Romania

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Albanian, Gheg
[aln] Bucharest and Constanta counties; Dolj county: Craiova city. Population: Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Gegnisht, Shqyp. Classification: Indo-European, Albanian, Gheg.

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Armenian, Western
[hyw] Scattered. Population: 740 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Armenian.

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Aromanian
[rup] Constanta and Tulcea counties; Dobrudja region; major cities like Bucharest. Population: 50,000 in Romania (2018 N. Balamaci). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2007, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Armani, Macedo Romanian. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern.

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Bulgarian
[bul] Arad and Timis counties: Banat region. Population: 6,520 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2007, Law No. 282, Ratification, European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages). Dialects: Palityan (Bogomil, Palitiani). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Eastern.

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Crimean Tatar
[crh] Constanta county: Dobruja region. Population: 22,000 in Romania (2006 A. Goriainov). Status: 5* (Developing). Recognized language (2007, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Crimean Turkish, Qirim, Qirimtatar. Dialects: Northern Crimean (Crimean Nogai, Steppe Crimean), Central Crimean, Southern Crimean. Classification: Turkic, Southern.

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Croatian
[hrv] Caras-Severin and Timis counties: dispersed. Population: 5,170 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2007, Law No. 282, Ratification, European Charter for Regional and Minority Languages). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western.

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Czech
[ces] Caras-Severin county: Bigar, Eibenthal, Gernic, Ravensca, and Sumita settlements; Mehedinti county. Population: 2,170 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Cehă, Čeština, Český jazyk. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak.

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English
[eng] Population: 6,240,000 in Romania (European Commission 2012), L2 users. Status: 4 (Educational). Alternate Names: Engleză. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, English.

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Gagauz
[gag] Constanta and Tulcea counties. Population: Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Gagauz dili, Gagauzi, Gagauzça. Dialects: Bulgar Gagauz, Maritime Gagauz. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish.

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German, Standard
[deu] Arad, Maramures, Salaj, Sibiu, and Timis counties: Transylvania area. Population: 1,326,600 in Romania, all users. L1 users: 26,600 in Romania (2014 UNSD). L2 users: 1,300,000 (European Commission 2006). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Statutory language of national identity (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Deutsch, Germană. Dialects: Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, German, Middle German, East Middle German.

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Greek
[ell] Bucharest, Constanta, Prahova, Tulcea, and other urban areas. Population: 2,560 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2007, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Greacă. Classification: Indo-European, Greek, Attic.

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Hungarian
[hun] Alba, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Brasov, Cluj, Covasna, Harghita, Mures, Neamt, Satu Mare, and Sibiu counties; small border areas. Population: 1,260,000 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 2 (Provincial). Statutory provincial language in Harghita and Covasna departments (outright majoities); also in Mures, Sate Mare, Bihor and Salay departments (over 20% total county population) (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Maghiar, Magyar. Dialects: Mezoségi, Székely, Csángó. Classification: Uralic.

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Hungarian Sign Language
[hsh] Scattered. Transylvania region, especially in counties where a high percentage of the population is Hungarian. Population: Status: 5 (Developing). Classification: Sign language.

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Italian
[ita] Timis county: historically in Transylvania region. Population: 1,412,950 in Romania, all users. L1 users: 2,950 in Romania (2014 UNSD). L2 users: 1,410,000 (European Commission 2012). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Italiană, Italiano. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Italo-Dalmatian.

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Polish
[pol] Suceava county. Population: 2,080 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2007, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Lechitic.

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Romani, Balkan
[rmn] Scattered. Black Sea region. Population: Status: 6a* (Vigorous). Alternate Names: Romani ćhib. Dialects: Ursári (Usari). Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Balkan.

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Romani, Carpathian
[rmc] Cluj county; Mures county: Bahnea, Glodeni, and Targu Mures. Population: Status: 5* (Developing). Alternate Names: Romungro. Dialects: Galician, Transylvanian. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Northern.

