Peru

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Achuar-Shiwiar
[acu] Loreto region: Ecuador border, between Morona and Tigre rivers. 4,420 in Peru (2007 census). Majority are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Achual, Achuale, Achuar, Achuar Chicham, Achuara, Jivaro, Maina. Dialects: Shiwiar, Achuar. Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Aguano
[aga] Loreto region: lower Huallaga and upper Samiria rivers, right bank tributary of Marañon river. No known L1 speakers. Ethnic population: 40 families in Santa Cruz de Huallaga. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Aguanu, Awano, Santa Crucino, Uguano. Classification: Unclassified.

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Ajyíninka Apurucayali
[cpc] Huanuco, Pasco, and Ucayali regions: Apurucayali tributary, Pachitea river. 4,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ajyéninka, “Apurucayali Campa” (pej.), Ashaninca, Ashéninca Apurucayali, “Axininka Campa” (pej.), “Campa” (pej.), “Kampa” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with other varieties of Ashéninka. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga.

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Amahuaca
[amc] Madre de Dios and Ucayali regions: scattered on Aguaytía, Curanja, Curiuja, Inuya, Las Piedras, Mapuya, Purus, Sepahua, Upper Ucayali, and Yuruá rivers; Southeast Amazon basin. 300 in Peru (2007 census), decreasing. 20 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 500. 300 in Peru; 200 in Brazil; perhaps 50 not contacted in border areas. Total users in all countries: 520. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Amaguaco, Amahuaka, Amajuaca, Amawaka, Ameuhaque, Ipitineri, Ipitnere, Sayaco, Yora. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State, Amawaka. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Amarakaeri
[amr] Madre de Dios region: Madre de Dios and Colorado rivers. 1,910 (2007 census). Ethnic population: 1,620 (Crevels 2007). Includes Huachipaeri [hug]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Amaracaire, Amarakaire, Kareneri, Kochimberi, Küpondirideri, “Mashco” (pej.), Wakitaneri, Wintaperi. Dialects: Kisambaeri. Harakmbet languages not Arawakan. Classification: Harákmbut. Comments: Amarakaeri and Huachipaeri [hug] are considered to be dialects of the same language, Harakbut.

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Andoa
[anb] Loreto region: Andoas town on Pastaza river. No known L1 speakers. Last known speaker died in 1993. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Gae, Gaye, Semigae, Shimigae. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Záparo [zro] (Kayapwe) of Ecuador. Classification: Zaparoan, Záparo, Arabela-Andoa.

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Arabela
[arl] Loreto region: Arabela river, tributary of the Napo. 2 villages. 50 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 400 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Chiripuno, Chiripunu, Tapueyocaca. Classification: Zaparoan, Záparo, Arabela-Andoa. Comments: Pananuyuri is a division of the Arabela.

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Asháninka
[cni] Apurimac, Ayacucho, Cusco, Junin, and Ucayali regions: Apurimac, Ene, Perene, and Tambo rivers and tributaries. 35,200 (2007 SIL). 2007 census lists 63,000, which includes all varieties of Ashaninka and Asheninka. Ethnic population: 35,200 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Asháninca, Ashinanca, “Campa” (pej.), “Kampa” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Partially intelligible with Ashéninka varieties, Caquinte [cot] and Matsigenka [mcb]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa.

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Ashéninka, Pajonal
[cjo] Junin, Pasco, and Ucayali regions: central Gran Pajonal area. 12,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 12,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ashéninca, Atsiri, “Campa” (pej.), Pajonal. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga.

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Ashéninka, Perené
[prq] Junin region: upper Perené river. 300 (Mihas 2014). Ethnic population: 5,500 (2001 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ashéninca, Perené, “Perené Campa” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Phonological and grammatical differences from other Asheninka varieties. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ashéninka, Pichis
[cpu] Pasco region: Pichis river and tributaries except Apurucayali. 10,700 (2007 census). Includes Ajyninka Apurucayal [cpc]. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Pichis Ashéninca, “Pichis Campa” (pej.). Dialects: Bajo Pichís. Somewhat intelligible with other Ashéninka languages. Bajo Pichis variety that is spoken on the Anacayali has many features of Pajonal Asheninka [cjo]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga.

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Ashéninka, South Ucayali
[cpy] Ucayali region: upper Ucayali river and tributaries. 13,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 14,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Pajonal Ashéninka [cjo]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Ashéninka, Ucayali-Yurúa
[cpb] Huanuco and Ucayali regions: Arruya, Cohengua, Inuya, Shahuaya, Sheshea rivers, Ucayali river tributaries of Pachitea, Yurúa river. 7,000 in Peru (2001 SIL). Total users in all countries: 7,870. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ucayali Ashéninca. Dialects: None known. Somewhat intelligible with other Ashéninka varieties. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga.

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Aushiri
[avs] Loreto region: Escuelacocha, Napo river right bank tributaries. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Auxira. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Similar to Arabela [arl] (1987 M. Wise).

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Awajún
[agr] Amazonas, Cajamarca, Loreto, and San Martin regions: upper west Marañon river area; Cahuapanas, Mayo, and Potro rivers. 53,600 (2007 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Aguajún, Aguaruna, Ahuajún, Awajunt. Classification: Jivaroan. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Awishira
[ash] Loreto region: Lake Vacacocha, Napo river, Puerto Elvira. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Abigira, Abiquira, Abishira, Agouisiri, Auishiri, Avirxiri, Ixignor, Tekiraka, Tequiraca, Vacacocha. Classification: Unclassified.

