Malawi

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Afrikaans
[afr] Scattered. Population: Status: 5* (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, Low Saxon-Low Franconian, Low Franconian.

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Chichewa
[nya] West central and southwest. Population: 6,500,000 in Malawi (2009 UNSD). 4,250,000 Chewa, 1,490,000 Ngoni, 754,000 Nyanja (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 9,690,520. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of national identity. Alternate Names: Chewa, Chinyanja, Nyanja, Nyanja-Chewa. Autonym: Chicheŵa. Dialects: Chewa (Cheva, Chichewa, Sheva), Ngoni, Manganja (Cimanganja, Waganga), Nyasa, Peta (Cipeta, Malawi, Marave, Maravi). Manganja is also a Chewa-influenced dialect of Sena [swk]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Chewa-Nyanja (N.31).

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English
[eng] Population: 540,000 in Malawi (Crystal 2003a), L2 users. Status: 1 (National). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Kacchi
[kfr] Blantyre, Lilongwe, Nkhata Bay, and Zomba districts; Mzuzu and urban centers. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuchi, Cutch, Kachchi, Kachi, Katchi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern, Sindhi.

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Kokola
[kzn] Mulanje district; Thyolo district: Sandama area. Population: 200,000 in Malawi (2000). Total users in all countries: 280,000. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kokhola. Dialects: None known. May be a subvariety of Lolo, which is itself a subvariety of Lomwe [lon]. May be intelligible of Lomwe. Reportedly similar to Marendje [vmr] and Takwane [tke]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Lambya
[lai] Chitipa and Karonga districts: along Tanzania and Zambia borders. Population: 59,500 in Malawi (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 91,900. Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ichilambya, Kilambya, Lambia, Lambwa, Rambia. Dialects: Central Lambya. Ndali [ndh] may be intelligible with Lambya. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.201).

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Lomwe, Malawi
[lon] Blantyre, Machinga, Mulanje, Phalombe, Thyolo, and Zomba districts. Population: 2,290,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Anguru, Elhomwe, Nguru. Dialects: Mihavane, Muhavani. Not intelligible of Lomwe [ngl] of Mozambique. Different from Ngulu [ngp] (Kingulu) of Tanzania. Reportedly similar to Takwane [tke]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.331).

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Malawian Sign Language
[lws] Scattered. Population: Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Malawi Sign. Dialects: None known. Noted influence from American Sign Language, especially visible in alphabet system (2016 M. Sorola). Classification: Sign language.

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Ndali
[ndh] Chitipa district: Sukwa Hills. Population: 70,000 in Malawi (2003 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Dialects: Sukwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa-Ngonde (M.301).

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Nyakyusa-Ngonde
[nyy] Chitipa district: northeast; Karonga district: west of Lake Malawi. Population: 149,000 in Malawi (2009 UNSD). 18,800 Nyakyusa, 130,000 Nkonde (2009 UNSD). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ikingonde, Ikinyikyusa, Kinyakyusa, Konde, Kukwe, Mombe, Ngonde, Nkhonde, Nkonde, Nyakusa, Nyekyosa, Sochile, Sokile. Dialects: Nyakyusa, Nkonde, Sukwa. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyakyusa-Ngonde (M.31).

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Nyiha, Malawi
[nyr] Chitipa district: Kameme town area villages. Population: 10,000 (2007). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kinyiha, Shinyiha. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to but not the same at Nyiha [nyf] (Giryama) of Kenya and Nyiha [nih] of Tanzania. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.23).

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Nyika
[nkv] Chitipa district: Chisenga area villages; Karonga district: west. Population: 5,000 in Malawi (2007). Total users in all countries: 10,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chinyika, Kinyika. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Malawi Nyiha [nyr]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, M, Nyiha-Safwa (M.23).

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Sena, Malawi
[swk] Chikwawa district: south; Nsanje district; along Mozambique border. Population: 468,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Chisena, Cisena. Dialects: Chimanganja. Linguistically related to Kunda [kdn] but not intelligible. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.441).

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Tonga
[tog] Nkhata Bay district: Lake Malawi west shore; Nkhotakota, Mzimba, and Rumphi districts. Population: 271,000 (2009 UNSD). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kitonga, Siska, Sisya, Western Nyasa. Autonym: Chitonga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.15).

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Tumbuka
[tum] Chitipa and Karonga districts: Lake Malawi west shore; Nkhata Bay, Nkhotakota, Rumphi, and Mzimba districts. Population: 1,180,000 in Malawi (2009 UNSD). 24,400 Senga, 1,150,000 Tumbuka (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 1,546,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Citumbuka, Tamboka, Tambuka, Timbuka, Tombucas, Tumboka. Autonym: Chitumbuka. Dialects: Chitumbuka, Chikamanga (Henga, Kamanga), Nenya, Poka (Chipoka, Phoka), Yombe, Senga, Nthali, Fungwe, Wenya, Hewe (Hewa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Tumbuka (N.21).

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Yao
[yao] Balaka, Machinga, Mangochi, and Zomba districts: bordering Mozambique, between southeast tip of Lake Kilwa and Lake Malawi; Chiradzulu district: small area. Population: 1,760,000 in Malawi (2009 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 2,585,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Achawa, Adsawa, Adsoa, Ajawa, Ayao, Ayawa, Ayo, Chiyao, Chiyawo, Ciyaawo, Ciyao, Djao, Haiao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao, Yawo, chiYao, ciYao, waYao. Autonym: Ciyawo. Dialects: Mangoche. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.21).

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Zulu
[zul] Dedza, Karonga, Mzimba, and Ntcheu districts. Population: 37,500 in Malawi (1966 census). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Isizulu, Kingoni, Ngoni, Zunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.42).

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