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Romani, Vlax
[rmy] Caras-Severin and Dolj counties: largest concentrations; scattered elsewhere south and southeast. Population: 246,000 in Romania (2014 UNSD). 6,000,000 to 11,000,000 Roma worldwide (1987 I. Hancock). Total users in all countries: 538,480. Status: 6b* (Threatened). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Danubian, Gypsy, Roma, Romanese, Tsigene, Vlax Romany. Autonym: Romani. Dialects: Sedentar Romani, Kalderash (Coppersmith, Kalderari, Kelderash, Kelderashícko), Ukraine-Moldavia, Eastern Vlax Romani (Bisa), Churari (Churarícko, Sievemakers), Lovari (Lovarícko), Machvano (Machvanmcko), Serbo-Bosnian, Zagundzi, Sedentary Bulgarian, Ghagar, Gabor, Vallachian. Kalderash and Churari are occupational ethnonyms; Machvano is a geographical one. Other names are ‘Argintari’, silversmith and ‘Lingurari’, spoonmakers. Machvano and Serbian Kalderash have south Slavic superstratum; Lovari influenced by Hungarian [hun]. All 20 or more Vlax dialects are inherently intelligible; differences are mainly lexical and sociolinguistic (I. Hancock). A member of macrolanguage Romany [rom]. Classification: Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Intermediate Divisions, Western, Romani, Vlax.

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Romanian
[ron] Widespread. Population: 18,700,000 in Romania (European Commission 2012). Total users in all countries: 24,345,750. Status: 1 (National). Statutory national language (2003, Constitution, Article 13). Alternate Names: Daco-Rumanian, Moldavian, Roumanian, Rumanian. Autonym: Limba română, româneşte‎. Dialects: Moldavian, Muntenian (Walachian), Transylvanian, Banat, Bayash. Little dialect variation. Bayash are Roma whose dialect is based on Banat, but influenced by Balkan Romani [rmn] and Hungarian [hun]. Lexical similarity: 77% with Italian [ita], 75% with French [fra], 74% with Sardinian [sdn], 73% with Catalan [cat], 72% with Portuguese [por] and Romansh [roh], 71% with Spanish [spa]. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Eastern.

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Romanian Sign Language
[rms] Scattered. Population: 24,600 in Romania (2014 EUD). 93,500 (2014 IMB). Status: 5 (Developing). Alternate Names: LMGR, LSR, Limbaj Mimico-Gestual Romanesc, Limbajul Semenelor Romanesc. Dialects: Variation exists between the regions of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Further assessment needed. No known relationship to other sign languages (Eberle et al 2015). Classification: Sign language.

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Romany
[rom] A macrolanguage. Population total all languages: 1,547,690. Includes: Balkan Romani [rmn] (Serbia), Baltic Romani [rml] (Poland), Carpathian Romani [rmc] (Slovakia), Kalo Finnish Romani [rmf] (Finland), Sinte Romani [rmo] (Germany), Vlax Romani [rmy], Welsh Romani [rmw] (United Kingdom).

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Russian
[rus] Constanta and Tulcea counties. Population: 150,000 in Romania (Arefyev 2012), all users. L1 users: 18,900 (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2007, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East.

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Serbian
[srp] Arad, Caras-Severin, Mehedinti, and Timis counties. Population: 16,800 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2007, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Serbo-Croatian. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, South, Western.

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Slovak
[slk] Arad, Bihor, Salaj, and Timis counties. Population: 12,800 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Slovenčina, Slovenský Jazyk. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, West, Czech-Slovak.

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Turkish
[tur] Constanta and Tulcea counties: Dobruja region, southeast along the Danube. Population: 25,300 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2007, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Alternate Names: Osmanli, Türkçe. Dialects: Danubian. Classification: Turkic, Southern, Turkish.

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Ukrainian
[ukr] Arad, Botosani, Caras-Severin, Maramures, Satu Mare, Suceava, and Timis counties; Tulcea county in southeast (Danube delta). Population: 48,900 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 5* (Dispersed). Recognized language (2001, Local Public Administration Law No. 215, Article 40(7), others). Alternate Names: Ucrainean. Classification: Indo-European, Balto-Slavic, Slavic, East.

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Yiddish, Eastern
[ydd] Bucharest county. Population: 640 in Romania (2014 UNSD). Status: 7 (Shifting). Recognized language (2005, National Minority Status Law, Article 3(2)). Dialects: Southeastern Yiddish (Bessarabian-Romanian). Classification: Indo-European, Germanic, West, High German, Yiddish.

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