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Adasen
[tiu] Cordillera Administrative Region: northeast Abra province, west Apayao province. 4,000 (NTM). Ethnic population: 5,720. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Addasen, Addasen Tinguian, Itneg Adasen. Dialects: Eastern Addasen, Western Addasen. Comprehension of Isnag [isd] 74%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag.

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Agta, Alabat Island
[dul] Calabarzon region: east Quezon province on central Alabat island. 30 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 75. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Alabat Island Dumagat. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget.

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Agta, Casiguran Dumagat
[dgc] Central Luzon region: Aurora province, past Casiguran city to Dipaculao municipality; Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, Dinapigue municipality; Quirino province, border area. All on central Luzon east coast. 610 (Headland 1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Casiguran Dumagat. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility: 83% of Paranan [prf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern. Comments: Negrito. Pressure from Filipino homesteaders moving into the area. Traditional lands now used by homesteaders for agriculture.

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Agta, Central Cagayan
[agt] Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan province inland area, east and northeast from Baggao. 780 (2000). Ethnic population: 820. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Labin Agta. Autonym: Agta. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic. Comments: Negrito. Christian.

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Agta, Dicamay
[duy] Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, Jones municipality. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Alternate Names: Dicamay Dumagat. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern.

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Agta, Dupaninan
[duo] Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan and Isabela provinces, south Divilacan bay north to Palaui island. 1,200 (1986 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,500 (2007 L. Reid). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Dupaningan Agta, Eastern Cagayan Agta. Dialects: Yaga, Tanglagan, Santa Ana-Gonzaga, Barongagunay, Palaui Island, Camonayan, Valley Cove, Bolos Point, Peñablanca, Roso (Southeast Cagayan), Santa Margarita. Intelligibility of Yaga dialect 83%. Yaga and Central Cagayan Agta [agt] are 63% intelligible. Lexical similarity: 51% between Central Cagayan Agta [agt] and Tanglagan dialect, 66% between Central Cagayan Agta [agt] and Yaga dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern.

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Agta, Isarog
[agk] Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, Mount Isarog area. 5 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 1,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Agta. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga.

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Agta, Mt. Iraya
[atl] Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, Buhi area. 150 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 380. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Agta, Inagta of Mt. Iraya, Itbeg Rugnot, Lake Buhi, Rugnot of Lake Buhi East. Dialects: 54%–86% comprehension of Naga dialect of Central Bikol [bcl], 94% comprehension of Mt. Iriga Agta [agz], Iriga City dialect. Lexical similarity: 85%–90% with Bikol; 70% with Mt. Iriga Agta, Iriga City dialect, 93% among four dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga. Comments: Heavy borrowing from Legaspi dialect of Central Bikol [bcl].

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Agta, Mt. Iriga
[agz] Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, east of Iriga city. 1,500 (1979 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Agta, Lake Buhi West, Mount Iriga Negrito, San Ramon Inagta. Dialects: 86% intelligibility of Rinconada Bikol [bto], 82% of Mt. Iraya Agta [atl], 72% of Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga dialect). Intelligibility of Naga Bikol for Mt. Iriga Agta doubtful. Lexical similarity: 76% with Iriga City Bikol [bto], 66% with Mt. Iraya Agta [atl], 66% with Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga dialect). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland.

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Agta, Pahanan
[apf] Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province east coast, between Divilacan bay and Dinapigue town, inland to San Mariano. 1,700 (2009 J. Lobel), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Palanan Agta. Autonym: Pahanan. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Paranan [prf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Agta, Umiray Dumaget
[due] Central Luzon and Calabarzon regions: Aurora and Quezon provinces along Philippine Sea coast; Central Luzon region: Bulacan and Nueva Ecija provinces in small border areas inland. 3,000 (1994 SIL), decreasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Umiray Agta, Umirey Dumagat. Dialects: Polillo Island Agta, Anglat Agta. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget.

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Agta, Villa Viciosa
[dyg] Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian.

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Agutaynen
[agn] Mimaropa region: Palawan province, Brooke’s Point, Roxas, and San Vicente municipalities on Agutaya and 5 surrounding islands; Linapacan, Manila, Mindoro, and Taytay. 15,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agutayno, Agutaynon. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Cuyonon [cyo], 71% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Kalamian. Comments: Culturally lowland. Christian.

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Alangan
[alj] Mimaropa region: Mindoro Occidental province, Naujan, Sablayar, and Victoria municipalities. 2,150 (2002 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Mangyan.

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Alta, Northern
[aqn] Central Luzon region: Aurora province, San Luis municipality, Bayanihan area, Diteki river. 200 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 400. Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Alta, Baler Negrito, Ditaylin Alta, Ditaylin Dumagat, Edimala. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not similar to other languages (1992 L. Reid). Lexical similarity: 34% with Southern Alta [agy]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta.

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Alta, Southern
[agy] Calabarzon region: Quezon province coastal areas; Central Luzon region: east Nueva Ecija province, Sierra Madre range, and San Miguel town; Bulacan province, many in remote San Miguel. 1,000 (1982 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ita, Kabulowan, Kabuluen, Kabuluwan, Kabuluwen. Autonym: Alta, Kaboloan. Dialects: None known. Reportedly not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 34% with Northern Alta [aqn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, Alta.

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American Sign Language
[ase] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: ASL. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Philippine Sign Language [psp] and ASL are very similar but generally regarded by Deaf people in the Philippines as distinct languages. Both are in use as a normal means of communication, with a lot of bilingualism. Different deaf schools prefer different languages.

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Arta
[atz] Cagayan Valley region: Quirino province, Aglipay municipality, Cagayan river area. 11 (2013 Y. Kimoto). 35–45 have some knowledge of the language, but cannot speak properly (2013 Y. Kimoto). Ethnic population: 150. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Not similar to any other language (1992 L. Reid). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Arta. Comments: Negrito.

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Ata
[atm] Negros Island region: Negros Oriental province, Mabinay. 2 (Wurm 2000). In 1973, only a few families of speakers were reported. Probably extinct (Wurm 2007). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine. Comments: Different from Ata Manobo [atd] or Atta languages.

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Ati
[atk] Western Visayas region: southwest Aklan, west central Capiz, and north and west Iloilo provinces; Antique province border areas east of San Remigio; Panay island. 1,500 (1980 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Inati. Dialects: Malay, Barotac Viejo Nagpana. Barotac Viejo Nagpana is the prestige dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Comments: Negrito.

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Atta, Faire
[azt] Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan province, Santo Nino municipality, near Faire-Rizal. 300 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 600. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Southern Atta. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 81% with Pudtol Atta [atp], 60% with Isnag [isd], 66% with Central Cagayan Agta [agt], 82% with Pamplona Atta [att], 90% with Rizal Atta, 72% with Ibanag [ibg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic. Comments: Negrito.

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Atta, Pamplona
[att] Cagayan Valley region: northwest Cagayan province. 1,000 (1998 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Northern Cagayan Negrito. Autonym: Atta. Dialects: None known. Comprehension of Ibanag North [ibg] 97%, of Itawit [itv] 52%. Lexical similarity: 91% with Ibanag North, 63% with Ilocano [ilo], 69% with Itawit. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic.

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Atta, Pudtol
[atp] Cordillera Administrative Region: Apayao province, Pudtol, and Abulog river south of Pamplona. 710 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 86% with Pamplona Atta [att], 75% with Ibanag [ibg], 63% with Isnag [isd], 81% with Faire Atta [azt], 42% with Ilocano [ilo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic. Comments: Negrito.

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Ayta, Abellen
[abp] Central Luzon region: Tarlac province, Capas, Maamot, Mayantoc, San Jose, and Station Juliana. 3,000 (2008 SIL), decreasing. 45 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 5,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Abenlen, Aburlen Negrito, Ayta Abellen Sambal. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 66% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 49% with Sambal [xsb], 38%–44% with Ilocano [ilo], Pangasinan [pag], Filipino [fil], Pampangan [pam]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ayta, Ambala
[abc] Central Visayas region: Zambales province, Castillejos, Olongapa, San Marcelino and Subic city; Central Luzon region: Bataan province, Dinalupinan barrio. 1,660 (1986 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ambala Agta, Ambala Sambal. Dialects: None known. Ambala Ayta speakers’ comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl] is 60%, of Mag-Indi Ayta [blx] is 54%, of Mag-antsi Ayta [sgb] is 60%, of Magbukun Ayta [ayt] is 70%. Lexical similarity: 70% with Botolan Sambal, 55% with Filipino [fil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Do not mix with other Ayta groups. Affected by Mount Pinatubo eruption. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ayta, Mag-antsi
[sgb] Central Luzon region: Botolan Sambal area, Angeles city, Bamban, Capas, 2 of Castillejos, 2 of Mabalacat, Pampanga, San Marcelino, Sapang Bato, Tarlac, and Zambales barrios; all on Mount Pinatubo east side near Tarlac-Pampanga border. 8,200 (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mag-Anchi Ayta, Mag-Anchi Sambal. Dialects: None known. 77% intelligibility of Mag-Indi Ayta [blx], 65% of Ambala Ayta [abc], 46% of Pampangan [pam]. Lexical similarity: 76% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% with Filipino [fil], 46% with Pampangan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: People scattered due to Mount Pinatubo eruption.

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Ayta, Mag-Indi
[blx] Central Luzon region: far north Bataan province; Pampanga province, barrios in Florida Blanca and Porac; Central Visayas region: Zambales province, San Marcelino. 5,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 30,000. All Ayta in Zambales, Pampanga, and Tarlac regions. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Indi Ayta, Mag-Indi Sambal. Dialects: None known. 46% comprehension of Botolan Sambal [sbl], 50% of Ambala Ayta [abc], 59% of Pampangan [pam], 32% of Mag-antsi Ayta [sgb]. Lexical similarity: 75% with Botolan Sambal [sbl], 38% with Filipino [fil], 83% with Mag-Anchi [sgb], 71% with Ayta Abellen [abp], 51% with Kapampangan [pam]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic.

