Poland

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Armenian
[hye] 2,210 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Alternate Names: Haieren. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Belarusian
[bel] 26,700 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Alternate Names: Belarusan, Byelorussian, White Russian. Dialects: Podlachian (Pudlaśka mova). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Czech
[ces] 1,430 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Alternate Names: Čeština, Český jazyk. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Esperanto
[epo] Scattered internationally. Most widely represented in Japan, China, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, United States, Brazil, Belgium, and United Kingdom (in order of number of members in the World Esperanto Association). 2,001,000, all users. L1 users: 1,000 (Corsetti et al 2004), increasing. L2 users: 2,000,000 (Wandel 2015). Status: 3 (Wider communication). Esperanto was developed for intercommunication among L1 users of other languages. It is currently used by speakers in over 100 countries of the world. Autonym: Esperanto, Lingvo Internacia. Classification: Constructed language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Most widely used constructed language in the world. Developed 1878 by L. L. Zamenhof, a Polish ophtalmologist. For this reason, Poland has been selected as the primary country for Esperanto.

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German, Standard
[deu] Opolskie, Lower Silesian, and Silesian provinces. 7,393,600 in Poland, all users. L1 users: 63,600 (2013 UNSD). L2 users: 7,330,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Opolskie and Silesian provinces (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Articles 2(2), 9). Alternate Names: Deutsch, Niemiec. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kashubian
[csb] Pomeranian Province, near Baltic coast, lower Vistula left bank; west of Gdansk bay; narrow strip inland, southwest from Gdynia. 107,000 (2013 UNSD). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1993 T. Salminen). Total users in all countries: 117,000 (as L1: 107,000; as L2: 10,000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 19). Alternate Names: Cashubian, Cassubian, Kaszubski. Dialects: Kashubian Proper, Slovincian. German [deu] influences in the language. Transitional dialects between Kashubian Proper, the Slovincian dialect, and Polish [pol]. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Most of ethnic group speak regional variety of Polish [pol] (1993 T. Salminen).

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Lithuanian
[lit] Scattered, Podlaskie Province. 5,050 (2013 UNSD). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Podlaskie Province (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Alternate Names: Lietuviškai, Lietuvių kalba, Litewski. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Baltic, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Polish
[pol] Widespread. Warmian-Masurian province (Masurian dialect). 37,400,000 (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 40,895,370 (as L1: 40,441,370; as L2: 454,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1997, Constitution, Article 27). Alternate Names: Polnisch. Autonym: język polski‎. Dialects: Upper Silesian, Masurian (Mazurian, Mazurski). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Polish Sign Language
[pso] Scattered. 38,000 (2014 IMB). 50,000 signers (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: PJM, Polski Język Migowy. Dialects: Various regional dialects. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Instruction for parents of deaf children at the Institute for the Deaf in Warsaw. Many sign language classes for hearing people. Polish Association of the Deaf founded 1946. Section for sign linguistics at the University of Warsaw. Association of Polish Sign Language Interpreters. Christian.

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Prussian
[prg] Warmian-Masurian Province. 50, all users. L1 users: No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 50. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Old Prussian. Dialects: None known. Other extinct Baltic languages are: Selonian, Yotvingian, Semigallian, Curonian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Baltic, Western.

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Romani, Baltic
[rml] Lodz, Lubusz, and Warmian-Masurian provinces. 13,600 (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 35,310. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(4)). Alternate Names: Balt Romani, Balt Slavic Romani, Baltic Slavic Romani, Roma. Autonym: Romani. Dialects: Xaladytko (Xaladitka, Xaladytka), Polish Romani (Polska Roma). A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic groups: Pólska Foldítka, Romá. Christian.

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Romani, Carpathian
[rmc] Scattered, Lesser Poland, Silesian, and Subcarpathian provinces, along border with Ukraine (historical Galicia); one dialect in south Poland border region with Hungary. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: South Polish Romani. Dialects: Bergitka. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes, Sinte, Sinti, Tsigane. Dialects: Manuche (Manouche). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic group: Sasítka Romá. Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 5,000. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rom. Dialects: Lovari (Polish Lovari). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Russian
[rus] 6,961,900 in Poland, all users. L1 users: 21,900 (2013 UNSD). L2 users: 6,940,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Alternate Names: Rosyjski. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Rusyn
[rue] Southeast, Subcarpathian Province, scattered, along Slovak border, Lemko area. 6,180 (2013 UNSD). Ethnic population: 11,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(4)). Alternate Names: Lemko. Dialects: Lemko. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Silesian
[szl] Scattered, Silesian Province. 522,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Szlonzokian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Different from Upper Silesian, a dialect of Polish [pol].

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Silesian, Lower
[sli] Scattered, Lower Silesian Province. 12,000. Total users in all countries: 22,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Upper Schlesisch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Different from Upper Silesian, a dialect of Polish [pol].

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Ukrainian
[ukr] 26,400 (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Alternate Names: Ukraiński. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Wymysorys
[wym] Silesian and Lesser Poland provinces, border area, Wilamowice village. 70 (2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wilamowicean. Dialects: None known. Wymysorys appears to derive from 12th century Middle High German, with strong influences from Low German, Dutch, Frisian, Polish, and Old English. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] 5,840 (2002 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Dialects: Northeastern Yiddish (Litvish), Mideastern Yiddish (Polish Yiddish). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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