[fkv] Troms and Finnmark counties: Ruija, Kveeniland; Tromso; Oteren, Skibotn, Storslett, Kvaenangsbotn, Nordreisa, Alta, Borselv, Neiden, Bygoynes, and Vadso. 1,500 (Laakso et al 2013). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kven, North Finnish. Dialects: Considered Old Finnish, speakers of Tornedalen [fit] and Kven recognize the differences between the two. Standard Finnish [fin] speakers generally understand, except some vocabulary. Reportedly more similar to Tornedalen Finnish than to standard Finnish. Various dialects: northwest coast varieties differ from east. Kven integrates Norwegian [nor] loans, whereas Tornedalen has integrated Swedish [swe] loans. Classification: Uralic, Finnic. Comments: Christian.
[nor] 5,080,000 (2015). Total users in all countries: 5,193,250. Status: 1 (National). De facto national language. Autonym: Norsk. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, North, East Scandinavian, Danish-Swedish, Danish-Bokmal. Comments: Norwegian has 2 written standards, both of which are assigned codes in the ISO 639-3 standard: Bokmål Norwegian (nob) and Nynorsk Norwegian (nno). Bokmål differs from Nynorsk in numerous details in the lexicon, morphosyntax and the use of diphthongs versus single vowels. These written norms have neither a precise geographical delineation nor a direct correspondence with spoken dialects, although Nynorsk is closer to the western dialects and is more in use in western Norway. The written norms are grammatically and lexically very similar. Nynorsk, used by a minority of Norwegians, can be classified as West Scandinavian; Bokmål, the written standard of the majority of the population, tends towards East Scandinavian. Thus, Norwegian draws lexicon and syntax from both West Scandinavian and East Scandinavian speech varieties.
Norwegian Sign Language
[nsl] Scattered. 2,500 (2014 EUD). 4,000 (Van Cleve 1986). 5,000 (2010 Norwegian Association of the Deaf). 2,500 sign language users (2014 EUD). 22,000 deaf (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: NTS, Norsk Tegnspråk. Dialects: Holmestrand, Oslo, Trondheim. Dialects associated with 3 schools: Holmestrand, Oslo, Trondheim. Intelligible with Danish [dsl] and Swedish [swl] sign languages with only moderate difficulty. Not intelligible with Finnish Sign Language [fse]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Teachers required to take a one-year full-time university course in sign language. Parents of deaf children offered 40 weeks of sign language instruction free of charge (Timmermans 2005). Many classes for hearing people. Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Right of deaf children to education in and about Norwegian Sign Language recognized by law in 1997 and 1999 (Timmerman 2005:64–65). 500 working sign language interpreters (2014 EUD). Museums of the Deaf in Trondheim and in Bergen. Christian.
[rmg] Sør-Trøndelag county: south of Trondheim. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Norwegian Traveller, Rodi. Dialects: None known. Based on Norwegian [nor] with heavy lexical borrowing from Northern Romani varieties and German Rotwelsch [rmd]. Not intelligible with Angloromani [rme]. Classification: Mixed language, Norwegian-Romani. Comments: Spoken by the Fanter, who are not Roma, but intermarried with Roma and Yeniche (German Travellers). Romani influence from speakers descended from the first diaspora from India. Roma people were abandoned on the coast of Norway from British ships from 1544 onwards.
[rmy] Oslo county. 500 (Johnstone 1993). Ethnic population: 3,500. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rom. Dialects: Lovari (Norwegian Lovari). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.
[smj] Nordland county: Tysfjord, Hamaroy, and Folden. 500 (Krauss 1992). 1,000–2,000 speakers in Norway and Sweden (Salminen 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Julevusámegiella, Lule, Saame. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous.
[sme] Finnmark, Troms counties; Nordland county: Ofoten. 20,000 (Laakso et al 2013). Ethnic population: 30,000 (1995 M. Krauss). Total users in all countries: 25,700. Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Sami Administrative District (1987, Sami Act, No. 12, Article 3). Alternate Names: North Sámi, Northern Saami, Saami, Same, Samic, “Lapp” (pej.), “Northern Lappish” (pej.), “Norwegian Lapp” (pej.). Autonym: Sámegiella. Dialects: Ruija, Torne, Sea Lappish. Two-thirds of all Saami speak Ruija dialect. Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Northern. Comments: Formerly called “Finns” which they consider derogatory.
[sma] Hedmark county: near Femunden and Rostvolden; Nord-Trøndelag county: southwest of Linneset. 300 (Krauss 1992). Ethnic population: 600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Saami, Same, Samic, “Northern Lappish” (pej.), “Norwegian Lapp” (pej.). Classification: Uralic, Sami, Western, Southern.