Nicaragua

Print
Garifuna
[cab] Region Autonoma del Caribe Sur: Orinoco village. L1 users: No known L1 speakers (2016 R. Reeck). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1982). Status: 9 (Dormant). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern, southern coasts (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Black Carib, Caribe, Central American Carib, “Moreno” (pej.). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean, Iñeri. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ancestors taken from Saint Vincent Island in 1796–1797, and taken to Roatan Island. Most went to Trujillo, Honduras in 1937. About 35 years later political troubles threatened their existence, and they fled further east into Honduras and Belize. Later they emigrated to other countries.

More Information

Mangue
[mom] Region Autonoma del Caribe Norte: highlands. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 10,000 (1981 MARC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Statutory language of provincial identity in Atlantic Coast Autonomous Regions, North and South (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Articles 4 and 5). Alternate Names: Chorotega, Monimbo. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Few traits of their pre-conquest American Indian culture remain.

More Information

Matagalpa
[mtn] Jinotega and Matagalpa departments; Central highlands. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 18,000 (1981 MARC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pantasmas. Classification: Misumalpan, Sumu-Cacaopera-Matagalpa, Cacaopera-Matagalpa.

More Information

Mayangna
[yan] Region Autonoma del Caribe Norte and Jinotega department: Bambana and Tungi along Waspuk river; Santo Tomás de Umbra on the upper Wawa; Panamahka dialect along Wanki river; Tuahka dialect: Wasakin area near Rosita. L1 users: 8,000 (Adelaar 2007). 8,540 (2005 census). Ethnic population: 9,760 (2005 census). Total users in all countries: 8,700. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern, southern areas (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Sumu. Dialects: Panamahka (Panamaca), Tuahka (Taguasca). Reportedly similar to Ulwa [ulw]. Classification: Misumalpan.

More Information

Mískito
[miq] Jinotega, Region Autonoma del Caribe Norte and Region Autonoma del Caribe Sur departments; Bihmuna, Bocana de Paiwas, Bonanza, Karawala, Leimus, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabeza city, Rosita, San Carlos (Río Coco), Sangnilaya, Sisin, Siuna, Tronquera, Wasla, Waspam; Río Coco area and Pearl lagoon to Black river coast and lowlands. L1 users: 114,000 (2009 UNSD). Ethnic population: 154,000 (1993). Total users in all countries: 143,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in northern, southern Atlantic regions (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act, Article 4). Alternate Names: Marquito, Miskuto, Mosquito, Mísquito. Autonym: Mískitu. Dialects: Honduran Mískito (Mam), Tawira (Tauira), Baymuna (Baldam, Baymunana), Wanki (Wangki), Cabo (Kabo). Reportedly most similar to Mayangna [yan]. Wanki dialect spoken in Puerto Cabeza area; other dialects in settlements southwest. Classification: Misumalpan. Comments: Educational materials in Wanki. Christian.

More Information

Nicaragua Creole English
[bzk] Region Autonoma del Caribe Norte and Region Autonoma del Caribe Sur: Bluefields region, Corn islands, Pearl lagoon, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabezas, Rama Cay island. L1 users: 18,400 (2009 UNSD). 630 Rama Cay Creole speakers (Holm 1989). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern and southern areas (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Mískito Coast Creole English. Autonym: Creole. Dialects: Rama Cay Creole English, Bluefields Creole English. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western. Comments: There is a continuum of variation from basilectal Creole to acrolectal English of the educated.

More Information

Nicaraguan Sign Language
[ncs] Scattered, especially Managua. L1 users: 3,000 (1997 ANSNIC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua, Lengua de Signos Nicaragüense, Lenguaje de Signos Nicaragüense. Dialects: None known. Isolate, unrelated to other sign languages. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Emerged around 1980 among deaf children at newly-established schools in Managua (Senghas and Coppola 2011), with gradually increasing complexity since then. One school has taught literacy using SignWriting, but this is not in widespread use.

More Information

Rama
[rma] Region Autonoma del Caribe Sur: Rama Cay, 30-mile radius. L1 users: 740 (2009 UNSD). Ethnic population: 900 (2000 C. Grinevald). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Statutory language of national identity (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Votic.

More Information

Spanish
[spa] 5,888,000 in Nicaragua, all users. L1 users: 5,310,000 (2013). L2 users: 578,000 (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution, Article 11). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Subtiaba
[sut] León department: Pacific slope. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1981 MARC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Tlapanec-Subtiaba. Comments: Few traits of pre-conquest culture remain.

More Information

Ulwa
[ulw] Region Autonoma del Caribe Sur: Karawala village. L1 users: 350 (2009 J. Mejia). 83 (2005 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Statutory language of provincial identity in Autonomous Region, Atlantic South (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Sumu, Ulúa, Woolwa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mayangna [yan]. Classification: Misumalpan.

More Information

Page Views Left: