[cab] Atlántico Sur department: Orinoco village, far from speakers in other countries. A few in Nicaragua (2001 E. Velásquez). Ethnic population: 1,500 (1982). Status: 8a (Moribund). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern, southern coasts (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Black Carib, Caribe, Central American Carib, “Moreno” (pej.). Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Maritime, Ta-Maipurean, Iñeri. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ancestors taken from Saint Vincent Island in 1796–1797, and taken to Roatan Island. Most went to Trujillo, Honduras in 1937. About 35 years later political troubles threatened their existence, and they fled further east into Honduras and Belize. Later they emigrated to other countries.
[mom] Atlántico Norte department: highlands. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 10,000 (1981 MARC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Chorotega, Monimbo. Classification: Unclassified. Comments: Few traits of their pre-conquest American Indian culture remain.
[mtn] Jinotega and Matagalpa departments; Central highlands. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 18,000 (1981 MARC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Pantasmas. Classification: Misumalpan, Sumu-Cacaopera-Matagalpa, Cacaopera-Matagalpa.
[yan] Atlántico Norte and Jinotega departments: Bambana and Tungi along Waspuk river; Santo Tomás de Umbra on the upper Wawa; Panamahka dialect along Wanki river; Tuahka dialect: Wasakin area near Rosita. 8,000 in Nicaragua (Adelaar 2007). 8,540 (2005 census). Ethnic population: 9,760 (2005 census). Total users in all countries: 8,700. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern, southern areas (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Sumu. Dialects: Panamahka (Panamaca), Tuahka (Taguasca). Reportedly similar to Ulwa [ulw]. Classification: Misumalpan.
[miq] Jinotega, Atlántico Norte and Atlántico Sur departments; Bihmuna, Bocana de Paiwas, Bonanza, Karawala, Leimus, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabeza city, Rosita, San Carlos (Río Coco), Sangnilaya, Sisin, Siuna, Tronquera, Wasla, Waspam; Río Coco area and Pearl lagoon to Black river coast and lowlands. 114,000 in Nicaragua (2009 UNSD). Ethnic population: 154,000 (1993). Total users in all countries: 143,000. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in northern, southern Atlantic regions (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act, Article 4). Alternate Names: Marquito, Mískitu, Miskuto, Mísquito, Mosquito. Dialects: Honduran Mískito (Mam), Tawira (Tauira), Baymuna (Baldam, Baymunana), Wanki (Wangki), Cabo (Kabo). Reportedly most similar to Mayangna [yan]. Wanki dialect spoken in Puerto Cabeza area; other dialects in settlements southwest. Classification: Misumalpan. Comments: Educational materials in Wanki. Christian.
Nicaragua Creole English
[bzk] Atlántico Norte and Atlántico Sur departments: Bluefields region, Corn islands, Pearl lagoon, Prinzapolka, Puerto Cabezas, Rama Cay island. 18,400 (2009 UNSD). 630 Rama Cay Creole speakers (Holm 1989). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in northern and southern areas (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Alternate Names: Mískito Coast Creole English. Dialects: Rama Cay Creole English, Bluefields Creole English. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western. Comments: There is a continuum of variation from basilectal Creole to acrolectal English of the educated.
Nicaraguan Sign Language
[ncs] Scattered, especially Managua. 3,000 (1997 ANSNIC). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Idioma de Señas de Nicaragua. Dialects: None known. Unrelated to El Salvadoran [esn], Costa Rican [csr], or other sign languages. Classification: Sign language. Comments: There was no strong Nicaraguan deaf community until the late 1970s when Nicaraguan Sign Language emerged among deaf children from the increased focus on deaf education and the establishment of deaf schools.
[rma] Atlántico Sur department: Rama Cay, 30-mile radius. 740 (2009 UNSD). Ethnic population: 900 (2000 C. Grinevald). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Statutory language of national identity (1993, Atlantic Coast Languages Act No. 162, Article 4). Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Votic.
[spa] 5,310,000 in Nicaragua (2013). L2 users: 578,000 in Nicaragua (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution, Article 11). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.
[sut] León department: Pacific slope. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 5,000 (1981 MARC). Status: 9 (Dormant). Classification: Otomanguean, Western Otomanguean, Tlapanec-Manguean, Tlapanec-Subtiaba. Comments: Few traits of pre-conquest culture remain.