Nepal

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Angika
[anp] Kosi zone: Morang and Sunsari districts. 20,330 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 18,600 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 1,730 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Anga, Angikar, Chhika-Chhiki. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Athpariya
[aph] Kosi zone: Dhankuta district, north of the Tamur, Dhankuta municipality and Bhirgau VDC between the Dhankuta khola west, and the Tangkhuwa east. 5,530 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,980 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Arthare, Athaphre, Athapre, Athpahariya, Athpare, Athpre, Sanango Ring. Autonym: आठपहरिया‎ (Āṭhapahariyā). Dialects: None known. Athpare and Belhariya [byw] are very similar, but not mutually intelligible (Bickel 1996). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Communities prefer to be called Kirati rather than Kirant. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Avadhi
[awa] Bheri zone: Banke and Bardia districts; Lumbini zone: Kapilvastu, Nawalparasi, and Rupandehi districts; Mahakali zone: Kanchanpur district; Rapti zone: Dang district; Seti zone: Kailali district. 547,400 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 502,000 (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 45,400 (2011 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kushwadiya. Alternate Names: Abadhi, Abadi, Abohi, Ambodhi, Dehati, Deshi, Gawnaru, Koseli. Dialects: Chhatisgadhi, Baiswari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, East Central. Comments: Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, Sikh.

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Bahing
[bhj] Sagarmatha zone: Khotang district; Kathmandu; northeast Okhaldhunga district, Barnalu, Baruneswor, Bhadaure, Bigutar, Diyale, Harkapur, Mamkha, Okhaldhunga, Ragdip, Ratmate, Rumjatar, and Serna VDCs (Rumdali dialect); southeast Okhaldhunga district, Ketuke, Moli, Ubu, and Waksa VDCs (Tolacha dialect); Solukhumbu district south tip, Necha Batase and Sallyan VDCs. 15,250, all users. L1 users: 11,700 (2011 census). L2 users: 3,550 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Baying, Bayung, Ikke lo, Kiranti-Bayung, Pai Lo, Radu lo. Dialects: Rumdali, Nechali, Tolacha, Moblocha, Hangu. 85% or above intelligibility among all dialects. Rumdali is best understood among all Bahing dialects (Lee et al 2005); Bahing is more homogeneous than most Kiranti languages. Related to Sunwar [suz]. Lexical similarity: 83%–95% with dialects, 48% with Sunwar [suz] (Lee et al 2005). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Bantawa
[bap] Kosi zone: Bhojpur, Dhankuta, Morang, and Sunsari districts; Mechi zone: Ilam, Jhapa, Panchthar, and Taplejung districts; Sagarmatha zone: Khotang, Okhaldunga, and Udayapur districts. Mechi zone: Limbu area, especially Ilam district (Amchoke dialect). 161,500 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 133,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 28,500 (2011 census). 6,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 195,100 (as L1: 166,600; as L2: 28,500). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Some varieties are used as traditional lingua franca among Rai minorities in eastern Nepal, Sikkim, India, and Bhutan, and as L1 among Rai of other origin. (Bradley 1996). Alternate Names: An Yüng, Bantaba, Bantawa Dum, Bantawa Rai, Bantawa Yong, Bantawa Yüng, Bontawa, Kirawa Yüng. Dialects: Dhankuta (Eastern Bantawa), Dilpali (Northern Bantawa), Hatuwali (Southern Bantawa), Amchoke (Western Bantawa). Dialects are reportedly mutually inherently intelligible. Rungchenbung and Yangma are subvarieties of Dilpali. Eastern dialect is most divergent. Lexical similarity: Bantawa dialects and closely related languages form a continuum. Differences are primarily in meaning shifts and usage. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Homeland is Eastern hills but many migrated to the Tarai. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baram
[brd] Gandaki zone: central and south Gorkha district, Dandagaun and Mailung VDCs, Takhu village up the Doraundi Khola east side near Kumhali, about 7 villages; possibly Dhading district. 160 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 8,140 (2011 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Baramou. Alternate Names: Balkura, Baraamu, Baramu. Dialects: Dandagaun, Mailung. Related to Thangmi [thf] (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Belhariya
[byw] Kosi zone: Dhankuta district, Belhara village and hill west of Dhankuta Bajar. 600 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,980 (2011 census). Including Athpariya and Belhariya speakers. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Athpagari, Athpahariya, Athpare, Athpariya, Belhare. Dialects: None known. Different from Athpariya [aph], although also called and closely related to it (Winter and Hansson 1991). Not intelligible with Athpariya although Athpariya speakers claim full intelligibility (Bickel 1996:21). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Athpare refers to the ethnic group made up of Belhare and Athpariya which have close cultural ties, but who recognize their linguistic differences. They clarify by calling the Dhankuta people Noupagari and the Belhare people Athpagari (Bickel 1996). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Bengali
[ben] Kosi zone: Morang and Sunsari districts; Mechi Zone, Jhapa district; Sagarmatha zone: Saptari district; some in Bhairawa, Bhaktapur, Birgunj, Janakpur, Kathmandu, Nepalguni, and Patan. 23,980 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 21,100 (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 2,880 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bangala, Bangla-Bhasa. Dialects: Barik, Bhatiari, Chirmar, Kachari-Bengali, Lohari-Malpaharia, Musselmani, Rajshahi, Samaria, Saraki, Siripuria. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Non-indigenous. Classified as a cultural group (2001 census). Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Bhojpuri
[bho] Janakpur zone: Sarlahi district; Lumbini zone: Nawalparasi and Rupandehi districts; Narayani zone: Bara, Chitwan, Parsa, and Rautahat districts. 1,740,000 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 1,580,000 (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 160,000 (2011 census). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bajpuri, Bhojapuri, Bhozpuri. Dialects: Bhojpuri Tharu, Purbi Boli, Bangar Boli, Banarsi Boli, Kashika, Mallika, Sheikh Boli. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Hindu, Muslim.

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Bhujel
[byh] Gandaki zone: Gorkha district, Beltar; Tanahun district, Andimul, Arthumpka, Baniyatar, and Kulmun; Lumbini zone: Nawalparasi district, Dhodeni; Narayani zone: Chitwan district, Chanaute. 23,290, all users. L1 users: 21,700 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 1,590 (2011 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 7,200 (Regmi 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Bhujel. Alternate Names: Bujal, Bujhel, Bujheli, Bujhyal, Pukhgyal Ngur, Western Chepang, “Gharti” (pej.). Dialects: Kulmun, Arthumpka, Andimul, Baniyatar, Beltar, Dhodeni, Chanaute. More than 80% intelligibility among all the dialects. Pronominal affix differences hinder intelligibility with Chepang [cdm]. Lexical similarity: Between 34% (2011 D. Regmi) and 98% (2004 R. Caughley) with Chepang [cdm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Chepang-Bhujel. Comments: Similar culturally to Magar and Gurung living near the Bhujel. Gharti is a sub-caste name associated with former slavery. Bhujels reject the name, but outsiders often use it. Separated from Chepang [cdm] language area by Trisuli river. Hindu, Buddhist, Christian.

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Bote
[bmj] Gandaki zone: Tanahu district; Lumbini zone: Nawalparasi district; Narayani zone: Chitwan district; along rivers, especially the Gandaki. 8,770 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 10,400 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Bote. Alternate Names: Bot, Bote-Majhi, Pakhe-Bote, Pani-Bote. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: 2 groups of Bote: Pani (water) Bote and Pakhe (land) Bote. Hindu.

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Byangsi
[bee] Mahakali zone: Darchula district, Byas valley, 9 villages. 550 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 480 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 70 (2011 census). No monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 3,900 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Byasi. Alternate Names: Byangkho Lwo, Byanshi, Byansi, Byasi, Rang Lo, Sauka, Shauka. Dialects: Byansi, Rang, Sauka, Yerjungkhu Boli, Pang Sungkhu Boli. Intelligibility between Byangsi [bee] and Dhuleli (spoken in 5 villages in Kanda VDC of Bajhang district) needs to be investigated. Dhuleli most likely related, but possibly a separate language. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Himalayish, Almora.

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Chamling
[rab] Sagarmatha zone: mainly central Khotang and north Udayapur districts. 83,200 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 76,800 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 6,400 (2011 census). Very few monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 83,200 (as L1: 76,800; as L2: 6,400). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Camling, Chamlinge Rai, Rodong. Dialects: Balamtali, Ratanchhali, Halesi. Ratanchhali and Halesi dialects are similar to each other but Balamtali is very different. Reportedly most similar to Bantawa [bap] and Puma [pum] linguistically. Many speak a variety mixed with Nepali [npi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Many ethnic subgroups, but linguistically homogeneous. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Chantyal
[chx] Dhawalagiri zone: Myagdi district in Kali Gandaki river valley. Ethnic Chantel in Baglung district. 4,280 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 11,800 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Chhantyal. Alternate Names: Chantel, Chantel Kham, Chentel, Chhantel, Chhantyal, Khamkura. Dialects: None known. Related to Gurung [gvr], Manangba [nmm], Tamang [tdg], and Thakali [ths] (Noonan 1996). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic. Comments: Some believe Chantyal will be replaced soon. Outsiders often regard it as Magar, but they claim a Thakuri origin (de Sales 1993). Much lexical borrowing from Nepali. Sometimes called Khamkura as are Kham languages, which can have a general meaning of local non-Nepali dialect. (Watters 2002). Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Chepang
[cdm] Bagmati zone: south Dhading district; Gandaki zone: south Gorkha district; Narayani zone: Chitwan and Makwanpur districts. 48,500 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 68,400 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Chepang. Alternate Names: Cyo’bang, Praja Bhasa, Tsepang. Dialects: Eastern Chepang, Western Chepang. Bhujel [byh] has difficult intelligibility with Chepang due to different pronominal suffix morphology. Dialects of Chepang differ in verb forms. Reportedly similar in morphology to Kirati languages. Lexical similarity: 98% with Bhujel [byh] (2004 R. Caughley, based on 100-item word list). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Chepang-Bhujel. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chhintang
[ctn] Kosi zone: Dhankuta district, Aahale and Chhintang VDCs. 3,710 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Chhintange, Chintang, Chintang Rûng, Teli. Dialects: Mulgaun, Sambhugaon. Probably not intelligible with Bantawa [bap], but sometimes considered a dialect of it due to reportedly ethnic similarities. Only a few lexical items and grammatical markers are different between the two dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Chhulung
[cur] Kosi zone: Dhankuta district, Ankhisalla VDC. 2,050 (2011 census), decreasing. L1 speakers dwindling (Van Driem 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Chhiling, Chhilling, Chholung, Chhûlûng Rûng, Chiling, Chulung, Chülüng. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Chukwa
[cuw] Kosi zone: Bhojpur district, Kulung VDC, Jimigau. 100 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Only 5 fluent speakers (2011). Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Chukuwa, Cukwa Ring, Pohing, Pohing Kha. Dialects: None known. A noticeable number of shared nouns with Northern Lohorung [lbr] (2011 J. Eppele). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Linguistically between Kulung-Nachering-Sangpang and Meohang-Saam (Hansson 1991), but there is no supporting data. The Chukwa claim a close linguistic and ethnic affiliation with Saam [raq]; they say that their language is very different from Kulung [kle], although Van Driem (2001) lists Chukwa as a subgroup of Kulung. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Danuwar
[dhw] Bagmati zone: Kabhrepalanchok and Lalitpur districts; Janakpur zone: Sindhuli; Narayani zone: Makwanpur. 48,650, all users. L1 users: 45,800 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 2,850 (2011 census). No monolinguals (Toba et al 2005). Ethnic population: 84,100 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Danuwar. Alternate Names: Danuwar Rai, Danwar, Denwar, Dhanvar, Dhanwar. Dialects: Bakultar Danuwar, Panchkhal Danuwar, Judigaon Danuwar, Dukuchhap Danuwar, Sindhuli Danuwar, Kamala Khonch Danuwar. Danuwar Kachariya in Rautahat and elsewhere is probably distinct from Danuwar [dhw]. The dialects spoken in Bakultar, Panchkhal, Judigaon (Kabhrepalanchok) district are mutually intelligible, whereas the dialects spoken in Dukuchhap (Lalitpur district) and Sindhuli are different. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu, traditional religion.