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Aymara, Central
[ayr] Moquegua, Puno, and Tacna regions: Lake Titicaca area. 442,000 in Peru (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Aimara, Aymara. Classification: Aymaran, Aymara. Comments: Lupaca is the main literary dialect.

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Aymara, Southern
[ayc] Moquegua, Puno, and Tacna regions: Lake Titicaca toward the ocean. 213,000 (2011 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Important verb forms and vocabulary differences from Central Aymara [ayr]. Dialect intelligibility needs investigation in Tacna and Moquegua (Landerman 1982). A member of macrolanguage Aymara [aym]. Classification: Aymaran, Aymara.

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Bora
[boa] Loreto region: Ampiyacu, Putumayo, northeast Yaguasyacu rivers. 5 villages. 750 in Peru (2007 census). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 850. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2011, Law No. 29735, Preservation and Use of Original Languages of Peru). Alternate Names: Booraa, Miamunaa, Miraña. Dialects: None known. Distinct from Bora Muinane [bmr] but related. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Bora-Muinane.

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Cahuarano
[cah] Loreto region: Maynas province, Nanay river headwaters. No known L1 speakers (2012 SIL). Last speaker died in the late 1980s or early 1990s. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Zaparoan, Iquito-Cahuarano. Comments: Probably a dialect of Iquitu [iqu].

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Capanahua
[kaq] Loreto region: Tapiche-Buncuya rivers area. 50 (Crevels 2007). Some may be in voluntary isolation (2013 Ministry of Education). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 390 (2007 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Capa Baquebo, Capanawa, Kapanawa, Nuquencaibo. Dialects: Pahenbaquebo. Lexical similarity: 50%–60% with Shipibo [shp]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo. Comments: “Capacho” is a pejorative term. Christian, traditional religion.

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Caquinte
[cot] Cusco and Junin regions: Picha, Poyeni, and Mayapo rivers, upper Poyeni river, which flows into Tambo Yori and Agueni rivers which become Mipaya river flowing into the Urubamba; a few on Sensa and Vitiricaya rivers, affluents of the Urubamba. 300 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 300. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Aguenquetsatsare, “Cachomashiri” (pej.), Caquinte Campa, Kakinte, Poyenisati. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Asháninka [cni]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Machiguenga.

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Chamicuro
[ccc] Loreto region: Pampa Hermosa on Huallaga tributary. 2 (Adelaar 2004). Ethnic population: 100 (2015 S. Parker). Virtually all inhabitants of Pampa Hermosa are ethnic Chamicuro. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Chamicolo, Chamicura. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Western. Comments: Many Chamicuro were dislocated to the Yavarí and Napo Rivers and to Brazil (Adelaar and Muysken 2007).

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Cholón
[cht] Huanuco and San Martin regions: Tingo María to Valle, Huallaga river valley. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Seeptsa, Tinganeses. Dialects: None known. Ruhlen classifies it as Andean; Adelaar as in Hibito-Cholon family. Classification: Cholonan.

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Culina
[cul] Ucayali region: near Brazil border, upper Purus and Santa Rosa rivers. 400 in Peru (2002 J. Boyer), increasing. Primarily monolingual. Ethnic population: 400. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Law No. 29735, Preservation and Use of Original Languages of Peru). Alternate Names: Kollina, Kulina, Kulino, Kulyna, Kurina, Madiha, Madihá, Madija. Classification: Arauan. Comments: Christian.

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Ese Eja
[ese] Madre de Dios region: Maldonado area on Heath and Tambopata rivers. 590 in Peru (2007 census). Ethnic population: 1,090 (2007 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2011, Law No. 29735, Preservation and Use of Original Languages of Peru). Alternate Names: “Chama” (pej.), Ese Ejja, Ese Exa, Ese’ejja, Huarayo, Tambopata-Guarayo, Tiatinagua. Classification: Tacanan, Chama.

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Hibito
[hib] Loreto region: Bobonaje river, Huayabamba tributary entering Huallaga west, Jelache tributary. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Chibito, Ibito, Jibito, Xibita, Zibito. Classification: Cholonan. Comments: In 1851 there were 500.

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Huachipaeri
[hug] Cusco region: Keros and upper Madre de Dios rivers. 310 (2000). Ethnic population: 1,620 (Crevels 2007). Includes Amarakaeri [amr]. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Huachipaire, “Mashco” (pej.), Wachipaeri, Wacipaire. Dialects: Huachipaire, Sapiteri, Toyeri (Toyoeri, Tuyuneri), Arasairi (Arasa, Arasaeri, Arasaire, Araza, Arazaire, Careneri). Reportedly similar to Amarakaeri [amr]. Sapiteri integrating with Amarakaeri. Toyeri is similar to Sapiteri. Some Kisambaeri (Amarakaeri dialect) integrated with the Toyeri and others with Sapiteri. Manuquiari may be a subgroup of Toyeri or Huachipaeri. Pukirieri may be a subgroup of Toyeri or Arasairi. Arasairi is distinct from Amarakaeri or Huachipaeri; similar to Sapiteri. Classification: Harákmbut.

