Nicaragua

Print
Garifuna
[cab] South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Orinoco village. No known L1 speakers (2016 R. Reeck). Ethnic population: 3,270 (2005 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Black Carib, Caribe, Central American Carib, “Moreno” (pej.). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean, Iñeri. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ancestors taken from Saint Vincent Island in 1796–1797, and taken to Roatan Island. Most went to Trujillo, Honduras in 1937. About 35 years later political troubles threatened their existence, and they fled further east into Honduras and Belize. Later they emigrated to other countries.

More Information

Mangue
[mom] Scattered. North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: highlands. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 46,000 (2005 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chorotega, Monimbo. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Few traits of their pre-conquest American Indian culture remain.

More Information

Matagalpa
[mtn] Jinotega and Matagalpa departments; Central highlands. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 15,000 (2005 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pantasmas. Classification: Misumalpan, Sumu-Cacaopera-Matagalpa, Cacaopera-Matagalpa.

More Information

Mayangna
[yan] Jinotega department; North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Bambana and Tungi along Waspuk river; Santo Tomás de Umbra on the upper Wawa; Panamahka dialect along Wanki river; Tuahka dialect: Wasakin area near Rosita. 8,000 (Adelaar 2007). 8,540 (2005 census). Ethnic population: 9,760 (2005 census). Total users in all countries: 8,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Panamahka (Panamaca), Tuahka (Taguasca). Reportedly similar to Ulwa [ulw]. Classification: Misumalpan.

More Information

Mískito
[miq] Jinotega department; North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region; Bihmuna, Bocana de Paiwas, Bonanza, Karawala, Leimus, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabeza city, Rosita, San Carlos (Río Coco), Sangnilaya, Sisin, Siuna, Tronquera, Wasla, Waspam; Río Coco area and Pearl lagoon to Black river coast and lowlands. 114,000 (2009 UNSD). Ethnic population: 121,000 (2005 census). Total users in all countries: 143,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Marquito, Miskuto, Mosquito, Mísquito. Autonym: Mískitu. Dialects: Honduran Mískito (Mam), Tawira (Tauira), Baymuna (Baldam, Baymunana), Wanki (Wangki), Cabo (Kabo). Reportedly most similar to Mayangna [yan]. Wanki dialect spoken in Puerto Cabeza area; other dialects in settlements southwest. Classification: Misumalpan. Comments: Educational materials in Wanki. Christian.

More Information

Nicaragua Creole English
[bzk] Scattered. North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Bluefields region, Corn islands, Pearl lagoon, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabezas, Rama Cay island. 18,400 (2009 UNSD). 630 Rama Cay Creole speakers (Holm 1989). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Mískito Coast Creole English. Autonym: Creole. Dialects: Rama Cay Creole English, Bluefields Creole English. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western. Comments: There is a continuum of variation from basilectal Creole to acrolectal English of the educated.

More Information

Nicaraguan Sign Language
[ncs] Scattered, especially Managua. 3,000 (1997 ANSNIC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua, Lengua de Signos Nicaragüense, Lenguaje de Signos Nicaragüense. Dialects: None known. Isolate, unrelated to other sign languages. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Emerged around 1980 among deaf children at newly-established schools in Managua (Senghas and Coppola 2011), with gradually increasing complexity since then. One school has taught literacy using SignWriting, but this is not in widespread use.

More Information

Rama
[rma] South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Rama Cay, 30-mile radius. 740 (2009 UNSD). Ethnic population: 4,190 (2005 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Votic.

More Information

Spanish
[spa] 5,918,000 in Nicaragua, all users. L1 users: 5,740,000 (Instituto Cervantes 2016). L2 users: 178,000 (Instituto Cervantes 2016). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution, Article 11). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

More Information

Subtiaba
[sut] León department: Pacific slope. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 20,000 (2005 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Subtiava. Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Tlapanec-Subtiaba. Comments: Few traits of pre-conquest culture remain.

More Information

Ulwa
[ulw] South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region: Karawala village. 350 (2009 J. Mejia). 83 (2005 census). Ethnic population: 700 (2005 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Official Language Use, Atlantic Autonomous Regions, Law No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Sumu, Ulúa, Woolwa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Mayangna [yan]. Classification: Misumalpan.

More Information

Page Views Left: