Malaysia

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Abai Sungai
[abf] Sabah: Kinabatangan river lower reaches. Ethnic population: 500 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Paitanic languages (Upper Kinabatangan [dmg], Tombonuo [txa]). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic. Comments: Muslim.

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Bajau, West Coast
[bdr] Sabah: Kudat district, Banggi Island, Telutu’ village; Pitas district, south Marudu bay, mainly Dalima’, Jambangan, Kanibungan, Layag-Layag, Mapan-Mapan, Mausar, Mengkapon, Mengkubau Laut, Pantai Laut, and Sibayan Laut villages; west coast scattered from Kuala Penyu to Kudat districts, mainly Kota Belud and Tuaran towns. Ethnic population: 210,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bajau, Bajau Sama, Land Bajaw, West Coast Bajao, West Coast Bajaw. Autonym: Sama. Dialects: Kota Belud, Putatan, Papar, Banggi, Sandakan, Pitas, Kawang. More structural diversity than other Borneo languages. Related to but distinct from East Coast Bajau languages of Malaysia and the Philippines, and Indonesian Bajau [bdl] (1977 K. Pallesen). Less than 65% intelligibility with Southern Sama [ssb]. Papar dialect used in national broadcasting. May be more than 1 language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Comments: Muslim.

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Bakati’, Rara
[lra] Sarawak: Kuching division, Lundu, Pasir Hili, Pasir Tengah, and Kandai villages on Pasir river. L1 users: 11,300 (2000). Total users in all countries: 23,300. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Luru, Rara Bakati. Autonym: Rara Bakati’. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to other Bakati’ languages spoken in Kalimantan. Lexical similarity: 46%–50% with Bidayuh languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’.

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Balau
[blg] Sarawak: southeast of Simunjan. L1 users: 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bala’u. Dialects: May be a dialect of Iban [iba]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: View themselves as a distinct ethnic group.

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Batek
[btq] Pahang, Kelantan, and Terengganu. L1 users: 1,000 (2006 JHEOA), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,160 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bateg, Bateq, Batok, Kleb, Nong, Tomo. Dialects: Batek Teq (Teq), Batek De’ (Deq), Batek Iga, Batek Nong (Nong). Deq and Nong dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern.

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Belait
[beg] Sarawak. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Lemeting, Meting, Tau’ kitah. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Benjar
[bjn] Sabah: Keningau, Sandakan, Tawau, Tenom districts, scattered coastal settlements. L1 users: 5,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjar Melau, Banjarese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Berawan, Central
[zbc] Sarawak: Marudi district, Batu Belah (Tutoh river) and Long Teru (Tinjar river) villages. L1 users: 1,500 (2010 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Batu Belah, Long Teru, Melawan. Dialects: Batu Belah Berawan, Long Teru Berawan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan.

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Berawan, East
[zbe] Sarawak: Long Jegan, Long Takong, Long Taveng, and Long Teran Batu villages. L1 users: 1,100 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Long Jegan Berawan, Melawan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan.

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Berawan, West
[zbw] Sarawak: Mulu town, Long Terawan village. L1 users: 1,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berawan, Long Terawan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan.

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Bidayuh, Bau
[sne] Sarawak: Kuching division, about 50 villages on Lundu, Sadong, and Samarahan Lundu rivers. L1 users: 29,200 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bau-Jagoi, Jaggoi, Jagoi, Sarawak Dayak. Dialects: Grogo (Grogoh), Stenggang Jagoi, Krokong, Gumbang, Serambau (Serambo, Serambu), Empawa, Assem, Singai (Bisingai, Singgai, Singgi, Singgie, Singhi), Suti, Tengoh, Dongay, Taup (Tahup). Gumbang may be more closely related to Tringgus-Sembaan [trx]. Lexical similarity: 69% with Bukar Sadong [sdo], 53% between Bukar Sadong and Singai dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Western.

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Bidayuh, Biatah
[bth] Sarawak: Kuching division, Kuching district, 10 villages. L1 users: 63,900 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 72,380. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Biatah, Bikuab, Kuap, Quop, Sentah, Siburan. Dialects: Siburan, Stang (Bisitaang, Sitaang), Tibia. Not intelligible with Bukar-Sadong Bidayuh [sdo], Salako [knx], or other Bidayuh varieties from Indonesia. Siburan is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 71% with Singai dialect of Bau Bidayuh [sne]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central. Comments: ’Bidayuh’ is a cover term for all Sarawak Land Dayak groups, plus Salako [knx].

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Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong
[sdo] Sarawak: Samarahan division, 30 or more villages. L1 users: 49,100 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sadung, Serian, Tebakang. Dialects: Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayah, Bidayuh, Bideyu), Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayuh, Mentuh Tapuh (Mentu). Lexical similarity: 57% with Standard Malay [zsm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern.

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Bidayuh, Tringgus-Sembaan
[trx] Sarawak: southwest of Kuching on Kalimantan border. L1 users: 850 (2007 Z. Akter). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tringus. Dialects: Tringgus, Mbaan (Bimbaan, Sembaan). Each dialect has a few villages. Reportedly more similar to Biatah Bidayuh [bth] than to Bau Bidayuh [sne]. Gumbang [sne] may be a Tringgus-Sembaan Bidayuh [trx] dialect rather than a Bau Bidayuh [sne] dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Sembaan. Comments: A different language from Tring [tgq].

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Bintulu
[bny] Sarawak: Bintulu area, and 2 enclaves west; Sibuti area on northeast coast. L1 users: 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Could also be classified as a Baram-Tinjar subgroup or as an isolate within the Rejang-Baram Group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Bintulu. Comments: Blust classifies it as an isolate with North Sarawakan. Not similar to other languages (Blust 1974).

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Bisaya, Brunei
[bsb] Sarawak: Limbang and Marudi districts. L1 users: 20,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bekiau, Bisaya, Bisaya Bukit, Bisayah, Lorang Bukit, Visayak. Dialects: Sarawak Bisaya (Bisaya’), Tutong 1. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya-Lotud, Southern.

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Bisaya, Sabah
[bsy] Sabah: Beaufort and Kuala Penyu districts, North Brunei Bay coast area, mainly along Padas and Klias rivers, south of Weston; Sarawak: Batu Danau, Limbang. No monolinguals (2015 S.A. Luken). Ethnic population: 70,000 (2015 Sabah Bisaya Cultural Association). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Basaya, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisayah, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai. Dialects: Klias Bisaya, Kuala Penyu Bisaya, Padas Bisaya, Beaufort Bisaya, Limbang Bisaya. 70% intelligibility of Bisaya Kuala Penyu with Tatana [txx], 50% intelligibility of other Sabah Bisaya dialects with Tatana [txx]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Brunei Bisaya (Sarawak dialect) [bsb], 52% with Brunei Bisaya [bsb] (Brunei dialect) (2010 Siti Aidah). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya-Lotud. Comments: Muslim.

