Mozambique

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Barwe
[bwg] Manica province. Population: 15,000 in Mozambique (1999). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Balke, Chirue, Cibalke, Rue. Dialects: None known. Probably good comprehension of Nyungwe [nyu] or Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.44).

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Chopi
[cce] Gaza province: coastal strip between Chidunguela and Inharrime; Inhambane province: south Zavala district; Maputo province. Center is Quissico. Population: 1,090,000 (2016). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Cicopi, Copi, Shichopi, Shicopi, Shilenge, Tschopi, Txitxopi, Txopi, Xilenge, shiChopi. Autonym: Chichopi. Dialects: Copi, Ndonge, Lengue (Kilenge, Lenge), Tonga, Lambwe, Khambani. Many dialects; all mutually inherently intelligible. Lexical similarity: 44% with Gitonga [toh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Copi (S.61).

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Chuwabu
[chw] Zambezia province: central coast between Mlanje and Quelimane mountains. Population: 952,000 (2016). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Chichwabo, Chuabo, Chuwabo, Chwabo, Cicuabo, Cuabo, Cuwabo, Echuabo, Echuwabo, Echuwabu, Ecwabo, Etxuwabo, Txuwabo, Xuabo. Dialects: Central Chuwabo, Nyaringa, Marale, Karungu, Maindo. Lexical similarity: 78% between Chuwabo of Makusi district and Marrare. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.34).

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Dema
[dmx] Tete province: near Cahora Bassa dam, north of Zimbabwe. Population: 5,000 (2000 J. and M. Bister). Population displaced during Cabora Bassa Dam construction. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.10).

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Kokola
[kzn] Zambezia province: west. Population: 80,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Koti
[eko] Nampula province: Angoche district, Angoche island coast area; Nampula city enclave. Population: 77,000 (2006). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Angoche, Angoje, Angoxe, Coti, Ekoti. Dialects: Ekoti, Enatthembo (“Edheidhei” (pej.), Esakaji, Esangaje, Esangaji, “Etteittei” (pej.), Sangaje). A separate language within the Makhuwa group. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.311).

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Kunda
[kdn] Tete province: Luangwe and Zambezi rivers’ confluence area. Population: 5,500 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chicunda, Chikunda, Cikunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.42).

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Lolo
[llb] Zambezia province. Population: 162,000 (2006). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ilolo. Dialects: May be a dialect of Lomwe [ngl] or Makhuwa [vmw]. Reportedly similar to Takwane [tke]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Lomwe
[ngl] Nampula and Niassa provinces: Alto Molocue; Zambezia province. Population: 1,850,000 (2016). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Acilowe, Alomwe, Chilowe, Cilowe, Elomwe, Ilomwe, Ingulu, Lomue, Mihavane, Mihavani, Mihawani, Ngulu, Nguru, Walomwe, West Makhuwa, Western Makua. Autonym: Elhomwe. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Makhuwa [vmw] and Chuwabu [chw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.32).

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Maindo
[cwb] Zambezia province: Micaune, Zambezi river mouth. Population: 21,000 (2006). Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Chwambo. Dialects: Mitange, Badoni. Lexical similarity: 84% with Chuwabu [chw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.34).

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Makhuwa
[vmw] Nampula province: south of Meetto area; Cabo Delgado, Niassa, and Zambezia provinces: border areas. Population: 3,590,000 (2016). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Makhuwa, Emakhuwa-Makhuwana, Emakua, Macua, Makhuwa-Makhuwana, Makhuwwa of Nampula, Makoane, Makua, Maquoua. Autonym: Emakhuwa. Dialects: Emwaja, Naharra (Emathipane, Enaharra, Maharra, Nahara), Enyara, Central Makua (Emakhuwana, Makhuwana, Makuana), Empamela (Nampamela), Enlai (Mulai). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Makhuwa-Marrevone
[xmc] Nampula province: inland from Angoche and Moma; Zambezia province: Nova Nabori inland to Amela. Population: 517,000 (2016). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Coastal Makhuwa, Emaka, Maca, Maka, Makua-Marevone, Marevone, Marrevone, South Maca. Dialects: Makhuwana (Emakhuwana), Enlai, Nampamela (Empamela). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Makhuwa-Meetto
[mgh] Cabo Delgado and Niassa provinces: Pemba coast inland; Nampula province: coast north of Nacala. Population: 1,140,000 in Mozambique (2016). Total users in all countries: 1,717,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Emeto, Medo, Meetto, Meto, Metto, Mêto. Autonym: Imeetto. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 81%–88% with Makhuwa-Saka [xsq], 78%–82% with the Nahara dialect of Makhuwa-Marrevone [xmc], 78%–80% with Makhuwa [vmw], 66%–68% with Lomwe [ngl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Makhuwa-Moniga
[mhm] Zambezia province: Indian Ocean coast and inland past Mocubela. Population: 200,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Emakhuwa-Emoniga, Emoniga, Moniga. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 56% with Lomwe [ngl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.341).