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Huitoto, Murui
[huu] Loreto region: Ampiyacu, Napo, and Putumayo rivers; between Iquitos, Peru and Leticia, Colombia. 1,000 in Peru (1995 SIL), decreasing. 1,130 Huitoto in Peru (Crevels 2007). Very few monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 7,800. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Bue, Murui, Witoto. Dialects: Mica. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto, Proto-Minica-Murai. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Iñapari
[inp] Madre de Dios region: Puerto Maldonado area on Piedras river, mouth of Sabaluyo. 4 (1999 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Inamari. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro.

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Iquitu
[iqu] Loreto region: Atalaya and San Antonia on Chambira, Nanay, and Pintoyacu rivers. 35 (2002 SIL), decreasing. 1 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 520 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2011, Law No. 29735, Preservation and Use of Original Languages of Peru). Alternate Names: Akenóiri, Amacacore, Hamacore, Ikito, Iquita, Iquito, Puca-Uma, Quiturran. Dialects: Pintuyacu. Cahuarano [cah] may be a dialect. Classification: Zaparoan, Iquito-Cahuarano. Comments: In 1958–1966 there were 100 speakers on the verge of extinction and acculturation to Spanish-speaking society. Children understood but did not speak, adults were bilingual with Spanish, older people understood Spanish, but only spoke Iquito. Speakers died from measles, whooping cough, and pneumonia. The rubber boom and landowner (patron) system had devastating effects. Christian.

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Isconahua
[isc] Loreto and Ucayali regions: Callaria river. 82 (2000). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Iscobaquebu, Iskobákebo. Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Shipibo [shp]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State, Amawaka.

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Jaqaru
[jqr] Lima region: Yauyos province, Cachuy and Tupe villages; into Ica region. 740 (Adelaar 2004). 730 Jaqaru, 11 Kawki. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2011, Law No. 29735, Preservation and Use of Original Languages of Peru). Alternate Names: Aru, Haqaru, Haq’aru, Haqearu. Dialects: Cauqui (Cachuy, Kawki). Lexical similarity: 73% with Aymara [ayr], 79% with Cauqui dialect and Aymara. Classification: Aymaran, Tupe.

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Jebero
[jeb] Loreto region: Alto Amazonas province, Jeberos district, between Marañon and Huallaga rivers. 2,400 (2011 J. Leclerc). Ethnic population: 2,500 (2000 W. Adelaar). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2011, Law No. 29735, Preservation and Use of Original Languages of Peru). Alternate Names: Chebero, Shiwilu, Xebero, Xihuila. Classification: Cahuapanan.

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Kakataibo-Kashibo
[cbr] Huanuco, Loreto, and Ucayali regions: Aguaytía, San Alejandro, and Súngaro rivers. 1,900 (2007 census). Some women over 50 monolingual. Ethnic population: 1,900 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Aincacatai, Cachibo, Cacibo, Cahivo, Cashibo-Cacataibo, Caxibo, Hagueti, Incauncanibo, Kashibo, Managua. Dialects: Kakataibo de Mariscal, Kakataibo de Sinchi Roca (Kashibo de Sungaroyacu, Kashibo del Alto Aguaytía), Cashibo. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Cashibo. Comments: Some are in voluntary isolation in the headwaters of the Pisqui, Aguaytía, San Alejandro, Sungaruyacu and Pozuzo rivers. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kandozi-Chapra
[cbu] Loreto region: Chapuli, Huitoyacu, Morona, and Pastaza rivers. 1,120 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 3,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Candoshi, Candoshi-Shapra, Candoxi, Kandoshi, Murato. Dialects: Chapara (Shapra), Kandoashi. May be distantly related to Arawakan; probably not Jivaroan. Classification: Language isolate.

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Kashinawa
[cbs] Ucayali region: Curanja and Purus rivers. 750 in Peru (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 1,000 (Crevels 2007). Total users in all countries: 1,150. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Cashinahua, Caxinawa, Caxinawá, Kashinahua, Kaxinawá, Kaxynawa. Dialects: None known. Possibly most similar to Sharanahua [mcd]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kukama-Kukamiria
[cod] Loreto region: Huallaga, lower Marañon, and northeast lower Ucayali rivers’ area. 250 in Peru (Crevels 2007). Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 15,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Cocama, Cocama-Cocamilla, Huallaga, Kokama, Kokama-Kokamilya, Kukama, Pampadeque, Pandequebo, Ucayali, Xibitaoan. Dialects: Cocamilla, Cocama. Reportedly most similar to Omagua [omg]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Maijuna
[ore] Loreto region: Algodón, Putumayo, Sucusari, and Yanayacu rivers. 220 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 290 (Crevels 2007). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Coto, Koto, Mai Ja, “Orechon” (pej.), “Oregon” (pej.), “Orejón” (pej.), Payagua, Tutapi. Dialects: Nebaji. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan.

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Mashco Piro
[cuj] Madre de Dios region: Purús province; Upper Purús area. 60 (1976 SIL). 60 monolinguals. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cujareno, Cujareño, “Mashco” (pej.). Dialects: None known. About 60% inherent intelligibility of Yine [pib]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro, Piro. Comments: Highly nomadic.

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Matsés
[mcf] Loreto region: lower Yaquerana river and tributaries; lower Yavari on Chobayacu and Gálvez rivers. 1,400 in Peru (2006 SIL). Total users in all countries: 2,230. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Magirona, Majoruna-Matsés, Majuruna, Matses-Mayoruna, Maxirona, Maxuruna, Mayiruna, Mayoruna, Mayuzuna. Classification: Panoan, Mayoruna-Matsés.