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Ayta, Magbukun
[ayt] Central Luzon region: Bataan province, Mariveles. 1,000 (2011 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bataan Ayta, Bataan Sambal, Mariveles Ayta. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 63% with Botolan Sambal [sbl] and Filipino [fil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Negrito.

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Ayta, Sorsogon
[ays] Bicol region: Sorsogon province, Prieto Diaz municipality. 15 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 180. Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine. Comments: Frequent intermarriage with other groups.

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Ayta, Tayabas
[ayy] Calabarzon region: Quezon province, Tayabas area. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine. Comments: Negrito.

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Balangao
[blw] Cordillera Administrative Region: Kalinga province, Tanudan municipality; central Mountain province. 21,300 (2000), decreasing. No monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Balangao Bontoc, Balangaw, Farangao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Balangaw. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bantayanon
[bfx] Central Visayas region: Cebu province, Bantayan and surrounding islands. 71,600 (2007 J. Lobel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central.

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Bantoanon
[bno] Mimaropa region: Romblon province. 75,000 (2011 Governor’s Office, Romblon Province), decreasing. 500 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 75,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Asi, Asiq. Autonym: Binisaya, Bisaya. Dialects: Banton, Calatravanhon, Odionganon, Sibalenhon (Sibale), Simaranhon. 63% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]; 92% with Inonhan [loc]. Odionganon dialect preferred for literature. Lexical similarity: 83% with Romblomanon [rol] (Zorc 1977). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Banton. Comments: Christian, Buddhist, Muslim.

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Basque
[eus] Bicol; Manila; Visayas islands on Cebu, Negros, and Panay; Zumarraga. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Euskara. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Non-indigenous. Well-established community since early 19th century, mostly as business owners, and financiers.

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Batak
[bya] Mimaropa region: Palawan province, central Palawan island, Sulu sea coast, southwest from Malcampo toward Puerto Princesa. 1,480 (2002 UNSD), decreasing. Ethnic population: 2,040 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Babuyan, Palawan Batak, Tinitianes. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: Negrito. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Baybayanon
[bvy] Eastern Visayas region: Leyte island, Baybay town in Pangasugan river area, Gabas, Guadalupe (Utod), Kilim, Pangasugan, and Patag villages. 10,000 (2009 J. Lobel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Leyte, Utudnon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Waray-Waray [war]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan.

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Bikol
[bik] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 3,799,900 Status: Comments: Includes: Buhi’non Bikol [ubl], Central Bikol [bcl], Libon Bikol [lbl], Miraya Bikol [rbl], Northern Catanduanes Bikol [cts], Rinconada Bikol [bto], Southern Catanduanes Bikol [bln], West Albay Bikol [fbl].

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Bikol, Buhi’non
[ubl] Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, Buhi town. 73,600 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bikol Buhi, Boînan, Buhi’non, Buhi-non. Autonym: Boie’nen, Buhi. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Rinconada Bikol [bto]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Central
[bcl] Bicol region: west Albay province, Legapi area; Camarines Norte province, Philippine Sea from east coast marshes to Mandao, San Miguel bay; Camarines Sur province, San Miguel bay area, Ragay gulf, Caramoan peninsula to Lagonay gulf; southwest third of Catanduanes province; Masbate province, Burias and Ticao islands; north Sorsogon province, Sorsogon bay mouth, inland; Calabarzon region: east tip of Quezon province. 2,500,000 (1990 census), increasing. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Camarines Norte, 4 other provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Bikol, Central Bicolano. Dialects: Naga, Legazpi (Legapi), Daet, Partido. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Naga. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Libon
[lbl] Bicol region: Albay province, Libon town. 68,800 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Libongeño. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Rinconada Bikol [bto]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Miraya
[rbl] Bicol region: Albay province, Camalig, Daraga, Guinobatan, and Jovellar towns; Sorsogon province, Donsol town. 300,000 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bikol, Daraga. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to West Albay Bikol [fbl]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, Northern Catanduanes
[cts] Bicol region: Catanduanes province, Bato, Caramonan, Pandan, Panganiban, and Viga. 77,500 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Northern Catanduanes Bicolano, Pandan. Dialects: 68% comprehension of Naga dialect of Central Bikol [bcl], 66% comprehension of Filipino [fil] narrative. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Pandan. Comments: Proud of language and culture. People who identify with this language are negotiating multiple identities.

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Bikol, Rinconada
[bto] Bicol region: Camarines Sur province, Rinconada district, Baao, Balatan, Bato, Buhi, Bula, Iriga city, and Nabua municipalities. 385,000 (2010 census), increasing. Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). 2,300 monolinguals. Monolingual speakers are elderly; boast of their identity as Rinconada. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iriga Bicolano, Rinconada Bicolano, Rinconada Bikol. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland, Iriga. Comments: Iriga City inhabitants regard Naga [bcl] dialect as true Bicolano; proud of their language and culture. Christian.

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Bikol, Southern Catanduanes
[bln] Bicol region: Catanduanes province, southern municipalities of Baras, Bato, Gigmoto, San Andres, San Miguel, and Virac. 135,000 (2000 census). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Southern Catanduanes Bikolano, Virac. Dialects: Samples had 85% comprehension of Central Bikol [bcl] and Filipino [fil] narrative. Intelligibility of Northern Catanduanes [cts] 91%. Prefer Virac dialect for literature. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Coastal, Virac. Comments: Christian.

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Bikol, West Albay
[fbl] Bicol region: Albay province, Ligao, Oas, Pio Duran, and Polangui towns. 260,000 (2009 SIL). Speakers of all Bikol languages: 4,580,000 (2000 census). No monolinguals. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bicol, Ligaoeño, Oasnun, Oasnün, Polanguinon. Autonym: Bikol. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Miraya Bikol [rbl]. A member of macrolanguage Bikol [bik]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bikol, Inland. Comments: Christian.

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Binukid
[bkd] Northern Mindanao region: north Bukidnon province and northeast Lanao del Norte provinces; Misamis Oriental province, Cagayan de Oro including southwest of Gingoog bay; Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Lanao del Sur province, small border strip. 100,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Binokid, Binukid Manobo, Bukidnon. Autonym: Binukid. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Higaonon [mba]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North.

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Binukidnon, Northern
[kyn] Negros Island region: Negros Occidental province, Kabankalan. 15,100 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Karolanos. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Southern Binukidnon [mtw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine.

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Binukidnon, Southern
[mtw] Negros Island region: Negros Oriental province, Bayawan, Santa Catalina, Siaton, upper Tayaban, and Tanjag municipalities; Mount Arniyo near Bayawan. 7,570 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukidnon, “Magahat” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Northern Binukidnon [kyn]. Reportedly includes a heavy mixture of Cebuano [ceb] and Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine. Comments: Tend to live in high elevations.

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Blaan, Koronadal
[bpr] Davao region: Davao del Sur province; Soccskargan region: Sarangani and South Cotabato (east) provinces; Sultan Kudarat province, Lutayan area. 150,000 (2007 SIL). 40,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baraan, Bilanes, Biraan, Koronadal Bilaan, Tagalagad. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic, Blaan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Blaan, Sarangani
[bps] Davao region: Davao del Sur province, across from north Sarangani border; Soccskargen region: Sarangani province; South Cotabato province, General Santos and north. 90,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balud, Bilaan, Tumanao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic, Blaan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Bogkalot
[ilk] Cagayan Valley region: south Nueva Vizcaya province; Quirino province, Nagtipunan area. 50,800 (1990 census), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bugkalut, Bukalot, Ilongot, Lingotes. Autonym: Bogkalot. Dialects: Abaka (Abaca), Egongot, Ibalao (Ibilao), Italon, Iyongut. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, Ilongot. Comments: Christian.

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Bolinao
[smk] Ilocos region: west Pangasinan province, Anda and Bolinao municipalities. 56,200, all users. 51,200 (2007 census), decreasing. 5,000. 510 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 104,000. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bino-Bolinao, Binubolinao, Binubulinao, Bolinao Sambal, Bolinao Zambal, Bulinaw, Sambal Bolinao. Autonym: Binobolinao. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Christian.

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Bontok
[bnc] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 40,700 Status: Comments: Includes: Central Bontok [lbk], Eastern Bontok [ebk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southern Bontok [obk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk].

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Bontok, Central
[lbk] Cordillera Administrative Region: Mountain province, Bontoc municipality, Bontoc ili, Caluttit, Dalican, Guina-ang, Ma-init, Maligcong, Samoki, and Tocucan villages. 19,600 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bontoc, Bontoc Igorot, Central Bontoc. Dialects: Khinina-ang, Finontok, Sinamoki, Jinallik, Minaligkhong, Tinokukan. Reportedly similar to Northern Bontok [rbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], Southern Bontok [obk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok.

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Bontok, Eastern
[ebk] Cordillera Administrative Region: east Mountain province, Barlig municipality, Barlig, Kadaklan, and Lias villages. 6,170 (2007 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Eastern Bontoc, Finallig, Southern Bontoc. Dialects: Finallig, Kinajakran, Liniyas. Reportedly similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Southern Bontok [obk]; intelligibility of Ilocano [ilo] 53%, of Balangao [blw] 49%. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bontok, Northern
[rbk] Cordillera Administrative Region: north Mountain province, Sadanga municipality, Anabel, Bekigan, Belwang, Betwagan, Demang, Sacasacan, Saclit, and the municipal center, Sadanga Poblacion; some in south Kalinga province. 9,700 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bontoc, Central Bontoc, Northern Bontoc. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Eastern Bontok [ebk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Southern Bontok [obk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Comments: Various Sadanga municipality residents do not identify their language as Bontok. They identify with their community dialect, and label it distinctively.

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Bontok, Southern
[obk] Cordillera Administrative Region: Mountain province, south of Bontoc municipality, Bayyo, Can-eo, and Talubin towns. 2,760 (2007 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bontoc, Southern Bontoc. Dialects: Tinoveng, Kinan-ew. Reportedly similar to Northern Bontok [rbk], Central Bontok [lbk], Southwestern Bontok [vbk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Comments: Traditional religion.

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Bontok, Southwestern
[vbk] Cordillera Administrative Region: Mountain province, Bontoc municipality, Alab, Balili, Gonogon and villages in Chico river valley, southwest of Bontoc municipal capital. 2,470 (2007 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bontoc. Dialects: Ina-ab, Binalili, Ginonogon. Reportedly similar to Central Bontok [lbk], Northern Bontok [rbk], Southern Bontok [obk], and Eastern Bontok [ebk]. A member of macrolanguage Bontok [bnc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Bontok. Comments: Various municipality residents do not identify their language as Bontok. They identify with their community dialect, and label it distinctively: Alab (Ina-ab), Balili (Binalili), Gonogon (Ginonogon); however, they maintain a sense of community with other Southwestern Bontok speakers based on perceived phonological and other linguistic differences from Central Bontok [lbk].

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Buhid
[bku] Mimaropa region: Mindoro Occidental and Mindoro Oriental provinces, remote central highlands. 9,370 (2009 NCIP). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangon, Batangan, Bukil. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid.

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Butuanon
[btw] Caraga region: Agusan del Norte province, Butuan city. 34,500 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Kamayo [kyk]; 69% with Surigaonon [sgd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug.

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Caluyanun
[clu] Western Visayas region: Aklan province, Caluya Islands northwest. 30,000 (1994 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Caluyanen, Caluyanhon. Dialects: Semirara. 69% comprehension of Hiligaynon [hil], 62% of Cuyonon [cyo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West. Comments: Christian.

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Capiznon
[cps] Western Visayas region: Capiz province on northeast Panay island; Iloilo province, Balasan. 639,000 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Capisano, Capiseño. Dialects: None known. Sample had 91% comprehension of Hiligaynon [hil] narrative. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral.

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Cebuano
[ceb] Widespread; Bicol region: south Masbate province; parts of Mindanao; throughout the Visayas regions. 15,800,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 15,810,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Cebu Province, 4 other areas (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Bisaya, Sebuano, Sugbuanon, Sugbuhanon, Visayan. Autonym: Binisaya. Dialects: Cebu, Boholano, Leyte, Mindanao Visayan. Boholano sometimes considered a separate language. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Cebuan. Comments: Christian.

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Chavacano
[cbk] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindinao: Basilan province; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte, Zamboanga del Sur, and Zamboanga Sibugay provinces; scattered in Alicia, Buug, Cotabato city, Ipil, Isabela, Kabasalan, Lamitan, Lapuyan, Malamawi, Malangas, Maluso, Margosatubig, Siay, and Tungawan; Cavite, Ermita, and Ternate near Manila. 1,200,000 (Quilis 1996). 300,000 Zamboangueño (Steinkrüger 2013), 359,000 Zamboangueño (Rubino 2008); 4,000 Caviteño; 3,000 Ternateño (Lesho and Sippola 2013); 5,470 Cotabato Chavacano (Wurm and Hattori 1981). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Chabacano, Chabakano, Zamboangueño. Dialects: Caviteño (Cavite Chabacano), Ternateño (Bahra, Ternate Chabacano, Ternateño Chavacano), Ermitaño (Ermiteño), Davaweño Zamboangueño (Abakay Spanish, Davao Chavacano, Davaoeño, Davaweño), Cotabato Chavacano (Cotabateño), Zamboangueño (Chabacano de Zamboanga, Español quebrao, Southern Mindinao Creole, Zamboanga Chabacano). Classification: Creole, Spanish based. Comments: A creole with predominantly Spanish vocabulary and Philippine-type grammatical structure. Speakers in 60 of 66 provinces (1970 census). Christian.

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Chinese, Mandarin
[cmn] 500. Ethnic population: All ethnic Chinese are 53,300 (1990 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Min Nan
[nan] Widespread in Manila and other cities. 592,000 (1982). 99% of Chinese population in the Philippines (1982). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Banlamgi, Min Nan. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Chinese, Yue
[yue] 9,780 (2000). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Chinese. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Cuyonon
[cyo] Mimaropa region: Palawan coast, Cuyo Islands between Palawan and Panay. 123,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Cuyo, Cuyono, Cuyunon, Kuyonon, Kuyunon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Ratagnon [btn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan.

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Davawenyo
[daw] Davao region: Davao Oriental and Davao del Sur provinces. 147,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Davaoeño, Davaweño, Matino. Dialects: Synthesis of Filipino [fil], Cebuano [ceb], other Visayan dialects. Some Spanish [spa] words. Not a Spanish creole. Different from Davawenyo dialect of Chavacano [cbk]. 2 dialects: East Coast (90% of speakers), and Davao City area (Whinnom 1956). Lowland Davawenyo have 89% intelligibility of Kamayo [kyk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Davawenyo.

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Dumagat, Remontado
[agv] Calabarzon region: Laguna province, Santa Maria municipality; Quezon province, General Nakar, Paimohuan; Rizal province, Santa Inez. 2,530 (2000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Hatang-Kayey, Remontado Agta, Sinauna, Sinauna Tagalog. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 73% with Filipino [fil], 37% with Umiray Dumaget Agta [due]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sinauna. Comments: Reportedly highly endangered; possibly no longer in use (2006 SIL). Reportedly high levels of bilingualism (1989 SIL). Previously erroneously identified as a variety of Agta.

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English
[eng] Widespread. 40,020,000 in Philippines, all users. 20,000 (Crystal 2003a). 40,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national working language (1987, Constitution, Article 14(7)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Eskayan
[esy] Central Visayas region: Bohol province, Biabas, Cadapdapan, Canta-ub, Lundag, and Taytay villages. 500, all users. No known L1 speakers. 500 (2013 P. Kelly). Ethnic population: 3,000 (2013 P. Kelly). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Bisayan Declarado, Bisayan Diklaradu, Bisayan-Eskaya, Eskaya’, Ineskaya, Iniskaya, Iskaya’. Dialects: Created through a relexification of Boholano, a dialect of Cebuano [ceb], but with changes to affixation rules. Some lexical input from Cebuano, Spanish [spa], and English [eng] (Kelly 2012). Classification: Mixed language, Cebuano-Spanish-English. Comments: It is taught in traditional schools in Taytay and Biabas on Sundays. It is taught for 30 minutes each morning in the government elementary school in Taytay (2013 P. Kelly).

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Filipino
[fil] Widespread. 45,000,000 (2013), L2 users. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1987, Constitution, Article 14(6)), not used in all official domains. Autonym: Filipino, Wikang Filipino. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Comments: Primarily based on Tagalog [tgl] with some terminology imported from other regional languages. Christian.

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Filipino Sign Language
[psp] Scattered. 100,000 deaf persons (Van Cleve 1986). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: FSL, Local Sign Language, Philippine Sign Language. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Filipino Sign Language and American Sign Language (ASL) [ase], which was introduced especially by the US Peace Corps, are very similar but generally regarded by Deaf people in the Philippines as distinct languages. Both are in use as a normal means of communication, with a lot of bilingualism. Different deaf schools prefer different languages.

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Ga’dang
[gdg] Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Potia; Kalinga province, Tabuk city; Mountain province, Paracelis. 6,000 (2002 SIL). Very few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baliwon, Gaddang, Ginabwal. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 80% with Gaddang [gad]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Gaddang
[gad] Cordillera Adminstrative Region: Ifugao province, north of Magat Reservoir; Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, small group in Tuboc area on Cagayan river middle branch; Nueva Vizcaya province, Bagabag, Bayombong, and Solano municipalities. 30,000 (1984 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cagayan. Dialects: None known. Less than 80% intelligibility of Ga’dang [gdg]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Ga’dang [gdg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic, Gaddangic. Comments: A lowland group. Christian.

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Giangan
[bgi] Davao region: Davao del Sur province, east slopes of Mount Apo; Davao City. 55,000 (1990 census). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Atto, Bagobo, Clata, Diangan, Eto, Guanga, Gulanga, Jangan. Dialects: None known. 69% comprehension of Tagabawa [bgs]; 79% of Obo Manobo [obo]. Lexical similarity: 34% with Tagabawa [bgs], 35% with Obo Manobo [obo], 43% with Blaan [bpr]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic. Comments: Different from Manobo.

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Hanunoo
[hnn] Mimaropa region: Mindoro Occidental province, from Ilin island inland; Mindoro Oriental province, north from San Pedro. 18,800 (2009 NCIP). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hanonoo. Dialects: Gubatnon (Gubat, Sorsogonon), Binli, Kagankan, Waigan, Wawan, Bulalakawnon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Hanunoo.

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Higaonon
[mba] Caraga region: Agusan del Norte province, south of Butuan city; northwest Agusan del Sur province, Butuan river basin. 30,000 (1996 NTM). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Higaunon, Misamis Higaonon Manobo. Dialects: None known. Related to Binukid [bkd] with 77%–81% intelligibility. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North.

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Hiligaynon
[hil] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province, small border area south of Timbangan; Bicol region: Masbate province, Jintotolo peninsula, south of Panguiranan; Soccskargen region: North Cotabato province west of Lake Buluan; South Cotabato province towards Bayabas; east and west central Sultan Kudarat province; Western Visayas region: west and central Capiz province, and Guimaras island; Iloilo province, Iloilo city northeast along Guimaras strait to Binon-an, nearby islands; Negros Island region: most of Negros Occidental province; Negros Oriental province, Basay, Bayawan, and Canlaon municipalities. 5,770,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Iloilo, 4 other provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Hiligainon, Illogo, Ilonggo. Dialects: Hiligaynon, Kawayan, Kari. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Comments: Christian.