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Darai
[dry] Narayani zone: Chitwan district, Bharatpur municipality, Chainpur, Jagatpur, Kathar, and Mangalpur VDCs; Gandaki zone: Tanahun district, Vyas municipality, Kyamin and Ramjakot VDCs. 11,700 (2011 census), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 16,800 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Darai. Dialects: Chitwan, Tanahun. Lexical similarity: 85%–90% with Bote [bmj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Darai do not have social subdivisions found in most other Nepali groups. They do not organize communities into social, religious, economic, or political organizations (Bista 1996). Hindu.

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Dhimal
[dhi] Kosi zone: Morang and Sunsari districts, 51 villages; Mechi zone: Jhapa district, 24 villages. Eastern and western dialects are separated by Kankai river in Jhapa. 20,430 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 19,300 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 1,130 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 26,300 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 20,880 (as L1: 19,750; as L2: 1,130). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Dhimal. Alternate Names: Dhemal. Dialects: Eastern Dhimal, Western Dhimal. 75%–80% intelligibility between eastern and western dialect speakers. Lexical similarity: 80%–82% with dialects. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Dhimalish. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Dolpo
[dre] Karnali zone: Dolpa district, villages north and east of Kag in Barbung river valley; Tarap river valley, Lang village and north; beyond mountains west of upper Kali Gandaki river valley; confined by the Dhaulagiri Himal south and Tibet north; Suligag river valley and the lake area; Karnali river headwaters; many small villages in Barbung, Nangong, Panzang, and Tarap river valleys. 8,000 (2010 K. Kopp). Ethnic population: 8,000 (2010 K. Kopp). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Dolpo. Alternate Names: Dolkha, Dolpa Tibetan, Dolpali, Dolpike, Phoke Dolpa. Dialects: None known. Phoksumdo Lake, Barbung River, and Charka areas are slightly different, but intelligibility is good. The central valleys of Nankong and Dho Tarap are well understood by other varieties. Lexical similarity: 78% with Loke [loy], 69% with Lhomi [lhm], 68% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], Walungge [ola], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 67% with Nubri [kte], 66% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 62% with Jirel [jul] and Sherpa [xsr] (2010 K. Kopp). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Buddhist.

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Dotyali
[dty] Mahakali zone: Baitadi, Dadeldhura, south Daichula, north Kanchanpur districts; Seti zone: southwest Bajhang, Doti, north Kailali districts; Bheri zone: small area. 788,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dotali, Doteli. Dialects: Bajhangi, Baitadeli (Baitadi), Darchuli (Darjula), Dotyali. Reportedly similar to Nepali [npi]. Lexical similarity: 70%–72% with Nepali [npi], 53%–61% with Kumaoni [kfy], 75%–87% between Dotyali varieties (2014 S. Eichentopf). A member of macrolanguage Nepali [nep]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, Eastern Pahari.

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Dumi
[dus] Sagarmatha zone: north Khotang district, Baksila, Jalapa, Kharmi, Makpa, and Sapteshwor VDCs. 7,640 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 12,000. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Dumi Bo’o, Dumi Bro, Hopupo Bro, Lsi Rai, Ro’do Bo’, Sotmali. Dialects: Kharbari, Lamdija, Makpa. Reportedly most similar to Khaling [klr] and Koi [kkt]. Makpa dialect is markedly divergent. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Efforts have been made by some to preserve the language by creating written materials. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Dungmali
[raa] Kosi zone: east Bhojpur district, Bastim, Sano Dungma, and Thulo Dungma VDCs; east border is Arun river. 6,260 (2011 census), decreasing. 150 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Arthare, Arthare-Khesang, Dungmali Puk, Dungmali Pûk, Dungmali-Bantawa, Khesange. Dialects: Khesang (Khesange). 82% cognate with Bantawa [bap] but morphology and phonology differ (Winter and Hansson 1991). Lexical similarity: 80% with Bantawa [bap], 65% with Puma [pum]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Local names which may not be dialects: Chhinamkhang, Chhichhangchha, Hangbang, Khandung, Pungwai, Roktulung, Tuncha, Waitpang. Traditional religion.

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Dura
[drq] Gandaki zone: Lamjung district, scattered. No known L1 speakers (2016 SIL). Ethnic population: 5,390 (2011 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Dura. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish. Comments: Tandrange may be a dialect of Dura. Hindu, Buddhist.

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English
[eng] Scattered, especially in urban areas. 7,002,030 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 2,030 (2011 census). L2 users: 7,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 4 (Educational). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous. Second most widespread language in Nepal in popularity, education, and use. Spoken at all socio-economic levels, by both literate and non-literate.

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Ghale, Northern
[ghh] Gandaki zone: Gorkha district in Buri Gandaki valley. 4,440 (2016 SIL). 400 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 22,900 (2011 census). All Ghale populations. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lila, Ril-Lila. Dialects: Khorla, Uiya, Jagat, Philim, Nyak. Nyak is most diverse dialect. Philim has 94% intelligibility of Uiya. 75%–79% intelligibility of Barpak in Southern Ghale [ghe]. Dialect chain runs north and south. Lexical similarity: 73%–89% among dialects, 65%–81% with Southern Ghale [ghe], 45%–61% with Kuke [ght], 29%–37% with Western Tamang [tdg], 21%–27% with Nubri [kte], 22%–25% with Tsum [ttz], 19%–23% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 19%–21% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Ghale. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Ghale, Southern
[ghe] Gandaki zone: Gorkha district hills south of Macha Khola. 18,000 (2016 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Galle Gurung, Lila, Lila Ke, Ril-Lila. Dialects: Barpak, Kyaura, Laprak. Some intelligibility between Northern [ghh] and Southern Ghale. Dialect subgroup. Glover (1974:8–12) identifies a Ghale branch under Bodish intermediate between Tibetan and Gurung branches. Lexical similarity: 75%–78% among dialects, 65%–81% with Northern Ghale, 39%–49% with Kuke [ght], 27%–30% with Gurung [gvr], 31% with Western Tamang [tdg], 20% with Nubri [kte] and Tsum [ttz], 18% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Ghale. Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Ghandruk Sign Language
[gds] Gandaki zone: Kaski district, Ghandruk, scattered. 20 (2011 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: Similar to Kathmandu and Pokhara dialects of Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]. Classification: Sign language.

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Gurung
[gvr] Dhawalagiri zone: Parbat district; Gandaki zone: west Gorkha, Kaski, Lamjung, Tanahu, and Syangja districts; possibly Manang district. 348,800 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 326,000 (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 22,800 (2011 census). 12,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 523,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 381,800 (as L1: 359,000; as L2: 22,800). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Gurung. Alternate Names: Daduwa, Tamu Kyi, Western Gurung. Dialects: Central dialect of Gurung. Related to Thakali [ths]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Hindi
[hin] Widespread in Bagmati, Janakpur, and Narayani zones in Tarai lowlands; Kathmandu valley. 1,307,600 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 77,600 (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 1,230,000 (1991 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Dakhini, Hindi-Urdu, Hindustani. Dialects: Khariboli. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu, Buddhist, Christian, Muslim.

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Humla
[hut] Karnali zone: Humla district, villages northwest and northeast from Simikot toward China border; Seti zone: Achham, Bajhang, Bajura, and Surkhet districts; Kathmandu. 5,000 (2014 SIL). 36% of the Limi dialect are monolingual. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2014 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Dangali, Humli Khyampa, Phoke, “Humla Bhotia” (pej.). Dialects: Limi, Upper Humla (La Yakba), Eastern Humla (Nyinba), Humli Khyampa, Lower Humla. Humli Khyampa is a nomadic group whose members sometimes pass through Humla. It is unclear if Humli Khyampa is a dialect of Humla Tibetan, a dialect of another Tibetan language or a separate Tibetan language. More research is needed (2014 D. Greninger). Lexical similarity: 79% between Limi and Upper Humla varieties, 82% between Limi and Lower Humla varieties, 74%–77% between Limi and Eastern Humla varieties, 78%–85% between Upper Humla and Lower Humla varieties, 73%–77% between Upper Humla and Eastern Humla, 76%–82% between Lower Humla and Eastern Humla. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: The Humli Khyampa are a traditionally nomadic group whose members sometimes pass through Humla. They are now becoming more semi-nomadic. They are buying land and building houses in districts south of Humla in western Nepal (2014 D. Greninger). Buddhist.

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Hyolmo
[scp] Bagmati zone: north Nuwakot and northwest Sindhupalchok districts. 10,200 (2011 census). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Hyolmo. Alternate Names: Helambu Sherpa, Hyolmo Tam, Yholmo, Yohlmo, Yolmo. Dialects: Eastern Helambu Sherpa, Western Helambu Sherpa, LangDang Yohlmo, Lamjung Yohlmo. Melamchi river divides dialects. Understand other dialects even for abstract and complex subjects, including possibly Tarke Ghyang, Kahng-Kharka, Pahndang, but not Syuba [syw]. Lexical similarity: 66% with Dolpo [dre] and Walungge [ola]; 65% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], Jirel [jul], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 63% with Loke [loy] and Sherpa [xsr]; 61% with Nubri [kte]; 60% with Lhomi [lhm]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: They go to northern India as laborers or resettle in Kathmandu or in India. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Jerung
[jee] Janakpur zone: Sindhuli district, Bahadur Khola west bank villages, Sunkosi river south to Mohangar village; Sagarmatha zone: Okhaldhunga district, Maulang Khola river area. 5,380, all users. L1 users: 1,760 (2011 census). L2 users: 3,620 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Jero, Jero Mala, Jerum, Jerunge, Jherung, Zero, Zero Mala, Zerum. Dialects: Madhavpur, Balkhu-Sisneri, Ratnawati (Sindhuli). Reportedly most similar to Wambule [wme]. Alternate dialect analysis: Northern dialect spoken in Okhaldhunga District, Southern dialect in Sindhuli District. (2004 J. Opgenort). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: ’Chaurasia’ is the name for the linguistic unit combining Jerung and Wambule [wme]. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Jhankot Sign Language
[jhs] Karnali zone: Dolpa district, Jhankot village. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Existence attested only by a single source (Taylor 1997).