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Matsigenka
[mcb] Cusco, Madre de Dios, and Ucayali regions: Camisea, Kompiroshiato, Picha, Manu, Mishagua, Tigompinia, Timpia, and Urubamba rivers. 5,910 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 13,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Machiguenga, Mañaries, Matsiganga, Matsigenga. Dialects: Reportedly most similar to Nomatsiguenga [not]. There are minor dialects. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Machiguenga.

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Muniche
[myr] Loreto region: Muniches on Paranapura river. No known L1 speakers (Michael et al 2013). Three semi-speakers, ages 60–90; 10 remember but not fluent (Michael et al 2013). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Munichi, Munichino, Otanabe, Otanave. Classification: Language isolate.

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Nanti
[cox] Cusco region: headwaters of Camisea and Timpia rivers. 250 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 250 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: “Cogapacori” (pej.), “Kogapakori” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Machiguenga [mcb], but have remained separate. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Nomatsigenga
[not] Junin region: Anapati river system in the foothills, between Ene and Perené rivers. 6,500 (2003 SIL). 5,500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: Ethnic population about the same as the L1 population (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Atiri, Nomatsiguenga, “Nomatsiguenga Campa” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Machiguenga [mcb]. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Campa, Ashéninga. Comments: Bilingual education program (Crevels 2007). Traditional religion, Christian.

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Nonuya
[noj] Loreto region: Maynas province, Putumayo district. No known L1 speakers in Peru (2015 J. Gasché). Ethnic population: 90. Ethnic population covers both Colombia and Peru. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Nononota. Classification: Witotoan. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Ocaina
[oca] Loreto region: Ampuyacu, Putumayo, and Yaguasyacu rivers. 54 in Peru (2000). Ethnic population: 150 (2000 W. Adelaar). Total users in all countries: 194. Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Okaina. Dialects: Dukaiya, Ibo’tsa. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina.

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Omagua
[omg] Loreto region: El Porvenir, Grau, San Joaquín de Omaguas, San Salvador de Omaguas, and other settlements on lower Marañón left bank, near Ucayali river mouth. 10 in Peru (2011). Ethnic population: 630 (1976). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Agua, Anapia, Ariana, Cambeba, Cambeeba, Cambela, Campeba, Canga-Peba, Compeva, Kambeba, Macanipa, Omagua-Yete, Pariana, Umaua, Yhuata. Dialects: None known. Reportedly most similar to Cocama-Cocamilla [cod]. Classification: Tupian, Tupí-Guaraní, Tupí, Cocama.

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Omurano
[omu] Loreto region. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Humurana, Mayna, Numurana, Roamaina, Umurano. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Extinct by 1958.

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Panobo
[pno] Ucayali river mixed with the Shetebo [shp] language group. No known L1 speakers. Last speaker died in 1991. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Huariapano, Manoa, Pana, Pano, Pelado, Wariapano. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Pano.

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Peruvian Sign Language
[prl] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lengua de Signos Peruana, Lenguaje de señas peruana, Lenguaje de señas peruano, LSP. Dialects: Variation in different geographical regions, between generations, and in different religious groups. Variety used in Lima is most prestigious. Signing associated with the Efata school mixes LSP with American Sign Language [ase] (Parks and Parks 2010). Classification: Sign language. Comments: 70 schools include help for the deaf. Of the 11 deaf-only schools, 9 use at least some Peruvian Sign Language; the other 2 are oral and only use Spanish. Sign language used inside school by hearing teachers is reportedly different from what the majority deaf community use. Even though the government tries to integrate deaf students into mainstream educational programs, deaf social gatherings keep Peruvian Sign Language strong. Two deaf villages, near Cusco and Iquitos, may have indigenous sign languages (Parks and Parks 2010).

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Pisabo
[pig] Loreto region: in Matsés [mcf] language group territory, between Tapíche and Blanco rivers. 500 (2011 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Pisagua, Pisahua. Classification: Panoan.

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Quechua
[que] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 7,734,620 Status: Comments: Includes: Ambo-Pasco Quechua [qva], Arequipa-La Unión Quechua [qxu], Ayacucho Quechua [quy], Cajamarca Quechua [qvc], Cajatambo North Lima Quechua [qvl], Calderón Highland Quichua [qud] (Ecuador), Cañar Highland Quichua [qxr] (Ecuador), Chachapoyas Quechua [quk], Chaupihuaranga Quechua [qur], Chimborazo Highland Quichua [qug] (Ecuador), Chincha Quechua [qxc], Chiquián Quechua [qxa], Corongo Ancash Quechua [qwa], Cusco Quechua [quz], Eastern Apurímac Quechua [qve], Huallaga Quechua [qub], Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco Quechua [qvh], Huaylas Ancash Quechua [qwh], Huaylla Wanca Quechua [qvw], Imbabura Highland Quichua [qvi] (Ecuador), Jauja Wanca Quechua [qxw], Lambayeque Quechua [quf], Loja Highland Quichua [qvj] (Ecuador), Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha Quechua [qvm], Napo Quichua [qvo], North Bolivian Quechua [qul] (Bolivia), North Junín Quechua [qvn], Northern Conchucos Ancash Quechua [qxn], Northern Pastaza Quichua [qvz] (Ecuador), Pacaraos Quechua [qvp], Panao Quechua [qxh], Puno Quechua [qxp], Salasaca Highland Quichua [qxl] (Ecuador), San Martín Quechua [qvs], Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco Quechua [qxt], Santiago del Estero Quichua [qus] (Argentina), Sihuas Ancash Quechua [qws], South Bolivian Quechua [quh] (Bolivia), Southern Conchucos Quechua [qxo], Southern Pastaza Quechua [qup], Tena Lowland Quichua [quw] (Ecuador), Yauyos Quechua [qux].