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Bonggi
[bdg] Sabah: Kudat district, 15 villages on Balambangan and Banggi islands. Ethnic population: 1,400 (1990 UBS). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bangay, “Banggi” (pej.), “Banggi Dusun” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Based on lexicostatistics, reported to be most similar to Molbog [pwm] of the Philippines (Smith 1984, Lobel 2013). Based on shared innovations, considered more closely related to Ida’an [dbj] (Blust 2010). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Brunei
[kxd] Sabah: Kota Kinabalu southwest to Labuan Federal Territory and Brunei border; Sarawak: north Lawas district; Batang Baram river mouth to Bintulu town. L1 users: 51,000 (2013 SIL), decreasing. 35,000 monolinguals (2015 S. Damit). Ethnic population: 350,000 (2014 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Brunai, Brunei-Kadayan, “Orang Bukit” (pej.). Dialects: Brunei, Kadayan (Kadaian, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedayan, Kedien, Kedyan, Kerayan). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Non-indigenous. Regional, not ethnic, dialect variations. Muslim.

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Bugis
[bug] Sabah: Kota Kinabalu, Lahad Datu, Sandakan and Tawau districts, major cities but also scattered. L1 users: 17,800 (2000 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 138,000 (2015 A. Supeno). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Basa Ugi, Buginese. Dialects: Bone, Enrekang, Mandar, Soppeng, Pinrang, Sinjai, Makasar, Duri. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Bukitan
[bkn] Sarawak: small enclaves in Kapit and Tatau divisions. L1 users: 290 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang.

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Cheq Wong
[cwg] Pahang: just south of Semai. L1 users: 460 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Beri, Ceq Wong, Che Wong, Che’wong, Chuba, Siwang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Chewong.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor: scattered, especially in major towns. L1 users: 1,090,000 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,650,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Loong Chun, Her Po. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Peninsular, Sabah and Sarawak: especially urban areas; scattered. L1 users: Recent census figures do not detail the number of Mandarin speakers. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1996, Education Act, No. 550, Articles 2 and 18). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Primarily urban, in commerce.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Sarawak: mostly Bintangor, Sarikei, and Sibu towns. L1 users: 252,000 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Foochow (Fuzhou). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, and Terengganu. L1 users: 2,660,000 (2000). 497,000 Teochew, 141,000 Hainanese, 2,020,000 Hokkien (2000). The population figures given here are for Peninsular Malaysia only. The corresponding figures for Sabah and Sarawak are not currently available. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banlamgi, Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Hainanese, Teochew (Chaochow, Teochow), Hokkien (Amoy, Fujianese, Fukienese). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Pu-Xian
[cpx] Selangor. L1 users: 24,700 (Salleh 2006). Ethnic population: 24,700 (2000 census). In Peninsular Malaysia. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Xinghua (Hinghua, Hsinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Johor: largest concentration. L1 users: 1,070,000 (2000 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Johor State. Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh. Dialects: Cantonese, Toishanese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Duano
[dup] Johor: Batu Pahat, Muar, and Pontian districts, Kuala Benut, Lenga, Minyak Beku, Pontian Besar, Rengit, Semerah, Senggarang, and Sungai Layau on west coast, Pontian Kecil area. L1 users: 600 (2007 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,010 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Kuala, Orang Laut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Dumpas
[dmv] Sabah: Beluran district, Bakung-Bakung, Gana Jati, Perancangan, Rancangan Nangoh, Tarasak, and Tombidong-Bidong villages. L1 users: 2,400 (2015 A. Ismael). No monolinguals (2015 A. Ismael). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2015 A. Ismael). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Doompas. Dialects: 87% intelligibility of Tombonuo [txa], 57% of Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb], 44% of Coastal Kadazan dialect of Kadazan Dusun [dtp] (King 1984). Lexical similarity: 80% with Sugut Dusun [kzs] (Smith 1984: 26). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Unclassified. Comments: Muslim.

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English
[eng] Peninsular. 7,380,000 in Malaysia, all users. L1 users: 380,000 (Crystal 2003a), increasing. L2 users: 7,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1957, Constitution, Articles 152(2) through 152(5)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gana
[gnq] Sabah: Keningau district, Kuangoh and Minansut in Bingkor, along Baiaya river, a tributary of Pegalan river. L1 users: 250 (Pugh-Kitingan 2013), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Pugh-Kitingan 2013). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gana’, Ganaq, Ganna, Keningau Dusun, Minansut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Unclassified. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Iban
[iba] Sabah: Tawau district; Sarawak: scattered. 1,452,000 in Malaysia, all users. L1 users: 752,000 (2013 SIL). Including 2,300 in 2 villages in Sabah (2013 A. Maraining). L2 users: 700,000 (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,484,300 (as L1: 784,300; as L2: 700,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Spoken from Sri Aman Division in the south west to Miri Division in the north east in the domains of market, church, business, and media. Alternate Names: Iban Sabah, Sea Dayak. Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau, Skrang, Dau, Lemanak, Ulu Ai, Undup. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: Largest language group in Sarawak.

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Ida’an
[dbj] Sabah: Kinabatangan, Lahad Datu and Sandakan districts. L1 users: 10,000 (2013 SIL). Population includes 2,500 Begak. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2015 Pertubuhan Kebajikan Idahan Pewaris Madai, Lahad Datu (PEWARIS)). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bulud Upi, Eraans, Idaan, Idahan, Idan, Idayan. Dialects: Begak (Bagahak, Begahak), Subpan (Sungai, Supan), Ida’an. Isolate within the Sabahan subgroup. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Ida’an. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Iranun
[ilm] Sabah: Kota Belud district, 24 villages; Kudat district, Indarasan Laut village; Lahad Datu district, Tungku. L1 users: 22,000 (2015 I. Sidik). Ethnic population: 30,000 (Pugh-Kitingan and Mulia 1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ilanun, Illanoan, Illanoon, Illanos, Illanun, Iranon Maranao, Iranum, Lanoon, Lanun, Ylanos. Dialects: None known. Iranun in Sabah is different from any of its related languages in the Philippines, including Iranun [ilp] and Maranao [mrw]. The most similar language to Iranun in Sabah [ilm] is Maranao [mrw]. But even between Iranun [ilm] and Maranao [mrw], there are substantial differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon. Comments: Non-indigenous. There is established evidence of at least 400 years’ residence of Iranun in Sabah (including evidence from genealogical records that go back some 13 generations). Muslim.

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Jah Hut
[jah] Pahang: south of main Semai [sea] language area and Kuala Krau. Ethnic population: 3,760 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jah Het. Dialects: Kerdau, Krau, Ketiar Krau (Tengganu), Kuala Tembeling, Pulau Guai, Ulu Ceres (Cheres), Ulu Tembeling. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Jah Hut.