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I-wak
[iwk] Cordillera Administrative Region: Benguet province, east Itogon municipality, Bakes, Bujasjas, Domolpos, Kayo-ko, Lebeng, and Tojongan villages; Cagayan Valley region: Nueva Vizcaya province, Kayapa municipality, Salaksak village. 3,260 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Iwaak. Dialects: None known. Related to Karao [kyj], Ibaloi [ibl], and Kalanguya [kak]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy. Comments: Less acculturated to outside culture than other mountain groups. Possibly people group speaks only Kalanguya [kak] in Nueva Vizcaya.

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Ibaloi
[ibl] Cagayan Valley region: west Nueva Vizcaya province; Cordillera Administrative Region: central and south Benguet province. 111,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Benguet-Igorot, Ibadoy, Ibaloy, Igodor, Inibaloi, Nabaloi. Dialects: Daklan, Kabayan, Bokod. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Ibaloy.

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Ibanag
[ibg] Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan and Isabela provinces. 500,000 (1990 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Cagayan and Isabela provinces. Alternate Names: Ybanag. Dialects: North Ibanag, South Ibanag. Intelligibility of Itawit [itv] 69%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic.

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Ibatan
[ivb] Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan province, Aparri municipality on Fuga island, Calayan municipality; on Babuyan islands. 1,240 (2007 NCIP). No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 1,400 (2008 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Babuyan, Ibataan, Ivatan. Autonym: Ibatan. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Itbayaten Ivatan [ivv] 64%; Basco Ivatan [ivv] 31%. Lexical similarity: 72% with Itbayaten Ivatan [ivv], 74% with Basco Ivatan [ivv] (1974–1975 SIL survey). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bashiic, Ivatan. Comments: Since 1978, speakers have increased from 450 to 1,220. On June 1, 2007, the Ibatan were awarded title to their island home of Babuyan Claro with all collective rights to natural resources, including 5 km of ocean around the island. The ancestral domain was established with the help of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples of the Philippines and based on the Indigenous Peoples Rights Act of 1997 (2007 SIL). Christian.

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Ifugao, Amganad
[ifa] Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Banaue and Hungduan municipalities; southwest Mountain province. 27,100 (2000 SIL). 168,000 all Ifugao (1990 census). 10,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Amganad, Ifugaw. Dialects: Burnay Ifugao, Banaue Ifugao. Intelligibility of Burnay dialect 81%. Lexical similarity: 83% with Burnay dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Ifugao, Batad
[ifb] Cordillera Administrative Region: central Ifugao province; Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, Magat reservoir eastern shore. 10,100 (2002 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ayangan Ifugao, Batad, Ifugaw. Dialects: Ducligan Ifugao. Intelligibility of Ayangan Batad Ifugao: Mayoyao [ifu] 86%–94%. Lexical similarity: 89% with Ducligan dialect, 79% with Mayoyao [ifu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ifugao, Mayoyao
[ifu] Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Aguinaldo, Alfonso Lista, and north Mayoyao municipalities; Mountain province, 2 small border areas. 30,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Ifugaw, Mayaoyaw, Mayoyao. Dialects: None known. 86%–94% intelligibility of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Grammatical markers are different. Lexical similarity: 54% with Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Ifugao, Tuwali
[ifk] Cordillera Administrative Region: south Ifugao province. 30,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. Only those below grade-school age are monolingual. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Gilipanes, Ifugaw, Kiangan Ifugao, Quiangan. Autonym: Tuwali. Dialects: Hapao Ifugao, Hungduan Ifugao, Lagawe Ifugao. 77% intelligibility of Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 78% of Batad Ifugao [ifb]. Hapao dialect has 88% intelligibility of Hungduan dialect. Lexical similarity: 80% with Amganad Ifugao [ifa], 72% with Batad Ifugao [ifb], 78% with Hapao dialect, 86% with Hungduan dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Ifugaw. Comments: Kiangan is the place, Tuwali the language. Christian.

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Ilocano
[ilo] Widespread; Ilocos region: La Union and Ilocos provinces; Cagayan Valley region: Babuyan islands; Mindoro, Mindanao areas. 6,920,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 7,016,400. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in northwest Luzon Island, other areas (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Ilokano, Iloko. Dialects: None known. A pidginized form is used in northern Luzon highlands. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Ilocano. Comments: Christian.

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Inabaknon
[abx] Eastern Visayas region: Northern Samar province, San Bernardino strait, Capul island, east to San Isidro island; Manila. 26,400 (2010 M. Jacobson). Population increases 300–500 yearly. About 500 leave annually to find opportunities elsewhere. 3,000 monolinguals. Almost all children. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Abaknon, Abaknon Sama, Capuleño, Kapul, Sama. Autonym: Inabaknon. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Abaknon. Comments: Christian.

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Inakeanon
[akl] Western Visayas region: Aklan province, north Panay island; Antique province, Libertad and Pandan municipalities far north; northwest Capiz province border. 93,200 (2002 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 116,800. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Aklan and Capiz provinces. Alternate Names: Akeanon, Aklan, Aklano, Aklanon, Aklanon-Bisayan, Panay. Autonym: Inakeanon. Dialects: None known. 66% intelligibility with Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 68% with Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan.

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Inonhan
[loc] Mimaropa region: Mindoro Occidental and Mindoro Oriental provinces; Romblon province, south Tablas island. 85,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Loocnon, Looknon, “Unhan” (pej.). Dialects: Bulalakaw, Dispoholnon, Looknon, Alcantaranon. Lexical similarity: 70% with Odionganon [bno] (Bantuanon), 93% with Aklanon [akl], 86% with Caluyanun [clu]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, North Central.

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Iranun
[ilp] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province, Barida, Buidon, Parang, Sultan Kudarat, and Sultan Mastera municipalities; Lanao del Sur province, southeast tip; Northern Mindanao region: Bukidnon province, Kalilangan municipality; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province, Alamada, Banasilan, Carmen, Libungan, and Pigcawayan municipalities. 241,000 (2015 S. Conklin). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Illanun. Autonym: Iranun. Dialects: Ilanon, Ilanum, Illanon, Iranon. 85% intelligibility of Maranao [mrw] of the Philippines. Most closely related to Maranao. Related to, but distinct from, Maguindanaon [mdh]. Different from Lahanan [lhn] of Sarawak. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon.

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Iraya
[iry] Mimaropa region: Mindoro Occidental province, Abra de Ilog, northern Mamburao, Paluan, and Santa Cruz municipalities; Mindoro Oriental province, Puerto Galera and San Teadoro municipalities. 10,000 (1991 OMF). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Abra-De-Ilog, Alag-Bako, Pagbahan, Palauan-Calavite, Pambuhan, Santa Cruz. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Mangyan.

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Isinay
[inn] Cagayan Valley region: Nueva Vizcaya province, Aritao, Bambang, and Dupax Del Sur municipalities. 5,520 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 12,500 (Reid and Salvador-Amores 2016). Ancestral Domain Areas Census Report. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Inmeas, Insinai, Isinai, Isnay. Dialects: Dupax del Sur, Aritao, Bambang. Not similar to other languages. Lexical similarity: 47% with Ilocano [ilo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, Isinai.

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Isnag
[isd] Cagayan Valley region: Cagayan province, Claveria and Santa Praxedes municipalites; Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, scattered along west Apayao province border; Apayao province northern two-thirds; Ilocos region: Ilocos Norte province, scattered along west Apayao border. 450 (2002 UNSD). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Apayao, Dibagat-Kabugao-Isneg, Isneg, Maragat. Dialects: Bayag, Dibagat-Kabugao, Calanasan, Karagawan (Daragawan), Talifugu-Ripang (Tawini). Calanasan dialect 94% intelligibility of Dibagat dialect, 88% of Ilocano [ilo]; Talifugu-Ripang 89% of Dibagat, 71% of Ilocano. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Isnag.

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Itawit
[itv] Cordillera Administrative Region: Apayao province, Conner municipality; Cagayan Valley region: south central Cagayan province. 134,000 (1990 census). 120,000 Itawit, 14,500 Malaweg. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Itawes, Itawis, Tawit. Dialects: Malaweg (Malaueg), Itawis. Related to Ibanag languages; 72% intelligibility of South Ibanag [ibg]; 68% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 53% with Ilocano [ilo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic. Comments: Malaweg may be reclassified as a separate language.

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Itneg, Banao
[bjx] Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, Daguioman and Malibcong municipalities; Kalinga province, Balbalan and Pasil municipalities. 3,500 (2003 SIL). Unknown number in Malibcong dialect area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Banao, Banaw, Itneg, Timggian, Tinguian. Dialects: Malibcong Banao, Banao Pikekj, Gubang Itneg. Lexical similarity: Malibcong Banao 58% with Ilocano [ilo], 81% with Lubuagan Kalinga [knb], 73% with Limos Kalinga [kmk]; Banao Pikek (Daguioman) dialect 62% with Ilocano, 83% with Masadiit and Boliney Itneg [tis], 79% with Masadiit and Sallapadan Itneg [tis], 78% with the Banao dialect of Malibcong, and 73% with Binongan Itneg [itb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: High value placed on education. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Itneg, Binongan
[itb] Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, Licuan-Baay. 7,500 (2003 SIL). 46,400 in all Itneg varieties (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tingguian, Tinguian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Ilocano [ilo], 79% with Masadiit Itneg [tis]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Inlaod
[iti] Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, a few villages in Danglas, Lagangilang, Langiden, and Penarubia municipalities. 9,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Inlaod, Tinggian, Tinguian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: Inlaod of Langiden 73% with Ilocano [ilo]; Inlaod of Danglas 71% with Ilocano, 75%–77% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75%–76% with Masadiit [tis] of Sallapadan, 74%–75% with Moyadan Itneg [ity]. Inlaod of Langiden and Inlaod of Danglas 86% with each other. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Maeng
[itt] Cordillera Administrative Region: south Abra province, Luba, Tubo, and Villavisciosa municipalities. 18,000 (2003 SIL). Ethnic population: 18,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Luba-Tiempo Itneg, Southern Itneg. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: Tubo area 60% with Ilocano [ilo], 68% with Northern Kankanaey [kne]; Villavisciosa area 76% with Ilocano, 61% with Northern Kankanaey. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Masadiit
[tis] Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, Boliney, Bucloc, and Sallapadan municipalities; Kalinga province, western border. 7,500. 45,000 all Itnegs in Abra Province. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Masadiit Boliney, Masadiit Sallapadan. Lexical similarity: 62% with Ilocano [ilo], 70% with Guinaang Kalinga [knb], 86% with Binongan Itneg [itb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Itneg, Moyadan
[ity] Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province. 12,000 (2003 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Tinggian, Tinguian. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 68% with Ilocano [ilo], 85% with Masadiit Sallapadan [tis], 80% with Masadiit Boliney [tis], 76% with Binongan Itneg [itb], 75% with Inlaod Danglas [iti], 74% with Inlaod Langiden [iti], 73% with Maeng [itt] of Tubo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Itneg. Comments: Christian.

