Pakistan

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Aer
[aeq] Sindh province: Jikrio Goth near Kunri; Deh area, Hyderabad, Jamesabad. 100 (1998). Women monolingual. Ethnic population: 330 Aer in Deh area. Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Jikrio Goth Aer, Jamesabad Aer. Lexical similarity: 78% with Katai Meghwar and Kachi Bhil—both dialects of Kachi Koli [gjk], 75%–77% with the Rabari dialect of Kachi Koli [gjk], 76% with Kachi Koli [gjk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Unusual interrogative word suggests possible historical connection with Western Rajasthani group. Speakers in Pakistan running out of marriage possibilities and may have to move to India. The Indian group is most influential. Other Aer people in Nawabshah, Sindh reportedly speak a different language, dress differently, and do not intermarry with this group. Hindu.

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Badeshi
[bdz] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Bishigram valley upper reaches, Swat Kohistan; small groups in Pooran Chakesar, Swat, and Tirat valleys; Alai. No known L1 speakers. No known speakers for three or more generations. Ethnic population: 2,830 (2000). Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Badakhshi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Unclassified. Comments: Only dominant area languages now used: Torwali [trw], Pashto or Ushojo [ush]. Muslim.

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Bagri
[bgq] Punjab and Sindh provinces. 235,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). 100,000 in Sindh Province (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bagari, Bagria, Bagris, Bahgri, Baorias, Bawri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Non-indigenous. Distinct from Vaghri [vgr]. Nomadic.

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Balochi, Eastern
[bgp] Balochistan province: northeast; Punjab province: southwest; Sindh province: northwest. 3,050,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). 5,000,000 including L2 users of all Balochi languages. Total users in all countries: 3,050,800. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Eastern Hill Balochi. Autonym: بلوچی‎ (Balōčī), بلوچی زبان‎ (Balōčī Zubān). Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. A major language in Pakistan. Distinct from Western Balochi [bgn] and Southern Balochi [bcc]. A small body of literature. Muslim.

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Balochi, Southern
[bcc] South Balochistan and Sindh provinces, Karachi. 2,540,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 3,689,300. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci, Makrani. Autonym: بلوچی‎ (Balōčī), بلوچی زبان‎ (Balōčī Zubān). Dialects: Coastal Balochi, Kechi (Keci), Makrani (Lotuni). Distinct from Eastern Balochi [bgp] and fairly distinct from Western Balochi [bgn]. A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. Muslim.

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Balochi, Western
[bgn] Balochistan province: northwest; Sindh province: Dadu district. 1,080,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 2,024,540. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baloci, Baluchi, Baluci. Autonym: بلوچی‎ (Balōčī), بلوچی زبان‎ (Balōčī Zubān). Dialects: Lashari, Rakhshani (Raxshani), Sarawani. Strongly influenced by Farsi, but not intelligible with Farsi [prs]. A member of macrolanguage Baluchi [bal]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Balochi. Comments: Balochi is the official spelling in Pakistan. A small body of literature. Muslim.

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Balti
[bft] Gilgit Baltistan province: Hunza-Nagar district; Baltistan region, Gultari, Khapalu, Kharmang, Rondu, Shigar, and Skardu valleys. 327,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 347,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Baltistani, Bhotia of Baltistan, Byltae, Sbalti. Autonym: بلتی‎ (Baltī), སྦལ་འཐུས་‎ (Balti). Dialects: Chorbat is most divergent dialect. Lexical similarity: 87%–100% among dialects, 78%–85% with Purik [prx]. Classification: Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Western Tibeto-Burman, Bodish, Central Bodish, Western. Comments: Muslim.

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Baluchi
[bal] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 8,764,640 Status: Comments: Includes: Eastern Balochi [bgp], Southern Balochi [bcc], Western Balochi [bgn].

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Bateri
[btv] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: south Kohistan district; Indus river east bank, some north of Besham, Batera area. 30,100 (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 30,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Batera Kohistani, Baterawal, Baterawal Kohistani, Bateri Kohistani. Dialects: None known. Reportedly more similar to Indus Kohistani [mvy] than to Kohistani Shina [plk], but distinct from both. Lexical similarity: 58%–61% with Indus Kohistani, 60% with Gowro [gwf], 54% with Chilisso [clh], 29% with Kohistani Shina [plk] and Torwali [trw], 27% with Kalami [gwc]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani.

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Bhaya
[bhe] Sindh province: Jamesabad, Kapri Goth, Khipro area, Mirke goth, Mirpurkhas, Phuladia, and a few in Hyderabad. Possibly in India. 70 (1998). Status: 6b (Threatened). Dialects: Similarity of key morphemes: The possessive postposition with, g-, contrasts with all other languages in the area. Gender endings match Marwari [mve]. May be the same as Bhoyari dialect of Malvi [mup] in India. May be in Western Hindi group. Lexical similarity: 84% with Marwari [mve], 75% with Malhi dialect of Dhatki [mki], 73% with Bhat, 72%–73% with Goaria [gig], 70%–73% with Sindhi Meghwar dialect of Sindhi Bhil [sbn], 63%–72% with Mogi, 63%–71% with Sindhi Bhil [sbn], 70% with Urdu [urd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Unclassified.