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Jirel
[jul] Bagmati zone: Sindhupalchok district; Janakpur zone: Dolakha district, Jiri (main area) and Sikri valleys, eastern hills, Chhyatrapa; Lumbini zone: Nawalparasi district; Narayani zone: Parsa district. 4,830 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Jirel. Alternate Names: Jiri, Jirial, Ziral. Dialects: Accent differences, but not real dialects. Some comprehension of Lhasa Tibetan [bod] and some Tibetan dialects. Lexical similarity: 67% with Sherpa [xsr], 65% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 62% with Dolpo [dre] and Loke [loy], 60% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 57% with Nubri [kte], Lhomi [lhm], and Walungge [ola], 54% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Jumla Sign Language
[jus] Karnali zone: Jumla district, Jumla town. 8 (2005 INF). 8 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 45%–49% with Nepalese Sign Language [nsp]. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Deaf children in the Nepalese Sign Language school in Jumla come from 1 or 2 days walk away and do not know Jumla Sign Language.

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Jumli
[jml] Bheri zone: small area; Karnali zone: Humla, Jumla, Kalikot, Mugu districts; Seti zone: Achham, east Bajhang, and Bajura districts. 40,000 (2001 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Central Nepali, Jumla, Jumleli, Khas Kura, Sijali, Singja, Sinjali. Dialects: Chaudhabis, Sinja, Asi, Paanchsai. 73%–89% intelligible with standard Nepali [npi]. Not sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Lexical similarity: 73%–80% with standard Nepali [npi] (Bandhu 1971). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, Eastern Pahari. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Kaike
[kzq] Karnali zone: Dolpa district, Shahartara VDC, Belawa, Shahartara, Tarakot, and Tupatara villages. 2,000 (2011 A. Regmi), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2011 A. Regmi). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tarali Kham. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish. Comments: Kaike is sometimes known as Tarali Kham, though it is quite different from Kham, a Himalayan language of western Nepal. (Bradley 1997:11). Buddhist, Hindu.

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Kewat
[kyv] Kosi zone: Morang district. 22,000 (2002). Ethnic population: 154,000 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Kayort. Dialects: None known. Ostensibly related to Bengali [ben]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: No known published or survey-based attestation for this as a separate language variety.

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Khaling
[klr] Kosi zone: Sankhuwasabha district, Tungkhaling village; Sunsari district, Dharan; Mechi zone: Ilam district, Mai Pokhari, Pang, and Sumbek villages; Sagarmatha zone: Khotang district, Buipa and Kharmi villages; Solukhumbu district, Basa, Buksa, Jubing, Kanku, Phuleli, and Waku villages. 14,500 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 20,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Khael Braa, Khaling Kura. Dialects: Northern Khaling, Southern Khaling. Reporteldy most similar to Dumi [dus] and Koi [kkt]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Kham, Eastern Parbate
[kif] Dhawalagiri zone: Baglung district. Bhalkot, Budhathok, and Nisi (Nishel dialect); Diza, Kang, Kuku, Masbang, Musuri, and Sukurdung villages (Bhujel dialect). 7,500 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census). No adult monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Eastern Parbate, Nisel, Nishel Kham, Nisi, Nisi Kham. Dialects: Bhujel Kham, Nishel Kham. Partially intelligible with Western Parbate [kjl] dialects. Lexical similarity: 79% between dialects, 71% with Western Parbate [kjl], 55% with Gamale [kgj], 44% with Sheshi [kip]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham. Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kham, Gamale
[kgj] Rapti zone: Rolpa district; Dhawalagiri zone: Baglung district, Chalbang, Dangadhara, Gam, Ghusbang, Guwakholagau, Huiching, Jhyalgung, Kuipadhara, Maulabang, Sheram, and Tamali villages, in Gam Khola, western hills. 13,100 (2000), increasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gamale. Dialects: Tamali, Ghusbanggi. Only 30% intelligibility with Western Parbate [kjl] due to radical differences in verbal morphology. Lexical similarity: 71% with Western Parbate (most similar) [kjl], 55% with Eastern Parbate [kif] and Sheshi [kip], 45% with Bhujel [kif]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kham, Sheshi
[kip] Rapti zone: Rukum district, western hills, Bhabang, Dangdung, Dhangsi, Ghapa, Hwama, Jangkot, Korcabang, Kotgaon (Tapnang), and Rimsek villages. 20,000 (2003 SIL), decreasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Sheshi. Dialects: Tapnanggi, Jangkoti. 30% intelligibility levels with Gamale Kham [kgj], and even less with Western Parbate [kjl]. Lexical similarity: 55% with Gamale Kham [kgj] (most similar), 51% with Western Parbate [kjl], 46% with Eastern Parbate [kif]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham. Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kham, Western Parbate
[kjl] Karnali zone: Dolpa district; Rapti zone: Rolpa and Rolpa districts, Taka-Shera is center. 24,500 (2003 SIL), increasing. 27,100 all Kham languages in Nepal (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kham-Magar, Takale, Takale Kham, Western Parbate. Dialects: Takale, Maikoti, Mahatale, Lukumel, Wale, Thabangi. Reportedly greatest similarities between Eastern [kif] and Western Parbate [kjl]. Parbate, Sheshi, and Gamale groups are all inherently unintelligible. Position of Mahatale and Miruli within the Kham linguistic group is undecided. Lexical similarity: 71% with Gamale Kham [kgj] and Eastern Parbate [kif]; 58% with Bhujel Kham, 51% with Sheshi [kip]. 25% with Magar and Gurung [gvr], slightly below 25% with the Tibetan group, 15% with the Rai and Limbu groups. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Kham. Comments: Different from the Khams of eastern Tibet as spoken by the Khampa. Previously migrated in summer to the foot of glaciers on west end of Dhaulagiri massif, and in winter to Rolpa District southern hills. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Kharia
[khr] Mechi zone: Jhapa district, India border; Kosi zone: Morang district small area. 240 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Bankariya. Alternate Names: Khariya. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, South Munda, Kharia-Juang. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kisan
[sck] Mechi zone: Jhapa district, Anarmani, Bahundangi, Dhaijan, and Shantinagar VDCs, Damak municipality. 1,180 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kisan. Alternate Names: Sadri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Koi
[kkt] Sagarmatha zone: northeast Khotang district, Sungdel VDC, Dipsung and Sungdel near Rawakhola headwaters. 1,470, all users. L1 users: 1,270 (2011 census). L2 users: 200 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Kohi, Koi Ba’a, Koyee, Koyi, Koyu. Dialects: Sungdel, Behere. Reportedly most similar to Dumi [dus] and Khaling [klr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Another group, called Koi, live scattered in other language areas and speak only Nepali [npi]. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Kuke
[ght] Gandaki zone: north Gorkha district, Bihi VDC, Bihi, Chak, Dyang, Ghap, Krak, Kwak, and Rana villages. 1,300 (2016 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bhotte, Kutang, Kutang Ghale. Dialects: Bihi, Chak, Rana. Varieties spoken in Chhak and Kwak villages are reportedly similar to each other and different from all other villages. Lexical similarity: 62%–76% among dialects, 39%–49% with Southern Ghale [ghe], 45%–61% with Northern Ghale [ghh], 18% with Gurung [gvr], 16%–23% with Tamang varieties, 13%–31% with Nubri [kte], 23%–27% with Tsum [ttz], 22%–27% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 19%–24% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Ghale. Comments: Referred to as thieves’ language, a mixture of nearby languages. Buddhist, Hindu.

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Kulung
[kle] Kosi zone: Bhojpur district, Khartanga, Limkhim, Phedi, and Wasepla VDCs; Sankhuwasabha district, Mangtewa, Seduwa, and Yaphu VDCs; Sagarmatha zone: Solukhumbu district, in Hungu river valley, Bung, Chachalung, Chekma, Chhemsing, Chheskam, Gudel, Lucham, Namlung, Pelmang, Satdi, and Sotang villages. 33,200 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Kulu Ring, Kulunge. Dialects: Sotto Ring. 100% intelligibility between Kulung and Sotto Ring; only a few words pronounced differently. Related to Sampang [rav] and Nachering [ncd]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Exogamous clan marriage. The high number of Kulung reflect the tendency of smaller groups to consider themselves Kulung, but are not Kulung by origin. The Kulung possibly absorb smaller groups. Traditional religion.

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Kumal
[kra] Lumbini zone: Nawalparasi district; Arghakhanchi and Palpa districts; Gandaki zone: Gorkha and Tanahun districts; Rapti zone: Dang district. 13,610, all users. L1 users: 12,200 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 1,410 (2011 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 121,000 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kumal. Alternate Names: Kumali, Kumbale, Kumhale, Kumhali, Kumkale. Dialects: Palpa, Arghakhanchi, Gorkha, Nawalparasi. All four dialects are mutually intelligible, with Arghakhanchi being the most different. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu.

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Kurux, Nepali
[kxl] Kosi zone: Sunsari district. 33,700 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 41,800. Dhagar (Jhagar). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dhangar, Jangad, Janghard, Jhangad, Jhanger, Kurux, Oraon, Orau, Uranw, Uraon, Uraw. Dialects: None known. Some differences from Kurux [kru] in India and Bangladesh, but mutually intelligible. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: The alternate names are used for the people. Hindu.

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Kusunda
[kgg] Gandaki, Lumbini, and Rapti zones: scattered. 3 (2014 M. Donohue), decreasing. 28 (2011 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 270 (2011 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Kushunda. Alternate Names: Kusanda. Dialects: Rolpa-Dang, Gorkha, Tanahun. The Kusunda speakers of Rolpa, Dang and possibly Arghakhanchi districts of Midwestern Nepal belong to the same family. For this reason, their historical dialects (created by generation and geographical separation) are mutually intelligible. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Kyirong
[kgy] Bagmati zone: Rasuwa district, Bongswadi, Bridhim, Khangim, Khangjim, Lingling, Setang, Shaphrubesi, and Thangmpuchet villages; Chu-Lang Ho river banks inflowing from Tibet; Boudha, Swoyambhu, Thamel, and Thulo Barang in Kathmandu valley. 500 (2013 M. Hedlin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Gyirong, Kyerung, Kyirong kai, Kyirong-nga, Kyirung. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Lapcha
[lep] Mechi zone: Ilam district. 7,500 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 3,660. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Lepcha. Alternate Names: Lepcha, Nünpa, Rong, Rongke, Rongpa, “Lapche” (pej.). Dialects: Ilammu, Tamsangmu, Rengjongmu. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Central Tibeto-Burman, Lepcha. Comments: Linguistic position within Tibeto-Burman still under discussion. Buddhist, Christian.

