Malaysia

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Abai Sungai
[abf] Sabah, lower reaches of Kinabatangan river. Ethnic population: 500 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Distinct from other Paitanic languages (Upper Kinabatangan [dmg], Tombonuo [txa]). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic. Comments: Muslim.

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Bajau, West Coast
[bdr] Sabah: Scattered along the west coast from Kuala Penyu to Kudat districts mainly in Tuaran and Kota Belud towns; Kudat district, Banggi Island, Telutu’ village; Pitas district along the west coast and Mengkubau Laut, Mengkapon, Dalima’, Mapan-Mapan, Pantai Laut, Layag-Layag, Mausar, Jambangan, Sibayan Laut, and Kanibungan villages. Ethnic population: 55,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bajau, Bajau Sama, Land Bajaw, Sama, West Coast Bajao, West Coast Bajaw. Dialects: Kota Belud, Putatan, Papar, Banggi, Sandakan, Pitas, Kawang. More structural diversity than other Borneo languages. Related to but distinct from East Coast Bajau languages of Malaysia and the Philippines, and Indonesian Bajau [bdl] (1977 K. Pallesen). Less than 65% intelligibility with Southern Sama [ssb]. Papar dialect used in national broadcasting. May be more than 1 language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Comments: Muslim.

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Bakati’, Rara
[lra] Sarawak, Kuching Division, Lundu, Pasir river, 2 small villages. 11,300 in Malaysia (2000). Total users in all countries: 23,300. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Luru, Rara Bakati. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to other Bakati’ languages spoken in Kalimantan. Lexical similarity: 46%–50% with Bidayuh languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bakati’.

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Balau
[blg] Southwest Sarawak, southeast of Simunjan. 5,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bala’u. Dialects: May be a dialect of Iban [iba]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: View themselves as a distinct ethnic group.

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Banjar
[bjn] Sabah: Keningau, Sandakan, Tawau, Tenom districts, scattered coastal settlements. 5,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bandjarese, Banjar Malay, Banjar Melau, Banjarese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Batek
[btq] Peninsular, North Pahang State, Kelantan, and Terengganu. 1,000 (2006 JHEOA), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,160 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bateg, Bateq, Batok, Kleb, Nong, Tomo. Dialects: Batek Teq (Teq), Batek De’ (Deq), Batek Iga, Batek Nong (Nong). Deq and Nong dialects may be separate languages. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern.

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Belait
[beg] Sarawak. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Lemeting, Meting. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Berawan, Central
[zbc] North Sarawak, Marudi district, Batu Belah (Tutoh river) and Long Teru (Tinjar river) villages. 1,500 (2010 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Batu Belah, Long Teru, Melawan. Dialects: Batu Belah Berawan, Long Teru Berawan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan.

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Berawan, East
[zbe] Sarawak, Long Jegan, Long Taveng, Long Takong, and Long Teran Batu villages. 1,100 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Long Jegan Berawan, Melawan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan, Central-East Berawan.

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Berawan, West
[zbw] Sarawak, Long Terawan village, Mulu town. 1,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Berawan, Long Terawan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Berawan.

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Bidayuh, Bau
[sne] Sarawak, Kuching Division, Sadong, Samarahan, and Lundu rivers. About 50 villages. 29,200 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bau-Jagoi, Jaggoi, Jagoi, Sarawak Dayak. Dialects: Grogo (Grogoh), Stenggang Jagoi, Krokong, Gumbang, Serambau (Serambo, Serambu), Empawa, Assem, Singai (Bisingai, Singgai, Singgi, Singgie, Singhi), Suti, Tengoh, Dongay, Taup (Tahup). Gumbang may be more closely related to Tringgus-Sembaan [trx]. Lexical similarity: 69% with Bukar Sadong [sdo], 53% between Bukar Sadong and Singai dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Western.

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Bidayuh, Biatah
[bth] Sarawak, Kuching Division, Kuching district. 10 villages. 63,900 in Malaysia (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 72,380. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Biatah, Bikuab, Kuap, Quop, Sentah, Siburan. Dialects: Siburan, Stang (Bisitaang, Sitaang), Tibia. Not intelligible with Bukar-Sadong Bidayuh [sdo], Salako [knx], or other Bidayuh varieties from Indonesia. Siburan is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 71% with Singai dialect of Bau Bidayuh [sne]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Central. Comments: ’Bidayuh’ is a cover term for all Sarawak Land Dayak groups, plus Salako [knx].

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Bidayuh, Bukar-Sadong
[sdo] Sarawak, Samarahan Division. 30 or more villages. 49,100 in Malaysia (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Buka, Bukar, Bukar Sadung Bidayah, Sadung, Serian, Tebakang. Dialects: Bukar Bidayuh (Bidayah, Bidayuh, Bideyu), Bukar Sadong, Bukar Sadung Bidayuh, Mentuh Tapuh (Mentu). Lexical similarity: 57% with Standard Malay [zsm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Eastern.

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Bidayuh, Tringgus-Sembaan
[trx] Sarawak, southwest of Kuching, south of the Bau Bidayuh [sne] language area, on Kalimantan border. 850 in Malaysia (2007 Z. Akter). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tringus. Dialects: Tringgus, Mbaan (Bimbaan, Sembaan). Each dialect has a few villages. Reportedly more similar to Biatah Bidayuh [bth] than to Bau Bidayuh [sne]. Gumbang [sne] may be a Tringgus-Sembaan Bidayuh [trx] dialect rather than a Bau Bidayuh [sne] dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Land Dayak, Bidayuh, Core, Sembaan. Comments: A different language from Tring [tgq].

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Bintulu
[bny] Sarawak, northeast coast, Sibuti area, west of Niah; Bintulu area, and 2 enclaves west. 4,200 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Could also be classified as a Baram-Tinjar subgroup or as an isolate within the Rejang-Baram Group. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Bintulu. Comments: Blust classifies it as an isolate with North Sarawakan. Not similar to other languages (Blust 1974).

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Bisaya, Brunei
[bsb] Sarawak State, Limbang and Marudi districts. 20,000 in Malaysia (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bekiau, Bisaya Bukit, Bisayah, Lorang Bukit, Visayak. Dialects: Sarawak Bisaya (Bisaya’), Tutong 1. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya, Southern.

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Bisaya, Sabah
[bsy] Sabah: Beaufort and Kuala Penyu districts, North Brunei Bay coast area, mainly along Padas and Klias rivers, south of Weston; Sarawak: Batu Danau, Limbang. No monolinguals (2015). Ethnic population: 70,000 (2015 Sabah Bisaya Cultural Association). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Basaya, Besaya, Bisaia, Bisayah, Jilama Bawang, Jilama Sungai. Dialects: Klias Bisaya, Kuala Penyu Bisaya, Padas Bisaya, Beaufort Bisaya, Limbang Bisaya. 70% intelligibility of Bisaya Kuala Penyu with Tatana [txx], 50% intelligibility of other Sabah Bisaya dialects with Tatana [txx]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Brunei Bisaya (Sarawak dialect) [bsb], 52% with Brunei Bisaya [bsb] (Brunei dialect) (2010 Siti Aidah). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya. Comments: Muslim.

