Romania

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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] Bucharest and Constanta departments. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Shqyp. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Armenian
[hye] Cluj department. 720 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Haieren. Classification: Indo-European, Armenian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Aromanian
[rup] Constanta and Tulcea departments; Dobrudja region; major cities like Bucharest;. 28,000 in Romania. Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Armani, Macedo Romanian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Officially related to Romanians rather than classified as a minority.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Arad and Timis departments: Banat region. 6,740 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Dialects: Palityan (Bogomil, Palitiani). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Crimean Tatar
[crh] Constanta department: Dobruja. 22,000 in Romania (2006 A. Goriainov). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish, Qirim, Qirimtatar. Dialects: Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Central Crimean, Southern Crimean. Classification: Turkic, Southern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Czech
[ces] Caras-Severin department: Gernic, Sumita, Ravensca, Bigar, Eibenthal settlements. 3,380 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Ceský jazyk, Cestina. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Gagauz
[gag] Constanta and Tulcea departments. Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: Gagauzi. Dialects: Bulgar Gagauz, Maritime Gagauz. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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German, Standard
[deu] Transylvania area; Arad, Sibiu, Timis, Maramures, Salaj departments. 44,900 in Romania (2003 UNSD). L2 users: 1,300,000 in Romania (European Commission 2006). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Statutory language of national identity (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Dialects: Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German. Comments: Non-indigenous. Over 70% of the 500,000 1988 population emigrated to Germany (Johnstone 1993). People known as Saxons.

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Greek
[ell] Bucharest, Constanta, Prahova, and Tulcea departments. 4,170 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Karakatchan are Greek-speaking Romanian nomadic shepherds.

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Hungarian
[hun] Bihor, Brasov, Covasna, Cluj, Harghita, Mures, Satu Mare, and Sibiu provinces; Alba, Bistrita-Nasaud, Neamt, and Bacau provinces: small border areas. 1,440,000 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Harghita and Covasna counties (outright majoities); also in Mures, Sate Mare, Bihor and Salay counties (over 20% total county population) (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Magyar. Dialects: Mezoségi, Székely, Csángó. Classification: Uralic.

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Hungarian Sign Language
[hsh] Scattered. Transylvania region, especially in counties where a high percentage of the population is Hungarian. Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Sign language. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Italian
[ita] Timis department; historically in Transylvania region. 2,530 in Romania (2003 UNSD). L2 users: 1,500,000 in Romania (European Commission 2012). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Polish
[pol] Suceava department. 2,690 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Polski. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Scattered. Black Sea region. Status: 6a (Vigorous). Dialects: Ursári (Usari). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan. Comments: Non-indigenous. Many moved to Germany since 1989. Muslim.

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Romani, Carpathian
[rmc] Scattered. Transylvania. Status: 5 (Developing). Dialects: Galician, Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Scattered. 238,000 in Romania (2003 UNSD). 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 Gypsies in the world (1987 I. Hancock). Total users in all countries: 476,180. Status: 6b (Threatened). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Danubian, Gypsy, Rom, Roma, Romanese, Tsigene, Vlax Romany. Dialects: Sedentary Romanian, Kalderash (Coppersmith, Kalderari, Kelderashícko), Ukraine-Moldavia, Eastern Vlax Romani (Bisa), Churari (Churarícko, Sievemakers), Lovari (Lovarícko), Machvano (Machvanmcko), North Albanian, South Albanian, Serbo-Bosnian, Zagundzi, Sedentary Bulgarian, Ghagar, Grekurja (Greco), Gabor. Kalderash, Ursari, and Churari are occupational ethnonyms; Machvano is a geographical one. Other names are ‘Argintari’, silversmith and ‘Lingurari’, spoonmakers. Machvano and Serbian Kalderash have south Slavic superstratum; Russian Kalderash influenced by east Slavic, mainly Russian [rus]; Lovari influenced by Hungarian [hun]; Grekurja is probably Turkish [tur] influenced, distinct from Greek Romani dialect of Balkan Romani [rmn]. All 20 or more Vlax dialects are inherently intelligible; differences are mainly lexical and sociolinguistic (I. Hancock). A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax. Comments: Christian.

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Romanian
[ron] Widespread. Muntenian dialect: Muntenia or Wallachia; other dialects north and west, including Transylvania. 19,900,000 in Romania (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 23,664,640. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Daco-Rumanian, Moldavian, Rumanian. Dialects: Moldavian, Muntenian (Walachian), Transylvanian, Banat, Bayash. Little dialect variation. Bayash are Gypsies whose dialect is based on Banat, but influenced by Balkan Romani [rmn] and Hungarian [hun]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Italian [ita], 75% with French [fra], 74% with Sardinian [sdn], 73% with Catalan [cat], 72% with Portuguese [por] and Rheto-Romance [roh], 71% with Spanish [spa]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern. Comments: Christian.

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Romanian Sign Language
[rms] Scattered. 24,600 in Romania (2014 EUD). 93,500 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: “Limbaj Mimico-Gestual Romanesc” (pej.), Limbajul Semenelor Romanesc, “LMGR” (pej.), LSR. Dialects: Variation exists between the regions of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Further assessment needed. No known relationship to other sign languages. (Eberle et al 2015). Classification: Sign language. Comments: 33 working Sign language interpreters (2013 EUD). Fingerspelling system similar to French Sign Language [fsl]. Christian.

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Romany
[rom] A macrolanguage. A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,000,000 Status: 0 Comments: Includes: Balkan Romani [rmn] (Serbia), Baltic Romani [rml] (Poland), Carpathian Romani [rmc] (Slovakia), Kalo Finnish Romani [rmf] (Finland), Sinte Romani [rmo] (Germany), Vlax Romani [rmy], Welsh Romani [rmw] (United Kingdom).

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Serbian
[srp] Arad, Caras-Severin, Mehedinti, and Timis departments. 20,400 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western. Comments: Non-indigenous. Christian, Muslim.

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Slovak
[slk] Arad, Bihor, Salaj, and Timis departments. 16,000 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Slovencina, Slovenský Jazyk. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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Turkish
[tur] Constanta and Tulcea departments: Dobruja region, southeast along the Danube. 28,100 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Alternate Names: Osmanli. Dialects: Danubian. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish. Comments: Non-indigenous. Muslim.

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Ukrainian
[ukr] Botosani, Maramures, Satu Mare, and Suceava departments; Also Arad, Timis, Caras-Severin departments; Tulcea department in southeast (Danube delta). 57,400 in Romania (2002 census). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Bucharest department. 950 in Romania (2003 UNSD). Status: 5 (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Dialects: Southeastern Yiddish (Bessarabian-Romanian). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish. Comments: Non-indigenous.

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