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Brahui
[brh] Balochistan and Sindh provinces: east in Kalat and Quetta region. 2,210,000 (2011). Total users in all countries: 2,433,600. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Birahui, Brahuidi, Brahuigi, Kur Galli. Autonym: براہوئی‎ (brāhūʾī). Dialects: Jharawan, Kalat, Sarawan. Kalat is standard dialect, Jharawan is lowland. Low percentage of lexical similarity with surrounding languages. Classification: Dravidian, Northern. Comments: Muslim.

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Burushaski
[bsk] Gilgit Baltistan province: north Gilgit district areas, Hunza-Nagar and Yasin areas; scattered in Gilgit, Kashmir, and various cities. 96,800 (2004 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biltum, Brushaski, Burucaki, Burucaski, Burushaki, Burushki, Khajuna, Kunjut. Autonym: Burushaski, Mishaski, بروشسکی‎ (burū́šaskī). Dialects: Nagar (Nagir), Hunza, Yasin (Werchikwar). Yasin is geographically separated from other dialects. Lexical similarity: 91%–94% between Nagar and Hunza dialects, 67%–72% between Yasin and Hunza, 66%–71% between Yasin and Nagar. Classification: Language isolate. Comments: Muslim.

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Chilisso
[clh] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Kohistan district, Indus river east bank, Indus Kohistan, Koli, Palas area. 1,000 (1992 SIL). Ethnic population: 1,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chiliss, Galos. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 70% with Indus Kohistani [mvy], 65%–68% with Gowro [gwf], 54% with Bateri [btv], 48%–56% with Kohistani Shina [plk], 26% with Torwali [trw], 25% with Kalami [gwc]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani.

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Dameli
[dml] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: south Chitral district, Damel valley; 4 main and several smaller villages. 5,000 (Cacopardo and Cacopardo 2001), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Damedi, Damel, Damia, Damiabaasha, Gidoji, Gudoji. Dialects: 2 groups: Shinteri-Dondideri and Swati-Aspar, but no significant dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 44% with Gawar-Bati [gwt], Savi [sdg], and Palula [phl]; 33% with Kamviri [xvi]; 29% with Kati [bsh]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kunar. Comments: Speakers probably of mixed origin. Language influenced by Nuristani languages. Muslim.

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Dari
[prs] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: southeast Chitral, Shishi Koh valley, Madaglasht village; Karachi, Lahore, Peshawar, Rawalpindi, and other large cities. 1,000,000. 2,000–3,000 in Madaglasht (Chitral), and many Afghan refugees (1992 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Afghan Persian, Badakhshi, Madaglashti. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Madaglasht community in Chitral came from Badakhshan, Afghanistan 200 years ago. Other communities in Pakistan are primarily refugees or settlers from Afghanistan. Muslim.

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Dehwari
[deh] Balochistan province: Kalat and Mastung. 14,600 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Deghwari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Influenced by Brahui [brh].

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Dhatki
[mki] Sindh province: Sanghar and Tharparkar districts. 132,000 (2000). 100,000 in Sind (1987). Total users in all countries: 148,400. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Dhati. Dialects: Eastern Dhatki, Southern Dhatki, Central Dhatki, Barage, Malhi. Varies considerably from northern Marwari [mve], though they claim to understand one another. Lexical similarity: 80%–83% with Marwari [mve] dialects, 88% with Dhatki of Rajasthan and Dhatki of Thar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Domaaki
[dmk] Gilgit Baltistan province: Hunza-Nagar district, Bakor village, Big Nagar, Gilgit, Mominabad village, Oshkandas east of Gilgit, Punyal, and Shishkat; mainly in Hunza valley. 340 (Matthias 2011), decreasing. Concentrated mostly in one village (Van Driem 2007). Status: 8a (Moribund). Alternate Names: Bericho, Dom, Doma, Dumaki. Dialects: None known. Loanwords from Shina [scl] and Burushaski [bsk], but not mutually intelligible. Lexical similarity: 40% with Gilgit Shina [scl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western. Comments: Not all Doms speak Domaaki; most speakers concentrated in Mominabad and Hunza. Muslim.

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English
[eng] 17,012,500 in Pakistan, all users. 12,500 (2004 J. Leclerc). 17,000,000 (Crystal 2003a). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 251(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gawar-Bati
[gwt] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: south Chitral district, Arandu area; Kunar river area. 1,960 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Arandui, Gowar-Bati, Gowari, Narisati, Narsati, Satre. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kunar. Comments: Refer to themselves as Kohistani, as do other ethnolinguistic groups in the region. Muslim.

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Ghera
[ghr] Sindh province: Hyderabad district, 1 enclave between main bus stop and railway station in Hyderabad city. 10,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bara, Sindhi Ghera. Dialects: None known. Quite different grammatically from Gurgula [ggg]; reportedly similar to Urdu [urd]. Lexical similarity: 87% with Gurgula [ggg], 70% with Urdu [urd]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Unclassified. Comments: Almost totally urbanized. Hindu.

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Goaria
[gig] Sindh province: widespread (except Karachi), Badin, Larkana, Moro, and Umerkot on lower Indus river valley between Hyderabad and Sukkur. 25,400 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Maybe the same as Sadri (Gawari) [sck] in India. Lexical similarity: 75%–83% with Jogi, 76%–80% with Marwari [mve] sweeper caste, 72%–78% with Marwari (Meghwar dialect) [mve], 70%–78% with Loarki [lrk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Hindu.