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Makhuwa-Saka
[xsq] Cabo Delgado and Nampula provinces: border area, Lurio river. Population: 212,000 (2006). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esaaka, Esaka, Isaanga, Ishanga, Saaka, Saanga, Saka, Sanga. Dialects: Saka (Esaaka), Rati (Erati). Lexical similarity: 81%–88% with Makhuwa-Meetto [mgh], 78%–80% with Makhuwa [vmw]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Makhuwa-Shirima
[vmk] Nampula province: west; Niassa province; Zambezia province: northwest border. Population: 707,000 (2016). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Chirima, Echirima, Emakhua Eshirima, Emakhuwa Echirima, Eshirima, Makhuwa-Exirima, Makhuwa-Niassa, Makhuwa-Xirima, Shirima, West Makua, Xirima. Autonym: Emakhua Exirima. Dialects: None known. Probably not intelligible of Makhuwa-Meetto [mgh] or Lomwe [ngl]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Makonde
[kde] Cabo Delgado province: Mueda (Maviha dialect). Population: 517,000 in Mozambique (2016). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimakonde, Chinimakonde, Cimakonde, Konde, Maconde, Makonda, Matambwe, Shimakonde. Dialects: Vadonde (Donde, Ndonde), Vamwalu (Mwalu), Vamwambe (Mwambe), Vamakonde (Makonde), Maviha (Chimaviha, Kimawiha, Mabiha, Mavia, Mawia, Mawiha). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.23).

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Makwe
[ymk] Cabo Delgado province: coast, Tanzania border area south to Quionga and Palma; Ruvuma river area to Pundanhar. Population: 22,000 in Mozambique (2003). Total users in all countries: 119,700. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kimakwe, Macue, Palma. Dialects: Coastal Makwe (Palma), Interior Makwe. Not inherently intelligible with Swahili [swh]. Lexical similarity: 60% with Swahili [swh], 57% with Mwani [wmw], 48% with Yao [yao]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.402).

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Manyawa
[mny] Zambezia province: Lugela district. Population: 150,000 (2010 J. Leclerc). 85% monolingual in Lugela District. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Takwane [tke]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Manyika
[mxc] Manica province: north of Ndau, west of Tewe; Tete province: southwest. Population: 100,000 in Mozambique (2010 J. Leclerc). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Chimanyika, Manika. Dialects: Bocha (Boka), Bunji, Bvumba, Domba, Guta, Here, Hungwe, Jindwi, Karombe, Nyamuka, Nyatwe, Unyama. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.13).

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Marenje
[vmr] Zambezia province. Population: 571,000 (2016). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Emarendje, Marendje. Dialects: None known. Related to Lolo [llb] and Kokola [kzn]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Mozambican Sign Language
[mzy] Scattered. In at least 3 large cities: Beira, Maputo, and Nampula. Population: Status: 5* (Developing). Dialects: Some dialectal variation. Standardization efforts are in progress (1999). Not related to or based on Portuguese [por] nor Portuguese Sign Language [psr]. Classification: Sign language.