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Bonggi
[bdg] Sabah: Kudat district, Banggi and Balambangan islands. 15 villages. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2015 T. Bin Imam Tuah). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bangay, “Banggi” (pej.), “Banggi Dusun” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Based on lexicostatistics, reported to be most similar to Molbog [pwm] of the Philippines (Smith 1984). Based on shared innovations, considered more closely related to Ida’an [dbj] (Blust 2010). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Bookan
[bnb] Sabah, Keningau and Kinabatangan districts, Sook and Kinabatangan rivers’ headwaters area. Ethnic population: 1,700 (2000 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Baukan, Baukan Murut. Dialects: Baukan (Baokan, Bokan, Boken, Bokon, Bokun, Bookan, Bukun, Pingas, Ulun-No-Bokan, Ulun-No-Bokon), Kokoroton Murut, Tengara (Kinabatangan Murut, Tangara’, Tanggaraq, Tenggaraq, Tingara, Tungara). Reportedly similar to Keningau Murut [kxi], Timugon [tih], and Tagal [mvv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Northern.

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Brunei
[kxd] South China seacoast, Sabah State, from Kota Kinabalu southwest along shoreline to Labuan Federal Territory and Brunei border; Sarawak State, north Lawas district; continuing southwest from Batang Baram river mouth to Bintulu town. 51,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL), decreasing. 35,000 monolinguals (2015 S. Damit). Ethnic population: 350,000 (2014 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Brunai, Brunei-Kadaian, “Orang Bukit” (pej.). Dialects: Brunei, Kadaian (Kadayan, Kadian, Kadien, Kadyan, Karayan, Kedayan, Kedien, Kedyan, Kerayan). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Non-indigenous. Regional, not ethnic, dialect variations. Muslim.

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Bugis
[bug] Sabah: Kota Kinabalu, Lahad Datu, Sandakan and Tawau districts, major cities but also scattered. 17,800 in Malaysia (2000 SIL), decreasing. Ethnic population: 138,000 (2015 A. Supeno). Consulate of Indonesia in Kota Kinabalu. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Buginese. Dialects: Bone, Enrekang, Mandar, Soppeng, Pinrang, Sinjai, Makasar, Duri. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, South Sulawesi, Bugis. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Bukitan
[bkn] Sarawak State, small enclaves in Kapit and Tatau divisions. 290 in Malaysia (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakatan, Bakitan, Beketan, Mangkettan, Manketa, Pakatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang.

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Cheq Wong
[cwg] Peninsular, Pahang State, just south of Semai. 460 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Beri, Ceq Wong, Che Wong, Che’wong, Chuba, Siwang. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Chewong.

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Chinese, Hakka
[hak] Negeri Sembilan, Perak, Selangor, Sabah, Sarawak: scattered, especially in all major towns. 1,090,000 in Malaysia (2000). Ethnic population: 1,650,000 (2010 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Loong Chun, Her Po. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] Peninsular and East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak states) especially in urban areas; scattered. Recent census figures do not detail the number of Mandarin speakers. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1996, Education Act, No. 550, Articles 2 and 18). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Primarily urban, in commerce.

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Chinese, Min Dong
[cdo] Sarawak State, mostly in Sibu, Sarikei, Bintangor towns. 252,000 in Malaysia (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Foochow (Fuzhou). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Peninsular, especially in Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, and Terengganu states. 2,660,000 in Malaysia (2000). 497,000 Teochew, 141,000 Hainanese, 2,020,000 Hokkien (2000). The population figures given here are for Peninsular Malaysia only. The corresponding figures for Sabah and Sarawak are not currently available. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Min Nan, Minnan. Dialects: Hainanese, Teochew (Chaochow, Teochow), Hokkien (Amoy, Fujianese, Fukienese). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Pu-Xian
[cpx] Peninsular, especially in Selangor State. 24,700 in Malaysia (Salleh 2006). Ethnic population: 24,700 (2000 census). In Peninsular Malaysia. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Xinghua (Hinghua, Hsinghua). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] Peninsular, largest community in Johor State. 1,070,000 in Malaysia (2000 census). Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Johor State. Alternate Names: Cantonese, Yue, Yueh. Dialects: Cantonese, Toishanese. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Duano
[dup] Peninsular, Johor state west coast, Pontian Kecil area, Muar, Batu Pahat, and Pontian districts, Lenga, Semerah, Minyak Beku, Senggarang, Rengit, Kuala Benut, Pontian Besar, and Sungai Layau settlements. 600 in Malaysia (2007 SIL). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,010 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Kuala, Orang Laut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay.

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Dumpas
[dmv] Sabah: Beluran district, Perancangan, Tombidong-Bidong, Bakung-Bakung, Tarasak, Rancangan Nangoh, and Gana Jati villages. 2,400 (2015). No monolinguals (2015). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2015). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Doompas. Dialects: 87% intelligibility of Tombonuo [txa], 57% of Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb], 44% of Coastal Kadazan dialect of Kadazan Dusun [dtp], 15% of Tausug [tsg]. Lexical similarity: 30% with Kadazan Dusun [dtp], 60% with Tombonuo [txa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Unclassified. Comments: Muslim.

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English
[eng] Peninsular. 380,000 in Malaysia (Crystal 2003a), increasing. L2 users: 7,000,000 in Malaysia (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1957, Constitution, Articles 152(2) through 152(5)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gana
[gnq] Sabah: Keningau district, Minansut and Kuangoh in Bingkor, along Baiaya river, a tributary of Pegalan river, north of Keningau town. 250 (Pugh-Kitingan 2013), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (Pugh-Kitingan 2013). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Gana’, Ganaq, Ganna, Keningau Dusun, Minansut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Iban
[iba] Sarawak state: Scattered; Sabah: Tawau district. 752,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL). L2 users: 700,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL). Total users in all countries: 1,484,300 (as L1: 784,300; as L2: 700,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Spoken from Sri Aman Division in the south west to Miri Division in the north east in the domains of market, church, business, and media. Alternate Names: Iban Sabah, Sea Dayak. Dialects: Batang Lupar, Bugau, Skrang, Dau, Lemanak, Ulu Ai, Undup. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic. Comments: Largest language group in Sarawak.

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Ida’an
[dbj] Sabah: Lahad Datu, Kinabatangan and Sandakan districts. 10,000 (2013 SIL). Population includes 2,500 Begak. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2015 Pertubuhan Kebajikan Idahan Pewaris Madai, Lahad Datu (PEWARIS)). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bulud Upi, Eraans, Idaan, Idahan, Idan, Idayan. Dialects: Begak (Bagahak, Begahak), Subpan (Sungai, Supan), Ida’an. Isolate within the Sabahan subgroup. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Ida’an. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Iranun
[ilm] Sabah: Kota Belud district, 24 villages; Kudat district, Indarasan Laut village; Lahad Datu district, Tungku. 22,000 (2015 I. Sidik). Ethnic population: 30,000 (Pugh-Kitingan and Mulia 1996). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Ilanun, Illanoan, Illanoon, Illanos, Illanun, Iranon Maranao, Iranum, Lanoon, Lanun, Ylanos. Dialects: None known. Iranun in Sabah is different from any of its related languages in the Philippines, including Iranun [ilp] and Maranao [mrw]. The most similar language to Iranun in Sabah [ilm] is Maranao. But even between Iranun [ilm] and Maranao there are substantial differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon. Comments: Non-indigenous. However, there is established evidence of at least 400 years’ residence of Iranun in Sabah (including evidence from genealogical records that go back some 13 generations). Muslim.