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Ivatan
[ivv] Cagayan Valley region: Batanes province; Mimaropa region: Palawan province. Many scattered in Mindanao; Manila. 35,000 (1998 SIL), increasing. 3,450 Itbayatan (1996 census). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Batanes province. Alternate Names: Ivatanen. Dialects: Itbayaten, Basco Ivatan, Southern Ivatan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bashiic, Ivatan. Comments: Christian.

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Kagayanen
[cgc] Calabarzon region: Quezon and Rizal provinces; Mimaropa region: Palawan province, Cagayan island between Negros and Palawan; Palawan coastal communities; north Palawan, Busuanga and Coron municipalities; south Palawan, Balabac island; Negros Island region: Negros Occidental province, Silay city; Western Visayas region: Iloilo province; Manila. 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Few monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000 (2007 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Cagayano, Kagay-anen, Kinagayanen. Autonym: Kagayanen. Dialects: Calamian Kagayanen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North. Comments: A growing number are moving to cities for economic improvement, education. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalagan
[kqe] Davao region: Davao del Sur province, southwest of Davao city, inland along coast; Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte provinces, Samal and nearby islands, and inland on Davao gulf easten shores; Davao Oriental province, highlands; Soccskargen region: north Cotabato province. Davao region: Davao Oriental province (eastern and western dialects); Davao del Sur province, gulf to Hagonoy and Guihing (Lupon dialect); Samal Island (Isamal dialect). 70,000 (2002 census), decreasing. 7,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaagan, Kinalagan, Minuslim Kalagan. Dialects: Isamal, Western Kalagan, Eastern Kalagan, Lupon. Lexical similarity: 72% with Kagan [kll], 74% with Mansaka [msk], 83% with Mandaya [mry]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Kalagan, Kagan
[kll] Davao region: Davao del Sur province, near Digos city. 6,000 (1981 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kaagan, Kagan Kalagan. Dialects: 82% intelligibility with Kalagan [kqe] dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western.

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Kalanguya
[kak] Cagayan Valley region: Benguet province, Bokod municipality; western Nueva Vizcaya province; Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Hungduan municipality; Ilocos region: northeast Pangasinan province, San Nicolas municipality. 100,000 (2010), increasing. census. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ikalahan, Kalangoya, Kalangoya-Ikalahan, Kayapa Kallahan. Autonym: Kalanguya. Dialects: Central Kalanguya (Kayapa), Northern Kalanguya (Ambaguio, Tinoc), Southern Kalanguya (Santa Fe), Western Kalanguya (Benguet). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan. Comments: Intermarriage with Ilocanos and other groups. Children in such marriages tend to adapt a somewhat different language which is a combination of their parents’ languages. Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalinga, Butbut
[kyb] Cordillera Administrative Region: Kalinga province, Tinglayan municipality, Dinongsay, Bugnay, Buscalan, Butbut, Kataw, Loccong, Lucnang, Ngibat, Pakak, and Tabuk city; Calabarzon region: Rizal province, Andaraya, Annenang, Bua, and Malapiat. 15,000 (2008), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Butbut. Dialects: None known. 72% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk]; 44% of Ilocano [ilo]; 70% of Guinaang [knb], 47% of Tanudan [kml], 74% of Bangad (Southern) Kalinga [ksc]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Southern Kalinga, 78% with Guinaang and Tanudan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kalinga, Limos
[kmk] Cordillera Administrative Region: Apayao province, Conner municipality; Kalinga province, Tabuk city, north to border. 12,700 (2007 census), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Limos-Liwan Kalinga, Northern Kalinga. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility: Lubuagan Kalinga [knb] 65%, Southern Kalinga [ksc] 66%, Tanudan Kalinga 67% [kml], Ilocano [ilo] 84%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Lowland teachers and church leaders use other languages which Limos Kalinga speakers find difficult to understand, and it forces the Limos Kalinga speakers to shift to the other languages. Christian.

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Kalinga, Lubuagan
[knb] Cordillera Administrative Region: Kalinga province, Lubuagan, Tabuk city; Manila; Baguio city. 30,000 (2008 V. Dumatog), increasing. Status: 4 (Educational). Dialects: Guinaang, Balbalasang, Ableg-Salegseg, Balatok-Kalinga (Balatok-Itneg). Intelligibility of Balbalasang dialect 81%, Sumadel [ksc] 82%, Limos [kmk] 70%, 48% comprehension of Ilocano [ilo] narrative. Lexical similarity: 81% with Balbalasang and Limos. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalinga, Mabaka Valley
[kkg] Cordillera Administrative Region: Apayao province, Conner municipality; western Abra and northern Kalinga provinces. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kal-Uwan, Mabaka, Mabaka Itneg. Dialects: None known. 79% comprehension of Limos Kalinga [kmk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga.

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Kalinga, Majukayang
[kmd] Cordillera Administrative Region: southeast Kalinga province, Tabuk City; Mountain province, Paracelis municipality. 1,500 (1990 SIL), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Madukayang Kalinga, Majukayong. Dialects: None known. 83% intelligibility of Limos Kalinga [kmk] and Balangao [blw], 86% of Tanudan Kalinga [kml]; 68% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Tanudan Kalinga [kml], 68% with Limos Kalinga [kmk], 65% with Balangao [blw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalinga, Southern
[ksc] Cordillera Administrative Region: Kalinga province, Lubuagan municipality; Mountain province, Sadanga and Sagada municipalities, 13 villages; some in Tabuk city. 13,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 7,540 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Madlango Kalinga, Tinglayan Kalinga. Dialects: Mallango, Sumadel, Bangad, Tinglayan. Intelligibility of Guinaang Kalinga [knb] 63%, Tanudan Kalinga [kml] 51%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kalinga, Tanudan
[kml] Cordillera Administrative Region: south Kalinga province, south end of Tanudan valley. 11,200 (1998 SIL), increasing. 1,120 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lower Tanudan, Lower Tanudan Kalinga, Mangali Kalinga. Dialects: Minangali (Mangali), Tinaloctoc (Taluctoc), Pinangol (Pangul), Dacalan, Lubo. Intelligibility: 79% of Limos Kalinga [kmk], 66% of Guinaang dialect of Lubuagan Kalinga [knb]. Lexical similarity: 97% with Pinangol dialect, 80% with Madukayang Kalinga [kmd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Kalinga-Itneg, Kalinga. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Kallahan, Keley-i
[ify] Cordillera Administrative Region: Ifugao province, Aritao and Kiangan municipalities. 8,000 (2000 SIL). Only children under 5 are monolingual. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Antipolo Ifugao, Hanalulo, Keley-i, Keley-i Kalanguya, Keleyqiq Ifugao. Dialects: Bayninan, Ya-Tuka. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Kallahan. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kamayo
[kyk] Caraga region: Surigao del Sur province, between Marihatag and Lingig; Agusan del Sur province border areas; Davao region: Davao Oriental province, between Lingig and Boston. 363,000 (2000 census). Estimated population for Caraga, Davao Oriental, and Surigao del Sur regions. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Davawenyo, Davaweño, Kadi, Kinadi, Kinamayo, Mandaya. Dialects: North Kamayo, South Kamayo. Lexical similarity: 66% with Surigaonon [sgd], 70% with Butuanon [btw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Northern. Comments: Stable diglossia; high bilingualism in Cebuano [ceb]. Christian.

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Kankanaey
[kne] Cordillera Administrative Region: north Benguet and southwest Ifugao provinces, southwest Mountain province; Ilocos region: southeast Ilocos Sur province, northeast La Union province. 150,000 (1991 SIL). All Kankanai 218,000 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Central Kankanaey, Kankanai, Kankanay. Dialects: Mankayan-Buguias, Kapangan, Bakun-Kibungan, Guinzadan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Kankanay, Northern
[xnn] Cordillera Administrative Region: Abra province, Tubo municipality, west Mountain province; Ilocos region: Ilocos Sur province, Cervantes, Gregorio del Pilar, Quirino, and San Emilio municipalities. 70,000 (1987 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sagada Igorot, Western Bontoc. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Central Cordilleran, North Central Cordilleran, Nuclear Cordilleran, Bontok-Kankanay, Kankanay.

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Karao
[kyj] Cagayan Valley region: east Nueva Vizcaya province, Bokod, Ekip, and Karao areas; Cordillera Administrative Region: western Benguet and Ifugao provinces. 2,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Karaw. Dialects: None known. Limited comprehension testing showed 85% comprehension of Kalanguya [kak]; 78% of Ilocano [ilo]. Lexical similarity: 90% with Ibaloi [ibl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran, Nuclear Southern Cordilleran, Karaw.

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Kasiguranin
[ksn] Central Luzon region: Aurora province, Casiguran municipality. 10,000 (1975 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Casiguranin. Dialects: None known. 82% intelligibility of Paranan [prf]. Lexical similarity: 52% with Filipino [fil], 75% with Paranan [prf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon, Northern.

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Katabaga
[ktq] Calabarzon region: Quezon province, Bondoc peninsula. No known L1 speakers. Status: 10 (Extinct). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Unclassified. Comments: Negrito.