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Gowro
[gwf] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Kohistan district, Kolai area, Mahrin village on Indus east bank. 200 (1990), decreasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Gabar Khel, Gabaro. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 65%–68% with Chilisso [clh], 62% with Indus Kohistani [mvy], 60% with Bateri [btv], 40%–43% with Kohistani Shina [plk], 25% with Torwali [trw], 24% with Kalami [gwc]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani. Comments: Ancestral language of the Gabar Khel, a clan residing primarily in Mahrin (Indus Kohistan). Different from Gawri, an alternate name for Kalami [gwc].

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Gujarati
[guj] Sindh and lower Punjab provinces. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gujari
[gju] Azad Kashmir province: widespread north; Gilgit Baltistan province: Diamer district, Gilgit; Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: east Hazara district, Kaghan valley, scattered in south Chitral district, Dir Kohistan and Swat Kohistan; Punjab province: Rawalpindi district; Islamabad. 300,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). 2,910 in Chitral (1969), 20,000 in Swat Kohistan (1987), 200,000–700,000 in Azad Jammu and Kashmir (1989). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gogri, Gojari, Gojri, Gujer, Gujjari, Gujuri, Gujuri Rajasthani, Kashmir Gujuri. Dialects: Western Gujari, Eastern Gujari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Some move seasonally with herds. Muslim.

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Gurgula
[ggg] Sindh province: Bhens colony, Karachi; smaller urban centers of Mirpur Khas, Moro, Panj, Sabura, Shahdadpur, and Tando Allahyar. 35,300 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Marwari Ghera. Dialects: None known. Ghera [ghr] is quite different grammatically. Lexical similarity: 87% with Ghera [ghr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Unclassified. Comments: Hindu.

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Hazaragi
[haz] Balochistan province: Quetta district; Qunduz area, Karachi and Islamabad. 157,000 (2000). Many recent refugees from Afghanistan. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Azargi, Hazara, Hezareh. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Southwestern, Persian. Comments: Non-indigenous. Alternate names listed refer to the people. Group or regional names are (Central) Dai Kundi, Dai Zangi, Behsud, Yekaulang, (Southern) Polada, Urusgani, Jaguri, Ghazni Hazaras, Dai Miradad, Kabul. Muslim.

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Hindko, Northern
[hno] Azad Kashmir province: Muzaffarabad district, and Islamabad; Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Hazara division, Abbotabad and Mansehra districts; Indus and Kaghan valleys and Indus valley tributaries. 1,880,000 (1981 census), increasing. Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,690,000 (2014 World Factbook). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Hazara Hindko, Kagani, Kaghani, “Hindki” (pej.). Dialects: Abbottabad Hindko, Galiyat Hindko, Haripur Hindko, Mansehra Hindko (Muko-Tuko), Tanoli Hindko. Also related to Punjabi [pnb], Saraiki [skr], and Pahari-Potwari [phr]; which have all been called Greater Punjabi, forming part of Lahnda [lah]. Lexical similaritiy: 82%–92% with Northern Hindko dialects, 67%–82% with Northern and Southern Hindko [hnd] varieties. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim.

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Hindko, Southern
[hnd] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Kohat and Peshawar districts; Punjab province: Attock district, to south Hazara division; Islamabad. 625,000 (1981 census). Total Hindko in Pakistan 3,690,000 (2014 World Factbook). Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Peshawar Hindko (Peshawari), Attock Hindko (Attock-Haripur Hindko), Kohat Hindko (Kohati), Rural Peshawar Hindko. The dialect in Dera Ismail Khan, sometimes called ‘Hindko’, is reportedly more similar to Saraiki [skr]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim.

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Jadgali
[jdg] Balochistan province: Lasbela district; Sindh province: Karachi district. 15,600 (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 25,600. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jat, Jatgali, Jatki. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Different from Jakati [jat] of Afghanistan and Ukraine. Muslim.

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Jandavra
[jnd] Sindh province: Hyderabad to east of Mirpur Khas. Reportedly also in Jodhpur, Rajasthan, India. 5,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Jhandoria. Dialects: Lexical similarity: 74% with Bagri [bgq] and the Katai Meghwar dialect of Kachi Koli [gjk], 68% with Kachi Koli [gjk]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Hindu.

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Jogi
[jog] Sindh province: Badin, Hala, Hyderabad, Jusab Jang, Karachi Habchopi, Khokhar Bughera, Makli, Matli, Mirpurkhas, Nabisar, Nagar Parkar, Sato Mel, Tando Adam, Tando Allahyar, Tando Jam, Tando Sain Dad, Taz Mori, Thatta, Umerkot. 50,000 (1996 R. Hoyle). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 75%–83% with Goaria [gig], 69%–82% with Loarki [lrk], 70%–78% with Marwari (Southern) [mve]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: The Jogis may also identify themselves as Marwaris (came from Marwar area in Rajasthan India), or as Gujaratis.

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Kabutra
[kbu] Sindh province: Kunri, Nara Dhoro, and Umerkot areas. 1,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Nat, Natra. Dialects: Reported inherent intelligibility with Sansi [ssi] and the Sochi dialect of Sansi, and use Kabutra when speaking to them. Lexical similarity: 74% with the Sochi [ssi] language variety. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi. Comments: Speakers say 90% of the people remain in Zal area of Marwar, India. Hindu.