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Jah Hut
[jah] Peninsular, Pahang State, just south of main body of Semai [sea] language area and Kuala Krau. Ethnic population: 3,760 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jah Het. Dialects: Kerdau, Krau, Ketiar Krau (Tengganu), Kuala Tembeling, Pulau Guai, Ulu Ceres (Cheres), Ulu Tembeling. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Jah Hut.

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Jakun
[jak] Peninsular, Pahang and Johor states, Pekan district south along east coast to south of Johor river. Ethnic population: 25,000 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Djakun, Jakoon, Jaku’d, Jakud’n, Orang Hulu. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Perhaps better considered a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Javanese
[jav] Kedah state: Kota Setar and Kuala Munda districts; Perak state: Kinta district; Selangor state: Kuala Lumpur area; Sabah state: scattered coastal settlements. Ethnic population: 300,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Jawa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Javanese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Jehai
[jhi] Peninsular, Northeast Perak and west Kelantan states. 1,250 in Malaysia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Ethnic population: 1,660 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jahai, Pangan. Dialects: Jehai, Batek Teh. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern.

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Kadazan Dusun
[dtp] Sabah: West Coast Division, Beaufort, Keningau, Kota Belud, Kota Marudu, Kota Kinabalu, Papar, Penampang, Ranau, Tambunan, and Tenom districts. 264,000 (2010 census), increasing. Ethnic population: 556,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Central Dusun, Central Kadazan, Dusan, Dusum, Dusun, Dusur, Idaan, Kadasan, Kadayan, Kadazandusun, Kedayan. Dialects: Dusun Sinulihan (Sinulihan), Kadazan-Tagaro (Tagaro), Kiundu, Pahu’, Sokid, Tindal, Menggatal (Kiulu, Telipok), Ranau, Bundu (Taginambur), Beaufort, Luba, Kuriyou, Liwan, Tambunan Dusun (Tambunan, Tinombunan), Tinagas Dusun (Dusun, Kota Marudu Tinagas, “Panansawa” (pej.), Talantang, Tinagas, Ulu Sugut Dusun), Tindal Dusun (Kadamaian Dusun, Tampasok, Tampassuk, Tempasok, Tempasuk, Tempasuk Dusun, Tindal), Coastal Kadazan (Kadazan, Kadazan Tangaa’, Membakut Kadazan, Papar Kadazan, Penampang Kadazan). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central.

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Kadazan, Klias River
[kqt] Sabah: Beaufort district, Klias river area. 800 (2015 E. Ampai), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2015 E. Ampai). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kuijou, Kuizou. Dialects: 80% intelligibility of Coastal Kadazan dialect of Kadazan Dusun [dtp], 80% of Tatana [txx], 80% of Sabah Bisaya [bsy]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Tatana [txx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun.

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Kadazan, Labuk-Kinabatangan
[dtb] Sabah: Sandakan, Beluran, and Kinabatangan districts. Ethnic population: 20,600 (2000 SIL). 14,000–16,000 Labuk (1987 SIL); 7,000–8,000 Sungai (1982 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Eastern Kadazan, Labuk Kadazan, Sogilitan, Sungai, Sungai Kinabatangan, Tindakon, Tompulung. Dialects: Mangkaak (Mangkahak, Mangkak, Mangkok), Sukang, Labuk, Lamag Sungai (Sungei). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Eastern. Comments: Cross-cultural marriage and migration. Christian.

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Kajaman
[kag] Central Sarawak, Kapit Division, near Belaga on Balui river. 500 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kayaman, Kejaman. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang.

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Kalabakan
[kve] Sabah: Tawau district, along Kalabakan river. Ethnic population: 2,230 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kalabakan Murut. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 73% with Bookan Murut [bnb]; 70% with Serudung Murut [srk]; 67% with Tagal Murut [mvv] (Smith 1984:22). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Kayan, Baram
[kys] Northern Sarawak, Baram river area. 4,150 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Baram Kajan. Dialects: Long Atip, Long Akahsemuka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper.

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Kayan, Rejang
[ree] Sarawak, Rejang, Balui river areas. 3,030 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Rejang Kajan. Dialects: Ma’aging, Long Badan, Uma Daro, Long Kehobo (Uma Poh), Uma Juman, Long Murun, Long Geng, Lemena, Lisum. Limited comprehension of Baram Kayan [kys]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Kayan Proper. Comments: Different from Rejang [rej] in Sumatra.

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Kelabit
[kzi] North Sarawak, highest and most remote Borneo mountains, Bario highlands. 4,000 in Malaysia (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,000. Total users in all countries: 4,640. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kalabit, Kerabit. Dialects: Pa’ Umor (spoken in Bario), Pa’ Dalih, Long Peluan, Long Lellang, Brung, Libbung, Lepu Potong, Tabun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Strongly independent. Most live outside language area.

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Kensiu
[kns] Peninsular: northeast Kedah State, Baling district; near Thai border; into Perak State, Hulu Perak district. 250 in Malaysia (2015 N. Bishop). Total users in all countries: 259. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kenseu, Kensieu, Kensiw, Mendi, Monik, Moniq, Ngok Pa, Orang Bukit, Orang Liar. Dialects: Ijoh (Ijok), Jarum, Jeher (Sakai Tanjong of Temongoh), Kedah (Quedah), Plus, Ulu Selama, Kensiu Batu (Batuq), Kensiu Siong (Siong), Kentaq Nakil (Nakil), Maniq, Bong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western.

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Kenyah, Mainstream
[xkl] South central Sarawak State, near Kalimantan border, villages along Baram and Balui rivers and some tributaries; 1 village on Kakus river; Sungai Asap area. 40,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bakong, Bakung, Bakung Kenya, Bakung Kenyah. Dialects: Leppo’ Aga, Leppo’ Ga, Leppo’ Jengan, Leppo’ La’ang, Leppo’ Tau, Uma’ Ake, Uma’ Jalan, Sambup, Leppo’ Ke’, Leppo’ Jamok, Badeng (Madeng), Bakung, Leppo’ Teppu’. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah.

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Kenyah, Wahau
[whk] Sarawak State, Marudi, Belaga, Kapit, and Tatau districts, several enclaves along interior rivers, including headwaters: Balang Baram, Baleh, Balul, and Belaga. 1,000 in Malaysia (2007 A. Soriente). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kimaragang
[kqr] Sabah: Beluran, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts. Ethnic population: 25,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimaragan, Kimaragangan, Maragang, Marigang. Dialects: Tandek (Garo), Pitas Kimaragang, Sandayo, Sonsogon. Speakers of the Sonsogon dialect understand 67%–76% of a Kimaragang story (1986 P. Kroeger). Lexical similarity: 82% between Kimaragang and Sonsogon dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kinabatangan, Upper
[dmg] Sabah: Tongod district, primarily upper reaches of Kinabatangan river; Lahad Datu district. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2015 L. Rose). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Orang Sungai, Sungai Milian. Dialects: Kalabuan (Kolobuan), Makiang, , Sinabu’ (Sinobu’), Sinarupa, Kuamut. Dialects have approximately 87% mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: over 90% among all dialects, 80% between Makiang and Sinabu’ dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Kintaq
[knq] Peninsular, Kedah-Perak border area, Thai border. 110 in Malaysia (2008 JHEOA). Ethnic population: 240 (Bradley 2007b). Total users in all countries: 111. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bong, Kenta, Kintak, Kintaq Bong. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Western.