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Lhomi
[lhm] Kosi zone: north Sankhuwasabha district to the border, Chepuwa VDC, Chepuwa, Chhumusur, Chyamtang, Gumba, and Rukuma villages; Hatiya VDC, Hatiya, Hungung, Namase, Pharang, Shiprung, Simbung, and Syaksila villages; southernmost village is Seksum in Arun valley; some in Kathmandu. 7,000 (2014 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 15,000. Total users in all countries: 9,320. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Lhomi (Shingsawa). Alternate Names: Lhoket, Lhomi dzyükki keccyok, Lhomiki keccyok, “Bho Te bhasha” (pej.), “Kar Bhote” (pej.), “Kath Bhote” (pej.). Autonym: ल्होमी‎ (Lhomi). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Dolpo [dre], 68% with Loke [loy], 66% with Walungge [ola], 65% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod] and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 64% with Nubri [kte], 60% with Helambu Sherpa [scp], 58% with Sherpa [xsr], 57% with Jirel [jul]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Lhowa
[loy] Dhawalagiri zone: Mustang district, north central upper Kali Gandaki river area; high valleys north of middle-range Thakali, Gurung and Magar areas. Dzong, Kagbeni, and Muktinath VDCs (Bahragaun dialect); Chhosher, Chunnup, Ghimi, Lo Monthang, Surkhang, and Tsarang VDCs, and Samar village in Chuksang VDC (Upper Mustang dialect); Karnali zone: Dolpa district. 7,500 (2011). 5,000 Upper Mustang and 2,500 Baragaunle. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Bahragaunle, Lhopa. Alternate Names: Glo Skad, Lhopa, Lo Montang, Loba, Loke, Loket, Lopa, Lowa, Loyu, Mustangi. Autonym: ल्होवा‎ (Lhowa). Dialects: Baragaunle (Baragaon, Baragaun, Bhoti Gurung), Upper Mustang (Loke). High intelligibility between dialects reported. Lexical similarity: 79%–88% between dialects, 59%–71% with Dolpo [dre], 54%–57% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], 58%–67% with Mugom [muk]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Distinct from Lhoba in China and India, a Mirish language. Lo inhabitants are called Lopa or Lowa. Their capital is Manthang, called Mustang by outsiders. Manthang has 200 houses, many monasteries. Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Limbu
[lif] Kosi zone: Dhankuta, Morang, Sankhuwasabha, and Terhathum districts; Mechi zone: Ilam, Jhapa, Panchthar, and Taplejung districts; all in eastern hills, east of Arun river. 366,200 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 344,000 (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 22,200 (2011 census). Relatively few monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 403,500 (as L1: 381,300; as L2: 22,200). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Limbu. Alternate Names: Yakthung Pan. Dialects: Panthare, Phedappe, Tamorkhole (Taplejunge), Chaubise (Charkhole), Chhatthare (Chatthare, Chhathar), Yanggrokke (Yanggruppe). Yanggrokke, Chaubise and Charkhole are minor variants of the Panthare dialect; Phedappe and Tamorkhole are similar. Chattare is less well understood by other dialect speakers. The dialect spoken in Sikkim, India, is same as Panthare. Intelligibility among all varieties 84% and higher. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Priestly high language, known by some older people and priests, is called Mundumban. Traditional religion.

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Lohorung
[lbr] Kosi zone: central Sankhuwasabha district, between middle Arun valley and the Sabha Khola river, Angala, Bardeu, Dhupu, Gairiaula, Higuwa, Khorande, Malta, Pangma, and Sitalpati. 3,720 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Lohorong, Lohrung, Lohrung Khanawa, Lorung, Northern Lorung, Yakkhaba Khap. Dialects: Biksit (Bikshi). 44% intelligibility of Yamphu [ybi]. A Kirat Rai group. Lexical similarity: 88%–99% between dialects, 64%–67% with Yamphu [ybi], 65%–68% with Southern Yamphu [lrr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Hansson claims that the Biksit dialect is spoken in Dhupu VDC (Hansson 1991). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Magar, Eastern
[mgp] Bagmati zone: Dhadin district, small border area; Gandaki zone: south Gorkha and Tanahu districts; Lumbini zone: Nawalparasi and Palpa districts; all previous in central mountains east of Bagmati river; Janakpur zone: Sindhuli district; Sagarmatha zone: Okhaldhunga district; Kosi and southern Mechi zones: scattered. 462,000 (2001 census), decreasing. 789,000 all Magar in Nepal (2011 census). The identification of Magars is complicated by the fact that a number of other ethnic groups (Chantyal, Kham, Kaike, Kusunda, Raute, Raji) have claimed to be Magars to outsiders. Isolated enclaves of monolinguals are found in Nawalparasi and southern Tanahu districts. Ethnic population: 1,890,000 (2001 census). Includes Eastern and Western Magar. Total users in all countries: 533,700. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Magar. Alternate Names: Magar, Magari, Manggar. Dialects: Gorkha, Nawalparasi, Tanahu. Also long-extant migrant communities scattered throughout the Eastern Development Region speak a different variety from those west of Kathmandu. Reports of intelligibility between these varieties vary. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Magar. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Magar, Western
[mrd] Bheri zone: Dailekh, Jajarkot, and Surkhet districts, scattered throughout; Dhawalagiri zone: Parbat district small border area; Gandaki zone: Syangja and Tanahu districts; Lumbini zone: Palpa district. 308,000 (2001 census), decreasing. 789,000 all Magar in Nepal (2011 census). Census statistics likely include non-ethnic Magars and many that do not speak Magar. Ethnic population: 1,890,000 (2011 census). Includes Eastern and Western Magar. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Magar. Alternate Names: Magar, Magari, Mangar, Mangari, Syangja Magar. Dialects: Palpa, Syangja. Some differences between dialects, yet reportedly high intellligibility. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Kham-Magar, Magar. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Maithili
[mai] Janakpur zone: Dhanusa, Mahottari, and Sarlahi districts; Kosi zone: Morang and Sunsari districts; Narayani zone: Rautahat district; Sagarmatha zone: Saptari and Siraha districts. 4,085,000 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 3,890,000 (2011 census), increasing. 793,000 Bajjika, 3,090,000 Maithili (2011 census). L2 users: 195,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Bihari, Dehati, Deshi, Maitili, Maitli, Methli, Thenthi, Tirhutia. Dialects: Bajjika, Bantar, Barei, Barmeli, Kawar, Kyabrat, Makrana, Tati, Dehati, Thenthi, Musahar. Dialect variation by caste (Brahmin vs. non-Brahmin) more than by geographic area. Functional intelligibility among all dialects. Bajjika listed as a separate language in Nepal census (2011); relationship with Maithili needs to be verified. Lexical similarity: 82–86% between Brahmin varieties in Morang, Saptari, Dhanusa and Sarlahi; 76–83% between non-Brahmin varieties in Morang, Saptari, Dhanusa and Sarlahi; 82–84% between Brahmin and non-Brahmin varieties in the same location. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Written variety considered standard. Hindi [hin] and its speakers considered close, culturally similar; Nepali [npi] accepted. Hindu, Christian.

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Majhi
[mjz] Janakpur zone: Ramechhap district, Bhaluwajor, Bhatauli, Chisapani, Pagarbas, and Rakathum VDCs. 24,400 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 72,600. Total users in all countries: 44,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Majhi. Alternate Names: Manjhi. Dialects: Sitkha, Rajgaun, Manthali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Distinct from Majhi in Punjabi group or Bote [bmj]. Majhi, Bote, and Kushar all are used by hill peoples. Hindu, Christian.

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Marwari
[rwr] Kosi zone: Morang and Sunsari districts; Mechi zone: Jhapa district; Narayani zone: Parsa district; Kathmandu and other urban areas. 23,530 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 22,600 (2001 census). L2 users: 930 (1991 census). Ethnic population: 51,400 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Marwadi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu.

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Meche
[brx] Mechi zone: Jhapa district. 4,380 (2011 census). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 4,870 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Meche (Bodo). Alternate Names: Bara, Bodi, Bodo, Boro, Boroni, Mache, Mech, Mechi, Meci. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Sal, Boro-Garo, Boro-Tiwa, Boro. Comments: Non-indigenous. Traditional religion.

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Mewahang, Eastern
[emg] Kosi zone: Sankhuwasabha district, Choyang, Mangtewa, and Yaphu VDCs; upper Arun valley. Sunsari district, Bhaludhunga and Bishnupaduka VDC (Sunsari dialect); Mangtewa VDC (Dibum dialect); Yaphu VDC (Mulgaon-Wangtang dialect). 4,650 all Mewahang (2011 census). Almost no monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,580 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Eastern Meohang, Mewahang, Newahang, Newahang Jimi, Newang, Newange Rai. Dialects: Sunsari, Dibum (Dibung), Mulgaon-Wangtang. Structurally different from Western Mewahang [raf]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: The language is regarded as a dialect of Western Mewahang [raf]. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Mewahang, Western
[raf] Kosi zone: Sankhuwasabha district, upper Arun valley, Bala, Sisuwa, Tamku, and Yamdang. Sankhuwasabha VDC, Bala village (Bala dialect); Sishuwakhola VDC (Bumdemba dialect). 4,650 all Mewahang (2011 census). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 570 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Mewahang, Newahang, Newahang Jimi, Newang, Newange Rai, Western Meohang. Dialects: Bala (Balali), Bumdemba. Structurally different from Eastern Mewahang [emg]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Mugali
[lmh] Kosi zone: Dhankuta district, Arun river east bank, between Mugakhola and Sinuwakhola; Muga, Pakhribas and Phalate VDCs. 1,500 (2010 I. Rai), decreasing. Very few monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Lambicchong, Lambichhong, Lambichong, Lambitshong, Phangduwali Mugali. Dialects: Phangdhuwali. Reportedly similar to Chhulung [cur], Belhariya [byw], and Chhintang [ctn]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Mugom
[muk] Karnali zone: Jumla district, Jumla; Mugu district, Dolphu, Kimri, Mangri, Mugu, and Pulu VDCs; Kathmandu. 6,500 (2006 SIL). 1,630 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 6,500. Total users in all countries: 7,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Mugali. Alternate Names: Mugali, Mugu, Mugum. Dialects: Mugom (Moe-ket, Mugali, Mugomba, Mumbai-kat), Karmarong (Karani, Kar-ket, Karmai-kat). Intelligibility 89%–93% between dialect speakers (possibly higher). Definitely sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. Reportedly similar to Humla [hut], Dolpo [dre], and Loke [loy]. Lexical similarity: more than 85% between dialects, 75% with Tibetan [bod]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Karanis want recognition as a separate ethnic group. Mugalis may not accept materials written in Karani, and vice versa. Mugom value Nepali and English as a way to higher education. Mugalis see themselves a bit higher than Karanis, and are more influential as they travel and trade more. Buddhist.