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Quechua, Ambo-Pasco
[qva] Huanuco region: Ambo province, Huacar, San Francisco de Mosca, and San Rafael districts; Lima region; Pasco region: Pasco province, Chaupimarca, Huachón, Huariaca, Ninacaca, Pallanchacra, San Francisco de Asís de Yarusyacán, Simón Bolívar, Ticlacayán, Tinyahuarca, Vicco, and Yanacancha districts. 90,000 (1998 SIL), decreasing. 18,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 90,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: San Rafael-Huariaca Quechua. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah, Alto Pativilca. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quechua, Arequipa-La Unión
[qxu] Arequipa region: La Unión province, Cotahuasi district, Apurímac department, Antabamba province; Ayacucho and Cusco regions. 18,600 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 32,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Arequipa Quechua, Cotahuasi Quechua. Dialects: Cotahuasi, Northern Arequipa, Highland Arequipa, Antabamba (Apurímac). Reportedly more similar linguistically to Cusco than to Ayacucho. Very similar to Eastern Apurímac [qve]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua. Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, Ayacucho
[quy] Ayacucho and Huancavelica regions; Apurimac, Arequipa, Cusco, Ica, Junin, and Lima regions. 900,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 300,000 monolinguals. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Chanka, Runasimi. Dialects: Andahuaylas, Huancavelica. Lexical similarity: 96% with Surcubamba, Puquio, and Cusco [quz]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quechua, Cajamarca
[qvc] Cajamarca region: Chetilla and Los Baños districts; western dialect: Chetilla district, eastern dialect: Porcón and Cajamarca valley areas; La Libertad region: small area on west bank of Rio Marañon. 30,000 (2000 D. Coombs). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Kichwa, Lingwa, Lingwa, Kichwa. Dialects: Western Cajamarca, Eastern Cajamarca. Relatively minor dialect differences. Lexical similarity: 94% with Lambayeque [quf] (most similar), 92% with Pacaraos [qvp]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Yungay, Northern. Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, Cajatambo North Lima
[qvl] Ancash region: Pacllón, La Primavera, and Mangas (south of Llamac, east of Pativilca rivers) districts; Huanuco region; Lima region: Cajatambo, Copa, Huancapón, and northern Manas districts. 7,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 2,800 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. 74% intelligibility of Huamalíes Quechua [qvh]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay. Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, Chachapoyas
[quk] Amazonas region: Chachapoyas and Luya provinces. 7,000 (2003 SIL). 100 monolinguals (2003). Ethnic population: 7,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Amazonas, Llakwash. Dialects: Lamud (West Chachapoyas), Grenada-Mendoza (East Chachapoyas), La Jalca (South Chachapoyas), Llakwash Chachapoyas. Reportedly most similar to San Martín Quechua [qvs]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quechua, Chaupihuaranga
[qur] Pasco region: Chacayan, Chinche, Goyllarisquizqa, Paucar, San Pedro de Pillao, Tapoc, Villcabamba, and Yanahuanca districts; sparsely populated high country, more densely populated valleys. 20,500 (1972 census), decreasing. 8,200 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Daniel Carrion, Yanahuanca Pasco Quechua. Dialects: Many related Quechua dialects intersect here: Junín [qvn], Ambo-Pasco [qva], Santa Ana de Tusi [qxt], Cajatambo [qvl], and Huamalies-Dos de Mayo Huanuco [qvh]. Further intelligibility studies may be needed. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay.

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Quechua, Chincha
[qxc] Huancavelica region: northwest Castrovirreyna province; Ica region: northeast Chincha province; Lima region: southeast Yauyos province. 6,000 (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay. Comments: A highly differentiated linguistic area; many single village varieties. Separate identity from Wanka, Junin, and Ayacucho Quechua.

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Quechua, Chiquián
[qxa] Ancash region: Bolognesi province, Chiquián district, western Bolognesi west of Pativilca river and north of Llamac river; east Ocros, Corpanqui valley border. Western Ocros may be included, but the dialect is a bit different. 10,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 4,000 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Chiquián Ancash Quechua. Dialects: None known. Possibly intelligible of Cajatambo Quechua [qvl]. Some contact of Cajatambo and very little with Huamalíes [qvh]. 73% intelligibility of Huamalíes. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay. Comments: Different identity from Huamalíes and Huaylas. Christian.

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Quechua, Corongo Ancash
[qwa] Ancash region: Corongo province, Aco, Corongo, Cusca, La Pampa, and Yanac districts. Most in Aco and Cusca. 4,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 1,700 monolinguals (2000 SIL). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Huaylas [qwh] and Sihuas [qws] Quechua. Some contact with Sihuas, Northern Conchucos [qxn], and Huaylas by road. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay, Conchucos. Comments: Separate identity from Sihuas, Northern Conchucos, and Huaylas. Christian.