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Jakun
[jak] Johor and Pahang: Pekan district south along east coast to south of Johor river. Ethnic population: 25,000 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djakun, Jakoon, Jaku’d, Jakud’n, Orang Hulu. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Perhaps better considered a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Javanese
[jav] Kedah: Kota Setar and Kuala Munda districts; Perak: Kinta district; Sabah: scattered coastal areas; Selangor: Kuala Lumpur area. Ethnic population: 300,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Jehai
[jhi] Perak: northeast; Kelantan: west. L1 users: 1,250 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 1,660 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jahai, Pangan. Dialects: Jehai, Batek Teh. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern.

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Kadazan Dusun
[dtp] Sabah: West Coast division, Beaufort, Keningau, Kota Belud, Kota Kinabalu, Kota Marudu, Papar, Penampang, Ranau, Tambunan, and Tenom districts. L1 users: 264,000 (2010 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 556,000 (2010 census). Increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Dusun, Central Kadazan, Dusan, Dusum, Dusun, Dusur, Idaan, Kadasan, Kadayan, Kadazandusun, Kedayan. Autonym: Kadazan Dusun. Dialects: Dusun Sinulihan (Sinulihan), Kadazan-Tagaro (Tagaro), Kiundu, Pahu’, Sokid, Tindal, Menggatal (Kiulu, Telipok), Ranau, Bundu (Taginambur), Beaufort, Luba, Kuriyou, Liwan, Tambunan Dusun (Tambunan, Tinombunan), Tinagas Dusun (Dusun, Kota Marudu Tinagas, “Panansawa” (pej.), Talantang, Tinagas, Ulu Sugut Dusun), Tindal Dusun (Kadamaian Dusun, Tampasok, Tampassuk, Tempasok, Tempasuk, Tempasuk Dusun, Tindal), Coastal Kadazan (Kadazan, Kadazan Tangaa’, Membakut Kadazan, Papar Kadazan, Penampang Kadazan). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central.

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Kadazan, Klias River
[kqt] Sabah: Beaufort district, Klias river area. L1 users: 800 (2015 E. Ampai), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2015 E. Ampai). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kuijou, Kuizou. Dialects: 80% intelligibility of Coastal Kadazan dialect of Kadazan Dusun [dtp], 80% of Tatana [txx], 80% of Sabah Bisaya [bsy]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tatana [txx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun.

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Kadazan, Labuk-Kinabatangan
[dtb] Sabah: Beluran, Kinabatangan, and Sandakan districts. Ethnic population: 20,600 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eastern Kadazan, Labuk Kadazan, Sogilitan, Tindakon, Tompulung. Autonym: Sungai, Sungai Kinabatangan. Dialects: Mangkaak (Mangkahak, Mangkak, Mangkok), Sukang, Labuk, Lamag Sungai (Sungei). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Eastern. Comments: Cross-cultural marriage and migration. Christian.

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Kajaman
[kag] Sarawak: Kapit division near Belaga on Balui river. L1 users: 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kayaman, Kejaman. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang.

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Kayan, Baram
[kys] Sarawak: north, Baram river area. L1 users: 4,150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baram Kajan. Dialects: Long Atip, Long Akahsemuka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Kayan, Rejang
[ree] Sarawak: Balui and Rejang river areas. L1 users: 3,030 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rejang Kajan. Dialects: Ma’aging, Long Badan, Uma Daro, Long Kehobo (Uma Poh), Uma Juman, Long Murun, Long Geng, Lemena, Lisum. Limited comprehension of Baram Kayan [kys]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper. Comments: Different from Rejang [rej] in Sumatra.

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Kelabit
[kzi] Sarawak: highest most remote Borneo mountains, Bario highlands. L1 users: 4,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,000. Total users in all countries: 4,640. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalabit, Kerabit. Dialects: Pa’ Umor (spoken in Bario), Pa’ Dalih, Long Peluan, Long Lellang, Brung, Libbung, Lepu Potong, Tabun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Strongly independent. Most live outside language area.

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Kensiu
[kns] Kedah: Baling district near Thai border; Perak: Hulu Perak district. L1 users: 250 (2015 N. Bishop). Total users in all countries: 259. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kenseu, Kensieu, Kensiw, Mendi, Monik, Moniq, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar. Dialects: Ijoh (Ijok), Jarum, Jeher (Sakai Tanjong of Temongoh), Kedah (Quedah), Plus, Ulu Selama, Kensiu Batu (Batuq), Kensiu Siong (Siong), Kentaq Nakil (Nakil), Maniq, Bong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western.

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Kenyah, Mainstream
[xkl] Sarawak: near Kalimantan border, villages along Balui and Baram rivers and some tributaries; 1 village on Kakus river; Sungai Asap area. L1 users: 40,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bakong, Bakung, Bakung Kenya, Bakung Kenyah. Dialects: Leppo’ Aga, Leppo’ Ga, Leppo’ Jengan, Leppo’ La’ang, Leppo’ Tau, Uma’ Ake, Uma’ Jalan, Sambup, Leppo’ Ke’, Leppo’ Jamok, Badeng (Madeng), Bakung, Leppo’ Teppu’. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah.

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Kenyah, Wahau
[whk] Sarawak: Belaga, Kapit, Marudi, and Tatau districts, Balang Baram, Baleh, Balul, and Belaga along interior rivers, including headwaters. L1 users: 1,000 (2007 A. Soriente). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kimaragang
[kqr] Sabah: Beluran, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts. Ethnic population: 25,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimaragan, Kimaragangan, Maragang, Marigang. Dialects: Tandek (Garo), Pitas Kimaragang, Sandayo, Sonsogon. Speakers of the Sonsogon dialect understand 67%–76% of a Kimaragang story (1986 P. Kroeger). Lexical similarity: 82% between Kimaragang and Sonsogon dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kinabatangan, Upper
[dmg] Sabah: Lahad Datu district; Tongod district, primarily upper reaches of Kinabatangan river. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2015 L. Rose). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Orang Sungai, Sungai Milian. Dialects: Kalabuan (Kolobuan), Makiang, Sinabu’ (Sinobu’), Sinarupa, Kuamut. Dialects have approximately 87% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: over 90% among all dialects, 80% between Makiang and Sinabu’ dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kintaq
[knq] Kedah and Perak border area, Thai border. L1 users: 110 (2008 JHEOA). Ethnic population: 240 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 111. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bong, Kenta, Kintak, Kintaq Bong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western.

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Kiput
[kyi] Sarawak: south of Marudi, Benawa and Kuala Tutoh villages. L1 users: 2,460 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Long Kiput, Long Tutoh (Kuala Tutoh). Related to Narom [nrm], Lelak [llk], Tutong [ttg], Belait [beg], and Berawan languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A.

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Kota Marudu Talantang
[grm] Sabah: Kota Marudu district, Talantang 1 and Talantang 2. Ethnic population: 1,800 (2000 L. Kitingan). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun.

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Kuijau
[dkr] Sabah: Keningau district, Keningau town area north and west. Ethnic population: 7,910 (2000 S. Maduli). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hill Dusun, Kijau, Koijoe, Kuiyow, Kujau, Kuliow, Kuriyo, Kwijau, Menindal, Menindaq, Minansut, Tidung, Tindal. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun.