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Mundari
[unr] Mechi zone: south Jhapa district; Kosi zone: Morang district and scattered. 7,780 (2006 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Jhangad. Could be a separate language. Alternate Names: Horo, Mandari, Mondari, Munari, Munda, Santhali, Satar. Dialects: Hasada, Latar, Naguri, Kera, Santhai, Satar. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Mundari. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu, Christian.

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Musasa
[smm] Janakpur zone: Dhanusa, Dolakha, Mahotari, and Sindhuli districts; Kosi zone: Morang and Sunsari districts; Sagarmatha zone: Saptari and Siraha districts. 50,000 (2003). 20,000 Musasa and 30,000 Musasa Bantar. Ethnic population: 234,000 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Musahar, Rishaidep. Dialects: Bantar. Reportedly similar to Madhya Purbiya Tharu [thq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bihari. Comments: Dalit caste. It has been suggested but not documented that they may speak a sociolect of the larger language groups they live among: Maithili [mai], Bhojpuri [bho], Avadhi [awa], and Madhya Purbiya Tharu [thq]. Not listed in the 2001 Nepal census. Hindu.

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Naaba
[nao] Kosi zone: Sankhuwasabha district, Hatiya VDC, Dangok and Pharang villages; Piibu, Chumusur, and Ridak villages; Kimathanka VDC, Kimathanka village; Tsanga village, across the border in China. 770 (2006 IMB). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naapa, Naapaa, Naba, Nawa Sherpa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified. Comments: The Lhomi [lhm] consider the Naaba people a distinct group. The Naaba have learned Lhomi as a language of wider communication, but are more culturally and linguistically similar to Sherpa [xsr] and Thudam [thw] than to Lhomi. Buddhist.

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Nachering
[ncd] Sagarmatha zone: upper northeast Khotang district, Aiselukharka, Badel, Bakacho, Bangdel, Dipsun, Para, Patel, and Rakha VDCs, in Lidim Khola river slopes area, headwaters and tributaries to Aiselukharke south; Solukhumbu district, Sotang and Waddu VDCs. 10,000 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Bangdale, Bangdel Tûm, Bangdile, Mathsereng, Nacchhering, Nacering Ra, Nachering Tûm, Nachiring, Nasring, Nasru Bhra. Dialects: Parali, Bangdele (Achero, Hachero, Hangkula), Rakhali, Sotange. High comprehension of Kulung among northern Nachering and Sampang among southern Nachering. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Different from Sampang, although sometimes called Sangpang or Sampang. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Nar Phu
[npa] Gandaki zone: Manang district, Nar valley, Nar (Chhuprung, Nargaon) and Phu (Nartwe, Phugaon) villages. 600 (2011 K. Hildebrandt). 200 Phu speakers, 400 Nar speakers. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nar-Phu. Dialects: Nar (Lower Nar, Nar-Mä), Phu (Nar-Tö, Upper Nar). In a dialect continuum with Manangba [nmm] and possibly intelligible with it. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic. Comments: See themselves as separate from Manangba and Gurung. Used as a secret language to confound Manangis and Gurungs who might otherwise understand their conversation (2002 M. Noonan). Buddhist.

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Nepalese Sign Language
[nsp] Scattered. 20,000 (2014 NDFN). Approximately 20,000 deaf signers out of 300,000 total deaf (2014 NDFN). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Nepali Sign Language. Dialects: Kathmandu, Pokhara. Developed from local and introduced signs. Related to other sign languages in south Asia; see comments on Indian Sign Language [ins] in India. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Approximately 20 NSL interpreters, most working under the NDFN or its member organizations. Hindu, Buddhist.

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Nepali
[npi] East and adjacent south central regions. 20,980,000 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 12,300,000 (2011 census), increasing. 143,000 Achhami, 273,000 Baitadeli, 67,600 Bajhangi, 10,700 Bajureli, 490 Dadeldhuri, 3,100 Dailekhi, 5,930 Darchuleli, and 11,800,000 Nepali (2011 census). L2 users: 8,680,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 24,052,600 (as L1: 15,372,600; as L2: 8,680,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1990, Interim Constitution, 2063, Article 5(2)). Alternate Names: Eastern Pahadi, Gorkhali, Gurkhali, Khaskura, Nepalese, Parbate. Autonym: नेपाली‎ (Nepālī). Dialects: Bajureli (Bajura, Bajurali), Soradi, Acchami, Darchuleli (Darchulali, Darjula), Humli, Bheri, Dailekhi, Gandakeli, Purbeli, Dadeldhuri, Baitadeli, Bajhangi. Reportedly similar to Dotyali [dty]. Dialects listed may be quite distinct from standard Nepali. Intelligibility is also low among Baitadeli, Bajhangi, Bajurali (Bajura), Humli, and Acchami. A member of macrolanguage Nepali [nep]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, Eastern Pahari. Comments: Hindu, Buddhist.

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Nepali
[nep] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 16,160,600 Status: Comments: Includes: Dotyali [dty], Nepali [npi].

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Newar
[new] Bagmati zone: Kathmandu valley; many other urban areas. Fewer far west. 879,600 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 847,000 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 32,600 (2011 census). Many women are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,260,000. Includes 1,245,000 Newar and 11,500 Pahari. Total users in all countries: 893,600 (as L1: 861,000; as L2: 32,600). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Newar. Alternate Names: Newa Bhaye, Newaah Bhaae, Newaah Bhaaye, Newal Bhaye, “Newari” (pej.). Autonym: नेवाः भाय्‎ (Newah Bhaaye). Dialects: Dolkhali (Dolakha), Sindhupalchok Pahri (Pahari, Pahri), Totali, Citlang, Kathmandu-Patan-Kirtipur, Bhaktapur, Baglung, Badikhel Pahari, Gopali, Balami, Pyang Gaon. The Dolakhae dialect of Dolakha has complex person-number verb agreement with residue reflex in the Pahari dialect of Badikhel. These two dialects are not fully intelligible to the speakers of Kathmandu Valley where the language has a simple conjunct-disjunct agreement. Kirtipur and Lalitpur are reportedly similar to Kathmandu. Bhaktapur people mostly understand Kathmandu despite some lexical differences. The Eastern Newar dialects, including at least Dolakha and Tauthali, are mutually unintelligible with the dialects of the Kathmandu Valley. The same may also be true of Pahri of Sindhupalchok and other varieties. Some vocabulary differences between Hindus and Buddhists. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Newar. Comments: One of the principal languages of Nepal; historically an official language of the Newar Malla Kings of the three cities of Kathmandu Valley. Kathmandu is the prestige dialect with most published materials. English [eng] highly valued; mixed feelings about Hindi [hin]; Tibetan [bod] does not have high prestige. People learn whichever language will help them economically: Nepali [npi], English [eng], Hindi [hin], and others. Hindu, Buddhist, traditional religion.

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Nubri
[kte] Gandaki zone: north Gorkha district, upper Buri Gandaki river, from Namrung to Prok and Samdo. 2,000 (2001 census). 500 monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Larke. Alternate Names: Bhote, Bhotia, Kutang, Kutang Bhotia, Larkye. Dialects: Sama, Lho, Namrung, Prok. Only moderately intelligible of Kyirong Tibetan [kgy] (74%). The most distinct variety reportedly spoken in Samdo village. Sama is somewhat divergent. Tsum [ttz] reportedly not intelligible with Nubri. The language spoken in the Kutang area is not intelligible with Nubri, although most who live in this area reportedly can speak and understand Nubri. Lexical similarity: 78%–93% among dialects. Prok is more distinct. 71%–78% with Tsum [ttz]; 66%–74% with Kyirong Tibetan [kgy]; 67% with Dolpo [dre]; 65% with Loke [loy]; 59%–64% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 64% with Olangchung Gola [ola] (Walungge) and Lhomi [lhm]; 61% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 57% with Jirel [jul]; 55% with Sherpa [xsr]; 21%–27% with Northern Ghale [ghh]; 20%–23% with Southern Ghale [ghe]; 14%–31% with Kuke [ght]; 14% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], Gurung [gvr], and Banspur Tamang. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Nubri marry within their community and from the Kutang community. People trade in Gorkha District and also with Tibet. Ethnic identity is closely affiliated between the Nubri and the Kuke [ght]. Buddhist.

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Nyeshangte
[nmm] Gandaki zone: Manang district, Braka, Dhukur Pokhari, Ghyaru, Humde, Khangsar, Manang, upper Manang, Ngawal, Pisang, and Tengki villages; Kathmandu. 390 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 5,000 (2007 K. Hildebrandt). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Manang, Manang Ke, Manangba, Manange, Manangi, Nyangmi, Nyangmi ke, Nyeshang, Nyeshangte Ke, Nyisang, Nyishang, Nyishangba, “Manangbhot” (pej.). Autonym: ङ्‍येश्याङ्‍ते‎ (Nyeshangte). Dialects: Pisang, Manang. Very high intelligibility of Manang dialect by Pisang residents. Lexical similarity: 94% or greater with all varieties of Manangba. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic. Comments: Language has Tibetan influence. Most speakers have the surname Gurung or Ghale, but they do not claim to be a part of these distinct ethnolinguistic groups. Buddhist.

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Palpa
[plp] Lumbini zone: Palpa town. No known L1 speakers (2011). Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Pahari-Palpa. Dialects: Palpa stands midway between Nepali [npi] (Eastern Pahari) and Kumaoni [kfy] (Central Pahari). Might be considered a dialect of Kumaoni or Nepali. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Eastern, Eastern Pahari. Comments: Pahari, of the hills, also refers to a dialect of Newar [new]. Identification of Palpa as a separate language has been questioned.

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Phangduwali
[phw] Kosi zone: Dhankuta district, Pakhribas VDC, above Mugakhola headwaters. 290 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Phangduvali, Phangduwali Poti. Dialects: None known. The language spoken by the Phangduwali people is well-understood by Mugali [lmh] people and vice versa except for a few lexical items and accents. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Van Driem (2001) claims that the Phangduwali are actually Yakkha [ybh], whereas I.P. Rai (forthcoming) suggests these two languages are distinct. Both assert that Phangduwali and Mugali [lmh] are the same language. Traditional religion.