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Kacchi
[kfr] Sindh province: notably in Karachi. 50,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Cuchi, Cutch, Kachchhi, Kachchi, Kachi, Katch, Katchi, Kautchy, Kutchchi, Kutchie. Dialects: Jadeji. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kalami
[gwc] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Swat district, Biar, Lamuti, Rajkot, and Thal villages in Dir Kohistan; upper Swat Kohistan, between Peshmal and Kalam north to Kalam area upper valleys. 100,000 (Baart and Sagar 2004), increasing. Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bashgharik, Bashkarik, Baskarik, Dir Kohistani, Diri, Dirwali, Gaawro, Garwa, Garwi, Gawri, Gowri, Kalami Kohistani, Kohistana, Kohistani. Dialects: Kalam, Ushu, Thal, Lamuti (Lamti), Rajkoti (Patrak), Dashwa. Dialect differences do not hinder communication, except speakers of other dialects have difficulty with Rajkot. Lexical similarity: 90%–93% among main dialects; Rajkoti has 75% with Kalami; Dashwa has 77% with Kalami [gwc], and 74% with Rajkoti. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani. Comments: Most widely understood indigenous language in north Swat and Dir Kohistan. Muslim.

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Kalasha
[kls] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: south Chitral district, Urtsun valley (southern Kalasha dialect); Birir, Bumboret, and Rumbur valleys (northern Kalasha dialect). 5,000 (Heegård Petersen 2006). 3,200 in Northern Kalasha area; unknown and decreasing number in Southern Kalasha area. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kalashamon, Kalashi. Dialects: Southern Kalasha (Urtsun), Northern Kalasha (Birir, Bumboret, Rumbur). Very little contact between northern and southern dialects of Kalasha, so there are difficulties in communication now. Lexical similarity: 75% southern dialect with northern dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Chitral. Comments: Originally Kalasha was the language of most of the southern Chitral district. Now Khowar [khw] is the predominant language, with earlier languages just used in villages of the side valleys. Traditional religion, Muslim.

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Kalkoti
[xka] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Dir Kohistan, Kalkot village. 5,100 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 69% with Kalami [gwc], 59% with Palula [phl], 60% with Savi [sdg]. Kalkoti, Palula and Savi form a cluster of closely related varieties within the Shina group. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Muslim.

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Kamviri
[xvi] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: south Chitral district, Badrugal, Lamerot, Langorbat, and Urtsun valley. 2,000 (2004). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kamdeshi, Kamik, Lamertiviri, Shekhani. Dialects: Kamviri, Shekhani. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani.

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Kashmiri
[kas] Azad Kashmir province: south of Shina. 124,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Cashmeeree, Cashmiri, Kacmiri, Kaschemiri, Keshuri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kashmiri.

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Kati
[bsh] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Chitral district (eastern Kativiri dialect), Bumboret, Lutkuh, Rumbur, and Urtsun valleys. 6,010 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bashgali, Kata viri, Kativiri, Nuristani, Shekhaniwar. Dialects: Eastern Kativiri (Shekhani), Western Kativiri, Mumviri. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Nuristani. Comments: Eastern Kativiri dialect often called Shekhani in Pakistan, but different from Kamviri [xvi] dialect also called Shekhani in Southern Chitral.

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Khetrani
[xhe] Balochistan province: Barkhan district. 15,600 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Related to Saraiki [skr]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Influenced by Balochi. Muslim.

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Khowar
[khw] Gilgit Baltistan province: Gilgit district, Ghizr valley, Shandur pass to Gupis; Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Chitral and Peshawar districts; Ishkhoman and Yasin valleys, north Swat valley, Ushu; probably in Rawalpindi and other northern cities. 270,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Total users in all countries: 289,200. Status: 3 (Wider communication). Alternate Names: Arniya, Chitrali, Chitrari, Citrali, Kashkari, Khawar, Patu, Qashqari. Dialects: North Khowar, South Khowar, East Khowar, Swat Khowar. Northern dialect considered more pure. Related to Kalasha [kls] but different. Lexical similarity: 86%–98% among dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Chitral. Comments: Muslim.

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Kohistani, Indus
[mvy] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Kohistan district, west bank Indus river. 200,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khili, Kohistani, Kohistẽ, Mair, Maiyon, Maiyã, Shuthun. Dialects: Indus (Jijal, Mani, Pattan, Seo), Duber-Kandia (Duber, Khili, Manzari), Ranolia, Bankad. A separate language from nearby varieties: Bateri [btv], Chilisso [clh]. Lexical similarity: 88%–92% between dialects, 69%–71% with Chilisso [clh], 61%–63%% with Gowro [gwf], 58%–61% with Bateri [btv], 36%–41% with Kohistani Shina [plk], 26%–28% with Kalami [gwc] and Torwali [trw]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani. Comments: Mani and Manzari are not used for dialects, but are said to refer to brothers whose descendants settled in the 2 dialect areas.