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Lahanan
[lhn] Sarawak: central, east of Belaga, southwest of Long Murum. L1 users: 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lanan, Lanun. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kajaman [kag]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang. Comments: Different from Iranun [ilm] or Maguindanaon [mdh] of the Philippines.

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Lanoh
[lnh] Perak: north central. Ethnic population: 240 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jengjeng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic. Comments: Lanoh includes Sabüm and Semnam as subgroups (Burenhult and Wegener 2009).

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Lelak
[llk] Sarawak: Marudi district, Loagan Bunut lake area on Tinjar river. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Related to Narom [nrm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B.

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Lobu, Lanas
[ruu] Sabah: Keningau district, Sook sub-district, Lalapakon, Lanas, Kilu, Kuit, Mampisas, Manggarimot, Mansiat, Minusu, Pinipi, Sesalungon, and Tuawon; possibly Kinabatangan district. Rumanau dialect in Masaum, near Pinangah. L1 users: 4,000 (2015 P. Porodong), decreasing. No monolinguals (2015 P. Porodong). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2015 P. Porodong). 3,500 Lobu, 1,500 Rumanau. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keningau Lobu, “Labou” (pej.). Autonym: Lobu. Dialects: Lobu, Rumanau (Romanau, Roomarrows, Rumanau Alab). May be a dialect of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Lobu, Tampias
[low] Sabah: Tampias area, Ranau, 3 villages. Ethnic population: 1,800 (1985 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Lanas Lobu [ruu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan.

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Long Wat
[ttw] Sarawak: northeast, Tutoh river. L1 users: 600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tutoh Kenya, Tutoh Kenyah. Dialects: Long Wat, Long Labid, Lugat. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah.

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Lotud
[dtr] Sabah: Tuaran district, Kiulu, Telipok, Tuaran. Ethnic population: 20,000 (2016 J. John-Baptist). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dusun Lotud, Suang Lotud. Dialects: Suang Lotud, Suang Olung, Suang Sarayoh, Dusun Kadayan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya-Lotud. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Lundayeh
[lnd] Sabah: Keningau district, Kuala Puntih, and Saup Baru; Sipitang district, Bamban, Bahagia, Batu Tujuh, Kaban, Kawang Baru, Kawang Lama, Long Kinangan, Long Mio, Long Pasia, Mendulong, Pekiak, Ranau-Ranau, Samin, Seri Menanti, Solob, and Tunas Baru; Sarawak: Lawas and Limbang districts; Tawau district, Batu 18 Balung, Batu 22 Balung, Batu 32, Cinta Damai, Kalabakan, Kunak, Merotai, and Serudung; Tenom district, Baru Jumpa, Baru Jumpa Seberang, Belumbung, Kalibatang Baru, Kelanan, Meluyan Ulu, Mengkelias, Sapong, and Sugiang Baru. L1 users: 24,000 (1982 SIL), decreasing. Sarawak 21,000, Sabah 3,000–4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lun Bawang, Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayeh, Lun Dayoh, Lun Lod, Lun-Bawang, Lundaya, Lundayu, Southern Murut. Dialects: Lun Bawang (Sarawak Murut), Lun Dayah, Padas, Trusan (Lawas, Limbang), Lepu Potong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut. Christian.

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Mah Meri
[mhe] Putrajaya, Negeri Sembilan, and Selangor: coastal areas; islands off the coasts. L1 users: 2,990 (2003 COAC). Ethnic population: 3,680 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Besisi, Cellate. Dialects: Kuala Langot Besisi, Malakka Besisi, Ulu Langat Orang Bukit, Selangor Sakai, Betise’ (Betisek), Sisi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian.

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Malaccan Creole Malay
[ccm] Melaka: Gajah Berang and Kampung Tujung on Malacca straits. Ethnic population: 300. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chitties Creole Malay. Dialects: None known. May be historically related to Sri Lankan Creole Malay [sci]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Spoken since the 16th century by descendants of Tamil merchants who intermarried with other groups. Speakers are called Chitties (Lim 1981, Holm 1989).

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Malaccan Creole Portuguese
[mcm] Melaka: Hilir and Trankera on Malacca Straits; Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. L1 users: 2,150 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 10,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bahasa Geragau, Bahasa Serani, Luso-Malay, Malacca Creole, Malaccan, Malaqueiro, Malaquenho, Malaquense, Malaquês, Malayo-Portuguese, Malaysian Creole Portuguese, Papia Cristao, Papia Kristang, Portuguese Patois, Português de Malaca, Serani. Autonym: Kristang. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Malay
[zlm] Peninsular Malaysia: widespread; Sarawak: Betong, Kuching, Samarahan, and Sri Aman districts. 13,500,000 in Malaysia, all users. L1 users: 10,500,000 (2004 census). 10 million in Peninsular Malaysia, 506,000 in Sarawak, and 30,000 in Labuan. L2 users: 3,000,000. Total users in all countries: 19,122,700 (as L1: 16,122,700; as L2: 3,000,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Colloquial Malay, Informal Malay, Local Malay, Malayu. Autonym: Bahasa Melayu, ملايو‎ (Melayu). Dialects: Coastal Terengganu, Inland Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang, Southeast Island, Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor, Sarawak (Sarawak Malay), Tamiang, Deli, Riau Mainland, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands, Coastal Jambi, Belitung, Northwestern Kalimantan, Upstream Western Kalimantan, Southwestern Coastal Kalimantan. Kedah Malay [meo], Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], Jakun [jak], Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Temuan [tmw], Sabah Malay [msi], and Brunei [kxd] are so closely related that they may one day be included as dialects of Malay. Coastal Terengganu, inland Terengganu, Kelantan most aberrant but evidently mutually intelligible with Pattani Malay [mfa]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: This entry refers to local or vernacular Malay varieties not well differentiated from each other, and other varieties for which further research is needed to clarify differentiation from mainstream dialects. Distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Indonesian [ind] or Standard Malay [zsm] by sociolinguistic status as vernaculars, and other linguistic features.

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Malay
[msa] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 60,824,376 Status: Comments: Includes: Bacanese Malay [btj] (Indonesia), Bangka [mfb] (Indonesia), Banjar [bjn] (Indonesia), Berau Malay [bve] (Indonesia), Brunei [kxd] (Brunei), Bukit Malay [bvu] (Indonesia), Central Malay [pse] (Indonesia), Cocos Islands Malay [coa] (Australia), Col [liw] (Indonesia), Duano [dup] (Indonesia), Haji [hji] (Indonesia), Indonesian [ind] (Indonesia), Jakun [jak], Jambi Malay [jax] (Indonesia), Kaur [vkk] (Indonesia), Kedah Malay [meo], Kerinci [kvr] (Indonesia), Kota Bangun Kutai Malay [mqg] (Indonesia), Kubu [kvb] (Indonesia), Lubu [lcf] (Indonesia), Malay [zlm], Manado Malay [xmm] (Indonesia), Minangkabau [min] (Indonesia), Musi [mui] (Indonesia), Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], North Moluccan Malay [max] (Indonesia), Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Pattani Malay [mfa] (Thailand), Pekal [pel] (Indonesia), Sabah Malay [msi], Sekak [lce] (Indonesia), Standard Malay [zsm], Temuan [tmw], Tenggarong Kutai Malay [vkt] (Indonesia), Urak Lawoi’ [urk] (Thailand).

