Mozambique

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Barwe
[bwg] Manica province. 15,000 in Mozambique (1999). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balke, Chirue, Cibalke, Rue. Dialects: None known. Probably good comprehension of Nyungwe [nyu] or Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.44).

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Chopi
[cce] Inhambane province: south Zavala district; Gaza province: 100 km coastal strip between Inharrime and Chidunguela; Maputo province. Center is Quissico. 760,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cicopi, Copi, Shichopi, Shicopi, Tschopi, Txitxopi, Txopi. Dialects: Copi, Ndonge, Lengue (Kilenge, Lenge), Tonga, Lambwe, Khambani. Many dialects; all mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 44% with Gitonga [toh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Copi (S.61). Comments: Distinct from Chopi (Dhopaluo), a dialect of Acholi [ach] of Uganda.

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Chuwabu
[chw] Zambezia province: central coast between Quelimane and Mlanje mountains. 664,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chichwabo, Chuabo, Chuwabo, Chwabo, Cicuabo, Cuabo, Cuwabo, Echuabo, Echuwabo, Txuwabo. Dialects: Central Chuwabo, Nyaringa, Marale, Karungu, Maindo. Lexical similarity: 78% between Chuwabo of Makusi district and Marrare. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.34). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Dema
[dmx] Tete province: near Cahora Bassa dam, north of Zimbabwe. 5,000 (2000 J. and M. Bister). Population displaced during Cabora Bassa Dam construction. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10).

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Kokola
[kzn] Zambezia province: west to Lolo [llb] language area. 80,000 in Mozambique (2006 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Koti
[eko] Nampula province: Angoche district, Angoche island coast area; Nampula city enclave. 77,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angoche, Angoje, Angoxe, Coti, Ekoti. Dialects: Ekoti, Enatthembo (“Edheidhei” (pej.), Esakaji, Esangaje, Esangaji, “Etteittei” (pej.), Sangaje). A separate language within the Makhuwa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.311). Comments: Muslim.

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Kunda
[kdn] Tete province: confluence area, Luangwe and Zambezi rivers. 5,500 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chicunda, Chikunda, Cikunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.42). Comments: Different from Kunda, a dialect of Nyanja [nya], and Kunda dialect of Lusengo [lse] in Democratic Republic of the Congo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Lolo
[llb] Zambezia province. 162,000 (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ilolo. Dialects: May be a dialect of Lomwe [ngl] or Makhuwa [vmw]. Reportedly similar to Takwane [tke]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Lomwe
[ngl] Zambezia province; Niassa and Nampula provinces: Alto Molocue. 1,660,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Acilowe, Alomwe, Chilowe, Cilowe, Elomwe, Ilomwe, Ingulu, Lomue, Mihavane, Mihavani, Mihawani, Ngulu, Nguru, Walomwe, West Makhuwa, Western Makua. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Makhuwa [vmw] and Chuwabu [chw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.32). Comments: Different from Ngulu (Kingulu) of Tanzania. Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Maindo
[cwb] Zambezia province: Micaune, northeast of Chinde, Zambezi river mouth. 21,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chwambo. Dialects: Mitange, Badoni. Lexical similarity: 84% with Chuwabu [chw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.34). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Makhuwa
[vmw] Nampula province: south of Meetto area; border areas in Niassa, Cabo Delgado, and Zambezia provinces. 3,220,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Makhuwa, Emakhuwa, Emakua, Macua, Makhuwa-Makhuwana, Makhuwwa of Nampula, Makoane, Makua, Maquoua. Dialects: Emwaja, Enaharra (Emathipane, Maharra, Nahara, Naharra), Enyara, Central Makua (Emakhuwana, Makhuwana, Makuana), Empamela (Nampamela), Enlai (Mulai). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Makhuwa-Marrevone
[xmc] Nampula province: inland from Moma and Angoche; Zambezia province: Nova Nabori inland to Amela. 300,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coastal Makhuwa, Emaka, Maca, Maka, Makua-Marevone, Marevone, Marrevone, South Maca. Dialects: Makhuwana (Emakhuwana), Naharra (Enaharra), Enlai, Nampamela (Empamela). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Makhuwa-Meetto
[mgh] Cabo Delgado and Niassa provinces: Pemba coast inland; Nampula province: coast north of Nacala. 800,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,318,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Emeto, Imeetto, Medo, Meetto, Meto, Mêto, Metto. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81%–88% with Makhuwa-Saka [xsq], 78%–82% with the Nahara dialect of Makhuwa-Marrevone [xmc], 78%–80% with Makhuwa [vmw], 66%–68% with Lomwe [ngl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31). Comments: Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Makhuwa-Moniga
[mhm] Zambezia province: Indian Ocean coast, inland past Mocubela. 200,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Emakhuwa-Emoniga, Emoniga, Moniga. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 56% with Lomwe [ngl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.341). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Makhuwa-Saka
[xsq] Cabo Delgado and Nampula provinces: border area, Lurio river. 212,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esaaka, Esaka, Isaanga, Ishanga, Saaka, Saanga, Saka, Sanga. Dialects: Saka (Esaaka), Rati (Erati). Lexical similarity: 81%–88% with Makhuwa-Meetto [mgh], 78%–80% with Makhuwa [vmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Muslim.