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Koli, Kachi
[gjk] Sindh province: Nawabshah and Sakrand north, Matli south, and east beyond Mirpur Khas and Jamesabad, Tando Adam and Tando Allahyar town areas. 100,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). 80,000–100,000 Kachi Koli, 5,000–6,000 Rabari, 10,000 Kachi Bhil, 50,000 Vagri, 10,000 Katai Meghwar, 1,000 Zalavaria Koli. Total users in all countries: 500,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Kachi, Kachi Gujarati, Katchi, Kohli, Kolhi, Koli, Kori, Kuchi, Vagari, Vagaria. Dialects: Kachi, Rabari (Rahabari), Kachi Bhil, Vagri (Kachi Meghwar), Katai Meghwar, Zalavaria Koli. Becoming more like Sindhi [snd]. Lexical similarity: Kachi dialect; 89% with Kachi and Rabari, 96% with Kachi Bhil, 86% with Vagri, 92% with Katai Meghwar, 88% with Zalavaria Koli, 78% with Gujarati [guj], 76% with Wadiyara Koli [kxp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: People with basically the same language are socially quite distinct. Hindu.

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Koli, Parkari
[kvx] Sindh province: Tharparkar district, Nagar Parkar in southeast tip bordering India; lower Thar desert, to Indus river west, bordered north and west by Hyderabad, to south and west of Badin. 275,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Parkari. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 77%–83% with Marwari Bhil [mve], 83% with Wadiyara Koli [kxp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Hindu.

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Koli, Wadiyara
[kxp] Sindh province: bounded by Hyderabad, Mirpur Khas, and Tando Allahyar north, Jamesabad and Matli south. 138,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Wadaria, Wadhiara, Wadiyara, Wadiyari, Wadiyari Koli. Dialects: Mewasi (Mayvasi Koli), Wadiyara Koli, Nairya Koli, Tharadari Koli, Tharadari Bhil, Hasoria Koli, Hasoria Bhil, Rardro Bhil. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Some strict caste rules about intermarriage and interdining are changing; possibly ‘lower’ groups wishing to move up, and barriers in closed castes breaking down.

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Kundal Shahi
[shd] Azad Kashmir province: Neelam district, Kundal Shahi village. 700 (Rehman and Baart 2005). Status: 7 (Shifting). Alternate Names: Apeen Bol, “Rawri” (pej.). Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Shina [scl]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: The language is spoken by the Qureshi ethnic group.

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Lahnda
[lah] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 118,852,200 Status: Comments: Includes: Inku [jat] (Afghanistan), Khetrani [xhe], Northern Hindko [hno], Pahari-Potwari [phr], Saraiki [skr], Southern Hindko [hnd], Western Punjabi [pnb].

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Lasi
[lss] Balochistan province: Kalat division, Lasbela district, north-northwest of Karachi. 11,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Lassi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Influenced by Balochi. Muslim.

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Loarki
[lrk] Sindh province: rural. 20,000 (1998). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: None known. Probably the same as Gade Lohar [gda] in Rajasthan, India, a Rajasthani language. Lexical similarity: 82% with Jogi [jog], 80% with Marwari [mve]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: Alternate people names are: Loar, Lohar, Gadlia, Gadolia Rajput, Gadolia Rajput Loar, Karia, Sisudia Rajput, Sisudia Loar. Hindu.

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Marwari
[mve] Punjab province: Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, and Rahim Yar Khan districts; Sindh province: widespread Karachi to Sukkur. 220,000. 100,000 Northern Marwari, 120,000 or more Southern Marwari (1998). The latter 100,000 Marwari Bhil, 10,000 Marwari Meghwar, 12,000 to 13,000 Marwari Bhat. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Jaiselmer, Marawar, Marwari Bhil, Marwari Meghwar, Merwari, Rajasthani. Dialects: Northern Marwari, Southern Marwari, Marwari Bhil, Marwari Meghwar, Marwari Bhat. Northern and Southern Marwari mutually inherently intelligible. May or may not be different from Marwari of India [rwr]. Lexical similarity: 79%–83% with Dhatki [mki], 87% between Southern and Northern Marwari, 78% with Marwari Meghwar and Marwari Bhat dialects. A member of macrolanguage Marwari [mwr]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Rajasthani, Marwari. Comments: ‘Rajasthani’ is a linguistic cover term for a group of languages. Speakers tend to be urban and educated. Northern Bhil tribes: Marwari-Thori, Gulguli, Shikari, Jogi, Sochi. Northern Marwari sub-dialects: Uganyo, Bhattipo, and Khadali; Southern Marwari sub-dialects: Utradi, Jaxorati, and Larecha. Hindu, Christian, Muslim.

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Memoni
[mby] Sindhi province: scattered; Karachi. Status: 7 (Shifting). Dialects: None known. Reportedly similar to Sindhi [snd] and Gujarati [guj]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Comments: Reportedly 500–600 years ago Memoni speakers moved from a Sindhi-speaking area to a Gujarati-speaking area. Muslim.

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Od
[odk] Sindh and in south Punjab provinces: widespread. 58,400 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Oad, Oadki, Odki. Dialects: Resembles Marathi [mar] with Gujarati [guj] features and borrowings from Marwari [mve] and Punjabi. Lexical similarity: 86%–88% among dialects in Dadu, Shikarpur, and Pithoro, 70%–78% with Marwari [mve], Dhatki [mki] and Bagri [bgq]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified.

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Ormuri
[oru] Federally Administered Tribal Areas province, South Wazirstan agency: Kaniguram, a pocket in Mahsud Pashto area northwest of Dera Ismail Khan. 6,000 (2004 R. Burki). Total users in all countries: 6,050. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Baraki, Baraks, Bargista, Ormui, Ormur, Urmuri. Dialects: Kanigurami, Logar. Lexical similarity: 27% with Waneci [wne], 25%–33% with Pashto dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Western, Northwestern, Ormuri-Parachi.