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Malay, Baba
[mbf] Melaka: Melaka city area and nearby coast; Pulau Pinang: Malacca Straits, Pinang island. L1 users: 2,000 (Salleh 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chinese Malay, Straits Malay. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Non-indigenous. Developed since the 15th century from Low Malay with many Hokkien Chinese borrowings. Lim (1981) and Holm (1989) treat it as a Malay-based creole.

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Malay, Cocos Islands
[coa] Sabah: Beluran, Lahad Datu and Tawau districts. 500 monolinguals (2015 A. Serasa Tosel). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cocos, Cocos Islands, Melayu Cocos, Ong Pulu. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Non-indigenous. From the Cocos Islands (Keeling Islands), an Australian territory.

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Malay, Kedah
[meo] Kedah, Perak, Perlis, and Pulau Pinang states. L1 users: 2,600,000 (2004). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kedahan Malay, Satun Malay. Autonym: Pelat Utagha. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Pattani Malay [mfa] and Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: More use Thai [tha] than Pattani Malay. Most outside contacts are with Thai population centers in Songkhla, Phattalung, and Haad Yai; with west coast Malay states of Perlis and Kedah. Culturally Malay. May be a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Malay, Sabah
[msi] Sabah. 3,000,000 (2013 SIL), all users. L1 users: Mostly second-language speakers, but growing number of L1 speakers (2015 J.K.L. Wong). Ethnic population: No ethnic community (2015 J.K.L. Wong). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used throughout the state of Sabah in virtually all non-formal domains. Estimated more than half (60%) of Sabah population, and almost all other language groups use Sabah Malay. Alternate Names: Bazaar Malay, Pasar Malay, Sabah Malay Dialect. Autonym: Bahasa Sabah. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Sabah Malay is a simplified variety of Standard Malay [zsm], greatly influenced by Malay Brunei [kxd]. It has adopted many lexical items from the indigenous languages of Sabah. Muslim, Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Malay, Standard
[zsm] Widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. L1 users: Few L1 speakers. L2 includes most Malaysian population. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Alternate Names: Bahasa Malayu, Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku. Autonym: Bahasa Malaysia. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with Indonesian [ind]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: On Peninsular Malaysia, Standard Malay [zsm] exists in a diglossic relationship with Local Malay [zlm]. Standard Malay (derived from court Malay), both in terms of its linguistic structure as well as its sociolinguistic function, has its closest counterpart not in a particular Local Malay dialect but in Standard Indonesian [ind].

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Malaysian Sign Language
[xml] Scattered. L1 users: 58,700 (2013 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: BIM, Bahasa Isyarat Malaysia. Dialects: Variations found in every state, but are mutually intelligible with the possible exception of some places in Terengganu state (2015 S. Lim). Classification: Sign language.

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Mapun
[sjm] Sabah: Kota Kinabalu district, Kota Kinabalu; Kota Marudu district, Kota Marudu; Kudat district, Banggi and Mantanani islands, Kudat; Sandakan district, Sandakan. L1 users: 15,000 (2015 M. Tanjul). Ethnic population: 30,000 (2015 M. Tanjul). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanon, Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang Cagayan, Pellun Mapun, Sama Mapun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Melanau, Central
[mel] Sarawak: Mukah division, Rejang delta coastal area to Balingian river. L1 users: 113,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 113,280. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Belana’u, Milanau, Milano. Dialects: Mukah-Oya (Muka, Mukah, Oga, Oya, Oya’), Balingian, Bruit, Dalat (Dalad), Igan, Sarikei, Segahan, Prehan, Segalang, Siteng. Balingian dialect is linguistically quite distinct from others. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Melanau, Daro-Matu
[dro] Sarawak: Daro and Matu areas on Matu river from Rejang river north channel to the sea. L1 users: 7,600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 4,800 Matu, 2,800 Daro. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Daro, Matu (Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngaleng, Phaneng). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Melanau, Kanowit-Tanjong
[kxn] Sarawak: Sibu division, middle Rejang River. Kanowit dialect downstream from Tanjong dialect. L1 users: 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Kanowit, Tanjong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Melanau, Sibu
[sdx] Sarawak: Sibu division, Rejang river. L1 users: 420 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Seduan-Banyok, Sibu, Siduan, Siduani. Dialects: Seduan, Banyok. May be intelligible with Central Melanau [mel]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Minokok
[mqq] Sabah: Kinabatangan river headwaters. L1 users: 1,200 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb], Kimaragang [kqr] and Tobilung [tgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central.

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Minriq
[mnq] Kelantan: southeast, 2 villages. Ethnic population: 270 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mendriq, Menraq, Menrik, Menriq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern.

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Mintil
[mzt] Pahang: Lipis district, Tamun river, 3 villages. L1 users: 180 (2005 Lye Tuck-Po). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mitil. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern. Comments: May have no remaining speakers.

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Molbog
[pwm] Sabah: Kudat district, Balambangan and Banggi islands. L1 users: 2,500 (2015 T. Imam Tuah). 250 monolinguals (2015 T. Imam Tuah). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2015 T. Imam Tuah). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: A lexicon compiled as part of a Sabah Culture Board project has not yet been published (2015 T. Imam Tuah). Muslim.

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Murik
[mxr] Sarawak: below Long Miri (Banyok dialect) and below Lio Mato (Semiang dialect) on Baram river. L1 users: 1,120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Long Banyok (Banyok), Long Semiang (Semiang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Murik Kayan.

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Murut, Bookan
[bnb] Sabah: Keningau and Kinabatangan districts, Kinabatangan and Sook rivers’ headwaters area. Ethnic population: 2,400 (2017 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Baukan, Baukan Murut, Bookan. Dialects: Baukan (Baokan, Bokan, Boken, Bokon, Bokun, Bookan, Bukun, Pingas, Ulun-No-Bokan, Ulun-No-Bokon), Kokoroton Murut, Tengara (Kinabatangan Murut, Tangara’, Tanggaraq, Tenggaraq, Tingara, Tungara). Reportedly similar to Keningau Murut [kxi], Timugon [tih], and Tagal [mvv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Northern.

