[sab] Veraguas province: from highlands to Caribbean coast; Ngobe Bugle province: Kusapin, Muna, and Nurum districts. 18,000 (2012 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bobota, Bocota, Bofota, Bogota, Bokota, Bukueta, Murire, Nortenyo, Veraguas Sabanero. Dialects: Sabanero, Bokotá. Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Guaymiíc. Comments: Those in Chiriquí live among the Guaymí, with whom they are often confused (Adelaar 2007).
[emp] Darién province: Chepigana district; Emberá province; Panamá province: Chepos and Chiman districts; lowland jungle along rivers, Gulf San Miguel area. 22,500 (2012 SIL). Total users in all countries: 72,200. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Atrato, Chocó, Cholo, Darien, Darien Emberá, Ebera Bedea, Empera, Panama Embera. Autonym: Embera. Dialects: Related languages in order of closeness: Emberá-Catíoc[cto], Emberá-Baudó [bdc], Emberá-Tadó [tdc], Epena [sja], Emberá-Chamí [cmi], and Wounmeu [noa]. Panama and Colombia dialects are inherently intelligible. Northern Embera of the Upper Baudó area and downriver Emberá-Baudó are inherently intelligible. Classification: Chocoan, Emberá, Northern Emberá. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.
Kuna, San Blas
[cuk] Colón province: Guna Yala comarca, Metro Colón; Panamá province: Metro Panama City. 57,100 (2000). 10,000 in Panama City, Colón, and on banana plantations (1991 SIL). Ethnic population: 80,500 (2011 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2010, Law 88, 22 November 2010). Alternate Names: Cuna, Guna, San Blas Cuna. Dialects: Chuana, Bayano (Alto Bayano, Maje). Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan B, Eastern Chibchan, Cuna. Comments: Christian.
[gym] Bocas del Toro province: Bocas del Toro and Changuinola districts; Chiriquí province: western districts, Tole district in east; Ngobe Bugle province; western Veraguas province. 169,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 171,840. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chiriqui, Guaymí, Ngobere, Ngäbe, Valiente. Autonym: Ngäbere. Dialects: Valiente, Eastern Guaymí (Chiriquí, Tolé). Classification: Chibchan, Chibchan A, Guaymiíc.
Panamanian Creole English
[jam] Bocas del Toro province: Colón island; Colón province: Colón district; Panamá province: Rio Abajo in Panama City. 268,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Guari Guari, Patois, Southwestern Caribbean Creole English. Classification: Creole, English based, Atlantic, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ancestors came from Barbados and Jamaica in mid-19th century to work in fruit plantations, and later to build the railway and canal. Influences from both eastern and western Caribbean Creole English.
Panamanian Sign Language
[lsp] Scattered. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lengua de señas panameñas. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Deaf people in the Chiriqui province of Panama assert that their sign variety, Lengua de Señas de Chiriquí (LSCH, Chiriqui Sign Language), is distinct from Panamanian Sign Language as used predominantly in the Panama-Colon corridor. They are currently working on creating their own sign language dictionary.
San Miguel Creole French
[spa] Widespread. 3,404,000 in Panama, all users. 2,880,000 (2013). 524,000 (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1972, Constitution, Article 7). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.
[noa] Darién, Emberá, and Panamá provinces: southeast lowlands along Panama Bay. 6,800 (Adelaar 2007). Many monolinguals (Adelaar 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Chanco, Chocama, Noanama, Noenama, Nonama, Waumeo, Waun Meo, Waunana, Woun Meo, Wounaan, Wounaan Meu, Wounmeu. Classification: Chocoan. Comments: Non-indigenous.