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Pahari-Potwari
[phr] Azad Kashmir province: all but far north; Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Abbottabad district; Punjab province: Gujarat, Jhelum, and Rawalpindi districts; Islamabad. 2,500,000 (Lothers and Lothers 2007). Total users in all countries: 3,541,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Pahari, Pothohari, Potohari, Potwari. Dialects: Pahari (Dhundi-Kairali), Pothwari (Potwari), Chibhali, Punchhi (Poonchi), Mirpuri. ’Pahari’, hill language; Potwari is the language of the Pothwar Plateau. A chain of related varieties with Punjabi [pnb], Hindko [hno], [hnd], and Saraiki [skr], also called Greater Punjabi. Degree of similarity to Western Pahari varieties in India unknown. Lexical similarity: 76%–84% among varieties called, Pahari, Potwari, and some called Hindko in Mansehra, Muzzaffarabad, and Mirpuri in Jammu. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim.

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Pakistan Sign Language
[pks] Scattered. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: IPSL, Indo-Pakistani Sign Language, Isharon Ki Zubann, PSL. Dialects: Some regional variation in vocabulary. Related to other sign languages in south Asia; see comments on Indian Sign Language [ins] in India. Classification: Sign language.

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Palula
[phl] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Chitral district, Ashret and Biori, 12 villages on lower east Chitral river; some in main valley, Kalkatak, and Shishi Koh valley, Purigal; some in Dir Kohistan. Ashret valley (Ashreti dialect); Biori valley, Kalkatak, and Purigal (northern Palula dialect). 10,000 (Liljegren 2008). Population of Ashret and Biori Valleys is almost completely monolingual (Liljegren 2008). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Biyori, Dangarikwar, Palola, Phalulo, Phalura. Dialects: Ashreti, Northern Palula. No, or limited, intelligibility of Kalkoti [xka] and Savi [sdg]. Lexical similarity: 92% with Ashreti and Northern Palula dialects, 56%–58% with Savi [sdg] in Afghanistan, 38%–42% with Kohistani Shina [plk]. Palula, Kalkoti [xka] (spoken in Dir Kohistan) and Savi [sdg] (spoken in Afghanistan) form a cluster of closely related varieties within the Shina group (Liljegren 2008). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Muslim.

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Pashto, Central
[pst] Balochistan province: north; Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Bannu and Karak districts; Punjab province: some border areas in Bhakkar district; Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Wazirstan agencies and Lakki Marwat and Tank regions. 6,520,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Mahsudi, Waziri. Dialects: Waciri (Waziri), Bannuchi (Bannochi, Bannu). Lexical comparison and interviews indicate this is distinct from Northern Pashto [pbu] and Southern Pashto [pbt]. A member of macrolanguage Pushto [pus]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Muslim.

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Pashto, Northern
[pbu] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Peshawar district and Yusufzai area; Federally Administered Tribal Areas Province, mainly central and northern areas; Punjab province: Mianwali district; all along Afghanistan border. 18,700,000 (2013 SIL). Ethnic population: Possibly 49,600,000 Pashto in all countries. Total users in all countries: 21,038,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Pakhto, Pashtu, Pushto, Yousafzai Pashto, Yusufzai Pashto. Autonym: پښتو‎ (Pashto). Dialects: Ningraharian Pashto, Northeastern Pashto, Eastern Afghan Pashto. Much similarity with Northwestern Pashto in Afghanistan. Subdialects of Northeastern Pashto are Kohat (Khatak), Yusufzai (Peshawar), Afridi, Shinwari, Mohmand, Shilmani. Lexical similarity: 80% between Northeastern and Southwestern Pashto. A member of macrolanguage Pushto [pus]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Muslim.

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Pashto, Southern
[pbt] Balochistan province: Loralai, Mastung, Quetta, Pishin, Sibi, and Ziarat districts, and adjacent areas; Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Dera Ismail Khan district; Punjab province: Dera Ghazi Khan district; Federally Administered Tribal Areas. 4,580,000 (2013 SIL). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Pashtu, Pushto, Pushtu, Quetta-Kandahar Pashto. Dialects: Southeastern Pashto, Quetta Pashto. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Muslim.

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Punjabi, Western
[pnb] Punjab province: Gujranwala, Gujrat, Kasur, Lahore, Nankana, Narowal, Shekhupura, and Sialkot districts. 90,700,000 (2015 World Factbook). Total users in all countries: 92,721,700. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Lahanda, Lahnda, Lahndi, Panjabi, Panjabi Proper, Punjabi, Punjapi, Shahmukhi. Autonym: پنجابی‎ (Panjābī). Dialects: Bathi, Bhatyiana (Bhatneri, Bhatti), Doab, Majhi, Malwa, Powadhi, Lahori, Punjabi Proper. A continuum of related varieties between Eastern Punjabi [pan] in India and Western Punjabi, and ‘Lahnda’. Lahnda (originally called Western Panjabi by Grierson) is a label for the dialect continuum between Hindko [hno] [hnd], Pahari-Potwari [phr], and Saraiki [skr]; Lahnda varieties are 70%–85% lexically similar to Punjabi [pan]. Lexical similarity: 70%–85% with Punjabi [pan]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Muslim, Christian.