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Puma
[pum] Sagarmatha zone: south Khotang district, Chisapani, Devisthan, Diplung, Mauwabote, and Pauwasera VDCs; Udayapur district, Beltar, and Saunechour VDCs; Ruwa Khola valley to Buwa Khola across the Dudh Koshi southward. 6,690 (2011 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Puma Kala, Puma La, Puma Pima. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Rajbanshi
[rjs] Kosi zone: Morang and Sunsari districts; Mechi zone: Jhapa district. 168,300, all users. L1 users: 147,000 (2011 census), increasing. 2,080 Koche, 122,000 Rajbanshi, 18,800 Tajpuriya, 3,610 Gangai. L2 users: 21,300 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 173,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rajbanshi (Koch), Tajpuriya, Gangai. Alternate Names: Gangai, Koch, Koche, Rajbangsi, Rajbansi, Tajpuria. Dialects: Western Rajbanshi, Eastern Rajbanshi, Central Rajbanshi. Intelligibility is fairly high throughout the area (2001 J. Eppele and J. Grimes). Lexical similarity: 77%–95% with all varieties in Nepal (2001 J. Eppele and J. Grimes). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Bengali-Assamese. Comments: Hindu, Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Raji
[rji] Bheri zone: Banke, Bardiya, and Surkhet districts; Seti zone: Kailali district, lower Karnali river area; possibly Mahakali zone: Kanchanpur district. 3,760 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rajhi. Alternate Names: Ban Raji, Janggali, Phaan Bhaasaa, Phaan Boli, Rajibar, Rawati, Rjya. Dialects: Barh Bandale, Naukule, Purbiya. Reportedly similar to Rawat [jnl]. Speakers of Barh Bandale and Purbiya have difficulty in understanding the Naukule variety. Lexical similarity: From 84% and 86% between the three varieties; 55% with Raute [rau]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Raute-Raji. Comments: The Raji were a nomadic group, but now settled. Sharma (1990) identifies Raji in India (perhaps Bodo Gadaba [gbj]) as a Munda language with borrowings from Tibeto-Burman and Indo-Aryan. Barh Bandale dialect is the most prestigious. May be the same as Rawat [jnl] in India. Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Raute
[rau] Bheri zone: Surkhet district; midwest and far west forest regions; Mahakali zone: Dadeldhura district, Jogbudha and Sirsa VDCs, in Karnali and Mahakali rivers watershed regions. 460 (2011 census), decreasing. All nomadic Raute are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Raute. Alternate Names: Boto boli, Khamchi, Ra’te, Raji, Rajwar, Rautya, Rautye. Dialects: None known. There are reportedly many similarities with Raji [rji], but the relationship of Raute with and intelligibility between Rawat [jnl] and Raji [rji] needs further investigation. Lexical similarity: 80% with Rawat [jnl], 60% with Chepang [cdm], 25% with Kham. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Raute-Raji. Comments: The name may be of Tibeto-Burman origin, from ra- meaning human plus a person marker, -to or -te. Other scholars suggest it derives from the Sanskrit Indo-Aryan word raut from Sanskrit, rajaputra, prince. Rautes deem their language sacred and are linguistically conservative toward adopting non-Raute words or grammatical features. Only the headman communicates with outsiders. Traditional religion.

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Saam
[raq] Kosi zone: north Bhojpur district, Dobhane and Khatamma (Khartangma) VDCs, Dangmaya, Dobhane, Khartangma, and Okharbote settlements straddling Irkhuwa river; Mechi zone: Ilam district, Phikkal VDC. 530 (2011 census). 130 Lingkhim, 400 Saam (2011 census). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Lingkhim, Saam Rai, Saama Kha, Samakha. Dialects: Bungla, Sambya, Lingkhim (Lingkhim Kulung, Lingkhim Rai, Linkhim). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Almost no study or documentation has been done on the languages spoken in northern Bhojpur district. Another group called Saam may be Kulung [kle]. Hindu, traditional religion.

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Sampang
[rav] Kosi zone: Bhojpur district, Okharbote on Lahure Khola river headwaters; Syam Khola area, Kimalung, Nigale, Talakharka, and Surke; Sagarmatha zone: Khotang district, Tap Khola river villages, Baspani, Khartamcha, Patheka, and Phedi (Khotang dialect); Kosi zone: Bhojpur district, Dingla bazaar, a few elderly speakers (Phali dialect). 20,300, all users. L1 users: 18,300 (2011 census), decreasing. Phali dialect spoken by a few elderly speakers. L2 users: 2,000 (2011 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Sampang Gun, Sampang Gung, Sampang Kha, Sampange Rai, Sangpang, Sangpang Gun, Sangpang Gîn, Sangpang Kha. Dialects: Phali, Khotang. Mutual intelligibility between the Khartamcha variety and the Patheka variety of the Khotang dialect is high. Mutual intelligibility between the Khotang and Phali Sampang dialect is difficult to estimate but appears to be low. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Sanskrit
[san] Widely dispersed. 3,000 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 3,000 (2011 census). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Deva Bhasha, Deva vani, Sanskrit bhasha. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Hindu, Buddhist.

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Santhali
[sat] Kosi zone: Morang and Sunsari districts; Mechi zone: Jhapa district. 50,880 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 49,900 (2011 census), increasing. L2 users: 980 (2011 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 51,700 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Satar (Santhal). Alternate Names: Har, Har Rar, Hor, Sainti, Sandal, Sangtal, Santal, Santali, Santhal, Satar, Sentali, Sonthal. Classification: Austro-Asiatic, Munda, North Munda, Kherwari, Santali. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Seke
[skj] Dhawalagiri zone: Mustang district, Chuksang, Gyakar, Tangbe, Tetang, and Tsaile villages; Jomsom and Pokhara. 700 (2002 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tangbe. Dialects: Tangbe, Tetang, Chuksang. Reportedly similarities with Thakali [ths] and Manangba [nmm]. Very different from Loke [loy]. Tangbe dialect speakers do not understand the Chuksang dialect very well, but the Chuksang understand Tangbe. Reportedly understand Gurung [gvr] but Gurung do not understand Seke. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic. Comments: Seke villages are surrounded by Baragaunle [loy] speaking villages. Buddhist.

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Sherpa
[xsr] Bagmati zone: northeast Sindhupalchok district; Janakpur zone: Dolakha and Ramechhap districts; Sagarmatha zone: Solu Khumbu district. 153,180 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 145,000 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 8,180 (2011 census). A few elderly monolinguals in remote villages (UNESCO). Ethnic population: 113,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 172,280 (as L1: 164,100; as L2: 8,180). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Sherpa. Alternate Names: Serwa, Sharpa, Sherwi tamnye, Xiaerba, “Sharpa Bhotia” (pej.). Dialects: East Sherpa (Dolakha, Ramechhap), West Sherpa, Central Sherpa (Solu, South Sherpa), North Sherpa (Khumbu). 95% comprehension of Solu dialect by Western and Khumbu. Lexical similarity: 90% between Solu and Khumbu dialects; 67% with Jirel [jul]; 65% with Helambu Sherpa [scp]; 62% with Loke [loy] and Dolpo [dre]; 58% with Lhomi [lhm] and Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 57% with Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 55% with Nubri [kte] and Walungge [ola]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Tourism and increased wealth have given Sherpas the financial means to send their children to Kathmandu and abroad for education contributing to language shift. Buddhist, Christian.

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Sonha
[soi] Bheri zone: Surkhet district along Bheri river; Bardia district, Daulatpur VDC, Murgawagaon; Mahakali zone: along Mahakali river; Kanchanpur district, Bhimadatta VDC, Bhimdatta, Odaligaon; Seti zone: Kailali district, along Karnali river. 580 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Sonaha, Sonahaa, Sunah, Sunha. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Avadhi [awa]. Lexical similarity: 69% with Rana Tharu [thr], 73% with Kathariya Tharu [tkt], 72% with Dangaura Tharu [thl]. Sonha and Kathoriya [tkt] form a lexical bridge with Rana and Dangaura varieties of Tharu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Unclassified. Comments: ’Sonha’ is an occupational caste (gold panners). Hindu, Christian, traditional religion.

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Sunwar
[suz] Janakpur zone: Dolakha and Ramechhap districts, east hills; Sagarmatha zone: northwest Okhaldhunga district. 39,760, all users. L1 users: 38,200 (2011 census). 37,900 Sunwar, 290 Surel (2011 census). L2 users: 1,560 (2011 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 55,700 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Surel. Sunuwar. Alternate Names: Bhujuwar, Kiranti-Kõits Lo, Kirati-Koits, Koits Lo, Mukhiya, Pirthwar, Sunuwar, Sunwari. Dialects: Surel. Lexical similarity: more than 80% with Surel dialect. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Daoist, Hindu.

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Syuba
[syw] Janakpur zone: Ramechhap district, a Likhu Khola ridge. 1,500 (2012 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kagate, Shuba, Shuuba, Shuva, Shuwa, Shyuuba, Syuba Tam, Syuuba, Yholmo, Yholmoli, Yholmu, “Kagate Bhote” (pej.). Autonym: स्युबा‎ (Syuba). Dialects: Differs from Helambu Sherpa [scp] by less use of the honorific system in verbs, which makes intelligibility more of a problem for the Syuba. It could be considered a dialect of Helambu Sherpa. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, traditional religion.