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Kinabalian
[cbw] Eastern Visayas region: Southern Leyte province, 6 villages in San Juan (Cabalian) town. 14,000 (2009 J. Lobel). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bisaya’, Cabalian, Cabalianon, Kinabalianon. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Waray-Waray [war]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan.

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Kinaray-a
[krj] Western Visayas region: scattered in Aklan, most of Antique, west Iloilo, and west Capiz provinces. 378,000 (1994 SIL), increasing. 1,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Antiqueño, Ati, Hamtiknon, Hinaray-a, Karay-a, Kiniray-a, Panayano, Sulud. Dialects: Pandan, Hamtik, Anini-y, Pototan, Lambunao, Miag-Ao, Guimaras Island (Gimaras). Antique area has 75% comprehension of Filipino [fil]; 90% of Hiligaynon [hil]; Iloilo area, 95% of Hiligaynon; 90% of Antique. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kinarayan. Comments: Christian.

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Maguindanaon
[mdh] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province, Cotabato city southeast to Lake Buluan; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province, south central area from Dillian to Kayaga; South Cotabato province, northern tip; central Sultan Kudarat province west of Lake Buluan. 1,100,000 (2010 SIL). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in North Cotabato and 3 other Mindanao provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Magindanao, Magindanaon, Magindanaw, Magindanawn, Maguindanaw. Dialects: Laya, Ilud, Biwangan, Sibugay, Tagakawanan. Intelligibility 60% of Maranao [mrw], 96% of Iranun [ilp]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Magindanao. Comments: Muslim.

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Malaynon
[mlz] Western Visayas region: northwest Aklan province, Malay municipality, lowland. 8,500 (1973 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 93% with Aklanon [akl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Aklan.

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Mamanwa
[mmn] Caraga region: Agusan del Norte and Surigao del Norte provinces in Lake Mainit area. 5,150 (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mamanwa Negrito, Minamanwa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mamanwa.

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Mandaya
[mry] Davao region: Davao del Norte province; Davao Oriental province, Baganga, Caraga, Cateel, and Manay municipalities. 250,000 (2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Davawenyo. Dialects: Carraga Mandaya, Cateelenyo, Manay Mandayan, Mandaya, Cataelano, Karaga, Sangab, Mangaragan Mandaya. 77% intelligibility of Mansaka [msk]. Lexical similarity: 89% with Mansaka [msk], 83% with Kalagan [kqe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern. Comments: Many Mandaya will say they are Davawenyo; “Mandaya” can be a derogatory term, meaning uneducated people from the hills. Christian, traditional religion.

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Manide
[abd] Bicol region: Camarines Norte province, Labo and Santa Elena municipalities. 3,800 (Lobel 2010). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Abiyan, Agta, Camarinas Norte Agta. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 67% with Alabat Agta [dul], 35% with Mt. Iriga Agta [agz]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Umiray Dumaget.

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Manobo, Agusan
[msm] Caraga region: Agusan del Norte province west; Agusan del Sur province, west area southeast of Lake Buluan; Surigao del Norte province south tip, inland; Surigao del Sur province southwest of Lanuza peninsula to Lianga bay; Davao region: Compostela Valley and Davao del Norte provinces’ north borders; Davao Oriental province scattered; Northern Mindanao region: Bukidnon province, scattered. 60,000 (2002 SIL). 157,000 all Manobo (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Agusan, Manobo. Autonym: Minanubu. Dialects: Umayam, Adgawan, Surigao, Omayamnon. 83% intelligibility of Dibabawon [mbd]. Lexical similarity: 80% with Omayamnon dialect and other dialects, 85% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Ata
[atd] Davao region: Compostela Valley, Davao del Norte, and Davao del Sur provinces, areas all northwest; Northern Mindanao region: southeast Bukidnon province. 26,700 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ata of Davao, Atao Manobo, Langilan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa. Comments: Different from Ata [atm] of Mabinay, Negros Oriental, and Atta languages. A Negrito people.

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Manobo, Cotabato
[mta] Soccsksargen region: Sultan Kudarat province, Kalamansig, Ninoy Aquino, and Palimbang municipalities; South Cotabato province, T’Boli municipality. 30,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 5,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 30,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dulangan Manobo. Dialects: Tasaday, Blit. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Dibabawon
[mbd] Davao region: north Compostela Valley province, upper Agusan river area; Davao del Norte province, Asuncion municipality, Manguagan; Davao Oriental province, Boston and Cateel municipalities. 10,000 (1978 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Debabaon, Dibabaon, Mandaya. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East.

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Manobo, Ilianen
[mbi] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province, Datu Montawal and north Kambutalan municipalities; Northern Mindanao region: Bukidnon province, Darnulong, Kandingilan, and Kibawe, municipalities; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province, north and central watershed of Mindanao river. 14,600 (2000). Few monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Ilianen. Dialects: Arakan, Livunganen, Pulangiyan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West. Comments: Unable to enforce traditional land claims. Traditional religion.

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Manobo, Kinamiging
[mkx] Northern Mindanao region: Camiguin province, entire island north of Mindanao. 26,700 (2000 census). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Cinamiguin, Cinamiguin Manobo, Kamigin, Kinamigin, Kinamiguin. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, North.

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Manobo, Matigsalug
[mbt] Davao region: northwest Davao del Sur province; Northern Mindanao region: south-central Bukidnon province; Soccsksargen region: northeast North Cotabato region. 50,000 (2010 SIL), increasing. 5,000 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Matig-Salug Manobo. Dialects: Kulamanen. Tigwa has marginal intelligibility of Matigsalug. Tala Ingod may have adequate intelligibility of Matigsalug. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Ata-Tigwa. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Obo
[obo] Davao and Soccskargen regions: northeast slope of Mount Apo, between Davao del Sur and North Cotabato provinces. 60,000 (2007 SIL). 20,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Bagobo, Kidapawan Manobo, Obo Bagobo. Autonym: Manobo. Dialects: Kidapawan Manobo, Magpet Manobo, Arakan Manobo, Marilog. 69% intelligibility of Tigwa (Matigsalug Manobo [mbt] reportedly most similar) and 60% of Tagabawa [bgs]. Lexical similarity: 63% with Tagabawa [bgs] and Ilianen Manobo [mbi], 35% with Cebuano [ceb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, South, Obo. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Rajah Kabunsuwan
[mqk] Caraga region: Agusan del Sur province southeast corner; south Surigao del Sur province, Cabungsuan, Lingig, and Rajah; Davao region: Davao Oriental province, northern border. 7,560 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Rajah Kabungsuan Manobo. Dialects: Intelligibility of Dibabawon Manobo [mbd] 80%, San Miguel Calatugan Agusan [msm] 81%. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 76% with Sagunto dialect of Agusan Manobo [msm] and San Miguel Calatugan dialect of Agusan Manobo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, East. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Manobo, Sarangani
[mbs] Davao region: Davao del Sur province, Jose Abad Santos municipality; Davao Oriental province, Governor Generoso municipality; Soccskargen region: Sarangani province, Glan municipality. 58,000 (2000 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Governor Generoso Manobo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South.

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Manobo, Western Bukidnon
[mbb] Northern Mindanao region: south Bukidnon province, Dangcagan, Don Carlos, Kitaotao, and especially Maramag municipalities; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province, Banisilan municipality. 15,000 (2008 SIL). Ethnic population: 15,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Western Bukidnon. Dialects: Ilentungen, Kiriyenteken, Pulangiyen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, Central, West.

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Mansaka
[msk] Davao region: Davao Oriental province, west Baganga municipality; central west Compostela Valley province; Davao Oriental province, south to Pujada Bay. 57,800 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Mandaya Mansaka. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 80% with Bislig-Mati, 89% with Mandaya [mry], 84% with Mati, 74% with Piso dialect of Kalagan [kqe]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Eastern.

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Mapun
[sjm] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Tawi-Tawi province, Cagayan de Sulu (Mapun) island. 43,000 (2011 SIL). 4,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 43,000. Total users in all countries: 58,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan, Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayanen, Cagayano, Cagayanon, Kagayan, Orang, Sama Mapun. Autonym: Jama Mapun. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 59%, intelligibility of Sama Pangutaran [sml] 61%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Borneo Coast Bajaw. Comments: The center of the ethnic group is on Mapun island (pop. 20,000), also known as Cagayan de Sulu, Cagayan Sulu, and Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi. The Mapun people only refer to it as Mapun. Many people from the island go to Sabah, Malaysia to find work. Many have settled there over the past century. There are approximately 15,000 Mapun people in Malaysia. There are approximately 5,000 to 10,000 Mapun people on the island of Palawan in the Philippines. Muslim.

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Maranao
[mrw] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: almost all Lanao del Sur province; northwest Maguindanao province, Bariya, Buldon, Matanog, and north Parang municipalities; Northern Mindanao region: west central Bukidnon province; south Lanao del Norte province, north of Lake Lano; Soccsksargen region: northwest North Cotabato province. 776,000 (1990 census). Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Lanao del Sur. Alternate Names: Maranaw, Ranao. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Iranun [ilp] 87%, of Maguindanaon [mdh] 52%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Danao, Maranao-Iranon. Comments: Muslim.

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Masbatenyo
[msb] Bicol region: Masbate province, 3 islands. 600,000, all users. 350,000 (2002 SIL), increasing. 250,000 (2002 SIL). 50,000 monolinguals. Mostly children. Ethnic population: 700,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Masbate Province (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Masbateño, Minasbate. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 79% with Capiznon [cps], 76% with Hiligaynon [hil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral. Comments: Christian.

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Molbog
[pwm] Mimaropa region: Palawan province, Balabac, Balambangam, Banggi, Bataraza, Palawan, and Ramos islands. 6,680 (1990 census). Ethnic population: 13,400. Total users in all countries: 9,180. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Balabak, Molbog Palawan. Dialects: Balabac Island, Southern Palawan, Banggi Island. Intelligibility of Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] is 27%, of South Palawano is 55%. Lexical similarity: 69% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: Muslim.