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Quechua, Cusco
[quz] Apurimac, Arequipa, Cusco, Moquegua, Madre de Dios, and Puno regions. 1,500,000 (1989 UBS). Total Quechua in Peru 3,500,000–4,400,000 including Quechua I 750,000, Quechua II 2,680,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). 300,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,500,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Cuzco, Cuzco Quechua, Qheswa, Qheswasimi, Quechua Cusco, Quechua de Cusco-Collao, Quechua Qosqo-Qollaw, Runasimi, Runasimi Qusqu Qullaw. Dialects: Caylloma Quechua, Eastern Apurímac Quechua, Puno Quechua. Some dialect differences, but not as distinct as elsewhere. Substantial phonological and morphological differences with Ayacucho Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Quechua, Eastern Apurímac
[qve] Apurimac region: Abancay, Andahuaylas, Antabamba Ayamaraes, Cotabambas, and Grau provinces; Arequipa region: La Unión province; Ayacucho and Cuzco regions. 200,000 (2002 SIL). 80,000 monolinguals. 30% in towns, 60%–70% in remote areas, especially at high altitudes. Ethnic population: 200,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Apurímac Quechua, Quechua del Este de Apurímac. Dialects: Abancay, Antabamba, Cotabambas. Arequipa-La Unión Quechua [qxu] reportedly very similar to the Antabamba dialect. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua. Comments: Different from Cusco Quechua [quz] and Ayacucho Quechua [quy]. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quechua, Huallaga
[qub] Huanuco region: Huánuco city; some in Ucayali region. 40,000 (1993 SIL). 26,400 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Quechua, Huallaga Huánuco. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah.

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Quechua, Huamalíes-Dos de Mayo Huánuco
[qvh] Huanuco region; San Martin region: Tocache province. 72,400 (2000). 20,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 80,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Monzón, Huamalíes, Northern Dos de Mayo. Lexical similarity: 96% with Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha Quechua [qvm]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah, Alto Pativilca.

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Quechua, Huaylas Ancash
[qwh] Ancash region: Caraz, Carhuaz, and Huaraz provinces; Callejón de Huaylas. 336,000 (2000). 20,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Huaraz Quechua, Quechua. Dialects: Huaraz, Yungay, Huailas (Huaylas). Not intelligible of Cusco [quz], Ayacucho [quy], Huaylla Wanca Quechua [qvw], Cajamarca [qvc], Chachapoyas Quechua [quk], or San Martín Quechua [qvs] (Parker 1976). A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay. Comments: Christian.

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Quechua, Huaylla Wanca
[qvw] Junin region: Concepción and Huancayo provinces; some in Huancavelica and Lima regions. 250,000 (2002 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Huanca Huaylla Quechua, Southern Huancayo Quechua. Dialects: Waycha (Central Huancayo, Huaycha), East Waylla, West Waylla. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay.

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Quechua, Jauja Wanca
[qxw] Junin region: Jauja province; small area; Lima region. 25,000 (1962 census). Ethnic population: 77,700 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Huanca Jauja Quechua, Shausha Wanka Quechua. Dialects: None known. Considerable phonological differences with North Junín [qvn]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay.

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Quechua, Lambayeque
[quf] Lambayeque region: Inkawasi, Kañaris, and Miracosta districts; Penachí and Santa Lucía communities; Cajamarca and Piura. 20,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Ferreñafe. Dialects: Incahuasi, Cañaris. Lexical similarity: 94% with Cajamarca Quechua [qvc]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Yungay, Northern.

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Quechua, Margos-Yarowilca-Lauricocha
[qvm] Huanuco region: Aparicio Pomares, Baños, Cahuac, Chacabamba, Chavinillo, Jacas Chico, Jesús, Jivia, Margos, Rondos, San Francisco de Asis, San Pedro de Chaulán, Obas, Queropalca, San Miguel de Cauri, and Yarumayo districts. 83,400 (1993 census). 14,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 114,000 (1993 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 90% with Panao [qxh], 85% with Corongo Ancash [qwa], Sihuas [qws], Monzón Ancash, North Junín [qvn], Ulcumayo Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah, Alto Pativilca.

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Quechua, North Junín
[qvn] Junin region: Carhuamayo, Junín, Ondores, and San Pedro de Cajas districts; Lima and Pasco regions. 60,000 (1998). 7,000 monolinguals (1972 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Junín Quechua, Tarma-Junín Quechua. Dialects: 2 dialects in Tarma Province which differ from Junín town variety. Lexical similarity: 97% with Cajatambo [qvl], 96% with Arequipa-La Unión Quechua [qxu]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay.

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Quechua, Northern Conchucos Ancash
[qxn] Ancash region: Pomabamba to San Luis; northwest Huánuco department, Huarcrachuco; possibly north Marañon area. 250,000 (2002 SIL). 65,000 monolinguals (1994 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Conchucos Quechua, Northern Conchucos Quechua, Quechua. Dialects: None known. Related to Southern Conchucos [qxo], Huamalíes [qvh], and Sihuas [qws]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay, Conchucos. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Quechua, Pacaraos
[qvp] Lima region: Pacaraos village. 250 (Adelaar 1992). Ethnic population: 900. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Divergent lexically, morphologically, and phonologically from other Quechua. By its archaic features it occupies an important position relative to the reconstruction of Proto-Quechua. Lexical similarity: 94% with Huarí, Cajatambo [qvl], North Junín [qvn], and Carás Quechua. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua.

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Quechua, Panao
[qxh] Huanuco region; northern Pasco region. 50,000 (2002 SIL). 10,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Pachitea Quechua, Panao runacuna, Quechua, Panao Huánuco. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 98% with Arequipa-La Unión [qxu], 96% with Cajatambo Quechua [qvl]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Ap-am-ah, Alto Marañón.