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Pushto
[pus] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 38,292,800 Status: Comments: Includes: Central Pashto [pst], Northern Pashto [pbu], Southern Pashto [pbt] (Afghanistan).

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Sansi
[ssi] Sindh province: Karachi. 15,600 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Bhilki. Dialects: Sochi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani, Sansi. Comments: Non-indigenous. Bhils by caste. Immigrated from India in 1947. Hindu, Muslim.

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Saraiki
[skr] Balochistan province: Barkhan, Jaffarabad, Jhal Magsi, Nasirabad, and Sibi districts; Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province: Dera Ismail Khan, Kohat, and Tank districts; Punjab province: Attock, Bahawalnagar, Bahawalpur, Bhakkar, Chakwal, Chiniot, Dera Ghazi Khan, Faisalabad, Hafizabad, Jhang, Jhelum, Khanewal, Khushab, Layyah, Lodhran, Mandi Bahauddin, Mianwali, Multan, Muzaffargarh, Okara, Pakpattan, Rahim Yar Khan, Rajanpur, Sahiwal, Sargodha, Toba Tek Singh, and Vehari districts; Sindh province: Dadu, Ghotki, Jacobabad, Kashmore, Khairpur, and Sukkur districts. Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province: Dera Ismail Khan; Punjab province: Bahawalpur, Dera Ghazi Khan, Layyah, Mianwali, Multan, and Muzaffargarh districts (Central dialect); Punjab province: Bahawalnagar, Chiniot, Jhang, Kamalia, Mandi Bahauddin, Okara, Pindi Bhattian, Sahiwal, and Sargodha districts (Eastern dialect); Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa province: Kohat district; Punjab province: Attock, Chakwal, and Jhelum districts (Northern dialect); Sindh province (Sindhi Saraiki dialect); Balochistan province; Punjab province: Rahim Yar Khan and Rajanpur districts; Sindh province: Dadu, Ghotki, Jacobabad, Kashmore, and Sukkur districts (Southern dialect). 20,000,000 (2013). Total users in all countries: 20,068,000. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Seraiki, Siraiki. Autonym: سرائیکی‎ (Saraiki). Dialects: Sindhi Saraiki (Sindh aali Saraiki), Central Saraiki, Southern Saraiki, Northern Saraiki, Eastern Saraiki (Dibhari Saraiki). Dialects blend together into Punjabi east and Sindhi [snd] south. 80% intelligibility of Dogri [dgo]. Lexical similarity: 85% with Sindhi [snd]; 68% with Dhatki [mki], Od [odk], and Sansi [ssi]. A member of macrolanguage Lahnda [lah]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Panjabi, Western Panjabi. Comments: Saraiki is taught at the university level in at least 2 university programs. Muslim, Hindu.

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Savi
[sdg] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Kunar valley, Dir district, many in refugee camps near Timargarha; Chitral, near Drosh; a few in Jalalabad. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Sau, Sauji, Sawi. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Shina
[scl] Azad Kashmir province: east Neelum district; Gilgit Baltistan province: Baltistan, Diamer, and Gilgit districts, Chilas area, Darel, Gilgit, Haramosh, lower Hunza Valley, Punial, and Tangir valleys, Astor, Kharmang, Kachura, Satpara, and other small valleys, scattered villages in Ishkoman and Yasin valleys; Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: east Kohistan district, Harban and Sazin. 528,000 (2004 J. Leclerc), increasing. Total users in all countries: 562,400. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Brokpa, Shinaki, Sina. Autonym: شینا‎ (Šīnā). Dialects: Gilgiti (Bagrote, Bunji, Gilgit, Haramosh, Hunza-Nagar, Punial, Rondu), Astori (Astor, Dras, Gurezi, Kharmangi, Satpara), Chilasi Kohistani (Chilas, Darel, Harban, Sazin, Tangir). Gilgit functions as the language standard. Shina is the primary language in Gilgit and Diamer districts. Lexical similarity: 79%–99% within Gilgiti (Northern) dialect subgroup, 81%–96% with Astori (Eastern) subgroup, 84%–98% with Chilas (Diamer) subgroup. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Muslim.

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Shina, Kohistani
[plk] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Kohistan district, east bank Indus river, Jalkot, Kolai, and Palas valley areas. 352,000 (2004 J. Leclerc), increasing. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Kohistani, Kohistyo, Palasi-Kohistani. Dialects: Palasi (Palas), Jalkoti (Jalkot), Kolai (Koli). A somewhat divergent variety of Shina linguistically and socially. Reportedly similar to Shina [scl] of Chilas, but more distant from Gilgit [scl] dialect. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Muslim.

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Sindhi
[snd] Balochistan province: Khuzdar and Lasbela districts; Sindh province: widespread, Indus river lower reaches; Hyderabad, Karachi. 22,700,000 (2015 World Factbook). Ethnic population: 26,000,000 (2014 World Factbook). Total users in all countries: 24,445,500. Status: 2 (Provincial). De facto provincial language in Sindh. Autonym: سنڌي‎ (Sindhi). Dialects: Lari, Lasi, Thareli, Vicholo (Central Sindhi, Viccholi, Vicholi), Macharia, Dukslinu (Hindu Sindhi), Sindhi Musalmani (Muslim Sindhi), Shikari Bhil, Katiawari Kachi. Some southern Bhil groups speak dialects of Sindhi. 100,000 in rural Sindh originally from Kathiawar Peninsula in India are Muslims, exhibit widespread bilingualism in Sindh, and are almost completely assimilated with the Sindhi people. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Shikari (hunter) Bhils are a nomadic group of 2,000 to 3,000 who live in south Sindh Province, centered around Badin, and have adopted the Sindhi language. Muslim, Hindu.