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Murut, Kalabakan
[kve] Sabah: Tawau district, along Kalabakan river. Ethnic population: 2,230 (2000 B. Lingki). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kalabakan. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 73% with Bookan Murut [bnb]; 70% with Serudung Murut [srk]; 67% with Tagal Murut [mvv] (Smith 1984:22). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Southern. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Murut, Keningau
[kxi] Sabah: Keningau district, east of Pegalan river down to Ansip village. L1 users: 3,000 (2015 A. Jampadin), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000 A. Jampadin). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Central Murut. Autonym: Keningau Murut. Dialects: Nabay (Dabai, Dabay, Nabai, Nebee, Rabai, Rabay), Ambual. Reportedly similar to Bookan [bnb] and Timugon [tih]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Christian.

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Murut, Kolod
[kqv] Sabah: Sipitang district, Bamban, Iburu, Meligan, Sulob, and Ulu Bole villages; Tenom district, Bamban village; Sarawak: Lawas district, Long Tengoa. L1 users: 2,000 (2015 R. Ganang), decreasing. Less than 1,000 in Sarawak. More than 1,000 in Sabah. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kolod, Kolor, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod, Okolod Murut. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 82% with Okolod [kqv] in Sabah; 70% with Pensiangan Murut dialect of Tagal Murut [mvv]; 34% with Lun Bawang [lnd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Christian.

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Murut, Paluan
[plz] Sabah: Keningau, Pensiangan, and Tenom districts, Padas river tributaries; Dalit, Keramatoi, Mesopo, Nabawan, and Pamentarian rivers; lower Sook river valley; Sapulut and Talankai rivers’ headwaters. L1 users: 5,500 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Paluan, 1,000 to 2,000 Pandewan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Paluan. Dialects: Paluan (Peluan), Dalit Murut, Sook Murut, Takapan, Makaheeliga (Makialiga), Pandewan (Pandewan Murut). Reportedly most similar to Tagal Murut [mvv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut.

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Murut, Selungai
[slg] Sabah: Nabawan district, 1 village in Pensiangan river basin south to Indonesia border. L1 users: 600 (2000 SIL). Ethnic population: 600 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut.

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Murut, Sembakung
[sbr] Sabah: Sembakung river area. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tenggalan, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tingalan, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Southern.

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Murut, Serudung
[srk] Sabah: Tawau district, along Serudung river, 1 village near Tawau town. L1 users: 400 (2015 J. Rushing), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000 (2015 J. Rushing). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Serudong, Suudung, Tawau Murut, Tawou Murut. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Kalabakan Murut [kve], 52% with Selungai Murut [slg], and less than 60% with Tagal [mvv] and Sembakung [sbr] Murut languages. Very low intelligibility with Northern Tidung [ntd] (Moody and Walton 1984: 132). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Tidung. Comments: Christian.

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Murut, Tahol
[mvv] Sabah: Nabawan district, south Sipitang and Tenom districts, mainly along Maligan, Padas (Tomani), Salalir, Tahol, Tolokoson, and watersheds. Sarawak: Lawas district. L1 users: 20,000 (2015 L. Murang), decreasing. Ethnic population: 200,000 (2015 L. Murang). Largest Murutic group in Sabah (Harris 1991; Brewis 2004: 43). Total users in all countries: 22,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pensiangan, Sumambu, Tagal, Tagal Murut, Tagol. Autonym: Tahol. Dialects: Rundum (Arundum), Tagal (North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut, Taggal, Tagol, Tagul), Sumambu (Semambu, Semembu, Sumambuq), Tolokoson (Telekoson), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Pensiangan Murut (Lagunan Murut, Pentjangan), Salalir (Sadalir, Saralir, Sedálir), Alumbis (Loembis, Lumbis), Tawan, Tomani (Tumaniq), Maligan (Bol Murut, Bole Murut, Mauligan, Meligan). Reportedly most similar to Paluan [plz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Christian.

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Murut, Timugon
[tih] Sabah: Beaufort district, Bukau and lower Padas rivers; Tenom district, Padas river from Melalap to Batu-Batu. Ethnic population: 9,000 (2004 S. Majius). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Temogun, Timigan, Timigun, Timogon, Timogun, Tumugun, “Tenom Murut” (pej.). Autonym: Timugon. Dialects: Kapagalan, Poros, Beaufort Murut (Binta’), Timugon, Sandiwar (Sandewar), Dabugus, Lower Murut, Murut Padas, Bukau (Bukow). Beaufort Murut may be a distinct language, though highly intelligible with Timugon (Spitzack 1984). Whether these two varieties are distinct languages requires further investigation. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Narom
[nrm] Sarawak: Miri area and south; Kuala Nusah and Tanjung Beliput Niah area (Bakong dialect); Bekenu, Benkenu Asli, Jengalas, Menjelin, Rambai Asli, and Rancha-Rancha villages (Dali’ dialect); Bakam, Lopeng, Miri City, Pengkalan, and Pujut villages (Miri’ dialect). Ethnic population: 4,000. Population includes about 1,000 Bakong, 1,000 Dali’, and 1,000 Miri’ (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Narum. Dialects: Bakong, Miri’, Narom, Dali’. Bakong, Dali’, and Miri’ may be distinct languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B.

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Negeri Sembilan Malay
[zmi] Negeri Sembilan: Ulu Muar district. L1 users: Used as L1 by many inhabitants of Negeri Sembilan State (2011 K. Anderbeck). Ethnic population: 508,000 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malaysian Minangkabau, Orang Negeri, Ulu Muar Malay. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: People call Minangkabau immigrants, who have come during the last 60 to 80 years, Minang. May be a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Orang Kanaq
[orn] Johor: east, northeast of Mawai (Kota Tinggi). Ethnic population: 160 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kanaq. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: May be better considered a dialect of Malay [zlm]. Originally from Sumatra, previously a sea tribe which settled on the land in the mid-19th century (Musa 2011).

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Orang Seletar
[ors] Johor: southeast coast, Kukuo area; Johore Bahru, east and north. Ethnic population: 1,250 (2008 JHEOA). Total users in all countries: 880. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Orang Laut. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: May be better considered a dialect of Malay [zlm]. Named after Seletar Island in Singapore from which they were removed in 1986.

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Papar
[dpp] Sabah: Kuala Penyu district, Jangkit, Linsuk, Tenambak, and Tidung-Bedungon. L1 users: 500 (2015 J. Saban), decreasing. No monolinguals (2015 J. Saban). Ethnic population: 1,900 (2015 J. Saban). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bajau Bukit, Bajau Pa’par, Pa’par, Pappar, “Papar Hanyut” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Tatana [txx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Unclassified. Comments: Muslim.

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Penan, Bah-Biau
[pna] Sarawak: Kapit division, Merit and Rejang rivers areas. L1 users: 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bah-Biau, Punan. Dialects: Punan Bah (Punan Ba), Punan Biau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau. Comments: Nomadic. They get salt from the Kayan.

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Penan, Eastern
[pez] Sarawak: Apoh river district east of Baram river. L1 users: 10,000 (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 10,055. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Penan Apoh. Not intelligible of Western Penan [pne] and Uma Lasan [xky]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan.

