Ujumuchin, Uzemchin), Jostu (Kharachin, Kharchin), Tumut (Tumet), Jirim (Khorchin), Urat, Ordos. Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Khalkha-Buriat, Mongolian Proper.

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Oirat
[xal] Mainly northwest, Dzavhan, Uvs, Hovd, Hovsgol, Govi-Altay, Arhangay, and Bayan-Olgiy provinces. 150,000 in Mongolia (Salminen 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalmyk-Oirat, Western Mongol. Dialects: Jakhachin, Bayit, Mingat, Olot (Eleuth, Elyut, Ööld), Khoshut (Khoshuud), Uriankhai, Khoton (Hoton). Classification: Mongolic, Eastern, Oirat-Khalkha, Oirat-Kalmyk-Darkhat. Comments: Non-indigenous. Khoton (Hoton) originally of Turkic origin (Kara 1990), and were Muslim. Different from Chinese-speaking Qotong (Hoton) [cmn].

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Russian
[rus] Scattered. 4,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone 1993). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Russki. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous. ‘Mectny Oros’, permanent Russian residents. Widely taught in schools and higher education.

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Tuva
[tyv] North and west enclaves, Hovsgol Province, northwest Tsagaannuur and Ulaan-Uul sums, 2 areas of east of Hovsgol Nuur; Uvs Province, north and west of Uva Nuur, far north Tsagaannuur and Ulaan-Uul sums; Dzavhan Province, Dorvoljin sum; and Hovd Province, capital city area. 27,000 in Mongolia (Johnstone 1993). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Diba, Kök Mungak, Soyod, Soyon, Soyot, Tannu-Tuva, Tuba, Tuvan, Tuva-Uriankhai, Tuvia, Tuvin, Tuvinian, Tuwa-Uriankhai, Uriankhai, Uryankhai-Monchak. Dialects: Kokchulutan, Khöwsögöl Uigur. Classification: Turkic, Northern. Comments: Buddhist.

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Uyghur
[uig] Southwest, Govi-Altay Province, Altai and Thogta sums. 1,000 in Mongolia (1982). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Uighuir, Uighur, Uiguir, Uigur, Uygur. Classification: Turkic, Eastern. Comments: Muslim.

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