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Kiput
[kyi] Sarawak, south of Marudi, Benawa and Kuala Tutoh villages. 2,460 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Long Kiput, Long Tutoh (Kuala Tutoh). Related to Narom [nrm], Lelak [llk], Tutong [ttg], Belait [beg], and Berawan languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, A.

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Kolor
[kqv] Sabah: Sipitang district, villages Sulob, Ulu Bole, Bamban, Iburu, and Meligan; Tenom district, Bamban village. Sarawak: Lawas district, Long Tengoa. 2,000 in Malaysia (2015 R. Ganang), decreasing. Less than 1,000 in Sarawak. More than 1,000 in Sabah. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Kolod, Kolour, Kolur, Okolod, Okolod Murut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Christian.

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Kota Marudu Talantang
[grm] Sabah, Kota Marudu district, Talantang 1 and Talantang 2. Ethnic population: 1,800 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun.

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Kuijau
[dkr] Sabah, Keningau district, Keningau town area north and west. Ethnic population: 7,910 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Hill Dusun, Kijau, Koijoe, Kuiyow, Kujau, Kuliow, Kuriyo, Kwijau, Menindal, Menindaq, Minansut, Tidung, Tindal. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun.

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Lahanan
[lhn] Central Sarawak, east of Belaga, southwest of Long Murum. 350 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lanan, Lanun. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Kajaman [kag]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang. Comments: Different from Iranun [ilm] or Maguindanaon [mdh] of the Philippines.

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Lanoh
[lnh] Peninsular, north central Perak State. Ethnic population: 240 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Jengjeng. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic. Comments: Lanoh includes Sabüm and Semnam as subgroups (Burenhult and Wegener 2009).

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Lelak
[llk] Sarawak State, Marudi district, Loagan Bunut lake area on Tinjar river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Dialects: None known. Related to Narom [nrm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B.

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Lobu, Lanas
[ruu] Sabah: Keningau district, Sook subdistrict, Lanas, Kuit, Pinipi, Kilu, Mampisas, Sesalungon, Lalapakon, Mansiat, Manggarimot, Tuawon, Minusu, and possibly in Kinabatangan district; Rumanau dialect in Masaum (near Pinangah), Makiang in Mangkawagu (near Alitang). 4,000 (2015 P. Porodong), decreasing. No monolinguals (2015 P. Porodong). Ethnic population: 5,000 (2015 P. Porodong). 3,500 Lobu, 1,500 Rumanau. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Keningau Lobu, “Labou” (pej.), Lobu. Dialects: Lobu, Rumanau (Romanau, Roomarrows, Rumanau Alab). May be a dialect of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Lobu, Tampias
[low] Sabah, Tampias area, Ranau. 3 villages. Ethnic population: 1,800 (1985 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. High intelligibility of Upper Kinabatangan [dmg]. Lexical similarity: 73% with Lanas Lobu [ruu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic, Upper Kinabatangan.

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Long Wat
[ttw] Northeast Sarawak, Tutoh river. 600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Tutoh Kenya, Tutoh Kenyah. Dialects: Long Wat, Long Labid, Lugat. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah.

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Lotud
[dtr] Sabah: Tuaran district, Kiulu, Telipok, Tuaran. Ethnic population: 20,000 (2016 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Dusun Lotud, Suang Lotud. Dialects: Suang Lotud, Suang Olung, Suang Sarayoh, Dusun Kadayan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Lun Bawang
[lnd] Sabah: Keningau district, Kuala Puntih, and Saup Baru; Sipitang district, Long Pasia, Long Mio, Mendulong, Bamban, Solob, Pekiak, Tunas Baru, Kaban, Samin, Ranau-Ranau, Long Kinangan, Batu Tujuh, Bahagia, Seri Menanti, Kawang Baru, and Kawang Lama; Tawau district, Merotai, Kalabakan, Serudung, Batu 18 Balung, Batu 22 Balung, Cinta Damai, Batu 32, and Kunak; Tenom district, Baru Jumpa, Baru Jumpa Seberang, Meluyan Ulu, Belumbung, Sapong, Mengkelias, Kelanan, Sugiang Baru, and Kalibatang Baru; Sarawak: Lawas and Limbang districts. 24,000 in Malaysia (1982 SIL), decreasing. Sarawak 21,000, Sabah 3,000–4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lun Daya, Lun Dayah, Lun Daye, Lun Dayeh, Lun Dayoh, Lun Lod, Lun-Bawang, Lundaya, Lundayeh, Lundayu, Southern Murut. Dialects: Lun Bawang (Sarawak Murut), Lun Dayah, , Padas, Trusan (Lawas, Limbang), Lepu Potong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Not Murutic, although sometimes called Southern Murut. Christian.

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Mah Meri
[mhe] Peninsular, coastal areas of Selangor, Putrajaya, and Negeri Sembilan; also islands near such coasts. 2,990 (2003 COAC). Ethnic population: 3,680 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Besisi, Cellate. Dialects: Kuala Langot Besisi, Malakka Besisi, Ulu Langat Orang Bukit, Selangor Sakai, Betise’ (Betisek), Sisi. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian.

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Malaccan Creole Malay
[ccm] Peninsular, Malacca straits, Melaka State, Kampung Tujung and Gajah Berang. Ethnic population: 300. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chitties Creole Malay. Dialects: None known. May be historically related to Sri Lankan Creole Malay [sci]. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Spoken since the 16th century by descendants of Tamil merchants who intermarried with other groups. Speakers are called Chitties (Lim 1981, Holm 1989).

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Malaccan Creole Portuguese
[mcm] Peninsular, Malacca Straits, Melaka State, Trankera and Hilir; also in Kuala Lumpur and Singapore. 2,150 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 10,000 (Bradley 2007b). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bahasa Geragau, Bahasa Serani, Kristang, Luso-Malay, Malacca Creole, Malaccan, Malaqueiro, Malaquenho, Malaquense, Malaquês, Malayo-Portuguese, Malaysian Creole Portuguese, Papia Cristao, Papia Kristang, Português de Malaca, Portuguese Patois, Serani. Classification: Creole, Portuguese based.

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Malay
[zlm] Widespread in Peninsular Malaysia; also in Sarawak state: Kuching, Samarahan, Sri Aman, and Betong districts. 10,500,000 in Malaysia (2004 census). 10 million in Peninsular Malaysia, 506,000 in Sarawak, and 30,000 in Labuan. L2 users: 3,000,000 in Malaysia. Total users in all countries: 18,877,700 (as L1: 15,877,700; as L2: 3,000,000). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Bahasa Malayu, Colloquial Malay, Informal Malay, Local Malay, Malayu, Melayu. Dialects: Coastal Terengganu, Inland Terengganu, Kelantan, Pahang, Southeast Island, Orang Hulu, Orang Kuala, Jugra-Muar-Melaka-Johor, Sarawak (Sarawak Malay), Tamiang, Deli, Riau Mainland, Lubu, Akit, Sakai, Riau islands, coastal Jambi, Belitung, Northwestern Kalimantan, Upstream Western Kalimantan, Southwestern Coastal Kalimantan. Kedah Malay [meo], Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], Jakun [jak], Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Temuan [tmw], Sabah Malay [msi], and Brunei [kxd] are so closely related that they may one day be included as dialects of Malay. Coastal Terengganu, inland Terengganu, Kelantan most aberrant but evidently mutually intelligible with Pattani Malay [mfa]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: This entry refers to local or vernacular Malay varieties not well differentiated from each other, and other varieties for which further research is needed to clarify differentiation from mainstream dialects. Distinguished from court-Malay-derived Standard Indonesian [ind] or Standard Malay [zsm] by sociolinguistic status as vernaculars, and other linguistic features.