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Makhuwa-Shirima
[vmk] Niassa province; Zambezia province: northwest border; Nampula province, west. 500,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chirima, Eshirima, Makhuwa-Exirima, Makhuwa-Niassa, Makhuwa-Xirima, Shirima, West Makua, Xirima. Dialects: None known. Probably not intelligible of Makhuwa-Meetto [mgh] or Lomwe [ngl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Makonde
[kde] Cabo Delgado province: Maviha dialect: Mueda. 360,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimakonde, Chinimakonde, Cimakonde, Konde, Maconde, Makonda, Matambwe, Shimakonde. Dialects: Vadonde (Donde, Ndonde), Vamwalu (Mwalu), Vamwambe (Mwambe), Vamakonde (Makonde), Maviha (Chimaviha, Kimawiha, Mabiha, Mavia, Mawia, Mawiha). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.23). Comments: Reserved toward outsiders. Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Makwe
[ymk] Cabo Delgado province: coast, Tanzania border south to Quionga, Palma, south of Olumbe; on Ruvuma river to Pundanhar. 22,000 in Mozambique (2003). Total users in all countries: 32,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kimakwe, Macue, Palma. Dialects: Coastal Makwe (Palma), Interior Makwe. Not inherently intelligible with Swahili [swh]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Swahili [swh], 57% with Mwani [wmw], 48% with Yao [yao]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.402). Comments: Muslim.

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Manyawa
[mny] Zambezia province: Lugela district. 150,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). 85% monolingual in Lugela District. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Takwane [tke]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Manyika
[mxc] Manica province: north of Ndau, west of Tewe; Tete province: southwest. 100,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimanyika, Manika. Dialects: Bocha (Boka), Bunji, Bvumba, Domba, Guta, Here, Hungwe, Jindwi, Karombe, Nyamuka, Nyatwe, Unyama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.13). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Marenje
[vmr] Zambezia province. 403,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Emarendje, Marendje. Dialects: None known. Related to Lolo [llb] and Kokola [kzn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Mozambican Sign Language
[mzy] Scattered. In at least 3 largest cities: Maputo, Beira, and Nampula. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Some dialectal variation. Standardization efforts are in progress (1999). Not related to or based on Portuguese [por] nor Portuguese Sign Language [psr]. Classification: Sign language.

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Mwani
[wmw] Cabo Delgado provinc: coast north of Pemba, Arimba to Palma, Ibo and Mocimboa da Praia; offshore Querimba archipelago. 100,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 20,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ibo, Kimwani, Muane, Mwane, Mwaní, Namwaní, Quimuane. Dialects: Wibo (Kiwibo), Kisanga (Kikisanga, Quissanga), Nkojo (Kinkojo), Nsimbwa (Kinsimbwa). Not intelligible of Swahili [swh]. Kiwibo is prestige dialect. Kinsimbwa, the northernmost Mocimboa da Praia dialect, is inherently intelligible with others, even though it is the most distinct. Lexical similarity: 60% with Swahili [swh], 48% with Yao [yao]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.403). Comments: Muslim.

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Nathembo
[nte] Nampula province: north of Angohe, Sangange Peninsula, Zubairi, Charamatane, Amisse, Mutembua, Namaeca, Namaponda, to Mogincual and Khibulani. 25,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esakaji, Sakaji, Sakati, Sanagage, Sangaji, Sankaji, Theithei. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.312). Comments: Similar to Makhuwa [vmw] and Swahili [swh]. Sakaji is a place name.

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Ndau
[ndc] Sofala and Manica provinces: south of Beira; Inhambane and Gaza provinces. 500,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 1,300,000. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chindau, Ndzawu, Njao, Sofala, Southeast Shona. Dialects: Ndau (Cindau), Shanga (Changa, Chichanga, Chisenji, Chixanga, Cimashanga, Mashanga, Senji, Xanga), Danda (Cidanda, Cindanda, Ndanda, Vadanda, Watande), Dondo (Chibabava, Cidondo, Wadondo), Gova (Cigova). Divergent from Union Shona [sna]. Danda and Ndanda may be the same language. Ndau (Gova) [sna] in Mozambique is more similar to Ndau, but in Zambia and Zimbabwe, Ndau is more similar to the Korekore dialect of Shona. Lexical similarity: 92% between Danda and Dondo dialects, 85% between Dondo and Shanga dialects; 74%–81% between Ndau dialects and Manyika [mxc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.15). Comments: Other geographical or ethnic names: Dzika, Hijo, Buzi (Buji), Tomboji, and Mukwilo. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ngoni
[ngo] Central Cabo Delgado province; Niassa province: Macuaida area; Tete province. 53,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Angoni, Chingoni, Cingoni, Kingoni, Kisutu, Sutu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.12). Comments: Non-indigenous. Formerly spoke Zulu [zul]. The Ngoni people in Malawi do not speak Ngoni but Nyanja [nya] as L1. Muslim.