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Tamang, Eastern
[taj] Bagmati zone: Kavre Palanchok district; Bhaktapur, Lalitpur, east Nuwakot, and west Sindhupalchowk districts; Narayani zone: Chitwan and Makwanpur districts; Janakpur zone: Dolkha, Ramechhap, and Sindhuli districts; Sagarmatha zone: west Khotang, Okhaldhunga, and Udayapur districts. Bagmati zone: south Dhading district; Narayani zone: Bara, Chitwan, northwest Makwanpur, Parsa, and Rautahat districts; west and northwest Kathmandu district area (Southwestern Tamang dialect); Kathmandu. 1,213,500 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 1,180,000 (2001 census), increasing. Southwestern Tamang: 109,000 (1991 census). Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 33,500 (2011 census). In some remote communities, particularly women, children and elderly people are monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,290,000 (2001 census). Total users in all countries: 1,231,000 (as L1: 1,197,500; as L2: 33,500). Status: 4 (Educational). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang. Alternate Names: Ishang, Murmi, Sei, Tamang, “Bhotia” (pej.). Dialects: Outer-Eastern Tamang (Sailung Tamang), Central-Eastern Tamang (Temal Tamang), Southwestern Tamang (Kath-Bhotiya, Lama Bhote, Murmi, Rongba, Sain, Tamang Gyoi, Tamang Gyot, Tamang Lengmo, Tamang Tam). Central-Eastern most widely understood among all tested to date: 85% by both Trisuli and Rasuwa Western Tamang [tdg], 93%–98% by Outer-Eastern, 87% by Southwestern Tamang. Comprehension of Outer-Eastern 58% by Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 64%–75% by Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 67%–54% by Southwestern Tamang, 88%–93% by Central-Eastern Tamang [taj], and 90%–98% among its own varieties. Southwestern Tamang may be a bridge between Eastern and Western Tamang (Varenkamp 1996). Lexical similarity: 88%–99% with Outer Eastern varieties; 89%–100% with Central Eastern; 79%–93% with Outer Eastern and Central Eastern, 77%–82% with Southwestern Tamang, 86%–93% with Southwestern and Central-Eastern, 74%–80% with Eastern and Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 69%–81% with Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 72%–80% with Northwestern Dhading Tamang [tmk], 63%–77% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge] (Varenkamp 1996). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Tamang, Eastern Gorkha
[tge] Gandaki zone: north Gorkha district, south and east of Jagat. 3,980 (2000). Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang. Dialects: Kasigaon, Kerounja. Lexical similarity: 89% with dialects, 76%–77% with Northwestern (Dhading) Tamang [tmk], 77%–79% with Western (Trisuli) Tamang [tdg], 72%–73% with Western (Rasuwa) Tamang [tdg], 63%–73% with Eastern Tamang [taj] dialects (Varenkamp 1996), 50% with Gurung [gvr], 31%–37% with Northern [ghh] and Southern Ghale [ghe], 18%–23% with Kuke [ght], 14%–16% with Nubri [kte], Tsum [ttz], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 12%–14% with Tibetan [bod] (1992 J. Webster). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang. Comments: Refer to themselves as Gurung, but recognize their language is different. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Tamang, Northwestern
[tmk] Bagmati zone: Nuwakot district, central mountainous strip. 67,200 (2011 census), increasing. Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang. Alternate Names: Kath-Bhotiya, Lama Bhote, Murmi, Rongba, Sain, Tamang Gyoi, Tamang Gyot, Tamang Lengmo, Tamang Tam. Dialects: Dhading. All Western Tamang varieties have high mutual intelligibility. Lexical similarity: 94% with Western Trisuli Tamang [tdg], 82%–83% with Western Rasuwa Tamang [tdg], 76%–77% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 72%–80% with Eastern Tamang [taj]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist.

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Tamang, Western
[tdg] Bagmati zone: Dhading, west Nuwakot, and Rasuwa districts; northeast Sindhupalchok district, Bhote Chaur and Bhote Namlan on Trishuli river west bank; Narayani zone: northwest Makwanpur district, Chakhel, Khulekhani, Markhu, Palung, Phakel, and Tistung; north Kathmandu, Gagal Phedi, Jhor, and Thoka. 356,500, all users. L1 users: 323,000 (2000), increasing. Population for all Tamang varieties: 1,350,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 33,500 (2011 census). Mostly monolingual below school age or over 60 years of age. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tamang. Alternate Names: Murmi, Sain, Tamang Gyot, Tamang Tam. Dialects: Trisuli (Nuwakot), Rasuwa, Northwestern dialect of Western Tamang (Dhading), Southwestern dialect of Western Tamang. Preliminary results showed 86% intelligibility of Rasuwa dialect, 81%–88% of Central-Eastern [taj], 78%–88% of Outer-Eastern [taj], 86% of Southwestern [taj]; 80% of Rasuwa with Trisuli, up to 70% of Outer-Eastern [taj]. Lexical similarity: 94% between Trisuli dialect and Northwestern Tamang [tmk], 82%–83% with Rasuwa, 80% with Southwestern Tamang [taj], 77%–79% with Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 82%–83% between Rasuwa and Northwestern [tmk], 78% with Southwestern [taj], 72% with Eastern Gorkha [tge], 69%–81% between Western varieties and Eastern Tamang varieties. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Tamang. Comments: Murmi is the ethnonym used by the Lepcha and Kirati communities and Sain by the Newar. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian.

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Thakali
[ths] Dhawalagiri zone: Mustang district, Thak Khola, mid Kali Gandaki valley, Annapurna Himal on one side and Dhawalagiri Himal on the other, Tatopani village south to Jomsom north. Tukuche to Thaksatsae, in 13 villages: Bhurjungkot, Dampu, Ghansa, Khanti, Kobang, Kunjo, Larjung, Lete, Nakung, Naurikot, Taglung, Tithi, and Tukuche (Tukuche dialect). Many live outside the area. 6,000, all users. L1 users: 5,240 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 760 (2011 census). Ethnic population: 13,200 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Thakali, Chhairotan, Marphali Thakali, Tieengaule Thakali. Alternate Names: Barhagaule, Panchgaunle, Tapaang, Thaksya. Dialects: Tukuche (Tamhang Thakali, Thaksaatsaye, Thaksatsae), Marpha (Puntan Thakali), Syang (Yhulkasom). Thakali dialects have 91%–97% inherent intelligibility. Tukuche dialect most easily understood by others. Tukuche is cultural center and the most prestigeous dialect. Lexical similarity: 41%–46% with Gurung [gvr], 46%–51% with Tamang languages (1994 J. Webster). Thakali dialects in 4 villages have 75%–86% lexical similarity. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, West Bodish, Gurung-Tamang, Gurungic. Comments: Marpha dialect is in an endogamous village. People of Marpha, Syang, Thini, Chhairo, and Chimang villages are sometimes collectively known as Panchgaunle (5 villages), the name used for both the ethnic group and language. Buddhist, Christian, traditional religion.

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Thangmi
[thf] Bagmati zone: Sindhupalchok district, villages east; Janakpur zone: Dolakha district, villages north and west; Ramechhap district, Sailung Khola villages; Kathmandu. 23,580 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 23,200 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 380 (2011 census). 100 monolinguals (2002 UNESCO). Ethnic population: 35,000 (Turin 2007). 28,700 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 24,380 (as L1: 24,000; as L2: 380). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Thami. Alternate Names: Thami, Thangmi Kham, Thangmi Wakhe, Thani. Dialects: Eastern Thangmi (Dolakha), Western Thangmi (Sindhupalchok). Related to Baram [brd] (Grierson and Konow 1903–1928). Some cognates with Dolakha dialect of Newar [new]. Dolakha and Sindhupalchok dialects are not mutually intelligible. Differ in phonology, nominal and verbal morphology and lexicon. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Central Himalayan, Thangmi-Baraamu. Comments: Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Tharu, Dangaura
[thl] Bheri zone: Banke, Bardiya, and Surkhet districts; Lumbini zone: Kapilvastu and Rupandehi districts; Mahakali zone: Kanchanpur district; Rapti zone: Dang district; Seti zone: Kailali district. 500,000 (2003), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). 28,500 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 674,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu. Alternate Names: Dangaha, Dangali, Dangauli, Dangora, Dangura, Tharu. Dialects: Dangaha (Dang). 68%–91% intelligibility of Rana Tharu [thr], 95% to 97% of Kathoriya [tkt]. Some intelligibility difficulty with speakers from India. Possibly Eastern Hindi Group. Lexical similarity: 85% with Deukhuri, 83% with Malhoriya, 72%–74% with Sonha [soi], 63%–72% with Rana Tharu [thr], 76% with Desauriya, 61%–67% with Madhya Ksetriya Tharu [the], 70% with Kathariya Tharu [tkt], 58%–65% with Hindi [hin], 46%–52% with Madhya Purbiya Tharu [thq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Tharu, Kathariya
[tkt] Seti zone: Kailali district, Chauha, Durgauli, Hasuliya, Joshipur, Lalbojhi, Munuwa, Pahalmanpur, Patharaiya, Thapapur, and Udasipur VDCs. 106,000 (2006). Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu. Alternate Names: Kathariya, Kathoriya Tharu, Tharu. Dialects: Speech differences between Nepal and India dialects. Lexical similarity: 70%–76% with Dangaura Tharu [thl] and Rana Tharu [thr], 66% with Hindi [hin], 66%–69% with Buksa [tkb], 63% with Madhya Ksetriya Tharu [the], 51%–59% with Madhya Purbiya Tharu [thq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Tharu, Madhya Ksetriya
[the] Gandaki zone: Tanahu district; Lumbini zone: Nawalparasi district; Narayani zone: Bara, Chitwan, Makwanpur, Parsa, and Rautahat districts. 285,000 (2001 census), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu. Alternate Names: Chitwania Tharu. Autonym: मध्य क्षेत्रीय थारू‎ (Madhya Ksetriya Tharu). Dialects: Nawalparasi (Laulpuriya Tharu, Nawalpuriya Tharu), Chitwan (Chitoniya Tharu, Chitwan Tharu, Chitwania Tharu, Chitwaniya). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Tharu, Madhya-Purbiya
[thq] Kosi zone: Morang and Sunsari districts; Mechi zone: Jhapa district; Narayani zone: Bara, Parsa, and Rautahat districts; Sagarmatha zone: Saptari and Udayapur districts. 258,000 (2003), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Mostly illiterate older women are monolingual. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu, Dhanuk. Alternate Names: Kochila Tharu, मध्य-पूर्विया थारू. Dialects: Saptari (Saptariya Tharu), Morang, Udayapur, Sunsari, Siraha, Mahottari, Sarlahi, Dhanusa, Rautahat, Bara, Parsa. Each district has a different variety. Dialect names refer to districts. Lexical similarity: 51%–59% with Kathariya Tharu, 46%–52% with Dangaura Tharu. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: Tharu from each district usually take the district name as a more specific name or identity. Other Tharu in Siraha, Udayapur, and Saptari districts who call themselves Kochila but speak Sapatariya Tharu. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tharu, Rana
[thr] Mahakali zone: Kanchanpur district; Seti zone: Kailali district. 336,000 (2006), increasing. Population for all Tharu varieties: 1,530,000 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 486,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Tharu. Alternate Names: Tharu, Tharuwa. Dialects: 96%–99% intelligibility among dialects, 90% of Kathariya [tkt], 51%–88% reported of Dangaura [thl]. Differences with dialects in India. Reportedly similar to Awadhi (Avadhi) [awa]. Lexical similarity: 83%–97% among dialects, 73%–79% with Buksa, 74%–79% with Kathariya [tkt], 70%–73% with Sonha [soi], 63%–71% with Dangaura [thl], 56%–60% with Madhya Ksetriya Tharu [the], 68%–72% with Hindi [hin]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Eastern, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu, Christian.

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Thudam
[thw] Kosi zone: Sankhuwasabha district, Chepuwa VDC, Thudam village. 1,800 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Thudam. Dialects: None known. Similar to Walungge [ola] in Nepal and to the varieties spoken in the villages of Kudo and Sar in Tibet (Von Fürer-Haimendorf 1975). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified. Comments: Culturally akin to the Walungs. Buddhist, Christian.