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Malay
[msa] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 60,592,686 Status: Comments: Includes: Bacanese Malay [btj] (Indonesia), Bangka [mfb] (Indonesia), Banjar [bjn] (Indonesia), Berau Malay [bve] (Indonesia), Brunei [kxd] (Brunei), Bukit Malay [bvu] (Indonesia), Central Malay [pse] (Indonesia), Cocos Islands Malay [coa] (Australia), Col [liw] (Indonesia), Duano [dup] (Indonesia), Haji [hji] (Indonesia), Indonesian [ind] (Indonesia), Jakun [jak], Jambi Malay [jax] (Indonesia), Kaur [vkk] (Indonesia), Kedah Malay [meo], Kerinci [kvr] (Indonesia), Kota Bangun Kutai Malay [mqg] (Indonesia), Kubu [kvb] (Indonesia), Lubu [lcf] (Indonesia), Malay [zlm], Manado Malay [xmm] (Indonesia), Minangkabau [min] (Indonesia), Musi [mui] (Indonesia), Negeri Sembilan Malay [zmi], North Moluccan Malay [max] (Indonesia), Orang Kanaq [orn], Orang Seletar [ors], Pattani Malay [mfa] (Thailand), Pekal [pel] (Indonesia), Sabah Malay [msi], Sekak [lce] (Indonesia), Standard Malay [zsm], Temuan [tmw], Tenggarong Kutai Malay [vkt] (Indonesia), Urak Lawoi’ [urk] (Thailand).

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Malay, Baba
[mbf] Peninsular, Malacca Straits, Pulau Pinang State, Pinang island; Melaka City area and nearby coast, central Melaka State. 2,000 in Malaysia (Salleh 2006). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chinese Malay, Straits Malay. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Non-indigenous. Developed since the 15th century from Low Malay with many Hokkien Chinese borrowings. Lim (1981) and Holm (1989) treat it as a Malay-based creole.

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Malay, Cocos Islands
[coa] Sabah: Beluran, Lahad Datu and Tawau districts. 500 monolinguals (2015 A.Serasa Tosel). Ethnic population: 4,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cocos, Cocos Islands, Melayu Cocos, Ong Pulu. Classification: Creole, Malay based. Comments: Non-indigenous. From the Cocos Islands (Keeling Islands), an Australian territory.

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Malay, Kedah
[meo] Peninsular, Kedah, Perak, Perlis, and Pulau Pinang states. 2,600,000 in Malaysia (2004). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Satun Malay. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Pattani Malay [mfa] and Standard Malay [zsm]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: More use Thai [tha] than Pattani Malay. Most outside contacts are with Thai population centers in Songkhla, Phattalung, and Haad Yai; with west coast Malay states of Perlis and Kedah. Culturally Malay. May be a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Malay, Sabah
[msi] Sabah. L2 users: 3,000,000 (2013 SIL). No monolinguals (2015 J.K.L. Wong). Ethnic population: No ethnic community (2015 J.K.L. Wong). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used throughout the state of Sabah in virtually all non-formal domains. Estimated more than half (60%) of Sabah population, and almost all other language groups use Sabah Malay. Alternate Names: Bahasa Sabah, Bazaar Malay, Pasar Malay, Sabah Malay Dialect. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Sabah Malay is a simplified variety of Standard Malay [zsm], greatly influenced by Malay Brunei [kxd]. It has adopted many lexical items from the indigenous languages of Sabah. Muslim, Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Malay, Standard
[zsm] Widespread in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah, and Sarawak. Few L1 speakers. L2 includes most Malaysian population. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1963, Constitution (amended), Article 153A(1)). Alternate Names: Bahasa Malaysia, Bahasa Malayu, Formal Malay, Malay, Malayu, Melayu, Melayu Baku. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with Indonesian [ind]. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: On Peninsular Malaysia, Standard Malay [zsm] exists in a diglossic relationship with Local Malay [zlm]. Standard Malay (derived from court Malay), both in terms of its linguistic structure as well as its sociolinguistic function, has its closest counterpart not in a particular Local Malay dialect but in Standard Indonesian [ind].

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Malaysian Sign Language
[xml] Scattered. 58,700 (2013 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bahasa Isyarat Malaysia, BIM. Dialects: Variations found in every state, but are mutually intelligible with the possible exception of some places in Terengganu state (2015 S. Lim). Classification: Sign language.

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Mapun
[sjm] Sabah: Kota Kinabalu district, Kota Kinabalu; Kota Marudu district, Kota Marudu; Kudat district, Banggi and Mantanani islands, Kudat; Sandakan district, Sandakan. 15,000 in Malaysia (2015 M. Tanjul). Ethnic population: 30,000 (2015 M. Tanjul). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanon, Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang Cagayan, Pellun Mapun, Sama Mapun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Melanau, Central
[mel] Sarawak, Mukah Division, Rejang delta coastal area to Balingian river. 113,000 in Malaysia (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 113,280. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Belana’u, Milanau, Milano. Dialects: Mukah-Oya (Muka, Mukah, Oga, Oya, Oya’), Balingian, Bruit, Dalat (Dalad), Igan, Sarikei, Segahan, Prehan, Segalang, Siteng. Balingian dialect is linguistically quite distinct from others. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Melanau, Daro-Matu
[dro] Sarawak, Matu river from north channel of Rejang river to the sea, Daro and Matu areas. 7,600 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). 4,800 Matu, 2,800 Daro. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Daro, Matu (Langle-Tamtlaih, Ngaleng, Phaneng). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Melanau, Kanowit-Tanjong
[kxn] Sarawak, Sibu Division, middle stretch Rejang River. Kanowit dialect downstream from Tanjong dialect. 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 500. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Kanowit, Tanjong. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Melanau, Sibu
[sdx] Sarawak, Sibu Division, Rejang river. 420 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Seduan-Banyok, Sibu, Siduan, Siduani. Dialects: Seduan, Banyok. May be intelligible with Central Melanau [mel]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Minokok
[mqq] Sabah, Kinabatangan river headwaters. 1,200 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Labuk-Kinabatangan Kadazan [dtb], Kimaragang [kqr] and Tobilung [tgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central.

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Minriq
[mnq] Peninsular, Southeast Kelantan State; 2 villages. Ethnic population: 270 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mendriq, Menraq, Menrik, Menriq. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern.

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Mintil
[mzt] Peninsular, Pahang State, Lipis district, Tamun river, 3 villages. 180 (2005 Lye Tuck-Po). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Mitil. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Eastern. Comments: May have no remaining speakers.

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Molbog
[pwm] Sabah: Kudat district, Banggi and Balambangan islands. 2,500 in Malaysia (2015 T. Imam Tuah). 250 monolinguals (2015 T. Imam Tuah). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2015 T. Imam Tuah). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: A lexicon compiled as part of a Sabah Culture Board project has not yet been published (2015). Muslim.