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Nsenga
[nse] Tete province: north of Zambezi river. 141,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinsenga, Cinsenga, Senga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41). Comments: Different from Senga dialect of Tumbuka [tum] of Zambia, Malawi, and Tanzania. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nyanja
[nya] Niassa, Zambezia, and Tete provinces. Chewa dialect: Macanga district, Tete; Ngoni dialect: Niassa province, Sanga and Lago; Angoni dialect: Tete; Nyanja dialect: Niassa and Tete, along Lake Niassa. 599,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chinyanja. Dialects: Chewa (Cewa, Chichewa, Cicewa), Ngoni (Cingoni), Nyanja (Cinyanja), Angoni, Nyasa (Nyasa-Cewa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Chewa-Nyanja (N.31). Comments: Ngoni people in Angonia District of Tete Province in western Mozambique have shifted to Nyanja. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nyungwe
[nyu] Tete province: Zambezi river banks north of Sena [seh] language area; Manica province: east bank, Luenha river, east from Changara. 262,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Chinyungwe, Chinyungwi, Cinyungwe, Nyongwe, Teta, Tete, Yungwe. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.43).

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Phimbi
[phm] Tete province: Zambezi river banks northwest of Tete city. 6000 Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pimbi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41).

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Portuguese
[por] 1,580,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 6,300,000 in Mozambique. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 10). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ronga
[rng] Maputo, Cidade de, and surrounding Maputo Province. 423,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 424,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gironga, Rhonga, Shironga, Xironga. Dialects: Konde, Putru, Kalanga. Partially intelligible with Tsonga [tso] and Tswa [tsc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.54).

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Sena
[seh] Sofala, Manica, Tete, and Zambezia provinces: lower Zambezi river region. 1,390,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chisena, Cisena. Dialects: Caia (Care, North Sena, Sare), Bangwe (South Sena), Gombe, Sangwe, Podzo (Chipodzo, Cipodzo, Phodzo, Puthsu, Shiputhsu), Gorongosa. Reportedly similar to Nyungwe [nyu], Nyanja [nya], Phimbi [phm], and Kunda [kdn] of Zambia. Sena Central is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 92% between the Podzo and Sena-Sare dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.44). Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Swahili
[swh] Cabo Delgado province. 10,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bajun. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42). Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Swati
[ssw] Maputo province: border area west of capital. 1,200 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Siswati, Siswazi, Swazi, Tekela, Tekeza. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.43).

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Takwane
[tke] Zambezia province. 181,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thakwani. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Tawara
[twl] Tete province: south, north of Zimbabwe. 60,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tavara, Tawala. Dialects: Tawara-Chioco, Tawara-Daque. Northernmost variety is related to the Korekore dialect of Shone [sna]; appears to have been influenced by Nyungwe [nyu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.11).

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Tewe
[twx] Manica and Sofala provinces: Chimoio city northeast, north bank, Pungoe river. 250,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiute, Ciute, Teve, Utee, Vateve, Wateve. Dialects: Considered by many a Manyika [mxc] dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.13).

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Tonga
[toh] Inhambane province: up to Morrumbane. 224,000 (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bitonga, Gitonga, Inhambane, Shengwe, Tonga-Inhambane. Dialects: Gitonga Gy Khogani, Nyambe (Cinyambe), Sewi (Gisewi). Lexical similarity: 44% with Chopi [cce]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Copi (S.62). Comments: Different from Tonga [tog] of Malawi and Tonga [toi] of Zambia and Zimbabwe.

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Tsonga
[tso] Maputo province: Cidade de Maputo, and north; Gaza province; western Inhambane province. 2,780,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gwamba, Shitsonga, Thonga, Tonga, Xitsonga. Dialects: Bila (Vila), Changana (Changa, Hanganu, Hlanganu, Langanu, Shangaan, Shangana, Shilanganu, Xichangana), Jonga (Djonga, Dzonga), Ngwalungu (Shingwalungu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.53). Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tswa
[tsc] Inhambane province: south of Save river; Gaza province: border area. 695,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 715,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kitshwa, Sheetshwa, Shitshwa, Tshwa, Xitshwa, Xitswa. Dialects: Hlengwe (Khambana-Makwakwe, Khambani, Lengwe, Lhengwe, Makwakwe-Khambana, Shilengwe), Tshwa (Dzibi-Dzonga, Dzivi, Dzonga-Dzibi, Xidzivi), Mandla, Ndxhonge, Nhayi. Partially intelligible of Ronga [rng] and Tsonga [tso]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.51).

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Yao
[yao] Niassa province: south and east of Lake Malawi; Zambezia province: Gurue district, northwest border; Cabo DelgadopProvince: Ruvumu river near Negomano; western Nampula province. 195,000 in Mozambique (2014 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Achawa, Adsawa, Adsoa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Chiyao, Ciyao, Djao, Haiao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao, Yawo. Dialects: Makale (Cimakale), Massaninga (Cimassaninga), Machinga, Mangochi, Tunduru Yao, Chikonono (Cikonono). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.21). Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Zulu
[zul] Maputo province: borders Swaziland and South Africa. 3,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Isizulu, Zunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.42).

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