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Quechua, Puno
[qxp] Arequipa and Cusco regions: small areas; Moquegua region: highland area; Puno region. 500,000. 100,000 monolinguals (2002). Status: 4 (Educational). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Quechua Collao, Quechua Qollaw. Dialects: North Bolivian Quechua, Cailloma Quechua. Mutually intelligible of Cusco Quechua [quz] and North Bolivian Quechua [qul], possibly sufficient to understand complex and abstract discourse. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Southern Chinchay, Southern Peruvian Quechua. Comments: Differs from Cusco Quechua [quz] in borrowing of lexicon and morphology from Aymara [ayr]. Christian, traditional religion.

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Quechua, San Martín
[qvs] Amazonas region: Roderigo de Menedez province; Loreto region: one enclave; San Martin region: Lamas, Sisa and other districts, and along Ucayali river. 15,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 44,000 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Lama, Lamano, Lamista, Lamisto, Llakwash Quechua, Motilón, Ucayali. Dialects: Several minor dialects. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: The town of Lamas is cultural center. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Quechua, Santa Ana de Tusi Pasco
[qxt] Huanuco and Pasco regions. 10,000 (1993 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Probably dialect of Chaupihuaranga Quechua [qur]. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay.

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Quechua, Sihuas Ancash
[qws] Ancash region: Sihuas province, districts west of Sihuas river; Alfonso Huayllabamba, Sihuas, and west Ragash north of Rupac river, south Quiches, and Ugarte. 6,500 (2002 SIL), decreasing. 3,000 monolinguals. Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: None known. Most closely related to Northern Conchucos [qxn] and Corongo Quechua [qwa]. Initial intelligibility testing shows marginal intelligibility of Corongo Quechua [qwa]. Intelligibility of Northern Conchucos [qxn] appears lower. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay, Conchucos.

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Quechua, Southern Conchucos
[qxo] Ancash region: Chavín, Llamellín, and San Luis; Huanuco region: Huacaybamba, Huacrachuco, Pinra and San Buenaventura districts; Marañon province: south. 250,000 (1994 census), increasing. 80,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Conchucos Quechua, Quechua, Southern Conchucos Ancash. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Waylay, Conchucos. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Quechua, Southern Pastaza
[qup] Loreto region: Anatico lake, Huasaga, Ñucuray, and Pastaza rivers; Manchari town. 1,550 (2000). 310 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Inga, Inka. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Distinct from Northern Pastaza Quechua [qvz] of Peru and Ecuador.

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Quechua, Yauyos
[qux] Huancavelica region: northeast Castrovirreyna province; Ica region: north Chincha province; Lima region: Yauyos province. 6,500 (2003 SIL). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (1999, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: San Pedro de Huacarpana, Apurí, Madean-Viñac (Madeán), Azángaro-Huangáscar-Chocos (Huangáscar), Cacra-Hongos, Tana-Lincha (Lincha), Tomás-Alis (Alis), Huancaya-Vitis, Laraos. Not 1 language–a cover term for a highly differentiated linguistic area with many 1-village varieties. A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Central Quechua, Wankay.

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Quichua, Napo
[qvo] Loreto region: Napo river area, communities on the Putumayo; Madre de Dios region: small enclave east. 10,000 in Peru (2009). Total users in all countries: 24,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Kicho, Kichua, Lowland Napo Quichua, Napo, Napo Kichua, Napo Kichwa, Napo Lowland Quichua, Quechua, Napo Lowland, Runa Shimi, Santa Rosa Quechua, Santarrosino, Yumbo. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Quechua [que]. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Christian.

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Quichua, Northern Pastaza
[qvz] Loreto region: Alamos, Tigre river. 2,000 in Peru. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Alama, Bobonaza, Tigre Quechua. Classification: Quechuan, Peripheral Quechua, Chinchay, Northern Chinchay. Comments: Distinct from Southern Pastaza Quechua [qup].

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Remo
[rem] Ucayali regon: between Tapiche and Calleria rivers. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Rheno. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo. Comments: The people who may have spoken this language may be in Brazil at Moa river headwaters but there is no evidence of this.

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Resígaro
[rgr] Loreto region: Bora and Ocaina villages. 14 (1976 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Resígero. Classification: Maipurean, Northern, Upper Amazon.

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Secoya
[sey] Loreto region: Boca de Angusilla and Santa Marta, a small river off Napo river near Ecuador border. 680 in Peru (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 680 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2011, Law No. 29735, Preservation and Use of Original Languages of Peru). Alternate Names: Angotero, Angutera, Encabellao. Dialects: Angotero (Angutera), Piojé. Classification: Tucanoan, Western Tucanoan, Macaguaje.

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Sensi
[sni] Ucayali region: Ucayali river right bank. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Mananahua, Senti, Tenti. Classification: Panoan. Comments: In 1925 there were 100. Subgroups: Ynubu (Inubu), Runubu, and Casca.

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Sharanahua
[mcd] Madre de Dios and Ucayali regions: upper Purús river area. 450 in Peru (2000 SIL). 300 Mastanahua. 320 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 453. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Marinahua (Marinawa), Chandinahua, Mastanahua. Reportedly similar to Yaminahua [yaa] Chitonahua dialect and Yora [mts]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State. Comments: Christian.