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Mwani
[wmw] Cabo Delgado province: coast north of Pemba, Arimba to Palma, Ibo and Mocimboa da Praia; Querimba archipelago offshore. Population: 120,000, all users. L1 users: 100,000 (2010 J. Leclerc). L2 users: 20,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Ibo, Muane, Mwane, Mwaní, Namwaní, Quimuane. Autonym: Kimwani. Dialects: Wibo (Kiwibo), Kisanga (Kikisanga, Quissanga), Nkojo (Kinkojo), Nsimbwa (Kinsimbwa). Not intelligible of Swahili [swh]. Kiwibo is prestige dialect. Kinsimbwa, the northernmost Mocimboa da Praia dialect, is inherently intelligible with others, even though it is the most distinct. Lexical similarity: 60% with Swahili [swh], 48% with Yao [yao]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.403).

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Nathembo
[nte] Nampula province: Amisse, Charamatane, Mutembua, Namaeca, Namaponda, Zubairi, to Khibulani and Mogincual, all on Sangange peninsula. Population: 25,000 (2006). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Esakaji, Sakaji, Sakati, Sanagage, Sangaji, Sankaji, Theithei. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.312).

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Ndau
[ndc] Inhambane and Gaza provinces; Manica and Sofala provinces: south of Beira. Population: 707,000 in Mozambique (2016). Total users in all countries: 1,507,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: ChiNdau, Chindau, Cindau, Ndzawu, Njao, Sofala, Southeast Shona, chiNdau. Dialects: Ndau (Cindau), Shanga (Changa, Chichanga, Chisenji, Chixanga, Cimashanga, Mashanga, Senji, Xanga), Danda (Cidanda, Cindanda, Ndanda, Vadanda, Watande), Dondo (Chibabava, Cidondo, Wadondo), Gova (Cigova). Divergent from Union Shona [sna]. Ndau (Gova) [sna] in Mozambique is more similar to Ndau, but in Zambia and Zimbabwe, Ndau is more similar to the Korekore dialect of Shona. Lexical similarity: 92% between Danda and Dondo dialects, 85% between Dondo and Shanga dialects; 74%–81% between Ndau dialects and Manyika [mxc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.15).

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Ngoni
[ngo] Cabo Delgado province: central; Niassa province: Macuaida area; Tete province. Population: 53,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Angoni, Chingoni, Cingoni, Kingoni, Kisutu, Sutu. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Manda (N.12).

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Nsenga
[nse] Tete province: north of Zambezi river. Population: 141,000 in Mozambique (2010 J. Leclerc). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Chinsenga, Cinsenga, Senga. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41).

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Nyanja
[nya] Niassa, Tete, and Zambezia provinces. Macanga district, Tete (Angoni and Chewa dialects); Niassa province: Lago and Sanga (Ngoni dialect); Niassa and Tete, along Lake Niassa (Nyanja dialect). Population: 599,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Chinyanja, Cinianja. Dialects: Chewa (Cewa, Chichewa, Cicewa), Ngoni (Cingoni), Nyanja (Cinyanja), Angoni, Nyasa (Nyasa-Cewa). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Chewa-Nyanja (N.31).

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Nyungwe
[nyu] Manica province: Luenha river east bank, east from Changara; Tete province: Zambezi river banks. Population: 262,000 (2010 J. Leclerc). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Chinyungwe, Chinyungwi, Nyongwe, Teta, Tete, Yungwe. Autonym: Cinyungwe. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.43).

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Phimbi
[phm] Tete province: Zambezi river banks northwest of Tete city. Population: 6000 Status: 6b* (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pimbi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sena [seh]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.41).

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Portuguese
[por] Population: 10,250,000 in Mozambique, all users. L1 users: 2,910,000 in Mozambique (2016). L2 users: 7,340,000 (2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2004, Constitution, Article 10). Alternate Names: Português. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Portuguese-Galician.

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Ronga
[rng] Cidade de Maputo; Maputo province. Population: 423,000 in Mozambique (2014). Total users in all countries: 424,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: GiRonga, Gironga, Rhonga, ShiRonga, Shironga, XiRonga, Xirhonga. Autonym: Xironga. Dialects: Konde, Putru, Kalanga. Partially intelligible with Tsonga [tso] and Tswa [tsc]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.54).

