Poland

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Armenian
[hye] 2,210 in Poland (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Alternate Names: Haieren. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Belarusan
[bel] 26,700 in Poland (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Alternate Names: Byelorussian, White Russian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Czech
[ces] 1,430 in Poland (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Alternate Names: Ceský jazyk, Cestina. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Esperanto
[epo] Scattered internationally. Most widely in central and eastern Europe; east Asia: China and other countries; areas of South America; southwest Asia. Ethnic population: No ethnic community. Status: 9 (Second language only). Alternate Names: Eo, La Lingvo Internacia. Classification: Constructed language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Developed 1872–1885 by L. L. Zamenhof of Warsaw, Poland, for intercommunication among L1 speakers of other languages.

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German, Standard
[deu] Opolskie, Lower Silesian, and Silesian provinces. 63,600 in Poland (2013 UNSD). L2 users: 7,330,000 in Poland (European Commission 2012). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Opolskie and Silesian provinces (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Articles 2(2), 9). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Kashubian
[csb] Pomeranian Province, near Baltic coast, lower Vistula left bank; west of Gdansk bay; narrow strip inland, southwest from Gdynia. 107,000 in Poland (2013 UNSD). Ethnic population: 100,000 (1993 T. Salminen). Total users in all countries: 117,000 (as L1: 107,000; as L2: 10,000). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 19). Alternate Names: Cashubian, Cassubian, Kaszubski. Dialects: Kashubian Proper, Slovincian. German [deu] influences in the language. Transitional dialects between Kashubian Proper, the Slovincian dialect, and Polish [pol]. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Most of ethnic group speak regional variety of Polish [pol] (1993 T. Salminen).

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Lithuanian
[lit] Scattered, Podlaskie Province. 5,050 in Poland (2013 UNSD). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Podlaskie Province (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Baltic, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Polish
[pol] 37,400,000 in Poland (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 40,248,740 (as L1: 39,794,740; as L2: 454,000). Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (1997, Constitution, Article 27). Alternate Names: Polnisch, Polski. Dialects: Upper Silesian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Christian, Muslim.

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Polish Sign Language
[pso] Scattered. 38,000 (2014 IMB). 50,000 signers (2014 EUD). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: PJM, Polski Język Migowy. Dialects: Various regional dialects. Classification: Sign language. Comments: Instruction for parents of deaf children. Many sign language classes for hearing people. Christian.

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Prussian
[prg] Warmian-Masurian Province. No known L1 speakers. L2 users: 50. Status: 9 (Dormant). Alternate Names: Old Prussian. Dialects: None known. Other extinct Baltic languages are: Selonian, Yotvingian, Semigallian, Curonian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Baltic, Western.

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Romani, Baltic
[rml] Scattered, central and south Baltic region. 13,600 in Poland (2013 UNSD). Total users in all countries: 35,310. Status: 5 (Developing). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(4)). Alternate Names: Balt Romani, Balt Slavic Romani, Baltic Slavic Romani, Polish Romani. Dialects: A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic groups: Pólska Foldítka, Romá. Christian.

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Romani, Carpathian
[rmc] Scattered, Lesser Poland, Silesian, and Subcarpathian provinces, along border with Ukraine (historical Galicia); one dialect in south Poland border region with Hungary. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Galician, Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Romani, Sinte
[rmo] Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Romanes, Sinti, Tsigane. Dialects: Manuche (Manouche). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Ethnic group: Sasítka Romá. Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] 5,000 in Poland. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Rom. Dialects: Lovari. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Russian
[rus] 21,900 in Poland (2013 UNSD). L2 users: 6,940,000 in Poland (European Commission 2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Rusyn
[rue] Southeast, Subcarpathian Province, scattered, along Slovak border, Lemko area. 6,180 in Poland (2013 UNSD). Ethnic population: 11,000 (2011 census). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(4)). Alternate Names: Lemko. Dialects: Lemko. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Silesian
[szl] Scattered, Silesian Province. 522,000 (2013 UNSD). Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Szlonzokian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Different from Upper Silesian, a dialect of Polish [pol].

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Silesian, Lower
[sli] Scattered, Lower Silesian Province. 12,000 in Poland. Total users in all countries: 22,900. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Upper Schlesisch. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Different from Upper Silesian, a dialect of Polish [pol].

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Ukrainian
[ukr] 26,400 in Poland (2013 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Wymysorys
[wym] Silesian and Lesser Poland provinces, border area, Wilamowice village. 70 (2006). Status: 8b (Nearly extinct). Alternate Names: Wilamowicean. Dialects: None known. Wymysorys appears to derive from 12th century Middle High German, with strong influences from Low German, Dutch, Frisian, Polish, and Old English. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] 5,840 in Poland (2002 census). Status: 8a (Moribund). Recognized language (2005, Minorities Act of 2 January, Article 2(2)). Dialects: Northeastern Yiddish (Litvish), Mideastern Yiddish (Polish Yiddish). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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