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Sindhi Bhil
[sbn] Sindh province: Badin-Matli-Thatta, Ghorabari west, and Mohrano. Badin-Matli to Tando Allahyar scattered (Sindhi Meghwar dialect). 56,500 (2000). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Sindhi Bhil, Mohrano, Badin, Sindhi Meghwar. Badin dialect is reportedly similar to Sindhi [snd]. Lexical similarity: 82% between the Mohrani dialect and Sindhi; 89% between Sindhi Bhil [sbn] and Sindhi Meghwar. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Sindhi. Comments: Sindhi or Dhatki orthographies are acceptable. Hindu, Muslim.

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Torwali
[trw] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Swat district; upper Swat district, both sides of Swat river, north of Madyan up to Asret (Bahrain dialect); 2 villages in Chail valley (Chail dialect). 80,000 (Lunsford 2001). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Torwalak, Torwali Kohistani, Turvali. Dialects: Bahrain, Chail. Lexical similarity: 44% with Kalkoti [xka] and Kalami [gwc], 89% with Bahrain and Chail dialects. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Kohistani. Comments: Muslim.

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Urdu
[urd] Widespread. 109,100,000 in Pakistan, all users. 15,100,000 (2015 World Factbook). 94,000,000 (1999). Total users in all countries: 163,095,930 (as L1: 69,050,130; as L2: 94,045,800). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1973, Constitution, Article 251(1)). Alternate Names: Bihari, Modern Standard Urdu. Autonym: اُردُو‎‎ (Urdū). Dialects: Intelligible with Hindi, but formal vocabulary borrowed from Arabic and Persian. Dakhini dialect of Urdu [urd] in India has fewer Persian and Arabic loans than Urdu. Rekhta is a form of Urdu used in poetry. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Western Hindi, Hindustani. Comments: Muslim.

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Ushojo
[ush] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Swat district, upper Bishigram valley, east of Madyan, 12 villages. 2,000 (1992). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Ushuji. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 50% with Kolai Shina [plk], 48% with Palas Shina [plk], 42% with Gilgiti Shina [scl], 35% with Chail Torwali [trw], 31% with Palula [phl], 27% with Bateri [btv], 23% with Kalami [gwc], 22% with Kalkoti [xka]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Outer Languages, Northwestern , Dardic, Shina. Comments: Not known by linguists until 1989. Reportedly came from Kolai, Indus Kohistan several hundred years ago via Ushu, Swat, hence the name Ushojo. Muslim.

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Vaghri
[vgr] Sindh province: Badin, Digri, Hala, Jang Sai, Karachi, Matli, Mirpur Khas, Nawabshah, Noakot, Sakrand, Sanghar, Sukkur, Tando Adam, Tando Allahyar, Tando Ghulam Ali, and Tando Mohammed Khan. 3,660 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Bavri, Salavta, Vaghri Koli. Dialects: None known. Reportedly related to Kukar people’s language who live near Chanesar Halt, Mehmoodabad in Karachi. Lexical similarity: 78% with Wadiyari Koli [kxp]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Gujarati. Comments: Urbanized. Hindu.

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Wakhi
[wbl] Gilgit Baltistan province: Ghizer, Gilgit, and Hunza-Najar districts; Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: northernmost Chitral district, Baroghil, in glacier area; Chupursan, upper Ishkoman, Shimshal, and upper Yarkhun valleys; upper Hunza valley from Gulmit to Chinese and Afghanistan borders (Gojal dialect). 20,000 (2008), increasing. 4,500–6,000 Gojal, 2,000 Ishkoman, 200 Yasin, 900 Yarkhun (1992), plus refugees. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Khik, Khikwar, Vakhan, Wakhani, Wakhigi. Dialects: Gojal, Ishkoman, Yasin, Yarkhun. Lexical similarity: 84% with Ishkoman and Gojal dialects, 89% with Yasin and Gojal, 91% with Ishkoman and Yasin. Lexical similarity: 84% with Ishkoman and Gojal dialects, 89% with Yasin and Gojal, 91% with Ishkoman and Yasin. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Comments: Muslim.

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Waneci
[wne] Balochistan province: northeast in Harnai area. 108,000 (2004 J. Leclerc). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Chalgari, Tarino, Vanechi, Wanechi, Wanetsi. Dialects: None known. Lexical similarity: 71%–75% with Southern Pashto [pbt], 63%–72% with other Pashto varieties, 27% with Ormuri [oru]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pashto. Comments: Muslim.

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Yidgha
[ydg] Khyber Pakhtunkwa province: Chitral district, upper Lutkuh valley, west of Garam Chishma. 6,150 (2000). Status: 6b (Threatened). Alternate Names: Lutkuhwar, Yidga, Yudga, Yudgha. Dialects: No significant dialect variation. Lexical similarity: 56%–80% with Munji [mnj] in Afghanistan. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Iranian, Eastern, Southeastern, Pamir. Comments: Muslim.

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