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Palawano, Brooke’s Point
[plw] Mimaropa region: southeast Palawan island, south of Abu Abu to Bataraza, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast. 14,400 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Brooke’s Point Palawan, Palawan, Palawanun, Palaweño. Dialects: South Palawano (Bugsuk Palawano). Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 76%; of Southwest Palawano [plv] 68%. Lexical similarity: 82% with Quezon Palawano [plc] (Central), 85% with Southwest Palawano [plv], 83% with South Palawano. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic.

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Palawano, Central
[plc] Mimaropa region: southwest Palawan island, north of Quezon to north of Rizal; east Abu Abu area, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast. 12,000 (1981 UBS). 40,500 all Palawano (1990 census). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Palawanen, Palaweño, Quezon Palawano. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 82% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Southwest Palawano [plv]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic.

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Palawano, Southwest
[plv] Mimaropa region: southwest Palawan island, north of Rizal to the south tip, east side from Bataraza south, mostly along upland rivers, some along the coast. 12,000 (2005 W. Davis). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 75%, of Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw] 76%. Lexical similarity: 85% with Brooke’s Point Palawano [plw], 78% with Central Palawano [plc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic.

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Pampangan
[pam] Central Luzon region: southwest Nueva Ecija province; Tarlac province; most of Pampanga province west of Pampanga river; Central Visayas region: Zambales province, scattered along east border. 1,900,000 (1990 census). Total users in all countries: 1,905,430. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Pampanga and 2 other Luzon provinces (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Kapampangan, Pampango, Pampangueño. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Pampangan.

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Pangasinan
[pag] Ilocos region: Pangasinan province. 1,160,000 (1990 census). Total users in all countries: 1,162,140. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Pangasinan Province (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Meso-Cordilleran, South-Central Cordilleran, Southern Cordilleran, West Southern Cordilleran.

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Paranan
[prf] Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province east coast, between Divilacan bay and Dinapigue town and inland to San Mariano. 15,000 (2009 J. Lobel). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Palanan, Palanenyo. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Pahanan Agta [apf]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Northeastern Luzon. Comments: Christian.

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Porohanon
[prh] Central Visayas region: Cebu province, Camotes Islands (Pacijun, Ponsoon, Poro) between Cebu and Leyte. 23,000. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Camotes. Dialects: None known. Barely intelligible with Cebuano [ceb] (1967 J. Wolff). Reportedly more similar to Masbatenyo [msb] and Hiligaynon [hil]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Cebuano [ceb] (1967 J. Wolff). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Peripheral.

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Ratagnon
[btn] Mimaropa region: Mindoro Occidental province extreme south tip, including Ilin islands; Mindoro Oriental province south tip, Bulalacao municipality. 2 (Wurm 2000). Ethnic population: 2,000 (1997 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Aradigi, Datagnon, Lactan, Latagnun, Latan. Dialects: Ratagnon, Santa Teresa. Reportedly similar to Cuyonon [cyo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, West, Kuyan.

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Romblomanon
[rol] Mimaropa region: Romblon province, Romblon island; Sibuyan Island north of Panay. 94,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Romblon. Dialects: Sibuyanon, Romblon, Bisaya’. Sibuyan Island has 70% intelligibility of Inakeanon [akl], 73% of Hiligaynon [hil], 94% of the Romblon dialect. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Romblon.

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Sama, Balangingih
[sse] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Sulu and Basilan provinces; Zamboanga Peninsula region: coast peninsula, islands. Central Luzon region: White Beach near Subic bay (Northern Sama dialect); Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga Sibugay province, Olutangga island (Lutangan dialect). 80,000 (2007). Total users in all countries: 85,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baangingi’, Balanguingui, Bangingi, Bangingih Sama, Northern Sama, Sama Bangingih, Samal. Autonym: Bangingih. Dialects: Lutangan (Lutango), Sibuco-Vitali (Sibuku), Sibuguey (Batuan), Balangingi, Daongdung, Kabinga’an. Most Lutangan understand Bangingih Sama, the prestige dialect. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 71%, 83% of Lutangan, 85% of Sibuco-Vitali. Lexical similarity: 77% with Lutangan, 75% with Sibuco-Vitali. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Balangingi is the prestige dialect of Northern Sama. Muslim.

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Sama, Central
[sml] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindinao: Basilan province, Basilan island, Maluso municipality, Malamawi island; Sulu and Tawi-Tawi provinces, Cagayan de Sulu island, Siasi and Sitangkai municipalities, Bonggao and Tabawan; Calabarzon region: Batangas province; Central Visayas region: Cebu province; Bohol province, Tagbilaran; Mimaropa region: Palawan province, Puerto Princesa; Northern Mindanao region: Misamis Oriental province, Cagayan de Oro; Negros Island region: Negros Occidental province, Sasa; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Olutangga; Zamboanga del Sur province, Batuan Lumbayaw; Rio Hondo, Sangali, and Taluk Sangay areas in Zamboanga City; Davao City, Isla Verde. 90,000 (2000). 30,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 105,000. Total users in all countries: 105,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Central Sinama, Orang Laut, Sama Dilaut, Samal, Siasi Sama, Sinama, “Bajaw” (pej.). Dialects: Sama Deya, Sama Dilaut, Sama Siasi, Sama Laminusa, Sama Tabawan. Intelligibility of Bangingih Sama [sse] 79%. Lexical similarity: 47% with Inabaknon [abx], 62% with Yakan [yka], 76% with Pangutaran Sama [slm], 77% with Balangingi [sse], 72–78% with Southern Sama [ssb], 59% with West Coast Bajau [bdr], 66% with Mapun [sjm], 48–51% with Indonesian Bajau [bdl], 25% with Cebuano [ceb], 45% with Tausug [tsg] (Pallesen 1985). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Muslim, Christian, traditional religion.

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Sama, Pangutaran
[slm] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: west central Sulu province, Pangutaran island; Tawi-Tawi province, Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi island. 35,200 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siyama. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Central Sama [sml] 65%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Western Sulu Sama. Comments: Muslim.

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Sama, Southern
[ssb] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Tawi-Tawi province, Tawi-Tawi, Simunul, and Sibutu municipalities; other major islands. 200,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. 20,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 260,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sama Tawi-Tawi, Southern Sinama. Autonym: Sinama, Tawi-Tawi Sinama. Dialects: Sibutu’ (Sibutu), Simunul, Tandubas, Obian, Balimbing, Bongao, Sitangkai, Languyan, Sapa-Sapa, Sama Sibutu. Sibutu intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Simunul dialect 89%. Simunul intelligibility of Sama Central [sml] 77%, of the Sibutu dialect 80%. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw, Sulu-Borneo, Inner Sulu Sama. Comments: Simunul is central, prestige dialect. Bongao dialect from political, economic center of Southern Sama. Muslim.

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Sambal
[xsb] Central Luzon region: Tarlac province, western border; Ilocos region: Pangasinan province, 2 villages; Mimaropa region: Palawan province, Quezon municipality, Panitian village; north Zambales province, 5 towns. 70,000 (2000 SIL), decreasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 70,000. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Zambales province. Alternate Names: Sambali, “Tina” (pej.), “Tina Sambal” (pej.). Autonym: Sambalì. Dialects: Santa Cruz, Masinloc, Iba. 70% intelligibility with Botolan [sbl]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic. Comments: Christian.

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Sambal, Botolan
[sbl] Central Luzon region: Zambales province, Botolan and Cabangan municipalities. 32,900 (2000 SIL), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aeta Negrito, Ayta Hambali, Botolan Zambal. Autonym: Hambali. Dialects: Ayta Hambali (Hambali Botolan), Sambali Botolan. Among themselves, Ayta Hambali reportedly use some words that are similar to Ayta Mag-anchi [sgb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central Luzon, Sambalic.

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Sangil
[snl] Davao region: Davao del Sur province, Balut island off extreme south tip. 15,000 (1996 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sanggil, Sangiré. Dialects: Sarangani, Mindanao. Lexical similarity: 90% with Sangir [sxn]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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Sangir
[sxn] Davao region: Davao del Sur province, Sarangani island off extreme south tip. 55,000 (1981 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sangihé, Sangirese. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Sangiric, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Sorsoganon, Northern
[bks] Bicol region: Sorsogon province, Sorsogon city; Central Luzon region: Aurora province, Casiguran and Juban municipalities. 85,000 (1975 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Masbate Sorsogon, Northern Sorsogon, Sorsogon Bicolano, Sursugúnun. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan.

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Sorsoganon, Southern
[srv] Bicol region: south Sorsogon province. 185,000 (1975 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bikol Sorsogon, Gubat, Southern Sorsogon, Waray Sorsogon. Dialects: None known. Comprehension of Masbatenyo [msb] 63%–91%; of Central Bikol [bcl] (Naga) 71%–82%; of Filipino [fil] 85%–91%. Reportedly similar to Waray-Waray [war]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Gubat.

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Spanish
[spa] Mainly Manila and other large cities. 2,562,660 in Philippines, all users. 2,660 (1990 census). 2,560,000 (Instituto Cervantes 2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Subanen, Central
[syb] Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province eastern half; Zamboanga del Sur province, west of Molave and Pagadian; Zamboanga Sibugay province, Diplahan, Kabasalan, and Siay municipalities. 140,000 (2000), increasing. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Sindangan Subanun. Dialects: Eastern Kolibugan (Eastern Kalibugan). Intelligibility of Southern Subanen [laa] 71%. Lexical similarity: 79% with Western Subanen [suc]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern. Comments: Value their language. Traditional religion.

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Subanen, Eastern
[sfe] Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Don Victoriano Chiongban municipality on Mount Malindang western slopes; northeast Zamboanga del Sur province; Northern Mindanao region: Misamis Occidental province, border area west of Mount Malindang. 7,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Guinselugnen, Salugnen. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern.