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Murik
[mxr] Sarawak, below Long Miri (Banyok) and below Lio Mato (Semiang) on Baram river. 1,120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 8a (Moribund). Dialects: Long Banyok (Banyok), Long Semiang (Semiang). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kayanic, Murik Kayan.

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Murut, Keningau
[kxi] Sabah: Keningau district, north of Keningau town east of the Pegalan river down to Ansip village. 3,000 (2015 A. Jampadin), decreasing. Ethnic population: 7,000 (2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Central Murut. Dialects: Nabay (Dabai, Dabay, Nabai, Nebee, Rabai, Rabay), Ambual. Reportedly similar to Bookan [bnb] and Timugon [tih]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Christian.

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Murut, Selungai
[slg] Sabah: Nabawan district, Pensiangan river basin south to Indonesia border, 1 village. 600 in Malaysia (2000). Ethnic population: 600 (2000 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut.

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Murut, Sembakung
[sbr] Sabah: along the Sembakung river. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 SIL). 2,000–3,000 in Sabah. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sembakoeng, Sembakong, Simbakong, Tenggalan, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tingalan, Tingalun, Tinggalan, Tinggalum. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong.

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Murut, Serudung
[srk] Sabah: Tawau district, along Serudung river, 1 village near Tawau town. 400 (2015 J. Rushing), decreasing. Ethnic population: 1,000 (2015 J. Rushing). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Serudong, Suudung, Tawau Murut, Tawou Murut. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Kalabakan Murut [kve], 52% with Selungai Murut [slg], and less than 60% with Tagal [mvv] and Sembakung [sbr] Murut languages. Very low intelligibility with Northern Tidung [ntd] (Moody and Walton 1984: 132). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong. Comments: Christian.

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Murut, Timugon
[tih] Sabah: Tenom district, Padas river from Melalap to Batu-Batu; Beaufort district, Bukau and lower Padas rivers. Ethnic population: 9,000 (2004 S. Majius). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Temogun, “Tenom Murut” (pej.), Timigan, Timigun, Timogon, Timogun, Timugon, Tumugun. Dialects: Kapagalan, Poros, Beaufort Murut (Binta’), Timugon, Sandiwar (Sandewar), Dabugus, Lower Murut, Murut Padas, Bukau (Bukow). Beaufort Murut is a distinct language even though there is high intelligibility with Timugon (Spitzack 1984). However, the claim that these are distinct languages is uncertain. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Narom
[nrm] Sarawak, south of Baram river mouth, Miri area and south; Bakong dialect is near Beluru and Bekenu, in Kuala Nusah and Tanjung Beliput Niah area; Dali’ dialect is in Bekenu, Rancha-Rancha, Benkenu Asli, Rambai Asli, Menjelin, and Jengalas villages; Miri dialect is in Miri City, Bakam, Pengkalan, Pujut, and Lopeng villages. Ethnic population: 4,000. Population includes about 1,000 Bakong, 1,000 Dali’, and 1,000 Miri’ (2012 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Narum. Dialects: Bakong, Miri’, Narom, Dali’. Bakong, Dali’, and Miri’ may be distinct languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Berawan-Lower Baram, Lower Baram, Central, B.

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Negeri Sembilan Malay
[zmi] Peninsular, Southeast of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan State, Ulu Muar district. Used as L1 by many inhabitants of Negeri Sembilan State (2011 K. Anderbeck). Ethnic population: 508,000 (2004). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Malaysian Minangkabau, Orang Negeri, Ulu Muar Malay. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: People call Minangkabau immigrants, who have come during the last 60 to 80 years, Minang. May be a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Orang Kanaq
[orn] Peninsular, eastern Johor State, northeast of Mawai (Kota Tinggi). Ethnic population: 160 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Kanaq. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: May be better considered a dialect of Malay [zlm]. Originally from Sumatra, previously a sea tribe which settled on the land in the mid-19th century (Musa 2011).

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Orang Seletar
[ors] Peninsular, Johor State, southeast coast around Kukuo, Johore Bahru, east and north. Ethnic population: 1,250 (2008 JHEOA). Total users in all countries: 880. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Orang Laut. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: May be better considered a dialect of Malay [zlm]. Named after Seletar Island in Singapore from which they were removed in 1986.

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Paluan
[plz] Sabah, Tenom, Keningau, and Pensiangan districts, Padas river tributaries; Dalit, Keramatoi, Nabawan, Pamentarian, and Mesopo rivers; lower Sook river valley; Talankai and Sapulut rivers’ headwaters. 5,500 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Paluan, 1,000 to 2,000 Pandewan. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Paluan (Peluan), Dalit Murut, Sook Murut, Takapan, Makaheeliga (Makialiga), Pandewan (Pandewan Murut). Reportedly most similar to Tagal Murut [mvv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut.

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Papar
[dpp] Sabah: Kuala Penyu district, Tenambak, Jangkit, Linsuk, Tidung-Bedungon. 500 (2015 J. Saban), decreasing. No monolinguals (2015 J. Saban). Ethnic population: 1,900 (2015 J. Saban). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Bajau Bukit, Bajau Pa’par, Pa’par, “Papar Hanyut” (pej.), Pappar. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 30% with Tatana [txx]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comments: Muslim.

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Penan, Bah-Biau
[pna] Central Sarawak, Kapit Division, Merit and Rejang rivers areas. 450 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bah-Biau, Punan. Dialects: Punan Bah (Punan Ba), Punan Biau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Rejang-Sajau. Comments: Nomadic. They get salt from the Kayan.

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Penan, Eastern
[pez] Sarawak, Apoh river district, east of Baram river. 10,000 in Malaysia (2011 SIL). Total users in all countries: 10,055. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Punan” (pej.). Dialects: Penan Apoh. Not intelligible of Western Penan [pne] and Uma Lasan [xky]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan.

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Penan, Western
[pne] Sarawak, Kapit Division, upper Baram and Balui rivers, Mount Dulit area, 3 villages; Nibong branch of Lobong river, a tributary of Tinjar river. 3,400 (2007 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Nibon, Nibong, “Punan” (pej.). Dialects: Nibong, Bok Penan (Bok), Penan Silat, Penan Gang (Gang), Penan Lusong (Lusong), Penan Apo, Sipeng (Speng), Penan Lanying, Jelalong Penan. Not closely related to other languages. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Penan. Comments: Traditionalists are nomadic and seminomadic.

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Penang Sign Language
[psg] Peninsular, Pulau Pinang State, scattered. 1,000, decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000. Status: 8a (Moribund). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Deaf school established 1954, with only oral method. Sign language evolved outside the classroom. Use declined late 1970s due to spread of other sign languages.

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Punan Batu 1
[pnm] Central Sarawak, Marudi district, west of Long Geng, southeast of Belaga. 30 (Wurm 2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang. Comments: Different from Punan Batu 2, a dialect of Sajau Basap [sjb] in Kalimantan. Nomadic. They get salt from the Kayan.

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Remun
[lkj] Sarawak, Serian district, Kuching division, southeast of Serian to Balai Ringin. 13 villages. 3,500 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Milikin, Millikin, Remun Iban. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic.