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Penan, Western
[pne] Sarawak: Kapit division, Balui and upper Baram rivers, Mount Dulit area, 3 villages; Nibong branch of Lobong river. L1 users: 3,400 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nibon, Nibong, “Punan” (pej.). Dialects: Nibong, Bok Penan (Bok), Penan Silat, Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lusong (Lusong), Penan Apo, Sipeng (Speng), Penan Lanying, Jelalong Penan. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan. Comments: Traditionalists are nomadic and seminomadic.

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Penang Sign Language
[psg] Pulau Pinang: scattered. L1 users: 1,000, decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Deaf school established 1954, with only oral method. Sign language evolved outside the classroom. Use declined late 1970s due to spread of other sign languages.

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Punan Batu
[pnm] Sarawak: Marudi district, west of Long Geng, southeast of Belaga. L1 users: 30 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Punan Batu 1. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang. Comments: Different from Punan Batu, a dialect of Sajau Basap [sjb] in Kalimantan. Nomadic. They get salt from the Kayan.

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Remun
[lkj] Sarawak: Serian district, Kuching division, 13 villages, southeast of Serian to Balai Ringin. L1 users: 3,500 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Milikin, Millikin, Remun Iban. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic.

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Rungus
[drg] Sabah: Beluran, Kota Marudu, Kudat, and Pitas districts. L1 users: 55,000 (2009 PCS), decreasing. 10,000 monolinguals (2015 P. Porodong, F. Akiam). Ethnic population: 60,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dayak Laut, Dusun Dayak, Kadazan, Melobong Rungus, Melubong Rungus, Memagun, Memogun, Roongas, Rungus Dusun. Autonym: Momogun. Dialects: Gandahon, Gonsomon, Nuluw, Pilapazan (Central Rungus, Rungus Tanga). Gonsomon and Nuluw most distinctive dialects. Gandahon is less distinct. Pilapazan uses elements of the other three dialects. Lexical similarity among dialects within 86%–96%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comments: Reside on the Bengkoka and Kudat peninsulas surrounding Marudu bay and identify themselves by which side of the bay they come from. Self-identify as Momogun and have complex internal social and ethnic relationships (Appell 1965). There is a strong sense of Rungus ethnic identity across all dialect groups. Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sa’ban
[snv] Sarawak: Miri division, Long Banga’, Upper Baram, Long Peluan, Long Puak on Kalimantan border. L1 users: 1,110 (2000). Total users in all countries: 1,960. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berau, Braow, “Merau” (pej.). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic.

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Sabüm
[sbo] Perak: north central. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Lanoh [lnh] and Semnam [ssm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic.

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Salako
[knx] Sarawak: Kuching division, Lundu district, Saak. 22 villages. L1 users: 10,700 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kenayatn, Kendayan, Salakau, Selakau, Selako, Silakau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic. Comments: Sarawak census data for Lundu Bidayuhs; Salako are not linguistically Bidayuh, but are referred to as Bidayuh.

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Sama, Balangingih
[sse] Sabah: Lahad Datu coast, Semporna, and Tawau districts; some in Kota Belud district. L1 users: 5,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baangingi’, Balagnini, Balangingi, Balangingi Bajau, Balanian, Balanini, Balignini, Bangingih, Bangingih Sama, Northern Sinama, Sama, Sama Bangingih. Dialects: Bajau Balangingih. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Sama, Central
[sml] Sabah: Kunak and Semporna districts, Bebeng, Bohe’an, Gaya, Karindingan, and Kallo’ islands; Halo, Hidayat, Mastra, Panji, Salamat, Siriyaman villages; Ampalling, Balimbing, Bangaw-Bangaw, Batu Ruwa, Danawan, Kabogang, Labuan Hadji, Mabul, Manam Pellit, Mataking Island, Tampe’-Tampe’, Timbun Mata, Tubu’-Tubu’, and Umaral settlements. L1 users: 15,000 (2000 C. Soderberg). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Badjaw, Bajau Pela’u, Sama, Sama Dilaut, Sama Kabinga’an, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala’u, Sama Siasi, Sama Sitangkai, Sama Ubian, Sinama. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Sama, Southern
[ssb] Sabah: some coastal regions of Kota Belud district; Kota Kinabalu district, including Gaya island; Kuala Penyu district; Kudat district, Banggi and Mantanani islands; Sandakan and Semporna districts. L1 users: 60,000 (2015 S. Hinayat, M. Miller), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 119,000 (2000 SIL). 61,000 Bajau Kubang (or Bajau Semporna), 15,000 Bajau Laut, 14,500 Bajau Simunul, 13,000 Bajau Ubian, 9,000 Sibutu, 6,000 Sikubung, 700 Bajau Banaran. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sinama, Southern Bajau, Tawi-Tawi Sinama. Dialects: Bajau Banaran (Benadan, Binadan), Bajau Darat, Bajau Laut (Mandelaut, Pala’au, “Pala’u” (pej.), Sama Dilaut, Sama Laut, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala’au, Sea Bajau, Sea Gypsies), Bajau Semporna (Bajau Asli, Bajau Kubang, Kubang, Sama Kubang), Laminusa (Laminusa Sinama), Sibutu (Sama Sibutu, Samah Lumbuh, Samah-Samah, Sibutuq), Simunul (Bajau Simunul, Sama Simunul), Sikubung (Kubung, Sama Kubung), Sama (A’a Sama, Sama’, Samah, Samal, Samar), Ubian (Bajau Ubian, Obian, Sama Ubian, Tau Ubian), Denawan. Lexical similarity: Binadan and Denawan dialects are 89% lexically similar; 80%–82% with Balangingih Sama [sse] (1999 SIL). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Sebop
[sib] Sarawak: Bintulu, Kapit, and Miri divisions junctures on upper Tinjar river. L1 users: 1,730 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cebop, Sabup, Sebob, Sibop. Dialects: Tinjar Sibop, Lirong, Long Pokun, Bah Malei (Ba Mali), Long Atun, Long Ekang (Long Ikang), Long Luyang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah. Comments: Cebop used on the Indonesian side of the border, Sebop in Sarawak.

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Sebuyau
[snb] Sarawak: Kuching division, Lundu, Lupa river mouth, Sebuyau west bank area. L1 users: 7,000 (2017 S. Anonby). Ethnic population: 9,000 (2017 S. Anonby). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sabuyan, Sabuyau, Sibuian, Sibuyan, Sibuyau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic.

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Sekapan
[skp] Sarawak: Kapit division, Belaga. L1 users: 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sekepan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang.

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Selangor Sign Language
[kgi] Selangor: scattered. L1 users: 500. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: KLSL, Kuala Lumpur Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Uses many American signs with mostly English word order.

