Nicaragua

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Garifuna
[cab] South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Orinoco village. Population: No known L1 speakers in Nicaragua (2012 R. Reeck). Ethnic population: 3,270 (2005 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Black Carib, Caribe, Central American Carib, “Moreno” (pej.). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean, Iñeri.

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Mangue
[mom] Scattered. North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: highlands. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last fluent speaker either died or shifted to Spanish by the early 1870s; some rememberers survived into the late 1880s (Brinton 1886). Ethnic population: 46,000 (2005 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chorotega, Monimbo. Classification: Unclassified.

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Matagalpa
[mtn] Jinotega and Matagalpa departments; Central highlands. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker died in 1997. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2005 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pantasmas. Classification: Misumalpan, Sumu-Cacaopera-Matagalpa, Cacaopera-Matagalpa.

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Mayangna
[yan] Jinotega department; North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Bambana and Tungi along Waspuk river; Santo Tomás de Umbra on the upper Wawa; Panamahka dialect along Wanki river; Tuahka dialect: Wasakin area near Rosita. Population: 8,000 in Nicaragua (Adelaar 2007). 8,540 (2005 census). Ethnic population: 9,760 (2005 census). Total users in all countries: 8,700. Status: 5* (Developing). Dialects: Panamahka (Panamaca), Tuahka (Taguasca). Reportedly similar to Ulwa [ulw]. Classification: Misumalpan.

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Mískito
[miq] Jinotega department; North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region; Bihmuna, Bocana de Paiwas, Bonanza, Karawala, Leimus, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabeza city, Rosita, San Carlos (Río Coco), Sangnilaya, Sisin, Siuna, Tronquera, Wasla, Waspam; Río Coco area and Pearl lagoon to Black river coast and lowlands. Population: 114,000 in Nicaragua (2009 UNSD). Ethnic population: 121,000 (2005 census). Total users in all countries: 143,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Marquito, Miskuto, Mosquito, Mísquito. Autonym: Mískitu. Dialects: Honduran Mískito (Mam), Tawira (Tauira), Baymuna (Baldam, Baymunana), Wanki (Wangki), Cabo (Kabo). Reportedly most similar to Mayangna [yan]. Wanki dialect spoken in Puerto Cabeza area; other dialects in settlements southwest. Classification: Misumalpan.

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Nicaragua Creole English
[bzk] Scattered. North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Bluefields region, Corn islands, Pearl lagoon, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabezas, Rama Cay island. Population: 18,400 (2009 UNSD). 630 Rama Cay Creole speakers (Holm 1989). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Mískito Coast Creole English. Autonym: Creole. Dialects: Rama Cay Creole English, Bluefields Creole English. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western.

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Nicaraguan Sign Language
[ncs] Scattered, especially Managua. Population: 3,000 (1997 ANSNIC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua, Lengua de Signos Nicaragüense, Lenguaje de Signos Nicaragüense. Dialects: None known. Isolate, unrelated to other sign languages. Classification: Sign language.

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Rama
[rma] South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Rama Cay, 30-mile radius. Population: 740 (2009 UNSD). Ethnic population: 4,190 (2005 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Votic.

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Spanish
[spa] Population: 6,440,000 in Nicaragua, all users. L1 users: 6,260,000 in Nicaragua (Instituto Cervantes 2017). L2 users: 180,000 (Instituto Cervantes 2017). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution, Article 11). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian.

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Subtiaba
[sut] León department: Pacific slope. Population: No known L1 speakers. The last speaker probably died in the 1920s (Bright 1990). Ethnic population: 20,000 (2005 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Subtiava. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Tlapanec-Subtiaba.

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Ulwa
[ulw] South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Karawala village. Population: 350 (2009 J. Mejia). 83 (2005 census). Ethnic population: 700 (2005 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Sumu, Ulúa, Woolwa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mayangna [yan]. Classification: Misumalpan.

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