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Rungus
[drg] Sabah: Beluran, Kota Marudu, Kudat, and Pitas districts. 55,000 (2009 PCS), decreasing. 10,000 monolinguals (2015). Ethnic population: 60,000 (2010 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dayak Laut, Dusun Dayak, Kadazan, Melobong Rungus, Melubong Rungus, Memagun, Memogun, Momogun, Roongas, Rungus Dusun. Dialects: Gandahon, Gonsomon, Nuluw, Pilapazan (Central Rungus, Rungus Tanga). Gonsomon and Nuluw most distinctive dialects. Gandahon is less distinct. Pilapazan uses elements of the other three dialects. Lexical similarity among dialects within 86%–96%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comments: Reside on 2 peninsulas surrounding a bay and identify themselves by which side of the bay they come from. Self-identify as Momogun and have complex internal social and ethnic relationships (Appell 1965). There is a strong sense of Rungus ethnic identity across all dialect groups. Christian, Buddhist, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Sa’ban
[snv] Northeast Sarawak on Kalimantan border, Miri Division, south of Ramudu, Upper Baram, Long Banga’, Long Puak, Long Peluan. 1,110 in Malaysia (2000). Total users in all countries: 1,960. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Merau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic.

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Sabüm
[sbo] Peninsular, north central Perak State. No known L1 speakers. Status: 9 (Dormant). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Lanoh [lnh] and Semnam [ssm]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic.

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Salako
[knx] Sarawak State, Kuching division, Lundu district, Saak. 22 villages. 10,700 in Malaysia (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kenayatn, Kendayan, Salakau, Selakau, Selako, Silakau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic. Comments: Sarawak census data for Lundu Bidayuhs; Salako are not linguistically Bidayuh, but are referred to as Bidayuh.

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Sama, Balangingih
[sse] Sabah: Coastal areas of Lahad Datu, Semporna, and Tawau districts; Some settlements in Kota Belud district. 5,000 in Malaysia (2013 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baangingi’, Balagnini, Balangingi, Balangingi Bajau, Balanian, Balanini, Balignini, Bangingih, Bangingih Sama, Northern Sinama, Sama, Sama Bangingih. Dialects: , Bajau Balangingih. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Sama, Central
[sml] Sabah: Semporna and Kunak districts, Bebeng, Bohe’an, Gaya, Karindingan, and Kallo’ islands; Halo, Hidayat, Panji, Mastra, Salamat, Siriyaman villages; Ampalling, Balimbing, Bangaw-Bangaw, Batu Ruwa, Danawan, Labuan Hadji, Kabogang, Tampe’-Tampe’, Timbun Mata, Tubu’-Tubu’, Mabul, Mataking Island, Manam Pellit, and Umaral settlements. 15,000 in Malaysia (2000 C. Soderberg). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Badjaw, Bajau Pela’u, Sama, Sama Dilaut, Sama Kabinga’an, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala’u, Sama Siasi, Sama Sitangkai, Sama Ubian, Sinama. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Sama, Southern
[ssb] Sabah: Coastal regions of Kota Belud district, Kota Kinabalu district, Gaya island, Kota Kinabalu; Kuala Penyu district; Kudat dsitrict, Banggi island, Mantanani island; Semporna and Sandakan districts. 60,000 in Malaysia (2015 M. Miller), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 119,000 (2000 SIL). 6,000 Sikubung, 15,000 Bajau Laut, 13,000, Bajau Ubian, 700 Bajau Banaran, 9,000 Sibutu, 14,500 Bajau Simunul, 61,000 Bajau Kubang (or Bajau Semporna). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sinama, Southern Bajau, Tawi-Tawi Sinama. Dialects: Bajau Banaran (Benadan, Binadan), Bajau Darat, Bajau Laut (Mandelaut, Pala’au, “Pala’u” (pej.), Sama Dilaut, Sama Laut, Sama Mandelaut, Sama Pala’au, Sea Bajau, Sea Gypsies), Bajau Semporna (Bajau Asli, Kubang, Sama Kubang), Laminusa (Laminusa Sinama), Sibutu (Sama Sibutu, Samah Lumbuh, Samah-Samah, Sibutuq), Simunul (Sama Simunul), Sikubung (Kubung, Sama Kubung), Sama (A’a Sama, Sama’, Samah, Samal, Samar), Ubian (Obian, Sama Ubian, Tau Ubian), Denawan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Sebop
[sib] North Sarawak, near the juncture of Bintulu, Kapit, and Miri divisions, upper Tinjar river, between Rejang and Baram rivers. 1,730 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cebop, Sabup, Sebob, Sibop. Dialects: Tinjar Sibop, Lirong, Long Pokun, Bah Malei (Ba Mali), Long Atun, Long Ekang (Long Ikang), Long Luyang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Kayanic Kenyah. Comments: Cebop used on the Indonesian side of the border, Sebop in Sarawak.

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Sebuyau
[snb] Sarawak, Lundu, Kuching Division, Lupa river mouth, Sebuyau west bank area. 9,000 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sabuyan, Sabuyau, Sibuian, Sibuyan, Sibuyau. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Ibanic.

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Sekapan
[skp] Sarawak, Kapit Division, Belaga. 750 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sekepan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang.

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Selangor Sign Language
[kgi] Peninsular, Selangor State, scattered. 500 Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: KLSL, Kuala Lumpur Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Uses many American signs with mostly English word order.

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Semai
[sea] Peninsular, Northwest Pahang and south Perak states, north Selangor State. 10,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 42,400 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 3 (Wider communication). The lingua franca of the Malaysian Aslian military armed forces unit (Bradley 2007a). Alternate Names: “Central Sakai” (pej.), Sengoi, Seng’oi, Senoi. Dialects: Jelai, Perak I, Perak II, Cameron (Cameron Highlands), Telom, Bidor, Betau, Lipis, Bil, Ulu Kampar (Kampar), Gopeng, Tanjung Malim, Parit, Tapah (Jalan Pahang). Some dialects not mutually intelligible (2006 T. Phillips). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic. Comments: ‘Sakai’, slave. ‘Sengoi’, people, in Semai. West Semai more acculturated to Malay society than east Semai.

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Semaq Beri
[szc] Peninsular, Pahang, Terengganu, and Kelantan states. 2,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 3,970 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Semaq Bri, Semoq Beri. Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian.

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Semelai
[sza] Peninsular, southwest Pahang and northwest Negeri Sembilan states, Tasek Bera shores area, along Bera, Teriang, and Serting rivers; northwest Johore, Muar river. 4,100 (Kruspe 2009). Ethnic population: 6,270 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian.

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Semnam
[ssm] Peninsular, North central Perak State. 670 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Lanoh [lnh] and Sabüm [sbo]. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic.

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Seru
[szd] Sarawak State. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Melanau.

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Sian
[spg] Sarawak, Kapita Division, Belaga. 50 (Wurm 2000). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sihan. Dialects: None known. May be intelligible of Bukitan [bkn], Ukit [umi], and Punan Batu 1 [pnm]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang.

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Sugut Dusun
[kzs] Sabah, Labuk-Sugut district, Sugut river headwaters. Ethnic population: 12,200 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dusun, Kadayan, Sugut, Sugut Kadazan, Tanggal, Tilau-Ilau. Dialects: Tinagas, Talantang. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun, Central.