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Thulung
[tdh] Kosi zone: Bhojpur district, 1 village; Sagarmatha zone: southeast Solukhumbu district, Deusa, Jubu, Lokhim, Mukli, Necha, Panchan, Salyan, and Tingla VDCs; Khotang district, Salle, Jaleswori, and Maheswori VDCs; Okhaldhunga district, Tuintar VDC, 6 or 7 villages. 22,300 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 20,700 (2011 census). Thulung communities also in Bhojpur and Sankhuwasabha districts, scattered in Udayapur, Morang, Panchthar, and Ilam districts. Migrants may not speak Thulung as L1. L2 users: 1,600 (2011 census). A few elderly monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 22,300 (as L1: 20,700; as L2: 1,600). Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Tholong Lo, Thulu Luwa, Thululoa, Thulung Jemu, Thulung La, Thulunge Rai, Toaku Lwa. Dialects: Northern Thulung (Deusa Lwa), Southern Thulung (Necha Lwa), Central Thulung (Mukli Lwa), Eastern Thulung (Jubu Lwa, Lokhim Lwa). Many cognates with Khaling [klr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Interest in development among cultural associations (Thulung Rai Society). Traditional religion, Buddhist, Christian, Hindu.

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Tibetan
[bod] Mainly Kathmandu and Pokhara; Sagarmatha zone: two small areas in Solukhumbu district; scattered refugee communities along China border. 4,450 (2011 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Spoken as a trade language among Bodish groups in Nepal. Alternate Names: Bhotia, Bod Skad, Central Tibetan, Phoke, Poke, Zang Wen. Dialects: Utsang, Diaspora Tibetan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central. Comments: Buddhist, Christian.

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Tichurong
[tcn] Karnali zone: Dolpa district, Thuli Bheri river basin. 2,420 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ticherong. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Dolpo [dre]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Culturally distinct from Dolpo. Buddhist.

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Tilung
[tij] Sagarmatha zone: south Khotang district, Chyasmitar VDC, on Halesi Range last ridge, on Sunkosi river bank. 20 (2015 SIL), decreasing. Status: 8a (Moribund). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Tiling, Tilling, Tilung Blama. Dialects: Choskule, Dorunkecha. Choskule and Dorungkecha dialects may be related languages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Geographically isolated community. Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Tsum
[ttz] Gandaki zone: north Gorkha district, Tsum valley, the region drained by the Shiar Khola; Chekampar (Chokong) is prestige village. 4,790 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Siyar. Alternate Names: Tsumba, Tsumge. Dialects: None known. 71%–78% intelligibility of Nubri [kte], 66% of Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy]; 60%–66% of Lhasa Tibetan [bod]; 22%–25% of Northern Ghale [ghh], 14%–22% of Southern Ghale [ghe], 23%–27% of Kuke [ght]; 6% of Eastern Gorkha Tamang [tge], 14% of Gurung [gvr], 15% of Banspur Tamang. Divided into upper region, Yarba, and lower region, Ushug. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Central, gTsang. Comments: Buddhist.

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Urdu
[urd] Janakpur, Kosi, Mechi, Narayani, and Sagarmatha zones: scattered inlowland districts; some in Bheri zone. 737,800 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 692,000 (2011 census). L2 users: 45,800 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Waling
[wly] Kosi zone: Bhojpur district, Khairang and Ranibas VDCs. No known L1 speakers (2011). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Walung, Walüng. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern.

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Walungge
[ola] Mechi zone: Taplejung district, Gunsa and upper Tamar valleys; Kosi zone: small area. 1,170 (2011 census), decreasing. Mostly in original area. High language loss among those who have left the language area. Ethnic population: 1,150 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Walung, Topkegola. Alternate Names: Halung, Halungge, Olangchung Gola, Waling, Walongchung Gola, Walung, Walungchung Gola, Walunggi Keccya. Dialects: Olangchung Gola (Upper Tamar River), Topke Gola (Mewa River), Ghunsa River. High intelligibility of Thudam [thw]. Reportedly similar to Tibetan dialect in Tingay District of Tibet. Lexical similarity: 71% with Lhasa Tibetan [bod], 68% with Dolpo [dre], Loke [loy], and Kyerung (Kyirong) [kgy], 66% with Lhomi [lhm] and Helambu Sherpa [scp], 64% with Nubri [kte], 57% with Jirel [jul], 55% with Sherpa [xsr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Unclassified. Comments: Cut off from the Lhomi, with more links to Tibet. Some intermarriage with Lhomi and Tibetan. The people call themselves Sherpa. They do not have a specific language name which groups all varieties of the language together and distinguishes the language from other Tibetan languages. The word “Walungge” comes from a name of one of the main villages in the language area. Buddhist.

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Wambule
[wme] Sagarmatha zone: south Okhaldhunga district, Rikdum, Lukuvapani, Wamdyal (Ubu), Huku, Sikapu, Tarkomdada, Salle, Dhepti, Dhaircaur, Khayapu, Lorphe, Thulacaur, Moli, Vaksa, Leva, Sinju, Gairigau, Dhemdalu, Kopsepu, Phasku, and Serankhu (Wamdyal dialect); south Okhaldhunga district, Pipale, Bhadare, Hilepani, Thakle, Mandhare, Sokma Tar, Dundunma, Jakma, Jerun, Ricuva, and Lambole (Hilepane dialect); south Okhaldhunga district, Udayapur, Phedigau, Barasi, Ghiramdi, Simkaku, and Peku (Udayapur dialect); west Khotang district, Kurleghat, Majhkhani, Byanditar, Rupatar, Kharka, Cuvabot, Jhapa, Lurkhudada, Vaitar, Balui, Thumka, Pakauci, Goviar, Gurdum, Jayaram Gha, Bahuni Dada, Todke, Limlun, Damli, Vetagau, and Temtuku (Jhappali dialect); Sagarmatha zone, north Udaypur district; Janakpur zone, northeast Sindhuli district, Lekhani, Ghurmi, Salle, Sorun, Salleni, Pallo Salleni, Sindure, Majhkhani, Bhirpani, Kusumtar, and Jortighat (Hilepane dialect). 13,500 (2011 census). A few elderly monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Ambule, Caurasia, Chaurasia, Chaurasya, Chourase, Chourasia, Ombule, Radu Yor, Tsaurasya, Umbule, Vambucauras Raduyor, Vambule, Vambule Radu Yor, Vambule Yor. Autonym: वाम्बुले‎ (Vāmbule). Dialects: Bonu, Wamdyal, Udaipure, Hilepane, Jhappali. Dialects appear adequately mutually inherently intelligible. Jerung [jee] and Wambule are mutually intelligible (Opgenort 2004). Lexical similarity: 93% with Jerung [jee] (Opgenort 2005). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Wayu
[vay] Janakpur zone: Ramechhap district, Mudajor and Sukajor villages; Sindhuli district, Manedihi village in Sun Koshi valley. 1,520 (2011 census), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 2,930 (2011 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Hayu. Alternate Names: Bayu, Hayu, Vayu, Wayo. Dialects: Sindhuli, Marin Khola. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Western. Comments: Strong Nepali [npi] influences in phonology, lexicon, and grammar (Matisoff 1991). Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Yakkha
[ybh] Kosi zone: south Sankhuwasabha and east Dhankuta districts, east to Arun river. South Sankhuwasabha and adjoining extreme north Dhankuta district (Northern Yakkha dialect); Dhankuta district (Southern Yakkha dialect). 21,090 in Nepal, all users. L1 users: 19,600 (2011 census), decreasing. L2 users: 1,490 (2011 census). Very few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 24,300 (2011 census). Total users in all countries: 21,900 (as L1: 20,410; as L2: 1,490). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Yakkha. Alternate Names: Dewansala, Yakha, Yakkha Ceya, Yakkhaba, Yakkhaba Cea, Yakkhaba Sala, Yakthomba. Dialects: Northern Yakkha (Sankhuwasabha), Southern Yakkha (Dhankuta), Eastern Yakkha (Ilam, Panchthar). Dialects have minimal diversity. Lexical similarity: with Athpariya [aph], Limbu [lif], and Yamphu [ybi]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Considered by many a distinct group of Kirati not fitting neatly into either Rai or Limbu groups (Bista 1996:39); in terms of mythology and people’s own judgment, they seem closer to Limbu than to Rai groups. Traditional religion, Buddhist, Hindu.

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Yakkha, Chhathare
[luu] Kosi zone: Dhankuta district, 6 villages in Arkhaule Jitpur and Marek Katahare VDCs. 1,200 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lumba-Yakkha, Yakkhaba Cea. Dialects: They understand Yakkha [ybh], but Yakkha speakers have difficulty in understanding them. No perceived dialect differences within the six villages. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: The north part (village of Marek) is most vital and populous area. The Chhathare villages to the south and west no longer speak the language, some loss in the east. Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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Yamphu
[ybi] Kosi zone: Bhojpur district; Sankhuwasabha district, Matsayapokhari VDC, Ala, Hedangna, Karmarang, Num, Mangsimma, Peppuwa, Seduwa, Tungkhaling, Uling, Uwa, and Walung villages, in upper Arun valley eastern hills, extreme north Lorung area. 9,210 (2011 census), decreasing. Ethnic population: 6,810 (2011 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Yamphe, Yamphu Kha, Yamphu Rai. Dialects: The Yamphu Rai are most closely related to Lohorung [lbr] and Mewahang. 61% intelligibility of Lohorung [lbr]. Lexical similarity: 84%–90% between dialects, 74%–84% with Southern Yamphu [lrr], 64%–67% with Lohorung [lbr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Traditional religion, Hindu.

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Yamphu, Southern
[lrr] Kosi zone: Dhankuta district, Bhedetar, Bodhe, Mounabudhuk, and Rajarani; north Sankhuwasabha district, Devitar and Matsya Pokhari, between the Jaruwakhola east and the Raghuwkhola west. 2,500 (2011 SIL), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Language of recognized indigenous nationality: Rai. Alternate Names: Lohorong, Lohrung, Lohrung Khap, Lohrung Khate, Southern Lohorung, Southern Lorung, Yakkhaba Lorung, Yamphu. Dialects: Gessa, Yamphe (Newahang Yamphe, Yakkhaba, Yakkhaba Khap, Yamphe Kha). 61% intelligibility of Lohorung [lbr], 43%–58% (depending on site) intelligibility of Yamphu [ybi]. A Rai group, most closely related to Yamphu [ybi], but distinct in grammar and phonology (Hansson 1991). Lexical similarity: 84%–89% between Southern Yamphu varieties, 74%–83% with Yamphu [ybi], 65%–68% with Lohorung [lbr]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Himalayan, Kiranti, Eastern. Comments: Speakers of the language identify themselves ethnically as ‘Yamphu’. Hansson (1991) described this group as two separate languages, “Yamphu” and “Southern Lorung” (cf. Ethnologue, 16th edition and earlier). Traditional religion, Christian, Hindu.

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