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Subanen, Northern
[stb] Calabarzon region: Rizal province, Disoy; Siayan municipality, Dumugok; Negros Island region: Negros Oriental province, La Libertad; Northern Mindanao region: Misamis Occidental province, Jose Dalman Manukan (Linay and Pangandaw), Manuel A. Roxas, and Polanco municipalities; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Mutia and Sergio Osmeña, and Sibutad municipalities, inland from Dipolog and Dapitan cities. 85,400 (2010 SIL), increasing. No monolinguals. Ethnic population: 85,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Tuboy Subanon. Dialects: Dapitan, Salog (Salug), Dikayu, Miatan, Piyau. 63% intelligibility of Central Subanen [syb], 40% of Southern Subanen [laa]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Central Subanen [syb]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Subanen, Southern
[laa] Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Sur province, peninsula west of Illana bay, Margosatubig city; Zamboanga Sibugay province, peninsula east of Sibuguey bay, Malangas city. 25,000 (1978 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lapuyan Subanun, Lapuyen, Margosatubig, Subanen. Dialects: None known. Southern Subanen speakers understand Central Subanen [syb] (85%), but not vice versa. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern.

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Subanon, Kolibugan
[skn] Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Sulu Sea coast, Kanapun area to Liloy, also Sibuco to Siocon; Zamboanga del Sur province, Sibuguey bay head, Ipil and inland to Kabasalan; Zamboanga City, south from north provincial border to Curuan. 20,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Calibugan, Kalibugan, Kolibugan. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Western Subanon [suc], but limitations on inherent intelligibility between them. Lexical and grammatical differences. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon, Eastern. Comments: Culture and attitudes separate Kolibugan from Western Subanon [suc]. Muslim, traditional religion.

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Subanon, Western
[suc] Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga del Norte province, Labason town to southern border, mostly inland on Zamboanga Peninsula western slopes; Zamboanga Sibugay province, Ipil, Rosseler T Lim, and Tungawan municipalities on eastern slopes of peninsula. 125,000 (2011 SIL). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Siocon. Autonym: Subanon. Dialects: Siocon, Western Kolibugan (Western Kalibugan). Lexical similarity: 89% between Siocon and Western Kolibugan dialects. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Subanon. Comments: Christian.

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Sulod
[srg] Western Visayas region: Antique province, Valderrama, Panay; Capiz province, Tapaz; Iloilo province, Lambunao. 14,000 (1980 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bukidnon, Mondo. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine.

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Surigaonon
[sgd] Caraga region: Surigao del Norte, north Agusan del Norte, and north Surigao del Sur provinces. 400,000 (2009 W. Hall). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jaun-Jaun, Sinurigao, Waya-Waya. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Tandaganon [tgn]. Lexical similarity: 82% with Dibabawon Manobo [mbd], 81% with Agusan Manobo [msm], 69% with Butuanon [btw]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South.

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Tadyawan
[tdy] Mimaropa region: east central Mindoro Oriental province, Lake Naujan south. 2,940 (2009 NCIP). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Balaban, Pula, Tadianan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, North Mangyan.

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Tagabawa
[bgs] Davao region: Davao del Sur province; Soccsksargen region: North Cotabato province; Mount Apo slopes west of Davao city. 43,000 (1998 SIL). Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Tagabawa Bagobo, Tagabawa Manobo. Autonym: Bagobo. Dialects: None known. Comprehension of Tigwa Manobo [mbt] 45%; low comprehension of Cebuano [ceb]. Lexical similarity: 62% with Sarangani Manobo [mbs]; 34% with Giangan [bgi]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Manobo, South. Comments: The official name is Tagabawa.

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Tagakaulo
[klg] Davao region: Davao del Sur province, Digos south to Bugis and inland on Davao Gulf west shore; Soccsksargen region: South Cotabato province, Tampakan municipality; Sultan Kudarat province, Colombia municipality. 83,000 (2000 census). 40,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Tagakaolo, Tagakaulu Kalagan. Dialects: None known. About 85% intelligibility with Mansaka [msk]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Mansakan, Western. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tagalog
[tgl] Widespread; Manila, most of Luzon, and Mindoro. 21,500,000 (2000 census). Total users in all countries: 24,628,290. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto national working language. Autonym: Tagalog. Dialects: Lubang, Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas, Bulacan, Puray, Tanay-Paete, Tayabas. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Tagalog. Comments: Used as basis for the development of Filipino [fil]. Christian.

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Tagbanwa
[tbw] Mimaropa region: Palawan province, scattered communities from about 120 km south to 60 km north on both sides of Puerto Princesa island. 10,000 (2002 SIL). 500 monolinguals. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Aborlan Tagbanwa, Apurawnon, Tagbanua. Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Central Palawano [plc] 66%, of Cuyonon [cyo] 77%. Lexical similarity: 65% with Central Palawano [plc], 71% with Batak [bya], 54% with Cuyonon [cyo]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic. Comments: Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tagbanwa, Calamian
[tbk] Mimaropa region: north Palawan province, Busuanga, Coron, Culion, and Linapacan municipalities (Calamian and Linapacan groups); Palawan Island northeast coast, 3 Tagbanwa communities. 10,000 (2007 SIL), increasing. Ethnic population: 10,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Baras, Kinalamiananen (Kinaramiananen), Binuswanganen, Tinalaanen, Inawanwaanen, Lininipaknen, Binatuanen. Baras dialect on Palawan Island 94% intelligibility with Calamian Tagbanwa. Lexical similarity: 80% with Calamian and Baras dialects; typologically unusual phenomenon with regard to pronoun ordering and marking. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Kalamian. Comments: Christian.

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Tagbanwa, Central
[tgt] Mimaropa region: northwest Palawan province, Taytay municipality, Malipu bay area on South China seacoast. 2,000 (1985 SIL). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Dialects: None known. Intelligibility of Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane) 29%, of Calamian Tagbanwa 56%, of Cuyonon [cyo] 61%. Lexical similarity: 56% with Tagbanwa [tbw] (Lamane), 57% with Calamian Tagbanwa [tbk], 48% with Cuyonon [cyo], 40% with Filipino [fil]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Palawanic.

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Tandaganon
[tgn] Caraga region: central Surigao del Sur province, Bayabas, Cagwait, Tago, and Tandag towns. 100,000 (2009 B. Hall). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Naturalis, Tagon-on. Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Surigaonon [sgd]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South.

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Tausug
[tsg] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Sulu province, Jolo, in Sulu archipelago; Basilan province, Basilan island; Mimaropa region: Palawan province on Palawan island; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga city and environs. 900,000 (2000 SIL), increasing. 250,000 monolinguals. Total users in all countries: 1,062,000. Status: 3 (Wider communication). De facto language of provincial identity in Sulu and Tawi-Tawi provinces. Alternate Names: Jolohano, Moro Joloano, Sinug, Sinug Tausug, Sulu, Suluk, Tausog, Taw Sug. Autonym: بَهَسَ سُوگ‎ (Bahasa Sūg). Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, South, Butuan-Tausug. Comments: Muslim.

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Tawbuid, Eastern
[bnj] Mimaropa region: Mindoro Occidental province; Mindoro Oriental province border area. 1,130 (2002 UNSD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Bangon, Barangan, Batangan, Binatangan, Fanawbuid, Suri, Tabuid, Taubuid, Tiron. Dialects: None known. Western Tawbuid [twb] is distinct. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid.

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Tawbuid, Western
[twb] Mimaropa region: Mindoro Occidental province, mainly Calintaan and Sablayan municipalities. 6,810 (2000). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Batangan Taubuid, Fanawbuid, Western Taubuid. Dialects: None known. Eastern Tawbuid [bnj] is distinct. Reportedly most similar to Buhid [bku]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, South Mangyan, Buhid-Taubuid. Comments: Also spoken by the Bangon Mangyans. Traditional religion, Christian.

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Tboli
[tbl] Soccsksargen region: Sarangani province, Katabau west to provincial border on Celebes seacoast; South Cotabato province, Mount Busa area and west; Sultan Kudarat province, Bagumbayan municipality and Kraun area. 95,300 (2000). 10,000 monolinguals. Ethnic population: 100,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: T’boli, Tiboli, “Tagabili” (pej.). Dialects: Central Tboli, Western Tboli, Southern Tboli. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic, Tboli. Comments: Christian, traditional religion.

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Tiruray
[tiy] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Maguindanao province southwest, Datu Blah T. Sinsuat, North Upi, and south Upi municipalities; Soccksargan region: Sultan Kudarat province northwest, Lebak municipality. 50,000 (2002 SIL). Ethnic population: 50,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Teduray, Tirurai. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Bilic.

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Waray-Waray
[war] Eastern Visayas region: east Biliran, Eastern Samar and Northern Samar provinces, all of Samar and associated islands; Leyte province, Leyte town east, Carigara bay, south to Tacloban, Leyte gulf shore south, inland west to highlands. 2,560,000 (2000 census). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Statutory language of provincial identity in Samar, Leyte islands (1991, ACFLC Section 3(f)). Alternate Names: Binisaya, Samar-Leyte, Samaran, Samarenyo, Samareño, Waray. Dialects: Waray, Samar-Leyte, Northern Samar. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Central Philippine, Central Philippine, Bisayan, Central, Warayan, Samar-Waray.

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Yakan
[yka] Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao: Basilan and Sulu provinces and small surrounding islands, Sakol island; Zamboanga Peninsula region: Zamboanga east coast, concentrated inland. 106,000 (1990 census), increasing. 86,900 in Basilan Province. 35,000 monolinguals. Status: 4 (Educational). De facto language of provincial identity in Basilan province. Alternate Names: Yacan. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Greater Barito, Sama-Bajaw. Comments: Land division in families and increasing population pushes young people to seek employment in cities or other countries. Muslim.

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Yogad
[yog] Cagayan Valley region: Isabela province, Echague and nearby towns. 16,000 (1990 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 52% with Ilocano [ilo], 66% with Itawit [itv], 63% with Ibanag [ibg]. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Northern Luzon, Northern Cordilleran, Cagayan Valley, Ibanagic.

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