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Suluk
[tsg] Sabah: coastal areas of Semporna, Sandakan, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Beluran, and Kudat districts. Coastal areas of Kota Kinabalu, Papar, and Labuan. Possibly also Sebatik Island. 150,000 in Malaysia (2000 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals (2015). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Joloano, Joloano Sulu, Jolohano, “Moro” (pej.), Pamung Sug, Sinug, Sooloo, Sug, Sulu, Taosug, Tausog, Tausug, Taw Sug. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Philippine, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Comments: Non-indigenous. While some have lived in North Borneo for hundreds of years, many are recent immigrants from the southern Philippines seeking work and fleeing conflict. Muslim.

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Tahol
[mvv] Sabah: Nabawan district, southern parts of Sipitang and Tenom districts, mainly along the Maligan, Padas (Tomani), Tolokoson, Tahol, and Salalir watersheds. Sarawak: Lawas district. 20,000 in Malaysia (2015 L. Murang), decreasing. Ethnic population: 50,000 (2015 L. Rose). Total users in all countries: 22,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pensiangan, Sumambu, Tagal, Tagal Murut, Tagol. Dialects: Rundum (Arundum), Tagal (North Borneo Murut, Sabah Murut, Taggal, Tagol, Tagul), Sumambu (Semambu, Semembu, Sumambuq), Tolokoson (Telekoson), Sapulot Murut (Sapulut Murut), Pensiangan Murut (Lagunan Murut, Pentjangan), Salalir (Sadalir, Saralir, Sedálir), Alumbis (Loembis, Lumbis), Tawan, Tomani (Tumaniq), Maligan (Bol Murut, Bole Murut, Mauligan, Meligan). Reportedly most similar to Paluan [plz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Murut. Comments: Christian.

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Tamil
[tam] Peninsular. 1,300,000 in Malaysia (2012 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 1,800,000 (2012 J. Leclerc). Status: 4 (Educational). Statutory language of national identity (1996, Education Act, No. 550, Articles 2 and 18). Classification: Dravidian, Southern, Tamil-Kannada, Tamil-Kodagu, Tamil-Malayalam, Tamil. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Tatana
[txx] Sabah: Kuala Penyu district; Klias Kecil, Beaufort (Kg. Manamam, Kg. Takuli), Kota Kinabalu, Keningau, Labuan, Membakut, Kelang Valley. 10,000 (2015 KadazanDusun Cultural Association), decreasing. Ethnic population: 22,000 (2015 KadazanDusun Cultural Association). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dusun Tatana, Gia Tatana, Kadazan Tatana, Tatana’, Tatanaq. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Bisaya. Comments: Christian.

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Temiar
[tea] Peninsular, Perak, Kelantan, and Pahang states. 15,000 (Bradley 2007b). Ethnic population: 24,900 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Used as a lingua franca by many northern Aslian groups (Bradley 2007a). Alternate Names: Northern Sakai, Pie, Seroq, Temer. Dialects: Grik, Kenderong, Kenering, Po-Klo (Sakai Bukit of Temongoh), Sakai of Plus Korbu, Sungai Piah, Tanjong Rambutan, Tembe’ (Tembi), Ulu Kinta (Kinta Sakai), Lanoh Kobak. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, Senoic. Comments: Seminomadic.

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Temoq
[tmo] Peninsular, Pahang State, Pekan and Rompin districts, Jeram river. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, South Aslian.

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Temuan
[tmw] Peninsular, south half of the peninsula, Negeri Sembilan, Selangor, Johor, and Putrajaya states, Kuala Langat and scattered settlements. Ethnic population: 22,700 (2008 JHEOA). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Benua, Niap. Dialects: Beduanda (Biduanda), Belanda (Belana, Belanas, Belandas, Blanda, Landa), Berembun (Birmun), Mantra (Mentera, Mintra), Temuan, Udai. A member of macrolanguage Malay [msa]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Malayo-Chamic, Malayic, Malay. Comments: Also classified as Malacca group of Austro-Asiatic phylum. Beduanda sometimes considered a separate language. May be a dialect of Malay [zlm].

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Ten’edn
[tnz] Peninsular, Perlis State, northwest tip, north of Kaki. 15 in Malaysia (2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Mos Tean-ean, Tonga. Dialects: Satun. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Mon-Khmer, Aslian, North Aslian, Tonga. Comments: This small group crosses back and forth between the Malaysia and Thailand.

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Tidung, Northern
[ntd] Sabah: Beluran, Sandakan, and Tawau districts. 5,000 (2015). J. Lobel. Ethnic population: 20,000 (2015). J. Lobel. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camucones, Nonukan, Tedong, Tidoeng, Tidong, Tidung, Tiran, Tirones, Tiroon, Zedong. Dialects: Sesayap (Sesajap), Tarakan (Terakan). There is no inherent intelligibility between Southern Tidung [itd] and Northern Tidung according to speakers of varieties of both languages. Lexical similarity: 65% with Southern Tidung [itd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong.

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Tidung, Southern
[itd] Sabah state: Tawau and Kalabakan districts. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tidong, Tidung. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Murutic, Tidong.

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Tobilung
[tgb] Sabah: Kota Marudu, Kota Belud, and Kudat districts, Kota Kinabalu, Inanam and other towns. 4,000 (2015 G. Buck), decreasing. 1,500 monolinguals (2015 G. Buck). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2015 G. Buck). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Momogun, Tabilong, Tebilung, Tobilang. Dialects: Low intelligibility with Coastal Kadazan dialect of Kadazan Dusun [dtp]; moderate intelligibility with Kadazan Dusun [dtp], Kimaragang [kqr] and Rungus [drg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Dusunic, Dusun. Comments: Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tombonuo
[txa] Sabah: Beluran, Kota Marudu, and Pitas districts. Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 SIL). 3,000 Lingkabau. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: “Lobou nu Tindal” (pej.), Lobu, “Pagan” (pej.), Paitan, Sungai, Sungei, Tambanua, Tambanuo, Tambanuva, Tambanwas, Tambenua, Tambunwas, Tangar nu Tombonuo, Tembenua, Tombonuva, Tombonuwo, Tumbunwha, Tunbumohas. Dialects: Lingkabau Sugut (Linkabau), Sugut (Sungoi). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Sabahan, Paitanic.

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Tring
[tgq] Sarawak, Lower Tutoh river, Long Terawan village. 550 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Dayic, Kelabitic. Comments: Distinct from Tringgus-Sembaan Bidayuh [trx].

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Ukit
[umi] Sarawak, Kapit Division, upper Rajom and Tatau rivers, Baleh. 120 (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 6b (Threatened). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, Melanau-Kajang, Kajang. Comments: Different from the Punan Ukit dialect of Bukitan [bkn].

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Uma’ Lasan
[xky] Sarawak, Balui, Belaga, Kalua, Kemena rivers. Sungai Asap resettlement camp. 1,250 in Malaysia (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Total users in all countries: 2,750. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kanyay, Kenja, Kindjin, Kinjin, Western Kenya, Western Kenyah. Dialects: Uma’ Alim, Uma’ Lasan, Uma’ Baka. Lexical similarity: 80% with Badeng and Lepu Kulit dialects of Mainstream Kanyah [xkl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Borneo, North Sarawakan, Kayan-Kenyah, Kenyah, Upper Pujungan.

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