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Sena
[seh] Manica, Sofala, Tete, and Zambezia provinces: lower Zambezi river region. Population: 1,550,000 (2016). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Chisena. Autonym: Cisena. Dialects: Caia (Care, North Sena, Sare), Bangwe (South Sena), Gombe, Sangwe, Podzo (Chipodzo, Cipodzo, Phodzo, Puthsu, Shiputhsu), Gorongosa. Reportedly similar to Nyungwe [nyu], Nyanja [nya], Phimbi [phm], and Kunda [kdn] of Zambia. Sena Central is the prestige dialect. Lexical similarity: 92% between the Podzo and Sena-Sare dialects. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, N, Senga-Sena (N.44).

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Swahili
[swh] Cabo Delgado province. Population: 10,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Kiswahili. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, G, Swahili (G.42).

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Swati
[ssw] Maputo province: border area west of the capital. Population: 1,200 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Siswati, Siswazi, Swazi, Tekela, Tekeza. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.43).

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Takwane
[tke] Zambezia province. Population: 181,000 (2006). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Thakwani. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Makhuwa (P.31).

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Tawara
[twl] Tete province: south, north of Zimbabwe. Population: 60,000 (2006). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tavara, Tawala. Dialects: Tawara-Chioco, Tawara-Daque. Northernmost variety is related to the Korekore dialect of Shone [sna]; appears to have been influenced by Nyungwe [nyu]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.11).

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Tewe
[twx] Manica and Sofala provinces: Chimoio city northeast, Pungoe river north bank. Population: 250,000 (2010 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiute, Ciute, Teve, Utee, Vateve, Wateve. Dialects: Considered by many a Manyika [mxc] dialect. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Shona (S.13).

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Tonga
[toh] Inhambane province: up to Morrumbane. Population: 224,000 (2010 J. Leclerc). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Bitonga, Gitonga, Guitonga, Inhambane, Shengwe, Tonga-Inhambane. Autonym: guiTonga. Dialects: Gitonga Gy Khogani, Nyambe (Cinyambe), Sewi (Gisewi). Lexical similarity: 44% with Chopi [cce]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Copi (S.62).

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Tsonga
[tso] Cidade de Maputo, Gaza, and Maputo provinces; Inhambane province: west. Population: 3,100,000 in Mozambique (2016). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Gwamba, Shitsonga, Thonga, Tonga, Vatsonga, Xitsonga. Dialects: Bila (Vila), Changana (Changa, Hanganu, Hlanganu, Langanu, Shangaan, Shangana, Shilanganu, Xichangana), Jonga (Djonga, Dzonga), Ngwalungu (Shingwalungu). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.53).

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Tswa
[tsc] Gaza province: border area; Inhambane province: south of Save river. Population: 979,000 in Mozambique (2016). Total users in all countries: 999,000. Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Kitshwa, Sheetshwa, Shitshwa, Tshwa, Xitshwa. Autonym: Xitswa. Dialects: Hlengwe (Khambana-Makwakwe, Khambani, Lengwe, Lhengwe, Makwakwe-Khambana, Shilengwe), Tshwa (Dzibi-Dzonga, Dzivi, Dzonga-Dzibi, Xidzivi), Mandla, Ndxhonge, Nhayi. Partially intelligible of Ronga [rng] and Tsonga [tso]. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Tswa-Rhonga (S.51).

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Yao
[yao] Cabo Delgado province: Ruvumu river near Negomano; Nampula province: west; Niassa province: south and east of Lake Malawi; Zambezia province: Gurue district, northwest border. Population: 195,000 in Mozambique (2010 J. Leclerc). Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Achawa, Adsawa, Adsoa, Ajawa, Ayawa, Ayo, Chiyao, Ciyao, Djao, Haiao, Hiao, Hyao, Jao, Veiao, Wajao, Yawo. Dialects: Makale (Cimakale), Massaninga (Cimassaninga), Machinga, Mangochi, Tunduru Yao, Chikonono (Cikonono). Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, P, Yao (P.21).

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Zulu
[zul] Maputo province: borders with Swaziland and South Africa. Population: 3,000 in Mozambique (2006). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Isizulu, Zunda. Classification: Niger-Congo, Atlantic-Congo, Volta-Congo, Benue-Congo, Bantoid, Southern, Narrow Bantu, Central, S, Nguni (S.42).

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