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Shawi
[cbt] Loreto and San Martin regions: Cahuapanas, Paranapura, Shanusi, and Sillay rivers. 7,870 (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 12,000 (Crevels 2007). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Balsapuertino, Cahuapa, Chawi, Chayabita, Chayahuita, Chayawita, Chayhuita, Paranapura, Shayabit, Tshaahui. Dialects: Chayahuita, Cahuapana. Not intelligible with Jebero [jeb]. Classification: Cahuapanan.

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Shipibo-Conibo
[shp] Huanuco, Loreto, and Ucayali regions: Painaco, Pisqui opposite Contamana, Requena, and Sur Bolognesi; northeast middle Ucayali river area. 26,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Dialects: Shipibo (Alto Ucayali), Conibo (Coniba), Pisquibo, Shetebo (Manoita, Setebo, Setibo, Xitibo), Shipibo del Madre de Dios. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Shipibo. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Spanish
[spa] 24,300,000 in Peru (2013). L2 users: 2,070,000 in Peru (2013). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Castellano, Español. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Spanish, Charapa
[spq] Loreto and Ucayali regions. 2,700 (2011 J. Leclerc). Some monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Castellano Sharapa, Jungle Spanish, Spanish, Loreto-Ucayali. Dialects: None known. Some have limited comprehension of colloquial standard Spanish [spa]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian.

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Taushiro
[trr] Loreto region: Aucayacu river and tributary. 1 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 20. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Pinche, Pinchi. Dialects: None known. Possibly Zaparoan. Ruhlen says related to Candoshi-Shapra [cbu]. Classification: Language isolate.

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Ticuna
[tca] Loreto region: Chimbote to San Antonio do Iça in Brazil; northeast Amazon river area. 8,000 in Peru (2000 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tikuna, Tukuna. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Urarina
[ura] Loreto region: Urarinas district, Chambira, Pucayacu, and Urituyacu rivers. 3,000 (2002 SIL). Women are monolingual. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Itucali, Shimacu, Simacu. Dialects: Several dialects with minor differences. Ruhlen and others classify it as Andean. Classification: Language isolate.

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Wampís
[hub] Amazonas and Loreto regions: high jungle of the Andes along Morona and Santiago rivers. 9,330 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2011, Law No. 29735, Preservation and Use of Original Languages of Peru). Alternate Names: Huambisa, Huambiza, Wambisa. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Aguaruna [agr] and Achuar-Shiwiar [acu]. Classification: Jivaroan, Jívaro. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Witoto, Muinani
[hux] Loreto region. 100 (1991 SIL). 1,130 Huitoto in Peru (Crevels 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Huitoto, Nüpode, Muinane Huitoto, Nipode Witoto. Classification: Witotoan, Proto-Huitoto-Ocaina, Early Huitoto. Comments: Previously mistakenly referred to as Muinane Huitoto [hux]. Different language from Muinane [bmr] in Colombia.

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Yagua
[yad] Loreto region: Iquitos to Brazil border; northeast Amazon river area. 5,690 in Peru (2000). 2,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 6,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Llagua, Nijyamii, Nijyamïï Nikyejaada, Yahua, Yava, Yegua. Dialects: 2 dialects. Classification: Yaguan. Comments: Some go to urban centers like Iquitos for economic reasons, and occasionally to Brazil. Christian, traditional religion.

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Yameo
[yme] Loreto region: Amazon and Marañon rivers from mouth of Tigre river to Nanay river. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Yaguan.

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Yaminahua
[yaa] Madre de Dios and Ucayali regions; Mapuya, and Mishagua, and Yuruá. 750 in Peru (2003 SIL). 400 Yaminahua (1998 SIL), 150 Chitonahua. Total users in all countries: 1,570. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Jaminawá, Yamanawa, Yaminawa, Yuminahua. Dialects: Yaminahua, Chitonahua (Foredafa, Horudahua, Horunahua, Moronahua, Morunahua). Reportedly most similar to Sharanahua [mcd]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Tri-State. Comments: Subgroups: Masronahua (Masrodawa), Nishinahua (Nishidawa), Chitonahua (Chitodawa), Shaonahua (Shaodawa).

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Yanesha’
[ame] Junin region: headwaters of Pachitea and Perené rivers; Pasco region: central and east. 9,830 (2000). Ethnic population: 10,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Amagé, Amagues, Amajé, Amajó, Amoishe, Amueixa, Amuese, Amuesha, Amueshua, Amuetamo, Lorenzo, Omagé. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Western.

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Yine
[pib] Cuzco, Junin, and Ucayali regions; Conatmana and Pucallpa, Ucayali river, east central Urubamba river area. 4,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 4,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Chontaquiro, Contaquiro, Pira, “Piro” (pej.), Pirro, Simiranch, “Simirinche” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Machinere [mpd] in Brazil is different enough to need separate literature. Classification: Maipurean, Southern, Southern Outlier, Piro, Piro. Comments: Christian.

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Yora
[mts] Cuzco and Ucayali regions: Sepahua on Urubamba river, Serjali on upper Mishagua; Madre de Dios region: Manu national park, on lower Cashpajali, upper Manu, and Panagua rivers. 170 (Crevels 2007). Possibly another 400 uncontacted speakers on the Upper Piedras River (Crevels 2007). Ethnic population: 170 (Crevels 2007). Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (1993, Constitution, Article 48). Alternate Names: Manu Park Panoan, Nahua, Parquenahua, Yoranahua, Yura. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Yaminahua [yaa] and Sharanahua [mcd]. Classification: Panoan, Mainline, Unclassified. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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