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Semai
[sea] Pahang state: northwest; Perak state: south; Selangor state: north. L1 users: 10,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 42,400 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 3 (Wider communication). The lingua franca of the Malaysian Aslian military armed forces unit (Bradley 2007a). Alternate Names: Seng’oi, Sengoi, Senoi, “Central Sakai” (pej.). Dialects: Jelai, Perak I, Perak II, Cameron (Cameron Highlands), Telom, Bidor, Betau, Lipis, Bil, Ulu Kampar (Kampar), Gopeng, Tanjung Malim, Parit, Tapah (Jalan Pahang). Some dialects not mutually intelligible (2006 T. Phillips). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic. Comments: ‘Sakai’, slave. ‘Sengoi’, people, in Semai. West Semai more acculturated to Malay society than east Semai.

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Semaq Beri
[szc] Kelantan, Pahang, and Terengganu states. L1 users: 2,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 3,970 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Semaq Bri, Semoq Beri. Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian.

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Semelai
[sza] Pahang state: southwest; Negeri Sembilan state: northwest; Tasek Bera shores area, along Bera, Teriang, and Serting rivers; Johor state, northwest, Muar river. L1 users: 4,100 (Kruspe 2009). Ethnic population: 6,270 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian.

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Semnam
[ssm] Perak state: north central. L1 users: 670 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lanoh [lnh] and Sabüm [sbo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic.

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Seru
[szd] Sarawak state. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Sian
[spg] Sarawak state: Kapita division, Belaga. L1 users: 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sihan. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of Bukitan [bkn], Ukit [umi], and Punan Batu [pnm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang.

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Sugut Dusun
[kzs] Sabah state: Labuk-Sugut district on Sugut river headwaters. Ethnic population: 12,200 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dusun, Kadayan, Sugut, Sugut Kadazan, Tanggal, Tilau-Ilau. Dialects: Tinagas, Talantang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central.

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Suluk
[tsg] Sabah state: Beluran, Kudat, Lahad Datu, Sandakan, Semporna, and Tawau districts’ coasts; Kota Kinabalu, Labuan, and Papar coasts. L1 users: 150,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals (2015 N. Dino). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Joloano, Joloano Sulu, Jolohano, Pamung Sug, Sinug, Sooloo, Sug, Sulu, Taosug, Tausog, Tausug, Taw Sug, “Moro” (pej.). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Comments: Non-indigenous. While some have lived in North Borneo for hundreds of years, many are recent immigrants from the southern Philippines seeking work and fleeing conflict. Muslim.

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Tamil
[tam] Peninsular. L1 users: 1,300,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 1,800,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1996, Education Act, No. 550, Articles 2 and 18). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tatana
[txx] Sabah state: Kuala Penyu district, Beaufort (Kg. Manamam, Kg. Takuli), Kelang Valley, Keningau, Klias Kecil, Kota Kinabalu, Labuan, and Membakut. L1 users: 10,000 (2015 KadazanDusun Cultural Association), decreasing. Ethnic population: 22,000 (2015 KadazanDusun Cultural Association). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gia Tatana, Kadazan Tatana, Tatana’, Tatanaq. Autonym: Tatana. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Unclassified. Comments: Christian.

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Temiar
[tea] Kelantan, Pahang, and Perak states. L1 users: 15,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 24,900 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as a lingua franca by many northern Aslian groups (Bradley 2007a). Alternate Names: Northern Sakai, Pie, Seroq, Temer. Dialects: Grik, Kenderong, Kenering, Po-Klo (Sakai Bukit of Temongoh), Sakai of Plus Korbu, Sungai Piah, Tanjong Rambutan, Tembe’ (Tembi), Ulu Kinta (Kinta Sakai), Lanoh Kobak. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic. Comments: Seminomadic.

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Temoq
[tmo] Pahang state: Pekan and Rompin districts on Jeram river. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian.

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Temuan
[tmw] Johor, Negeri Sembilan, Putrajaya, and Selangor states: Kuala Langat and scattered settlements. Ethnic population: 22,700 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Benua, Niap. Dialects: Beduanda (Biduanda), Belanda (Belana, Belanas, Belandas, Blanda, Landa), Berembun (Birmun), Mantra (Mentera, Mintra), Temuan, Udai. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Also classified as Malacca group of Austro-Asiatic phylum. Beduanda sometimes considered a separate language. May be a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Ten’edn
[tnz] Perlis state: northwest tip, north of Kaki. L1 users: 15 (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mos Tean-ean, Tonga. Dialects: Satun. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga. Comments: This small group crosses back and forth between the Malaysia and Thailand.

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Tidung, Northern
[ntd] Sabah state: Beluran, Sandakan, and Tawau districts. L1 users: 5,000 (2015 J. Lobel). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2015 J. Lobel). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Camucones, Nonukan, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong. Dialects: Sesayap (Sesajap), Tarakan (Terakan). There is no inherent intelligibility between Southern Tidung [itd] and Northern Tidung according to speakers of varieties of both languages. Lexical similarity: 65% with Southern Tidung [itd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Tidung.

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Tidung, Southern
[itd] Sabah state: Kalabakan and Tawau districts. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Tidong, Tidung. Dialects: None known. There is also no inherent intelligibility between Northern Tidung [ntd] and Southern Tidung, according to speakers of varieties of both languages. Lexical similarity: 65% with Northern Tidung [ntd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Murutic, Tidung.

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Tobilung
[tgb] Sabah state: Kota Belud, Kota Marudu, and Kudat districts; Kota Kinabalu, Inanam and other towns. L1 users: 4,000 (2015 G. Buck), decreasing. 1,500 monolinguals (2015 G. Buck). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2015 G. Buck). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tabilong, Tebilung, Tobilang. Autonym: Momogun, Tobilung. Dialects: Moderate intelligibility with the Central Dusun dialect of Kadazan Dusun [dtp], Kimaragang [kqr] and Rungus [drg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tombonuo
[txa] Sabah state: Beluran, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Lingkabau. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lobu, Paitan, Sungai, Sungei, Tambanua, Tambanuo, Tambanuva, Tambanwas, Tambenua, Tambunwas, Tembenua, Tombonuva, Tombonuwo, Tumbunwha, Tunbumohas, “Lobou nu Tindal” (pej.), “Pagan” (pej.). Autonym: Tangar nu Tombonuo. Dialects: Lingkabau Sugut (Linkabau), Sugut (Sungoi). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic.

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Tring
[tgq] Sarawak state: Long Terawan on lower Tutoh river. L1 users: 550 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Distinct from Tringgus-Sembaan Bidayuh [trx].

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Ukit
[umi] Sarawak state: Kapit division, Baleh on upper Rajom and Tatau rivers. L1 users: 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang. Comments: Different from the Punan Ukit dialect of Bukitan [bkn].

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Uma’ Lasan
[xky] Sarawak state: Balui, Belaga, Kalua, Kemena rivers; Sungai Asap resettlement camp. L1 users: 1,250 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Total users in all countries: 2,750. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kanyay, Kenja, Kindjin, Kinjin, Western Kenya, Western Kenyah. Dialects: Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Lasan, Uma’ Baka. Lexical similarity: 80% with Badeng and Lepu Kulit dialects of Mainstream Kanyah [xkl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan.

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